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Objective - In this experiment the natural and step responses of RC and RL circuits are examined.

- The use of computer controlled equipment is also introduced here. Theory - Introduction and test circuits: Inductors and capacitors have the ability to store energy. It is important to determine the voltages and currents that arise in circuits composed by resistors. And either inductors or capacitors. The description of the voltages and currents in this type of circuits is done in terms of differential equations of first order. - Natural Response: The currents and voltages that arise when the energy stored in an inductor or capacitor is suddenly released to the resistors in the circuit are called the natural response of the circuit. The behavior of these currents and voltages depends only on the nature of the circuit, and not on external sources. 1. Natural response of an RL circuit In an RL circuit, the natural response is described in terms of the voltages and current at the terminals of the resistor when the external source of power stops delivering energy to the circuit. The expressions for the current and voltage across the resistor are: So, , .

Where I0 is the initial current through the inductor before the power source goes off and the inductor starts releasing energy to the circuit. The symbol represents the time constant of the circuit. The natural response of an RL circuit is calculated by: - Finding the initial current I0 through the inductor - Finding the time constant of the circuit - Generate i(t). 2. Natural response of an RC circuit The natural response of an RC circuit is analogous to that of an RL circuit. The expressions for the current and voltage across the resistor are; So, , . Where V0 is the initial voltage across the (fully charged) capacitor before the power source is switched off, the capacitor starts releasing energy to the circuit. The natural response of an RC circuit is calculated by:

- Finding the initial voltage V0 across the capacitor - Finding the time constant of the circuit - Generating V(t) - Parallel RLC circuit: The current in the circuit consisting of a resistor, a capacitor and an inductor connected in parallel is given by: Where is given by:

1 2RC
1
LC

The resonant radian frequency in (rad/sec), given by: o Damping Overdamped 2 > 2 . Underdamped 2 < 2 Critically damped 2 = 2 Natural response equations St S i (t ) A e 1 A e 2t 1 2

2 s o 1,2

i (t ) e t [ B cos t + B sin t ] w w 2 2 1 2 d d 0 d
i (t ) e t [ A t +A ] 1 2
A1,A2 are constants determined b the initial condition

Equipment and instruments - Digital Multimeter (DMM). - The Function Generator (FG). - The Cathode Ray Oscilloscope (CRO). - Various components.

Procedure 1. Step response of RL Circuits: a. DC RL Circuit.

1- Assemble the circuit in the previous figure with the component values. By using Ohmmeter measure the internal resistance of the Inductor. 2- Take measurement to find the experimental values for the components, the current flowing through the inductor and the voltage across each element. b. Transient RL circuit:

1- Assemble the circuit in the previous figure with the component values. Measure the internal resistance of the inductor. 2- Set the FG to supply a square wave with 6VPK-PK amplitude and 10 KHz frequency. Add 3V DC offset. Check the amplitude of the signal after the connection to the circuit. 3- Connect CH1 and CH2 as illustrated on the graph, notice that there is a small resistance R2 connected in series with the inductor. This is because the

Oscilloscope can measure voltage only, therefore its necessary to measure scaled version of ic(t). Divide the voltage by R to obtain the current in the circuit, So CH2 represented iL(t). 4- Observe the waveform of voltage and current, and plot them on a graph paper. 5- Calculate the time constant for this circuit and compare with the voltage and current at t= , and t=3. 2. RC circuits: a. DC RC circuit

1- Assemble the circuit in the previous figure with the component values. 2- Take measurement to find the values of the resistors, the capacitor and the voltages across them.

b. Transient RC circuit
R1

CH1
1k ohm

4Vp-p 10 KHz

C
10 nF

CH2

DC offest
2V

R2
10 ohm

Common Ground

1- Assemble the circuit in the previous figure with the component values. 2- Set FG to supply a square wave with 4 VPK-PK amplitude And 10 KHz frequency. Add 2V DC offset. Check the amplitude of the signal after the connection to the circuit. 3- Connect CH1 and CH2 as illustrated on the graph, notice that there is a small resistance R2 connected in series with the capacitor. This is because the Oscilloscope can measure voltage only, therefore, its necessary to measure scaled version of ic(t). Divide the voltage by R to obtain the current in the circuit, So CH2 represent ic(t). 4- Observe the waveform of voltage and current, and Plot them on a graph paper. 5- Calculate the time constant for this circuit and compare with the voltage and current at t=, and t= 3.

Data & Calculation 1. Step response of RL Circuits: a. DC RL Circuit. Parameter R1 RL(internal resistance of
inductor)

Unit K mH V mA

Theor. 2.2 --47 10 10 0 8.33

Exp. 2.18 120 --9.98 9.68 0.335 4.25

%Error 1.66%

L Vs VR1 VL IL

0% 0.1 % 5.2% 4.92 %

b. Transient RL circuit: -The current of the inductor

- The Voltage of the inductor

Parameter R1 R2 Rint L

Unit K mH sec

Theor. 1.0 10 0 10 10 *10-6

Exp. 0.99 9.65 98.33 10 9*10-6

%Error 1% 3.5 % 0% 10 %

iL () = I0(1-e-t/ ) = 63.21 mA , iL(3)=I0(1-e-3) = 95.02 mA VL()=Vs e-t/ = 3.67 V ,VL(3) = Vse-3 = 0.5 V

2. RC circuits: a. DC RC circuit Parameter Unit R1 K R2 C F Vs VR1 V VR2 VC b. Transient RC circuit -The current of the capacitor

Theor. 2.2 1.2 100 10 5.455 4.545 4.545

Exp. 2.16 1.18 --9.98 6.44 3.48 3.48

%Error 1.66% 1% 0% 0.1 % 0.2 % 0.3 % 0.3 %

- The Voltage of the Capacitor.

Parameter R1 R2 C

Unit K nF Sec

Theor. 1.0 10 10 10.01 *10-6

Exp. 0.99 10 --10*10-6

%Error 1% 0% 0% 0%

Vc() = Vs(1-e-t/ ) =2.78 V Ic ()=I0 e-t/ = 14.72 mA

, Vc(3) =Vs (1-e-3) = 4.8 V , Ic (3) = I0e-3 = 2 mA

Conclusion 1) We conclude that each circuit has a natural response & its different due to the circuit elements. 2) There is no pure inductive or capacitive load, without any internal resistance and we should consider it in our calculations. 3) The inductor and the capacitor are none absorbing power elements on the contrary they are elements that storage power, the inductor storages the power on the shape of electromagnetic waves and the capacitor on the shape of charges. 2 4) The values of and 0 determine the form of the natural (or step) response of parallel RLC circuits. 5) Depending on the damping, the solution to the differential equation describing the response of the circuit can be found by applying the appropriate set of equation.