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MB0043 Human Resource Management

95

Assignments- February 2011

MB0043 Human Resource Management - 4 Credits


Assignment Set- 2 (60 Marks)

Master of Business Administration - MBA Semester 1

Sikkim Manipal University (SMU)

MB0043 Human Resource Management

96

Assignments- February 2011

Q.1 List and explain the sources of recruitment? Ans: The sources of employees can be classified into two types, internal and external. Filling a job opening from within the firm has the advantages of stimulating preparation for possible transfer/promotion, serves as a key motivator for internal employees who are aspiring for a move, increasing the general level of morale, and provides more information about job candidates through analysis of work histories within the organization. A job posting has a number of advantages. From the view of the point of the employee, it provides flexibility and greater control over career progress. For the employer, it should result in better matches of employee and job. However, not all jobs are posted by an organization internally. In opening a job for internal aspirants an organization make a conscious decision and then moves forward. It is also possible that organizations might post all job opening internally as well as externally and the internal candidates compete for the job along with other external candidate. Whatever is the case, the objective remains to find the best person for the job. External recruitment is when the organization clearly prefers to hire from outside the organization for the job. Organizations most definitely go for external hiring for lower level jobs, when they are expanding, during phases of rapid growth and for positions who skills/experience specifications cannot be met by existing human resources. Common outside sources available: 1. Advertising: In both the print as well as the web media. Among the best methods when the organization needs to reach a large audience and usually at least 5-6 or more job openings. First, advertisements can be placed in the appropriate media to be read by particular media groups. Secondly, more information about the company, the job, and the job satisfaction can be included in the advertisement to permit some self-screening.
Master of Business Administration - MBA Semester 1 Sikkim Manipal University (SMU)

MB0043 Human Resource Management

97

Assignments- February 2011

2. Professional Placement organizations or recruiting firms or executive head-hunters: maintain complete information about employable candidates, who usually are already employed elsewhere. These consulting firms therefore maintain a active database of skilled and experienced resources. They work closely with organizations through contractual agreements to source appropriate candidates for the firms requirements. 3. Job Portals and Job Sites: Job portals are hosted by a recruitment agency with a large database of skilled and experienced candidates. An organization looking for a particular skill set can register on the portal for a monthly/quarterly/annual fee and browse for the desired candidate profile and obtain a potential list of candidates who fit the profile. That these candidates would be interested in a new job and would keen to move from the existing role/organization is another matter all together. 4. Employment Agencies: Additional screening can be affected through the utilization of employment agencies, both public and private. Today in contrast to their former un-popular reputation, the public employment agencies in several states effective, particularly in the fields of unskilled, semi-skilled and skilled operative jobs. In the technical and professional areas, however, the private recruiters are doing most of the work. 5. Employee Referrals: Fast emerging as the latest most effective method is the referral route to staffing. Friends and relatives of present employees are also a good source from which employees may be drawn. In the current times when the talent market is most challenged, large employers frequently offer their employees bonus or prizes for any referrals that are hired. 6. Schools, Colleges and Professional Institutions: Popularly called Campus Recruitment, organizations engage with education institutions that educate students for ready-to-work jobs, like engineers and management graduates by
Master of Business Administration - MBA Semester 1 Sikkim Manipal University (SMU)

MB0043 Human Resource Management

98

Assignments- February 2011

offering opportunities for recruiting their students. These institutions operate placement services/events where completer bio-data and other particulars of the students are made available along with interviewing opportunities. 7. Casual applicants: Unsolicited applications, both at the gate and through the Career site on the web page and even on post mail, their value and are no longer counted as a valid method. Similarly unsolicited applications for positions in which large numbers of candidates are not available from other sources, the companies may gain keeping files of applications received from candidates who make direct enquiries about possible vacancies on their own, or may send unconsolidated applications. The information may be indexed and filed for future use when there are openings in these jobs. 8. Introduction seminars for college professors are arranged to discuss the problem of companies and employees. Professors are invited to take part in these seminars. Visits to plants and banquets are arranged so that the participant professors may be favorably impressed. They may later speak well of a company and help it in getting the required human resources. 9. Contractual Staffing: To adjust to short-term fluctuations in human resources needs, it is commonplace in organizations to contract employees of another employer by the hour or day. While this practice has been particularly wellestablished in the office administration field today almost any job can be sub contracted through a third party vender with whom the firm enters into a contract. This way the firm not only obtains well-trained and selected human resources while its liability as a permanent employer of the resources is absolved. 10. Voluntary organizations: Such a private clubs, social organizations might also provide employees handicaps, widowed or married women, old persons, retired hands, etc., in response to advertisements.
Master of Business Administration - MBA Semester 1 Sikkim Manipal University (SMU)

