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CHAPTER 2
ATOMIC STRUCTURE AND INTERATOMIC BONDING
2.3 (a) I norder todeterminethenumber of gramsinoneamuof material, appropriatemanipulationof
theamu/atom, g/mol, andatom/mol relationshipsisall that isnecessary, as
#g/amu =

1mol
6.02310
23
atoms

1g/mol
1amu/atom

= 1.6610
24
g/amu
2.14 (c) Thisportionof theproblemasksthat wedeterminefor aK
+
-Cl

ionpair theinteratomicspacing
(r
o
) andthebondingenergy(E
o
). FromEquation(2.11) for E
N
A = 1.436
B = 5.8610
6
n = 9
Thus, usingthesolutionsfromProblem2.13
r
o
=

A
nB

1/(1n)
=

1.436
(9)(5.8610
6
)

1/(19)
= 0.279nm
and
E
o
=
1.436

1.436
(9)(5.8610
6
)

1/(19)
+
5.8610
6

1.436
(9)(5.8610
6
)

9/(19)
= 4.57eV
2.19 Thepercent ioniccharacter isafunctionof theelectronegativitiesof theionsX
A
andX
B
according
to Equation(2.10). Theelectronegativitiesof theelementsarefoundinFigure2.7.
For TiO
2
, X
Ti
= 1.5andX
O
= 3.5, andtherefore,
%I C =

1e
(0.25)(3.51.5)
2

100= 63.2%
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CHAPTER 3
STRUCTURESOFMETALSAND CERAMICS
3.3 For thisproblem, weareaskedtocalculatethevolumeof aunit cell of aluminum. Aluminumhasan
FCC crystal structure(Table3.1). TheFCC unit cell volumemaybecomputedfromEquation(3.4)
as
V
C
= 16R
3

2= (16)(0.14310
9
m)
3

2= 6.6210
29
m
3
3.7 This problemcalls for ademonstration that theAPF for HCP is 0.74. Again, theAPF is just the
total sphere-unit cell volumeratio. For HCP, therearetheequivalent of six spheres per unit cell,
andthus
V
S
= 6

4R
3
3

= 8R
3
Now, theunit cell volumeisjust theproduct of thebaseareatimesthecell height, c.Thisbasearea
isjust threetimestheareaof theparallelepipedACDE shownbelow.
A
B
C
D
E
a = 2R
a = 2R
a = 2R
60
30
The area of ACDE is just the length of CD times the height BC. But CD is just a or 2R,
and
BC = 2R cos(30

) =
2R

3
2
Thus, thebaseareaisjust
AREA = (3)(CD)(BC) = (3)(2R)

2R

3
2

= 6R
2

3
andsincec= 1.633a= 2R(1.633)
V
C
= (AREA)(c) = 6R
2
c

3= (6R
2

3)(2)(1.633)R = 12

3(1.633)R
3
2
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Thus,
APF =
V
S
V
C
=
8R
3
12

3(1.633)R
3
= 0.74
3.12. (a) Thisportionof theproblemasksthat wecomputethevolumeof theunit cell for Zr. Thisvolume
maybecomputedusingEquation(3.5) as
V
C
=
nA
Zr
N
A
Now, for HCP, n= 6atoms/unit cell, andfor Zr, A
Zr
= 91.2g/mol. Thus,
V
C
=
(6atoms/unit cell)(91.2g/mol)
(6.51g/cm
3
)(6.02310
23
atoms/mol)
= 1.39610
22
cm
3
/unit cell = 1.39610
28
m
3
/unit cell
(b) We are now to compute the values of aand c, given that c/a= 1.593. Fromthe solution to
Problem3.7, sincea= 2R, then, for HCP
V
C
=
3

3a
2
c
2
but, sincec= 1.593a
V
C
=
3

3(1.593)a
3
2
= 1.39610
22
cm
3
/unit cell
Now, solvingfor a
a =

(2)(1.39610
22
cm
3
)
(3)(

3)(1.593)

1/3
= 3.2310
8
cm= 0.323nm
Andnally
c = 1.593a= (1.593)(0.323nm) = 0.515nm
3.17 I n this problemwe are given that iodine has an orthorhombic unit cell for which the a, b, and c
latticeparametersare0.479, 0.725, and0.978nm, respectively.
(a) Given that the atomic packing factor and atomic radius are 0.547 and 0.177 nm, respec-
tively we are to determine the number of atoms in each unit cell. From the denition of the
APF
APF =
V
S
V
C
=
n

4
3
R
3

abc
3
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wemaysolvefor thenumber of atomsper unit cell, n, as
n =
(APF)abc
4
3
R
3
=
(0.547)(4.79)(7.25)(9.78)(10
24
cm
3
)
4
3
(1.7710
8
cm)
3
= 8.0atoms/unit cell
(b) I norder to computethedensity, wejust employEquation(3.5) as
=
nA
I
abcN
A
=
(8atoms/unit cell)(126.91g/mol)
[(4.79)(7.25)(9.78) 10
24
cm
3
/unit cell](6.02310
23
atoms/mol)
= 4.96g/cm
3
3.22 This question asks that we generate a three-dimensional unit cell for AuCu
3
usingthe Molecule
DenitionFileontheCD-ROM. Oneset of directionsthat maybeusedto construct thisunit cell
andthat areenteredontheNotepadareasfollows:
[DisplayProps]
Rotatez=30
Rotatey=15
[AtomProps]
Gold=LtRed,0.14
Copper=LtYellow,0.13
[BondProps]
SingleSolid=LtGray
[Atoms]
Au1=1,0,0,Gold
Au2=0,0,0,Gold
Au3=0,1,0,Gold
Au4=1,1,0,Gold
Au5=1,0,1,Gold
Au6=0,0,1,Gold
Au7=0,1,1,Gold
Au8=1,1,1,Gold
Cu1=0.5,0,0.5,Copper
Cu2=0,0.5,0.5,Copper
Cu3=0.5,1,0.5,Copper
Cu4=1,0.5,0.5,Copper
Cu5=0.5,0.5,1,Copper
Cu6=0.5,0.5,0,Copper
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[Bonds]
B1=Au1,Au5,SingleSolid
B2=Au5,Au6,SingleSolid
B3=Au6,Au2,SingleSolid
B4=Au2,Au1,SingleSolid
B5=Au4,Au8,SingleSolid
B6=Au8,Au7,SingleSolid
B7=Au7,Au3,SingleSolid
B8=Au3,Au4,SingleSolid
B9=Au1,Au4,SingleSolid
B10=Au8,Au5,SingleSolid
B11=Au2,Au3,SingleSolid
B12=Au6,Au7,SingleSolid
When savingtheseinstructions, thelenamethat ischosen should end with aperiod followed by
mdf and the entire le name needs to be enclosed within quotation marks. For example, if one
wantsto nametheleAuCu3, thenamebywhichit shouldbesavedisAuCu3.mdf. I naddition,
theleshouldbesavedasaText Document.
3.27 I nthisproblemweareaskedto showthat theminimumcation-to-anionradiusratio for acoordi-
nation number of six is0.414. Belowisshown oneof thefacesof therock salt crystal structurein
whichanionsandcationsjust touchalongtheedges, andalso thefacediagonals.
G
H
F
r
C
r
A
FromtriangleFGH,
GF = 2r
A
and FH = GH = r
A
+r
C
SinceFGHisaright triangle
(GH)
2
+(FH)
2
= (FG)
2
or
(r
A
+r
C
)
2
+(r
A
+r
C
)
2
= (2r
A
)
2
whichleadsto
r
A
+r
C
=
2r
A

