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# Solid State Electronics

## Lecture 6 Carrier Statistics

If the energy bands are aligned in k-space then band-toband recombination generation is easily possible However, this is not the case in indirect semiconductors, in which the recombination generation is indirect and is facilitated by RG-centers This means the RG-center recombination-generation mostly dominates in silicon However, if the RG-center recombination-generation is not the case, then electron scattering from the crystal lattice will occur Electrons will loose the momentum in the form of heat energy, and then subsequently drop to the valence band

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R-G Statistics
Photogeneration

Light (, )

If the photon energy is higher than the energy gap, light will be absorbed x I is intensity of light, and is absorption

I = I 0e

constant (cm1)

## Light absorbed will generate equal number of electrons and holes

n p = = GL ( x , ) t light t light
GL ( x, ) = GL 0e x
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GL is the photogeneration rate (per cm3-sec) Average depth of penetration of light is directly proportional to 1/ (cm)

R-G Statistics
Indirect thermal recombination-generation OR RG-center recombination-generation If an external perturbation is applied, the material will try to achieve a steady state, i.e., indirect thermal recombination-generation will occur

p << n0 n n0 n << p0 p p0
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## Low-level injection implies In n-type material In p-type material

R-G Statistics
Indirect thermal recombination-generation OR RG-center recombination-generation E.g., in an n-type material, light electron-hole pairs have been generated by an external perturbation Each hole generated will create an electron as well However, the change in hole concentration is far less than the equilibrium electron concentration The electron-hole pairs will annihilate/recombine at the RG-centers, for which the rate is dependent upon the number electrons available at RG-centers (all RG-centers have a resident electron in n-type), i.e., NT Additionally, it also depends upon the number of holes

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R-G Statistics
Indirect thermal recombination-generation OR RG-center recombination-generation

Ec EF ET Ev
p0
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nn0

p t

= c p N T p
R

## cp is hole capture coefficient

p<<n0

R-G Statistics
Indirect thermal recombination-generation OR RG-center recombination-generation Similarly for electron-hole pair generation, the hole generation depends upon the empty RG-centers This number will be very small and will be the same when equilibrium conditions prevailed

p = c p N T p0 t G
Finally, the indirect thermal recombination-generation process will be (for holes in n-type material)

p p p = + = c p N T p thermal t iRG t R t G
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## Minority carrier life-time

The average time an excess minority carrier will live in the sea of a majority carriers

p t

i thermal R G

## For holes in n-type material

n n = thermal n t iRG
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## For electrons in p-type material

Equations of state
putting all carrier actions together
Continuity Equations All carrier actions contribute towards a combined rate of change of carriers Continuity equations sum them up There must be a spatial and time continuity in the carrier concentrations

n n = t t p p = t t
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+
drift

n t p t

+
diff

n n + t thermal t R G p t +
thermal R G

+
drift

+
diff

p t

## others ( light , etc .)

Equations of state
Continuity Equations Simplifying for drift and diffusion

n 1 n n = .J N + + t q t thermal t R G 1 p p = .J P + t q t +
thermal R G

p t

## others ( light , etc .)

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Equations of state
Minority Carrier Diffusion Equations Assumptions:
No electric field applied n = n n0, and p = p p0

1 1 J N .J N q q x J N = q n n + qDN dn dn qDN dx dx 2 1 d n .J N DN q dx 2

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Equations of state
Minority Carrier Diffusion Equations Putting all the term in continuity equation:
n p t = DN d 2 n p dx 2 n p + GL

p n d 2 p n p n = DP + GL t p dx 2

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