MB0043 Human Resource Management

99

Assignments- February 2011

Q.2 Write a note on objectives of training? Ans: The chief aim of learning for the manager is to increase his ability to learn from experience. The second aim is to increase his ability to help his subordinates learn from experience. According to Douglas McGregor, there are three different purposes of leaning. 1. Acquiring intellectual/job-related Knowledge: An electrical engineer may need more knowledge than he now possesses about circuit design. A new employee may require knowledge about company policies. A shop floor employee may require knowledge about company policies. A shop floor employee may need to be made aware of information about the new performance appraisal or compensation policy or changes to it. The acquisition of knowledge therefore is a fairly straight-forward process provided the individual wants the new knowledge. However, if he does not want the knowledge, there is little doubt that training will fail. Creating a self-driven need for knowledge, there is little doubt that training will fail. Creating a self-driven need for knowledge is fundamental to employee learning. 2. Acquiring Manual Skills: The acquisition of a manual skill requires practice or experience along with feedback. While learning can happen in a isolated self-learning mode, it can be significantly speeded up by guidance and theoretical knowledge imparted by experts. The end objective remains that the employee be able to execute the skill effectively back on the job. Learning is enhanced when the employee receives clear feedback which tells him about the success of his efforts. The necessary effort will be expanded only if there is a felt-need on the part of the learner. 3. Acquiring Managerial Skills: Much of a managers work is managing people and solving problems. These include organizing his own and his
Master of Business Administration - MBA Semester 1 Sikkim Manipal University (SMU)

MB0043 Human Resource Management

100

Assignments- February 2011

team members work activities, and planning for a wide range of other decision-making responsibilities. These are skills include diagnosing problems, interpreting relevant data, assessing alternative solutions and getting feedback concerning the effectiveness of the solution. These skills can be improved through classroom training. As with any skill, practice and feedback are essential for learning. The most widely used classroom method for improving the problem-solving skills is the case method. In the hands of a skilful teacher, it can be highly effective.

Master of Business Administration - MBA Semester 1

Sikkim Manipal University (SMU)

MB0043 Human Resource Management

101

Assignments- February 2011

Q.3 What are the different career development activities? Explain. Ans: A variety of career development activities are available for use. Some of

the more popular ones include: 1. Self assessment tools:- these are usually technology enabled on-line(on the corporate intranet) tools that form part of the performance appraisal system and allow the individual to identify areas of strengths and parallelly identify career paths that would leverage these strengths the best. E.g. Career Planning Workbooks, Career Workshops hosted by the organizations from time to time.

2. Individual Counselling:- formally the process allows for individuals to discuss this as part of the performance management process with their immediate managers and share and take feedback on the appropriateness of the choices and how to go about pursuing it. Often managers recommend relevant other managers and leaders who the employee can link with to seek advice and support. Organizations also provide for formal mentoring programs to which an employee can enroll and sign up a mentor who can then provide the support and counseling on the best career option and how to go about it achieving it.

3. Information Services: Organizations have established policies on what skills and experiences that each job in the organization requires. Jobs with similar skills and experiences are clubbed together to create parallel career paths. For example in a software development firm the career path options for the software engineering team can be designed as follows:

Master of Business Administration - MBA Semester 1

Sikkim Manipal University (SMU)

MB0043 Human Resource Management

102

Assignments- February 2011

These are typically called career ladders or career paths and they help an employee identify what his options are for future growth and identify the appropriate one based on his personal skills and capabilities/limitations. These career paths would be supplemented with additional information on skills and experience that one must have for each role/job in the career path. It would also specify the particular qualification or special certifications that the positions demands. An employee aspiring to pursue a career option would need to dedicate time and effort and the expenses towards acquiring the same. Large MNCs also encourage the reimbursement of these expense as a annual fixed amount on successfully clearing the exam/certification.

Master of Business Administration - MBA Semester 1

Sikkim Manipal University (SMU)

MB0043 Human Resource Management

103

Assignments- February 2011

The employee however needs to find the time and expend the effort away from work.

4. Initial Employment Programs: Organizations also run internship and apprenticeship programs wherein the individuals aspiring to do a particular job can spend some time as a temporary employee to explore interest and skill fitment for the job/role. (e.g. Anticipatory socialization programs, realistic recruitment, and employee orientation program); 5. Organizational Assessment Programs: Organizations can proactively establish formal processes wherein an employee can volunteer to participate and understand himself/herself and his/her strengths. Through the use Assessment Centers organizations can help an employee identify areas for improvement and means of building those skills. So he can achieve his career plans. Certain organizations offer Psychological Testing instruments which profile the employees strengths and roles and responsibilities he/she will best fit into. 6. Developmental programs: This focus the effort of the employee towards helping the employee to achieve his career goals. The Assessment Centers, Job rotation programs, in-house training, tuition refund plans, and mentoring, all prove effective tools to help the individual along. No matter what tools are used for career development, it is important that employees develop and individualized career plan. For example Raychem requires every person to have a learning or development plan.