2
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Or, solvingfor r
C
/r
A
r
C
r
A
=

2
1

= 0.414
3.29 Thisproblemcallsfor usto predict crystal structuresfor several ceramicmaterialson thebasisof
ionicchargeandionicradii.
(a) For CsI , fromTable3.4
r
Cs
+
r
I

=
0.170nm
0.220nm
= 0.773
Now, fromTable3.3, thecoordinationnumber for eachcation(Cs
+
) iseight, and, usingTable3.5,
thepredictedcrystal structureiscesiumchloride.
(c) For KI , fromTable3.4
r
K
+
r
I

=
0.138nm
0.220nm
= 0.627
Thecoordination number issix (Table3.3), and thepredicted crystal structureissodiumchloride
(Table3.5).
3.36 This problemasks that we compute the theoretical density of diamond given that the C

C dis-
tance and bond angle are 0.154 nm and 109.5

, respectively. The rst thing we need do is to


determine the unit cell edge length from the given C

C distance. The drawing below shows


the cubic unit cell with those carbon atoms that bond to one another in one-quarter of the unit
cell.

x
y

a
Fromthisgure, isone-half of thebondangleor = 109.5

/2= 54.75

, whichmeansthat
= 90

54.75

= 35.25

sincethetriangleshown is aright triangle. Also, y= 0.154nm, thecarbon-carbon bond distance.


Furthermore, x= a/4, andtherefore,
x =
a
4
= ysin
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Or
a = 4ysin = (4)(0.154nm)(sin35.25

) = 0.356nm
= 3.5610
8
cm
Theunit cell volume, V
C
, isjust a
3
, that is
V
C
= a
3
= (3.5610
8
cm)
3
= 4.5110
23
cm
3
Wemust nowutilizeamodied Equation (3.6) sincethereisonly oneatomtype. Thereareeight
equivalent atomsper unit cell (i.e., oneequivalent corner, threeequivalent faces, andfour interior
atoms), andtherefore
=
n

A
C
V
C
N
A
=
(8atoms/unit cell)(12.01g/g-atom)
(4.5110
23
cm
3
/unit cell)(6.02310
23
atoms/g-atom)
= 3.54g/cm
3
Themeasureddensityis3.51g/cm
3
.
3.39 (a) Weareaskedto computethedensityof CsCl. Modifyingtheresult of Problem3.4, weget
a =
2r
Cs
+ +2r
Cl

3
=
2(0.170nm) +2(0.181nm)

3
= 0.405nm= 4.0510
8
cm
FromEquation(3.6)
=
n

(A
Cs
+A
Cl
)
V
C
N
A
=
n

(A
Cs
+A
Cl
)
a
3
N
A
For theCsCl crystal structure, n

= 1formulaunit/unit cell, andthus


=
(1formulaunit/unit cell)(132.91g/mol +35.45g/mol)
(4.0510
8
cm)
3
/unit cell(6.02310
23
formulaunits/mol)
= 4.20g/cm
3
(b) Thisvalueof thedensityisgreater thanthemeasureddensity. Thereasonfor thisdiscrepancy
isthat theionicradii inTable3.4, usedfor thiscomputation, werefor acoordinationnumber of six,
when, in fact, thecoordination number of both Cs
+
and Cl

is eight. Under thesecircumstances,


the actual ionic radii and unit cell volume (V
C
) will be slightly greater than calculated values;
consequently, themeasureddensityissmaller thanthecalculateddensity.
3.45 Weareaskedinthisproblemto computetheatomicpackingfactor for theCsCl crystal structure.
Thisrequiresthat wetaketheratio of thespherevolumewithintheunit cell andthetotal unit cell
volume. FromFigure3.6thereistheequivalent of oneCsandoneCl ionper unit cell; theionicradii
of thesetwoionsare0.170nmand0.181nm, respectively(Table3.4). Thus, thespherevolume, V
S
,
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isjust
V
S
=
4
3
()[(0.170nm)
3
+(0.181nm)
3
] = 0.0454nm
3
For CsCl theunit cell edgelength, a, intermsof theatomicradii isjust
a =
2r
Cs
+ +2r
Cl

3
=
2(0.170nm) +2(0.181nm)

3
= 0.405nm
SinceV
C
= a
3
V
C
= (0.405nm)
3
= 0.0664nm
3
And, nallytheatomicpackingfactor isjust
APF =
V
S
V
C
=
0.0454nm
3
0.0664nm
3
= 0.684
3.50 (a) We are asked for the indices of the two directions sketched in the gure. For direction 1, the
projectiononthex-axisiszero(sinceit liesinthey-zplane), whileprojectionsonthey- andz-axes
areb/2andc, respectively. Thisisan[012] directionasindicatedinthesummarybelow.
x y z
Projections 0a b/2 c
Projectionsintermsof a, b, andc 0 1/2 1
Reductionto integers 0 1 2
Enclosure [012]
3.51 Thisproblemasksfor usto sketchseveral directionswithinacubicunit cell. The[110], [121], and
[012] directionsareindicatedbelow.
y
z
x
[110]
_
[121]
__
[012]
_
3.53 Thisproblemasksthat wedetermineindicesfor several directionsthat havebeen drawn within a
cubicunit cell. DirectionBisa[232] direction, thedeterminationof whichissummarizedasfollows.
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Werst of all position theorigin of thecoordinatesystemat thetail of thedirection vector; then
intermsof thisnewcoordinatesystem
x y z
Projections
2a
3
b
2c
3
Projectionsintermsof a, b, andc
2
3
1
2
3
Reductionto integers 2 3 2
Enclosure [232]
DirectionD isa[136] direction, thedeterminationof whichissummarizedasfollows. We
rst of all position the origin of the coordinate systemat the tail of the direction vector; then in
termsof thisnewcoordinatesystem
x y z
Projections
a
6
b
2
c
Projectionsintermsof a, b, andc
1
6
1
2
1
Reductionto integers 1 3 6
Enclosure [136]
3.56 ThisproblemasksthatwedeterminetheMiller indicesfor planesthathavebeendrawnwithinaunit
cell. For planeBwewill movetheoriginof theunit cell oneunit cell distancetotheright alongthey
axis, andoneunit cell distanceparallel tothexaxis; thus, thisisa(112) plane, assummarizedbelow.
x y z
I ntercepts a b
c
2
I nterceptsintermsof a, b, andc 1 1
1
2
Reciprocalsof intercepts 1 1 2
Enclosure (112)
3.58 For planeB wewill leavetheorigin at theunit cell asshown; thisisa(221) plane, assummarized
below.
x y z
I ntercepts
a
2
b
2
c
I nterceptsintermsof a, b, andc
1
2
1
2
1
Reciprocalsof intercepts 2 2 1
Enclosure (221)
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3.59 The(1101) planeinahexagonal unit cell isshownbelow.
z
a
1
a
2
a
3
(1101)
_
3.60 Thisproblemasksthat wespecifytheMiller indicesfor planesthat havebeendrawnwithinhexag-
onal unit cells.
(a) For thisplanewewill leavetheoriginof thecoordinatesystemasshown; thus, thisisa(1100)
plane, assummarizedbelow.
a
1
a
2
a
3
z
I ntercepts a a a c
I nterceptsintermsof asandc 1 1
Reciprocalsof intercepts 1 1 0 0
Enclosure (1100)
3.61 Thisproblemasksfor ustosketchseveral planeswithinacubicunit cell. The(011) and(102) planes
areindicatedbelow.
(102)
_
z
x
y
(011)
__
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3.63 This problemasks that we represent specic crystallographic planes for various ceramic crystal
structures.
(a) A (100) planefor therock salt crystal structurewouldappear as
Na
+
Cl
-
3.64 For theunit cell shown in Problem3.21weareasked to determine, fromthreegiven setsof crys-
tallographicplanes, whichareequivalent.
(a) Theunit cell inProblem3.21isbody-centeredtetragonal. Onlythe(100) (front face) and(010)
(left sideface) planesareequivalent sincethedimensionsof theseplaneswithintheunit cell (and
thereforethedistancesbetweenadjacent atoms) arethesame(namely0.40nm 0.30nm), which
aredifferent thanthe(001) (topface) plane(namely0.30nm 0.30nm).
3.66 Thisquestionisconcernedwiththezincblendecrystal structureintermsof close-packedplanesof
anions.
(a) The stacking sequence of close-packed planes of anions for the zinc blende crystal structure
will bethesameasFCC (andnot HCP) becausetheanionpackingisFCC (Table3.5).
(b) The cations will ll tetrahedral positions since the coordination number for cations is four
(Table3.5).
(c) Only one-half of thetetrahedral positions will beoccupied becausetherearetwo tetrahedral
sitesper anion, andyet onlyonecationper anion.
3.70* I n this problemwe are to compute the linear densities of several crystallographic planes for the
face-centeredcubiccrystal structure. For FCC thelinear densityof the[100] directioniscomputed
asfollows:
Thelinear density, LD, isdenedbytheratio
LD =
L
c
L
l
whereL
l
isthelinelengthwithintheunit cell alongthe[100] direction, andL
c
islinelengthpassing
throughintersectioncircles. Now, L
l
isjust theunit cell edgelength, awhich, for FCC isrelatedto
theatomicradiusR accordingto a= 2R

