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Cognitive Perspective on Classroom Management1

UNIVERSITY OF THE SOUTHERN CARIBBEAN ANDREWS UNIVERSITY AFFILIATION AND EXTENSION PROGRAMS

Cognitive Perspective on Classroom Management

An Assignment Prepared in Partial Fulfillment For the Requirements of the Course EDPC 302-02 Educational Psychology

INSTRUCTOR: Ms. Lancashia John

By Sarah Mahabir

March 12th, 2012

Approval______________

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Table of Contents
Table of Contents........................................................................................................ 2 Introduction................................................................................................................. 3 What is classroom management?................................................................................3 What are the areas of classroom management?.........................................................4 What are the different approaches to classroom management?..................................7 What is the cognitive perspective of classroom management?....................................7 What are the areas of cognitive classroom management?...........................................9 What are some cognitive classroom management activities that be applied?............11

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Introduction Classroom management means the teacher controls the classroom so that students can safely learn. Discipline addresses a child's misbehavior so that young people can stay motivated. Most teachers operate using one of three different perspectives of classroom management: humanistic, behavioral and cognitive, or a combination of these. The cognitive or insight theory focuses on teachers knowing students and attempting to instruct them particularly by helping them take an active role in their own education.

What is classroom management? According to Borich,G classroom management focuses on planning and organizing the classroom, teaching rules and routine, and informing students of the consequences of breaking the rules. Classroom management, as applied to teaching, involves everything that a teacher must do to carry out his/her teaching objectives. It includes preparation of plans and materials, structuring of activities into time blocks, direct teaching of skills and subject matter, grouping of pupils to provide for the most efficient use of teacher and pupil time, plans for transition periods--changing from one activity to another or from one place to another--pupil involvement and motivation, and adequate control of pupil behavior. The following are skills and knowledge needed to implement comprehensive classroom management:

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Classroom management should be based on an understanding of current research and theory in classroom management and on students' personal and psychological needs.

Classroom management depends on establishing positive teacher-student and peer relationships that create classrooms as communities of support.

Comprehensive classroom management involves using instructional methods that facilitate optimal learning by responding to the academic needs of individual students and the classroom group.

Comprehensive classroom management involves using organizational and group management methods that involve students in developing and committing to behavioral standards that help create a safe, caring community and using teaching methods that facilitate clear classroom organization.

Classroom management involves the ability to use a wide range of counseling and behavioral methods that involve students in examining and correcting their inappropriate behavior.

What are the areas of classroom management?

Rules

Rules must be succinct. To ensure that rules are effective, post only a few encompassing rules in the classroom. Too many rules can overcome and confuse students.

Consequences

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Bad behavior must have consequences in the classroom. Make sure that students know the consequences of poor behavior. These consequences can be a loss of recess, a formal apology note or a phone call to the parents. Enforce consequences consistently to keep them effective.

Recognition

Celebrate student achievement the classroom. Recognizing and rewarding one student's achievement not only encourages her but can help to encourage other students in class as well. Offer students recognition to help create a supportive environment where students are motivated to learn.

Rapport

Student-teacher rapport is a big component of classroom management. Students should feel comfortable asking their teacher questions and should feel encouraged to try their best. Developing a good student-teacher rapport helps class sessions run more smoothly.

Procedures

Procedures are the most important part of classroom management. By giving the students procedures on how to retrieve work when they were absent, when they can sharpen a pencil, where to obtain materials, and so on, you are setting up an organized classroom where students can be self-sufficient. Such procedures you to spend more time coaching and teaching and less time dealing with small classroom issues.

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What are the different approaches to classroom management? Classroom management means the teacher controls the classroom so that students can safely learn. Discipline addresses a child's misbehavior so that young people can stay motivated. Most teachers operate using one of three different perspectives of classroom management: humanistic, behavioral and cognitive, or a combination of these. The cognitive or insight theory focuses on teachers knowing students and attempting to instruct them particularly by helping them take an active role in their own education. In this paper we will be focusing on the cognitive approach perspective.

What is the cognitive perspective of classroom management? The cognitive approach to classroom management identifies any behavioral problems by using a series of reflective questions. The teacher examines the reasons for the issue from his own actions to the curriculum to the results of the behavior to problem resolution. Next, he assesses the behavioral problems. He looks at his own assumptions and expectations, root causes for behavior, defining and controlling behavior and reasonable solutions. Then, he looks at strategic ways to change behavior, including what will work with the student. He focuses on encouraging positive behavior. Finally, he talks with students to foster open communication. Behaviorists define learning as a change in behavior brought about by experience with little concern for the mental or internal aspects of learning. The cognitive view, in contrast, sees people as active learners who initiate experiences, seek out information to solve problems, and reorganize

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what they already know to achieve new insights. In fact, learning within this perspective is seen as "transforming significant understanding we already have, rather than simple acquisitions written on blank slates" (Greeno, Collins, and Resnick, p. 18). Much of the work on behavioral learning principles has been with animals in controlled laboratory settings. The goal is to identify a few general laws of learning that apply to all higher organisms (including humans, regardless of age, intelligence, or other individual differences). Cognitive psychologists, on the other hand, focus on individual and developmental differences in cognition; they have not sought general laws of learning. Cognitive views of learning are consistent with the educational theories of Bruner and Ausubel and with approaches that teach learning strategies, such as summarizing, organizing, planning, and note taking

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What are the areas of cognitive classroom management? Cognitive classroom management means being aware of different individual needs. While the exact educational needs of each student are different, the teaching styles of each teacher differ as well. Cognitive classroom management integrates differing teaching techniques, creating a classroom, which utilizes these different methods to reach the educational needs of each student. The goal is to ensure each student benefits from the class, having their individual educational needs met.