Master of Business Administration - MBA Semester 1

Sikkim Manipal University (SMU)

MB0043 Human Resource Management

104

Assignments- February 2011

Q.4 Discuss some steps that are commonly practiced for motivating employees. Ans: 1. Clearly analyzing the situation requiring motivation: Every employee needs motivation. It is the primary responsibility of the manager to work closely with each of his team members and identify the motivators that drive effort and performance in them. Organizations usually have a annual process that allows for conversations around career plans and aspirations. Managers need to use this process effectively and refer to it on-going to ensure that the employee and manager are aligned in the thinking. Managers need to be aware that personal goals and aspirations could be selfish. Given that the business cannot be sacrificed at the cost of employee motivation, a balanced view is important. It is good to involve others in analyzing so the appropriate action can be taken. 2. Have a motivation toolkit: Managers, supported by HR, must have a list of motivational initiatives from which she/he could select and apply specific tools of motivation. A manager from his personal experience should prepare list of what devices are likely to work with what type of people and how can he/HR/the organization support it. 3. Selecting and applying the appropriate motivator: Assigning the right motivation technique is important. It is a good idea to involve the individual and have him decide on what will best satisfy his needs. Give him an understanding of the organizations total goals and the part that he is contributing. Motivation must establish attainable goals, therefore breaking up long terms goals into smaller and short-time bound goals are recommended. All along the manager needs to be prepared in-case the

Master of Business Administration - MBA Semester 1

Sikkim Manipal University (SMU)

MB0043 Human Resource Management

105

Assignments- February 2011

employees

aspirations

are

contrary

or

conflicting

with

the

team/organizations goals. 4. Follow-up and review: The process usually provides for on-going review. The primary objective is to ascertain if an employee has been motivated or not. If not, some other technique could be adopted. Use rewards promptly and apply when results are good. Rewards must be tied to the specific result and to commensurate with the contribution. A secondary purpose of followup is to evaluate motivation plans for future guidance.

Master of Business Administration - MBA Semester 1

Sikkim Manipal University (SMU)

MB0043 Human Resource Management

106

Assignments- February 2011

Q.5 Describe the grievance handling procedure. Ans: Principles suggested by the Indian Institute of Personal Management for addressing the grievance are as follows: a) A grievance should be dealt within the limits of the first line manager. b) The appellate authority should be made clear to the employee so that if he cannot get satisfaction from his immediate manager, he should know the next step. c) The grievance should be dealt with speedily. d) In establishing a grievance procedure, if the grievance is against an instruction given by a superior in the interest of order and discipline, the instructions must be carried out first and then only employee can register his protest.

Grievance Handling The details of the grievance procedure vary from industry to industry and from trade union to trade union because of the variations in the size of organizations, trade union strength, the management philosophy, the company traditions, industrial practices and in the cost factor. An important aspect of the grievance machinery is the reassurance given to an individual employee by the mere fact that there is a mechanism available to him which will consider his grievance in a dispassionate and detailed manner, and that his point of view will be heard and given due consideration. An employees conception of his problem(s) may be quite biased. Venting his grievance and being heard gives him a feeling of being cared for. He gets it off his chest, so to say, and it does a lot of good for his morale as revealed by the famous Hawthorne Studies.

Master of Business Administration - MBA Semester 1

Sikkim Manipal University (SMU)

MB0043 Human Resource Management

107

Assignments- February 2011

Initial Step The greatest opportunity for the settlement of a complaint or grievance lies in the initial step of the procedure. If there is no formal procedure and the firm announces and open-door policy, then it is possible that the manager may get bypassed by the worker who would take his grievance directly to the higher levels of management. But such bypassing not merely undermines the managers authority, who loses face, but also creates an atmosphere of win-or-loose in which both the worker and manager will try to prove the other wrong.