2[Equation(3.1)]. Also for thissituation, L


c
= 2R and
therefore
LD =
2R
2R

2
= 0.71
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3.73* I n this problemwe are to compute the planar densities of several crystallographic planes for the
body-centeredcubiccrystal structure. Planar density, PD, isdenedas
PD =
A
c
A
p
whereA
p
isthetotal planeareawithintheunit cell andA
c
isthecircleplaneareawithinthissame
plane. For (110), that portion of aplanethat passes through aBCC unit cell forms arectangleas
shownbelow.
3
4R
R
3
2 4R
I n terms of the atomic radius R, the length of the rectangle base is
4R

3
, whereas the height is
a=
4R

3
. Therefore, theareaof thisrectangle, whichisjust A
p
is
A
p
=

4R

4R

=
16R
2

2
3
Nowfor thenumber equivalent atomswithin thisplane. One-fourth of each corner atomand the
entirety of the center atombelong to the unit cell. Therefore, there is an equivalent of 2 atoms
withintheunit cell. Hence
A
c
= 2(R
2
)
and
PD =
2R
2
16R
2

2
3
= 0.83
3.80* Usingthe data for aluminumin Table 3.1, we are asked to compute the interplanar spacings for
the(110) and (221) setsof planes. Fromthetable, aluminumhasan FCC crystal structureand an
atomicradiusof 0.1431nm. UsingEquation(3.1) thelatticeparameter, a, maybecomputedas
a= 2R

2= (2)(0.1431nm)(

2) = 0.4047nm
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Now, thed
110
interplanar spacingmaybedeterminedusingEquation(3.11) as
d
110
=
a

(1)
2
+(1)
2
+(0)
2
=
0.4047nm

2
= 0.2862nm
3.84* Fromthe diffraction pattern for -iron shown in Figure 3.37, we are asked to compute the inter-
planar spacingfor each set of planes that has been indexed; we are also to determine the lattice
parameter of Fe for each peak. I n order to compute the interplanar spacing and the lattice pa-
rameter wemust employEquations(3.11) and(3.10), respectively. For therst peak whichoccurs
at 45.0

d
110
=
n
2sin
=
(1)(0.1542nm)
(2)

sin
45.0

2
= 0.2015nm
And
a = d
hkl

(h)
2
+(k)
2
+(l)
2
= d
110

(1)
2
+(1)
2
+(0)
2
= (0.2015nm)

2= 0.2850nm
Similar computationsaremadefor theother peakswhichresultsaretabulatedbelow:
Peak I ndex 2 d
hkl
(nm) a(nm)
200 65.1 0.1433 0.2866
211 82.8 0.1166 0.2856
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CHAPTER 4
POLYMER STRUCTURES
4.4 Weareaskedtocomputethenumber-averagedegreeof polymerizationfor polypropylene,giventhat
thenumber-averagemolecular weightis1,000,000g/mol.Themer molecular weightof polypropylene
isjust
m= 3(A
C
) +6(A
H
)
= (3)(12.01g/mol) +(6)(1.008g/mol) = 42.08g/mol
I f welet n
n
represent thenumber-averagedegreeof polymerization, thenfromEquation(4.4a)
n
n
=
M
n
m
=
10
6
g/mol
42.08g/mol
= 23,700
4.6 (a) Fromthetabulated data, weareasked to computeM
n
, thenumber-averagemolecular weight.
Thisiscarriedout below.
Molecular wt
Range MeanM
i
x
i
x
i
M
i
8,00016,000 12,000 0.05 600
16,00024,000 20,000 0.16 3200
24,00032,000 28,000 0.24 6720
32,00040,000 36,000 0.28 10,080
40,00048,000 44,000 0.20 8800
48,00056,000 52,000 0.07 3640
M
n
=

x
i
M
i
= 33,040g/mol
(c) Now we are asked to compute n
n
(the number-average degree of polymerization), using the
Equation(4.4a). For polypropylene,
m= 3(A
C
) +6(A
H
)
= (3)(12.01g/mol) +(6)(1.008g/mol) = 42.08g/mol
And
n
n
=
M
n
m
=
33040g/mol
42.08g/mol
= 785
4.11 This problem rst of all asks for us to calculate, using Equation (4.11), the average total chain
length, L, for alinear polytetrauoroethylenepolymer havinganumber-averagemolecular weight
of 500,000g/mol. I t isnecessarytocalculatethenumber-averagedegreeof polymerization, n
n
, using
Equation(4.4a). For PTFE, fromTable4.3, eachmer unit hastwo carbonsandfour uorines. Thus,
m= 2(A
C
) +4(A
F
)
= (2)(12.01g/mol) +(4)(19.00g/mol) = 100.02g/mol
and
n
n
=
M
n
m
=
500000g/mol
100.02g/mol
= 5000
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whichisthenumber of mer unitsalonganaveragechain. Sincetherearetwocarbonatomsper mer
unit, therearetwo C