Extrovert and Introvert Extroverted students are hands-on learners who prefer classroom activities and personal involvement in class lessons. Introverted students prefer individual projects and learn most effectively from teacher lectures. An integrated cognitive classroom uses teacher lectures to provide the primary facts for a lesson, but then includes class projects, where students interact with each other and the lesson. For instance, after a lecture on double replacement chemical reactions, the teacher places the class in groups and leads them through an experiment, demonstrating these reactions.

Sensate and Intuitive Sensate students are highly practical, relying on experience and practical understanding to solve problems. Intuitive students prefer an abstract approach, learning the ideas and theories behind a solution, and invite the challenge of new ideas. An integrated classroom provides formal lectures

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and careful projects, which teach the concepts of new ideas, while encouraging students to develop individual conclusions about the information. As an example, a teacher will lecture about the events occurring in an assigned story, but then encourage students to make speculative assessments regarding the way various critical approaches view the content of the stories.

Perceiver and Judger Judger students are decisive, preferring to end each point in a class lecture with a specific fact or acknowledged conclusion. A perceiver student prefers to assess each point, considering alternate points of view and alternate solutions. An integrated class provides specific information regarding each lecture point, while supplying thoughtful questions students can debate on their own after the class. For instance, a history teacher may lecture on the facts surrounding President Abraham Lincolns death, while ending the lecture with a question about the way history would have remembered him if he had lived to complete his presidency.

Feeler and Thinker Feeler students appreciate classroom cohesion, the ability of students to get along and work together in the classroom. Thinker students prefer lively debate and the revelations, which occur through those debates in a class. An integrated class provides a safe environment for student debate, allowing students to comment on the teachers points, while encouraging classmates to be supportive. As an example, a teacher in a government class allows students to comment, and even disagree, with lecture points, so long as those comments are directed at the teacher and are respectful to the views of other classmates.

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What are some cognitive classroom management activities that be applied? Cognitive skills are learning skills that help the brain develop and process information. Many preschools incorporate activities that build cognitive skills, because children of that age group are just beginning to develop their ability to process information. Cognitive skills are often coupled with building motor skills, another area in which preschoolers are just starting to develop.
I Spy

I Spy is an excellent game to get children working on visual recognition and tracking skills. Start the game by saying "I spy ..." and giving a vague description, such as "something red." Children must then guess what red object you are "spying" by identifying all of the possible red objects in their immediate surroundings and asking you which it is. As children become more advanced, add more visual clues, such as "I spy something red, round and bouncy" to get them combining pieces of visual information.

Group It

Grouping games are another excellent activity to get children exercising their visual skills and developing their ability to recognize patterns. Provide children with a series of toys, and come up with fun categories into which they can group the toys. For example, a series of stuffed animals could be grouped into sizes, colors, number of legs, where they live or what they eat. Come up with more complex categories as pupils become more adept at categorizing.

Simon Says

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Simon Says is a simple game that gets children completing sequences and following directions, as well as working on their ability to notice small details. Choose one person to be "Simon" and have him give directions such as "Simon says stand on one foot." The other pupils must complete the action, but only if the person giving the directions prefaces them with "Simon says." Children must be able to listen actively and pay close attention to win.

Sequencing

Being able to place objects in a logical sequence is another activity that is well suited for children working on developing their cognitive skills. Give pupils a series of toys and have them arrange them in various ways, such as from smallest to largest, from darkest to lightest or in alphabetical order. Once children have completed that, provide a new object and ask, "Where does this go?" This gets pupils working on figuring out how to incorporate new pieces of information into a preexisting order.

Conclusion While the exact educational needs of each student are different, the teaching styles of each teacher differ as well. Cognitive classroom management integrates differing teaching techniques, creating a classroom, which utilizes these different methods to reach the educational needs of each student. The goal is to ensure each student benefits from the class, having their individual educational needs met.

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References
Borich, Gary D. Effective teaching methods : research-based practice Upper Saddle River, N.J. : Pearson Merrill/Prentice Hall, c2007.6th ed Goldstein, Sam, 1952-New York : Wiley, c1995 Understanding and managing children's
classroom behavior

Greeno, James G.; Collins, Allen M.; and Resnick, Lauren B. 1996. "Cognition and Learning." In Handbook of Educa tional Psychology, ed. David C. Berliner and Robert C. Calfee. New York: Macmillan.

Popham, W. James. Classroom assessment : what teachers need to know Boston : Pearson/Allyn and Bacon, c2008. 5th ed Snowman, Jack. Belmont, Calif. Psychology applied to teaching. : Wadsworth Publishing, 2011. 13th ed., international ed