Intermediate Step As the figure indicates, the next step on the management side of the procedure is to submit the dispute to middle management. Involving the managers, middle

Master of Business Administration - MBA Semester 1

Sikkim Manipal University (SMU)

MB0043 Human Resource Management

108

Assignments- February 2011

and senior-line managers in the grievance process helps in two ways. Initially, the social barriers between the various categories are to some extent, broken by personal contact and mutual understanding. Secondly, the problem-solving approach integrates the various levels in the organization into a team to jointly overcome the problem which concerns not only the worker but the manager as well. However, it is important to ensure that the line management assumes prime responsibility for the settlement of a grievance. In many organizations, the Personnel Department is injected into the procedure as a decision-making power. On the union side, intermediate levels are represented by higher personnel in the union hierarchy. In most of the organizations, the business agent, a full-time negotiations specialist of the union, takes over the intermediate and sometimes the final step. The presence of a business agent may explain why management is often outmanoeuvred by the union. Business agents are specialists in unionmanagement negotiations, and it is also their full-time job. The line manage often considers grievance processing a minor, incidental, and distasteful duty. This lack of specialization and interest on the part of line management has led to the situation in which the staff personnel department is given authority to make decisions about grievances.

Final Company-union Step Usually, the final step to be undertaken by the company and union is a discussion of the grievance between representatives of top management and top union officials. For management, it may be the President in important grievances, Vice-president, or a high-level Industrial Relations Executive Committee, or a representative of the International Union. It is difficult to secure an integration of interests at this high level.

Master of Business Administration - MBA Semester 1

Sikkim Manipal University (SMU)

MB0043 Human Resource Management

109

Assignments- February 2011

Q.6 Write a note on types of groups. Ans: Groups are commonly classified on the basis of purpose or goal; extent of structuring; legal organization or setting. Classification of group on a very broad basis is done by grouping people with similar skills or competencies together. What acts as a unifying force are a few fundamental characteristics that all groups have? 1. All groups have leaders; 2. All groups have followers; 3. They strive toward some goal or goals; 4. They have ideas about what it takes to achieve the goals; 5. They communicate amongst themselves and between group (both within and external to the organization) to ensure the that the goals are met; 6. Attempt to satisfy some from of member needs Its important to note that not all groups might be formally established in an organization. Given the social nature of the human being there is a strong tendency to form groups that fulfill the psychological need to an even greater extent. People like to belong to more than just one group since not all needs can be satisfied in a single group. Herein there are two distinct types of work groups, formal and informal.

Formal Work Groups

The end goal of the managers organizing responsibility is to create formal work groups that are necessary to achieve the organizations goals. Formal work groups together constitute the whole organizations. Therefore following are the characteristics of formal work groups; 1) They are sanctioned by some authority;
Master of Business Administration - MBA Semester 1 Sikkim Manipal University (SMU)

MB0043 Human Resource Management

110

Assignments- February 2011

2) There is a prescribed division of labour; 3) Individuals are assigned specific responsibilities, 4) There are stable and consistent personal interactions, and 5) Provisions are made for rewarding he group membership. All formal work groups have a designated leader who supervises the work of the group members, monitors performance, provides feedback and training and is responsible for group performance to a higher authority in the organization. He holds both the responsibility as well as the authority to deliver the expectations from the group. Examples of formal work groups are: the professors in an academic department of a college, a surgical team in a hospital, and the two partners in a police patrol car.

Informal Work Groups

Informal work groups exist in formal as well as informal organizations. Informal groups are loosely organized groups such as cricket teams and social clubs that arise apart from the formal organization to which members of the informal group may belong. They exist because the formal groups established within the organization often fail to satisfy all of the human needs to a sufficient degree. This could also be because the organizational structure rarely anticipates everything that must be done if the organizational is to meet all of its objectives. From the perspective of the employee, social needs, and esteem needs. Informal Work Groups and Security Needs: Informal groups help to support their members and to protect them from outside pressure and authority. The group insulates the individual from a hostile work environment. For example there might be an informal group of south Indians in an organization. When surroundings are unfamiliar, the job is
Master of Business Administration - MBA Semester 1 Sikkim Manipal University (SMU)

MB0043 Human Resource Management

111

Assignments- February 2011

new, and the future is uncertain. New employees often seek out an existing group to join for help in the orientation process. Informal Work Groups and Social Needs: Many jobs restrict communication and interaction among workers. This makes it difficult for people to form feel they belong, and it is easy to feel such identification with a small social most offices, social groups are an inevitable occurrence. Social group also eat lunch as a group, take breaks at the same time, or share a social life outside the organization. Informal Work Groups and Esteem Needs: Beyond providing a sense of belonging, the informal group can be a source of status or prestige for its membership. This is especially true if the group is well- known in the larger organization, if outsiders are anxious to join the group, and if acceptance into the group is difficult to achieve. To the extent that it provides an opportunity for assumption of leadership, the informal group is a source of egoistic need satisfaction. A good example is the corporate cricket team. Finally, the need for achievement can be partially satisfied by the informal group.

Master of Business Administration - MBA Semester 1

Sikkim Manipal University (SMU)