C chainbondsper mer, whichmeansthat thetotal number of chainbondsin


themolecule, N, isjust (2)(5000) =10,000bonds. Furthermore, assumethat for singlecarbon-carbon
bonds, d= 0.154nmand = 109

(Section4.4); therefore, fromEquation(4.11)


L = Ndsin

= (10,000)(0.154nm)

sin

109

= 1254nm
I t is now possible to calculate the average chain end-to-end distance, r, using Equa-
tion(4.12) as
r = d

N = (0.154nm)

10000= 15.4nm
4.19 For a poly(styrene-butadiene) alternating copolymer with a number-average molecular weight of
1,350,000g/mol, weareaskedtodeterminetheaveragenumber of styreneandbutadienemer units
per molecule.
Since it is an alternating copolymer, the number of both types of mer units will be the
same. Therefore, consider themasasinglemer unit, and determinethenumber-averagedegreeof
polymerization. For thestyrenemer, thereareeight carbonatomsandeight hydrogenatoms, while
the butadiene mer consists of four carbon atoms and six hydrogen atoms. Therefore, the styrene-
butadienecombinedmer weight isjust
m= 12(A
C
) +14(A
H
)
= (12)(12.01g/mol) +(14)(1.008g/mol) = 158.23g/mol
FromEquation(4.4a), thenumber-averagedegreeof polymerizationisjust
n
n
=
M
n
m
=
1350000g/mol
158.23g/mol
= 8530
Thus, thereisanaverageof 8530of bothmer typesper molecule.
4.28 Giventhat polyethylenehasanorthorhombicunit cell withtwoequivalent mer units, weareaskedto
computethedensityof totallycrystallinepolyethylene. I norder tosolvethisproblemit isnecessary
toemployEquation(3.5), inwhichnrepresentsthenumber of mer unitswithintheunit cell (n= 2),
andA isthemer molecular weight, whichfor polyethyleneisjust
A = 2(A
C
) +4(A
H
)
= (2)(12.01g/mol) +(4)(1.008g/mol) = 28.05g/mol
Also, V
C
is the unit cell volume, which is just the product of the three unit cell edge lengths in
Figure4.10. Thus,
=
nA
V
C
N
A
=
(2mers/uc)(28.05g/mol)
(7.4110
8
cm)(4.9410
8
cm)(2.5510
8
cm)/uc(6.02310
23
mers/mol)
= 0.998g/cm
3
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CHAPTER 5
IMPERFECTIONSINSOLIDS
5.1 I n order to compute the fraction of atomsites that are vacant in lead at 600 K, we must employ
Equation(5.1). Asstatedintheproblem, Q
V
= 0.55eV/atom. Thus,
N
V
N
= exp

Q
V
kT

= exp

0.55eV/atom
(8.6210
5
eV/atom-K)(600K)

= 2.4110
5
5.4 This problemcalls for a determination of the number of atoms per cubic meter of aluminum. I n
order to solvethisproblem, onemust employEquation(5.2),
N =
N
A

Al
A
Al
Thedensity of Al (fromthetableinsideof thefront cover) is2.71g/cm
3
, whileitsatomicweight is
26.98g/mol. Thus,
N =
(6.02310
23
atoms/mol)(2.71g/cm
3
)
26.98g/mol
= 6.0510
22
atoms/cm
3
= 6.0510
28
atoms/m
3
5.9 I nthedrawingbelowisshowntheatomsonthe(100) faceof anFCC unit cell; theinterstitial siteis
at thecenter of theedge.
R
R
2r
a
The diameter of an atomthat will just t into this site (2r) is just the difference between that unit
cell edgelength(a) andtheradii of thetwohost atomsthat arelocatedoneither sideof thesite(R);
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that is
2r = a2R
However, for FCC aisrelatedto R accordingto Equation(3.1) asa= 2R

2; therefore, solvingfor
rgives
r =
a2R
2
=
2R

22R
2
= 0.41R
5.10 (a) ForLi
+
substitutingforCa
2+
inCaO,oxygenvacancieswouldbecreated.ForeachLi
+
substituting
for Ca
2+
, onepositivechargeis removed; in order to maintain chargeneutrality, a singlenegative
chargemayberemoved. Negativechargesareeliminatedbycreatingoxygenvacancies, andfor every
two Li
+
ionsadded, asingleoxygenvacancyisformed.
5.15 Thisproblemasksthat wedeterminethecomposition, inatompercent, of analloythat contains98g
tinand65gof lead. Theconcentrationof anelement inanalloy, inatompercent, maybecomputed
usingEquation(5.5). Withthisproblem, it rst becomesnecessarytocomputethenumber of moles
of bothSnandPb, for whichEquation(5.4) isemployed. Thus, thenumber of molesof Snisjust
n
m
Sn
=
m

Sn
A
Sn
=
98g
118.69g/mol
= 0.826mol
Likewise, for Pb
n
m
Pb
=
65g
207.2g/mol
= 0.314mol
Now, useof Equation(5.5) yields
C

Sn
=
n
m
Sn
n
m
Sn
+n
m
Pb
100
=
0.826mol
0.826mol +0.314mol
100= 72.5at%
Also,
C

Pb
=
0.314mol
0.826mol +0.314mol
100= 27.5at%
5.27 This problemasks us to determine the weight percent of Nb that must be added to V such that
the resultant alloy will contain 1.5510
22
Nb atoms per cubic centimeter. To solve this problem,
employment of Equation(5.18) isnecessary, usingthefollowingvalues:
N
1
= N
Nb
= 1.5510
22
atoms/cm
3

1
=
Nb
= 8.57g/cm
3

2
=
V
= 6.10g/cm
3
A
1
= A
Nb
= 92.91g/mol
A
2
= A
V
= 50.94g/mol
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Thus
C
Nb
=
100
1+
N
A

V
N
Nb
A
Nb


V

Nb
=
100
1+
(6.02320
23
atoms/mole)(6.10g/cm
3
)
(1.5510
22
atoms/cm
3
)(92.91g/mol)

6.10g/cm
3
8.57g/cm
3

= 35.2wt%
5.30 I nthisproblemwearegivenageneral equationwhichmaybeusedtodeterminetheBurgersvector
and are asked to give Burgers vector representations for specic crystal structures, and then to
computeBurgersvector magnitudes.
(a) TheBurgersvector will point inthat directionhavingthehighest linear density. FromProblem
3.70thelinear densityfor the[110] directioninFCC is1.0, themaximumpossible; thereforefor FCC
b=
a
2
[110]
(b) For Al whichhasanFCCcrystal structure, R=0.1431nm(Table3.1) anda= 2R

2= 0.4047nm
[Equation(3.1)]; therefore
b=
a
2

h
2
+k
2
+l
2
=
0.4047nm
2

(1)
2
+(1)
2
+(0)
2
= 0.2862nm
5.37 (a) Weareasked for thenumber of grainsper squareinch (N) at amagnication of 100X, and for
anASTM grainsizeof 4. FromEquation(5.16), n= 4, and
N = 2
(n1)
= 2
(41)
= 2
3
= 8
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CHAPTER 6
DIFFUSION
6.8 Thisproblemcallsfor computationof thediffusioncoefcient for asteady-statediffusionsituation.
Let us rst convert the carbon concentrations fromwt% to kg C/m
3
using Equation (5.9a); the
densitiesof carbon and iron (frominsidethefront cover of thebook) are2.25and 7.87g/cm
3
. For
0.012wt% C
C

C
=

C
C
C
C

C
+
C
Fe

Fe

10
3
=

0.012
0.012
2.25g/cm
3
+
99.988
7.87g/cm
3

10
3
= 0.944kgC/m
3
Similarly, for 0.0075wt% C
C

C
=

0.0075
0.0075
2.25g/cm
3
+
99.9925
7.87g/cm
3

10
3
= 0.590kgC/m
3
Now, usingaformof Equation(6.3)
D = J

x
A
x
B
C
A
C
B

= (1.4010
8
kg/m
2
-s)

10
3
m
0.944kg/m
3
0.590kg/m
3

= 3.9510
11
m
2
/s
6.13 Thisproblemasksusto computethenitrogenconcentration(C
x
) at the1mmpositionafter a10h
diffusiontime, whendiffusionisnonsteady-state. FromEquation(6.5)
C
x
C
o
C
s
C
o
=
C
x
0
0.10
= 1erf

x
2

Dt

= 1erf

10
3
m
(2)

(2.510
11
m
2
/s)(10h)(3600s/h)

= 1erf(0.527)
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UsingdatainTable6.1andlinear interpolation
z erf(z)
0.500 0.5205
0.527 y
0.550 0.5633
0.5270.500
0.5500.500
=
y0.5205
0.56330.5205
fromwhich
y = erf(0.527) = 0.5436
Thus,
C
x
0
0.10
= 1.00.5436
Thisexpressiongives
C
x
= 0.046wt% N
6.15 This problem calls for an estimate of the time necessary to achieve a carbon concentration of
0.45wt% at apoint 5mmfromthesurface. FromEquation(6.6b),
x
2
Dt
= constant
But sincethetemperatureisconstant, so also isD constant, and
x
2
t
= constant
or
x
2
1
t
1
=
x
2
2
t
2
Thus,
(2.5mm)
2
10h
=
(5.0mm)
2
t
2
fromwhich
t
2
= 40h
6.21 (a) Using Equation (6.9a), we set up two simultaneous equations with Q
d
and D
o
as unknowns.
Solvingfor Q
d
intermsof temperaturesT
1
andT
2
(1273K and1473K) andD
1
andD
2
(9.410
16
and2.410
14
m
2
/s), weget
Q
d
= R
lnD
1
lnD
2
1/T
1
1/T
2
=
(8.31J /mol-K)[ln(9.410
16
) ln(2.410
14
)]
1/(1273K) 1/(1473K)
= 252,400J /mol
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Now, solvingfor D
o
fromEquation(6.8)
D
o
= D
1
exp

Q
d
RT
1

= (9.410
16
m
2
/s) exp

252400J /mol
(8.31J /mol-K)(1273K)

= 2.210
5
m
2
/s
(b) Usingthesevaluesof D
o
andQ
d
, D at 1373K isjust
D = (2.210
5
m
2
/s) exp

252400J /mol
(8.31J /mol-K)(1373K)

= 5.410
15
m
2
/s
6.29 For thisproblem, adiffusioncoupleispreparedusingtwohypothetical A andB metals. After a30-h
heat treatment at 1000 K, the concentration of A in B is 3.2 wt% at the 15.5-mmposition. After
another heat treatment at 800K for 30h, wearetodetermineat what positionthecompositionwill
be3.2wt%A. I norder tomakethisdetermination, wemust employEquation(6.6b) withtconstant.
That is
x
2
D
= constant
Or
x
2
800
D
800
=
x
2
1000
D
1000
I t isnecessaryto computebothD
800
andD
1000
usingEquation(6.8), asfollows:
D
800
= (1.810
5
m
2
/s) exp

152000J /mol
(8.31J /mol-K)(800K)

= 2.1210
15
m
2
/s
D
1000
= (1.810
5
m
2
/s) exp

152000J /mol
(8.31J /mol-K)(1000K)

= 2.0510
13
m
2
/s
Now, solvingfor x
800
yields
x
800
= x
1000

D
800
D
1000
= (15.5mm)

2.1210
15
m
2
/s
2.0510
13
m
2
/s
= 1.6mm
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CHAPTER 7
MECHANICAL PROPERTIES
7.4 We are asked to compute the maximumlength of a cylindrical titaniumalloy specimen that is
deformedelasticallyintension. For acylindrical specimen
A
o
=

d
o
2

2
where d
o
is the original diameter. Combining Equations (7.1), (7.2), and (7.5) and solving for l
o
leadsto
l
o
=
Ed
2
o
l
4F
=
(10710
9
N/m
2
)()(3.810
3
m)
2
(0.4210
3
m)
(4)(2000N)
= 0.25m= 250mm(10in.)
7.9 This problem asks that we calculate the elongation l of a specimen of steel the stress-strain
behavior of whichisshowninFigure7.33. First it becomesnecessarytocomputethestresswhena
loadof 23,500N isappliedas
=
F
A
o
=
F

d
o
2

2
=
23500N

1010
3
m
2

2
= 300MPa(44,400psi)
Referringto Figure7.33, at thisstresslevel wearein theelastic region on thestress-strain curve,
whichcorrespondsto astrainof 0.0013. Now, utilizationof Equation(7.2) yields
l = l
o
= (0.0013)(75mm) = 0.10mm(0.004in.)
7.14 (a) We are asked, in this portion of the problem, to determine the elongation of a cylindrical
specimenof aluminum. UsingEquations(7.1), (7.2), and(7.5)
F

d
2
o
4
= E
l
l
o
Or
l =
4Fl
o
d
2
o
E
=
(4)(48,800N)(20010
3
m)
()(1910
3
m)
2
(6910
9
N/m
2
)
= 0.50mm(0.02in.)
(b) Wearenowcalleduponto determinethechangeindiameter, d. UsingEquation(7.8)
=

z
=
d/d
o
l/l
o
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FromTable7.1, for Al, = 0.33. Now, solvingfor dyields
d =
ld
o
l
o
=
(0.33)(0.50mm)(19mm)
200mm
= 1.610
2
mm(6.210
4
in.)
Thediameter will decrease.
7.16 ThisproblemasksthatwecomputePoissonsratioforthemetal alloy.FromEquations(7.5) and(7.1)

z
=

E
=
F/A
o
E
=
F

d
o
2

2
E
=
4F
d
2
o
E
Sincethetransversestrain
x
isjust

x
=
d
d
o
andPoissonsratio isdenedbyEquation(7.8) then
=

z
=
d/d
o

4F
d
2
o
E
=
d
o
dE
4F
=
(810
3
m)(510
6
m)()(14010
9
N/m
2
)
(4)(15,700N)
= 0.280
7.21 (a) This portion of the problemasks that we compute the elongation of the brass specimen. The
rst calculationnecessaryisthat of theappliedstressusingEquation(7.1), as
=
F
A
o
=
F

d
o
2

2
=
5000N

610
3
m
2

2
= 177MPa(25,000psi)
Fromthe stress-strain plot in Figure 7.12, this stress corresponds to a strain of about 2.010
3
.
Fromthedenitionof strain, Equation(7.2),
l = l
o
= (2.010
3
)(50mm) = 0.10mm(410
3
in.)
(b) I n order to determinethereduction in diameter d, it isnecessary to useEquation (7.8) and
thedenitionof lateral strain(i.e.,
x
= d/d
o
) asfollows:
d = d
o

x
= d
o

z
= (6mm)(0.30)(2.010
3
)
= 3.610
3
mm(1.410
4
in.)
7.27 Thisproblemasksusto determinethedeformation characteristicsof asteel specimen, thestress-
strainbehavior of whichisshowninFigure7.33.
(a) I n order to ascertain whether the deformation is elastic or plastic, we must rst compute the
stress, thenlocateit onthestress-straincurve, and, nally, notewhether thispoint isontheelastic
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or plasticregion. Thus,
=
F
A
o
=
44500N

1010
3
m
2

2
= 565MPa(80,000psi)
The565MPapoint ispast thelinear portion of thecurve, and, therefore, thedeformation will be
bothelasticandplastic.
(b) This portion of the problemasks us to compute the increase in specimen length. Fromthe
stress-straincurve, thestrainat 565MPaisapproximately0.008. Thus, fromEquation(7.2)
l = l
o
= (0.008)(500mm) = 4mm(0.16in.)
7.29 This problemcalls for us to make a stress-strain plot for aluminum, given its tensile load-length
data, andthento determinesomeof itsmechanical characteristics.
(a) Thedataareplottedbelowontwo plots: therst correspondsto theentirestress-straincurve,
whilefor thesecond, thecurveextendsjust beyondtheelasticregionof deformation.
0. 012 0. 010 0. 008 0. 006 0. 004 0. 002 0. 000
0
100
200
300
Strain
S
t
r
e
s
s

(
M
P
a
)
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(b) Theelasticmodulusistheslopeinthelinear elasticregionas
E =

=
200MPa0MPa
0.00320
= 62.510
3
MPa= 62.5GPa(9.110
6
psi)
(c) For theyieldstrength, the0.002strainoffset lineisdrawndashed. I t intersectsthestress-strain
curveat approximately285MPa(41,000psi).
(d) The tensile strength is approximately 370 MPa (54,000 psi), corresponding to the maximum
stressonthecompletestress-strainplot.
(e) The ductility, in percent elongation, is just the plastic strain at fracture, multiplied by one-
hundred. The total fracture strain at fracture is 0.165; subtractingout the elastic strain (which is
about 0.005) leavesaplasticstrainof 0.160. Thus, theductilityisabout 16%EL.
(f) FromEquation(7.14), themodulusof resilienceisjust
U
r
=

2
y
2E
which, usingdatacomputedintheproblemyieldsavalueof
U
r
=
(285MPa)
2
(2)(62.510
3
MPa)
= 6.510
5
J /m
3
(93.8in.-lb
f
/in.
3
)
7.32 Thisproblemasksusto calculatethemoduli of resiliencefor thematerialshavingthestress-strain
behaviorsshowninFigures7.12and7.33. Accordingto Equation(7.14), themodulusof resilience
U
r
isafunctionof theyieldstrengthandthemodulusof elasticityas
U
r
=

2
y
2E
The values for
y
and E for the brass in Figure 7.12 are 250 MPa (36,000 psi) and 93.9 GPa
(13.610
6
psi), respectively. Thus
U
r
=
(250MPa)
2
(2)(93.910
3
MPa)
= 3.3210
5
J /m
3
(47.6in.-lb
f
/in.
3
)
7.41 For thisproblem, wearegiven two valuesof
T
and
T
, fromwhich weareasked to calculatethe
truestresswhichproducesatrueplasticstrainof 0.25. EmployingEquation(7.19), wemayset up
two simultaneousequationswithtwo unknowns(theunknownsbeingK andn), as
log(50,000psi) = logK +nlog(0.10)
log(60,000psi) = logK +nlog(0.20)
Fromthesetwo expressions,
n =
log(50,000) log(60,000)
log(0.1) log(0.2)
= 0.263
logK = 4.96 or K = 91,623psi
Thus, for
T
= 0.25

T
= K(
T
)
2
= (91,623psi)(0.25)
0.263
= 63,700psi (440MPa)
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7.45 Thisproblemcallsfor usto utilizetheappropriatedatafromProblem7.29in order to determine
thevalues of nand K for this material. FromEquation (7.32) theslopeand intercept of a log
T
versus log
T
plot will yield nand log K, respectively. However, Equation (7.19) is only valid in
theregionof plasticdeformationtothepoint of necking; thus, onlythe7th, 8th, 9th, and10thdata
pointsmaybeutilized. Thelog-logplot withthesedatapointsisgivenbelow.
- 1. 2 - 1. 4 - 1. 6 - 1. 8 - 2. 0 - 2. 2
2.46
2.48
2.50
2.52
2.54
2.56
2.58
2.60
log true strain
l
o
g

t
r
u
e

s
t
r
e
s
s

(
M
P
a
)
Theslopeyieldsavalueof 0.136for n, whereastheintercept givesavalueof 2.7497for logK, and
thusK = 562MPa.
7.50 For thisproblem, theloadisgivenat whichacircular specimenof aluminumoxidefractureswhen
subjected to a three-point bending test; we are then are asked to determine the load at which a
specimenof thesamematerial havingasquarecross-sectionfractures. I t isrst necessaryto com-
putetheexural strengthof thealuminausingEquation(7.20b), andthen, usingthisvalue, wemay
calculatethevalueof F
f
inEquation(7.20a). FromEquation(7.20b)

fs
=
F
f
L
R
3
=
(950N)(5010
3
m)
()(3.510
3
m)
3
= 35210
6
N/m
2
= 352MPa(50,000psi)
Now, solvingfor F
f
fromEquation(7.20a), realizingthat b= d= 12mm, yields
F
f
=
2
fs
d
3
3L
=
(2)(35210
6
N/m
2
)(1210
3
m)
3
(3)(4010
3
m)
= 10,100N (2165lb
f
)
7.54* (a) Thispart of theproblemasksusto determinetheexural strengthof nonporousMgO assum-
ing that the value of n in Equation (7.22) is 3.75. Taking natural logarithms of both sides of
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Equation(7.22) yields
ln
fs
= ln
o
nP
I n Table 7.2it is noted that for P= 0.05,
fs
= 105MPa. For the nonporous material P= 0and,
ln
o
= ln
fs
. Solvingfor ln
o
fromtheaboveequationgivesandusingthesedatagives
ln
o
= ln
fs
+nP
= ln(105MPa) +(3.75)(0.05) = 4.841
or

o
= e
4.841
= 127MPa(18,100psi)
(b) Nowweareaskedto computethevolumepercent porosityto yielda
fs
of 62MPa(9000psi).
Takingthenatural logarithmof Equation(7.22) andsolvingfor Pleadsto
P =
ln
o
ln
fs
n
=
ln(127MPa) ln(62MPa)
3.75
= 0.19or 19vol%
7.65 Thisproblemcallsfor estimationsof Brinell andRockwell hardnesses.
(a) For thebrassspecimen, thestress-strainbehavior for whichisshowninFigure7.12, thetensile
strength is 450MPa (65,000psi). FromFigure 7.31, the hardness for brass corresponding to this
tensilestrengthisabout 125HB or 70HRB.
7.70 Theworkingstressesfor thetwo alloys, thestress-strain behaviorsof which areshown in Figures
7.12and7.33, arecalculatedbydividingtheyieldstrengthbyafactor of safety, whichwewill take
to be 2. For the brass alloy (Figure 7.12), since
y
= 250MPa (36,000psi), the workingstress is
125 MPa (18,000 psi), whereas for the steel alloy (Figure 7.33),
y
= 570 MPa (82,000 psi), and,
therefore,
w
= 285MPa(41,000psi).
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CHAPTER 8
DEFORMATIONAND STRENGTHENING MECHANISMS
8.7 I nthemanner of Figure8.6b, weareto sketchtheatomicpackingfor aBCC {110} typeplane, and
witharrowsindicatetwo different 111 typedirections. Suchisshownbelow.
8.10* We are asked to compute the Schmidfactor for an FCC crystal oriented with its [100] direction
parallel to the loadingaxis. With this scheme, slip may occur on the (111) plane and in the [110]
directionasnotedinthegurebelow.
x
y
z
[100]

[111]
[110]
_
Theanglebetween the[100] and [110] directions, , is45

. For the(111) plane, theangle


betweenitsnormal (whichisthe[111] direction) andthe[100] direction, , istan
1
(
a

2
a
) = 54.74

;
therefore
coscos = cos(45

) cos(54.74

) = 0.408
8.20 Weareaskedtodeterminethegraindiameter for anironwhichwill giveayieldstrengthof 205MPa
(30,000psi). Thebest waytosolvethisproblemistorst establishtwosimultaneousexpressionsof
Equation (8.5), solvefor
o
and k
y
, and nallydeterminethevalueof dwhen
y
= 205MPa. The
datapertainingto thisproblemmaybetabulatedasfollows:
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y
d(mm) d
1/2
(mm)
1/2
135MPa 510
2
4.47
260MPa 810
3
11.18
Thetwo equationsthusbecome
135MPa =
o
+(4.47)k
y
260MPa =
o
+(11.18)k
y
whichyieldthevalues,
o
= 51.7MPaandk
y
= 18.63MPa(mm)
1/2
. At ayieldstrengthof 205MPa
205MPa= 51.7MPa+[18.63MPa(mm)
1/2
]d
1/2
or d
1/2
= 8.23(mm)
1/2
, whichgivesd= 1.4810
2
mm.
8.25 Thisproblemstipulatesthat twopreviouslyundeformedcylindrical specimensof analloyaretobe
strainhardenedbyreducingtheir cross-sectional areas. For onespecimen, theinitial anddeformed
radii are16mmand11mm, respectively. Thesecondspecimenwithaninitial radiusof 12mmisto
havethesamedeformedhardnessastherst specimen. Weareaskedtocomputetheradiusof the
secondspecimenafter deformation. I norder for thesetwo cylindrical specimensto havethesame
deformedhardness, theymust bedeformedto thesamepercent coldwork. For therst specimen
%CW =
A
o
A
d
A
o
100=
r
2
o
r
2
d
r
2
o
100
=
(16mm)
2
(11mm)
2
(16mm)
2
100= 52.7%CW
For thesecond specimen, thedeformed radiusiscomputed usingtheaboveequation and solving
for r
d
as
r
d
= r
o

1
%CW
100
= (12mm)

1
52.7%CW
100
= 8.25mm
8.27 Thisproblemcallsfor ustocalculatetheprecold-workedradiusof acylindrical specimenof copper
that has a cold-worked ductility of 25%EL. FromFigure 8.19(c), copper that has a ductility of
25%EL will haveexperiencedadeformationof about11%CW.For acylindrical specimen,Equation
(8.6) becomes
%CW =

r
2
o
r
2
d
r
2
o

100
Sincer
d
= 10mm(0.40in.), solvingfor r
o
yields
r
o
=
r
d

1
%CW
100
=
10mm

1
11.0
100
= 10.6mm(0.424in.)
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8.35 I n thisproblem, weareasked for thelength of timerequired for theaveragegrain sizeof abrass
material to increaseaspeciedamount usingFigure8.25.
(a) At 500

C, thetimenecessaryfor theaveragegraindiameter to increasefrom0.01to 0.1mmis


approximately3500min.
(b) At 600

C thetimerequiredfor thissamegrainsizeincreaseisapproximately150min.
8.45* Thisproblemgivesusthetensilestrengthsand associated number-averagemolecular weightsfor
two polymethyl methacrylate materials and then asks that we estimate the tensile strength for
M
n
= 30,000g/mol. Equation (8.9) provides thedependenceof thetensilestrength on M
n
. Thus,
usingthedataprovided in theproblem, wemay set up two simultaneousequationsfromwhich it
ispossibleto solvefor thetwo constantsTS

andA. Theseequationsareasfollows:
107MPa = TS


A
40000g/mol
170MPa = TS


A
60000g/mol
Thus, thevaluesof thetwo constantsareTS

= 296MPaandA = 7.5610
6
MPa-g/mol. Substi-
tutingthesevaluesinto anequationfor whichM
n
= 30,000g/mol leadsto
TS = TS


A
30000g/mol
= 296MPa
7.5610
6
MPa-g/mol
30000g/mol
= 44MPa
8.54 Thisproblemasksthat wecomputethefractionof possiblecrosslink sitesin10kgof polybutadiene
when 4.8 kg of S is added, assuming that, on the average, 4.5 sulfur atoms participate in each
crosslink bond. Given thebutadienemer unit in Table4.5, wemay calculateitsmolecular weight
asfollows:
A(butadiene) = 4(A
C
) +6(A
H
)
= (4)(12.01g/mol) +6(1.008g/mol) = 54.09g/mol
whichmeansthat in10kgof butadienethereare
10000g
54.09g/mol
= 184.9mol.
For thevulcanizationof polybutadiene, therearetwopossiblecrosslinksitesper merone
for each of the two carbon atoms that are doubly bonded. Furthermore, each of these crosslinks
formsabridgebetweentwomers. Therefore, wecansaythat thereistheequivalent of onecrosslink
per mer. Therefore, let usnowcalculatethenumber of molesof sulfur (n
sulfur
) that react with the
butadiene, bytakingthemoleratioof sulfur tobutadiene, andthendividingthisratioby4.5atoms
per crosslink; thisyieldsthefractionof possiblesitesthat arecrosslinked. Thus
n
sulfur
=
4800g
32.06g/mol
= 149.7mol
And
fractionsitescrosslinked =
149.7mol
184.9mol
4.5
= 0.180
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8.D1 Thisproblemcallsfor usto determinewhether or not it ispossibleto coldwork steel so asto give
aminimumBrinell hardnessof 225andaductilityof at least 12%EL. Accordingto Figure7.31, a
Brinell hardness of 225corresponds to a tensilestrength of 800MPa (116,000psi). Furthermore,
fromFigure 8.19(b), in order to achieve a tensile strength of 800 MPa, deformation of at least
13%CW isnecessary. Finally, if wecoldwork thesteel to 13%CW, thentheductilityisreducedto
only14%EL fromFigure8.19(c). Therefore, itispossibletomeetbothof thesecriteriabyplastically
deformingthesteel.
8.D6 Thisproblemstipulatesthat acylindrical rodof copper originally16.0mmindiameter istobecold
worked by drawing; a cold-worked yield strength in excess of 250MPa and a ductility of at least
12%EL arerequired, whereas thenal diameter must be11.3mm. Weareto explain howthis is
to beaccomplished. Let us rst calculatethepercent cold work and attendant yield strength and
ductilityif thedrawingiscarriedout without interruption. FromEquation(8.6)
%CW =

d
o
2

d
d
2

d
o
2

2
100
=

16mm
2

11.3mm
2

16mm
2

2
100= 50%CW
At 50%CW, the copper will have a yield strength on the order of 330 MPa (48,000 psi),
Figure8.19(a), whichisadequate; however, theductilitywill beabout 4%EL, Figure8.19(c), which
isinsufcient.
I nsteadof performingthedrawinginasingleoperation, let usinitiallydrawsomefraction
of thetotal deformation, thenanneal to recrystallize, and, nally, coldwork thematerial asecond
timeinorder to achievethenal diameter, yieldstrength, andductility.
Referenceto Figure8.19(a) indicatesthat 21%CW isnecessaryto giveayieldstrengthof
250MPa. Similarly, a maximumof 23%CW is possible for 12%EL [Figure 8.19(c)]. The average
of thesetwo valuesis22%CW, whichwewill useinthecalculations. I f thenal diameter after the
rst drawingisd

o
, then
22%CW =

o
2

11.3
2

o
2

2
100
And, solvingfor d

o
yieldsd

o
= 12.8mm(0.50in.).
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CHAPTER 9
FAILURE
9.7 Weareaskedfor thecritical crack tipradiusfor anAl
2
O
3
material. FromEquation(9.1b)

m
= 2
o
_
a

t
_
1/2
Fracturewill occur when
m
reachesthefracturestrengthof thematerial, whichisgivenasE/10;
thus
E
10
= 2
o
_
a

t
_
1/2
Or, solvingfor
t

t
=
400a
2
o
E
2
FromTable7.1, E = 393GPa, andthus,

t
=
(400)(210
3
mm)(275MPa)
2
(39310
3
MPa)
2
= 3.910
7
mm= 0.39nm
9.8 Wemaydeterminethecritical stressrequiredfor thepropagationof asurfacecrack insoda-lime
glassusingEquation(9.3);takingthevalueof 69GPa(Table7.1) asthemodulusof elasticity,weget

c
=
_
2E
s
a
=
_
(2)(6910
9
N/m
2
)(0.30N/m)
()(510
5
m)
= 16.210
6
N/m
2
= 16.2MPa
9.12* Thisproblemdealswithatensilespecimen, adrawingof whichisprovided.
(a) I nthisportionof theproblemit isnecessarytocomputethestressat point Pwhentheapplied
stress is 100MPa (14,500psi). I n order to determine the stress concentration it is necessary to
consult Figure 9.8c. Fromthe geometry of the specimen, w/h= (25mm)/(20mm) = 1.25; fur-
thermore, ther/hratiois(3mm)/(20mm) =0.15. Usingthew/h= 1.25curveinFigure9.8c, the
K
t
valueat r/h= 0.15is1.7. AndsinceK
t
=

m

o
, then

m
= K
t

o
= (1.7)(100MPa) = 170MPa(24,650psi)
9.15* Thisproblemcallsfor ustodeterminethevalueof B,theminimumcomponentthicknessfor which
theconditionof planestrainisvalidusingEquation(9.12) for themetal alloyslistedinTable9.1.
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For the2024-T3aluminumalloy
B = 2.5
_
K
lc

y
_
2
= (2.5)
_
44MPa

m
345MPa
_
2
= 0.041m= 41mm(1.60in.)
For the4340alloysteel temperedat 260

C
B = (2.5)
_
50MPa

m
1640MPa
_
2
= 0.0023m= 2.3mm(0.09in.)
9.19 For thisproblem, wearegivenvaluesof K
lc
, , andY for alargeplateandareaskedtodetermine
theminimumlengthof asurfacecrack that will leadto fracture. All weneeddo isto solvefor a
c
usingEquation(9.14); therefore
a
c
=
1

_
K
lc
Y
_
2
=
1

_
55MPa

m
(1)(200MPa)
_
2
= 0.024m= 24mm(0.95in.)
9.26 Thisproblemrst providesatabulationof Charpyimpact datafor aductilecast iron.
(a) Theplot of impact energyversustemperatureisshownbelow.
0 - 5 0 - 100 - 150 - 200
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
Temperature, C
I
m
p
a
c
t

E
n
e
r
g
y
,

J
(b) Thisportionof theproblemasksustodeterminetheductile-to-brittletransitiontemperature
asthat temperaturecorrespondingtotheaverageof themaximumandminimumimpact energies.
Fromthesedata, thisaverageis
Average=
124J +6J
2
= 65J
Asindicatedontheplotbytheonesetof dashedlines,theductile-to-brittletransitiontemperature
accordingto thiscriterionisabout 105

C.
(c) Also as noted on the plot by the other set of dashed lines, the ductile-to-brittle transition
temperaturefor animpact energyof 80J isabout 95

C.
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9.31 We are asked to determine the fatigue life for a cylindrical red brass rod given its diameter
(8.0mm) andthemaximumtensileandcompressiveloads(+7500N and7500N, respectively).
Therst thingthat isnecessaryisto calculatevaluesof
max
and
min
usingEquation(7.1). Thus

max
=
F
max
A
o
=
F
max

_
d
o
2
_
2
=
7500N
()
_
8.010
3
m
2
_
2
= 15010
6
N/m
2
= 150MPa(22,500psi)

min
=
F
min

_
d
o
2
_
2
=
7500N
()
_
8.010
3
m
2
_
2
= 15010
6
N/m
2
= 150MPa(22,500psi)
Nowit becomesnecessaryto computethestressamplitudeusingEquation(9.23) as

a
=

max

min
2
=
150MPa(150MPa)
2
= 150MPa(22,500psi)
FromFigure9.46for theredbrass, thenumber of cyclestofailureat thisstressamplitudeisabout
110
5
cycles.
9.33 Thisproblemrst providesatabulationof fatiguedata(i.e., stressamplitudeandcyclestofailure)
for abrassalloy.
(a) Thesefatiguedataareplottedbelow.
10 9 8 7 6 5
100
200
300
Log cycles to failure
S
t
r
e
s
s

a
m
p
l
i
t
u
d
e
,

M
P
a
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(b) As indicated by one set of dashed lines on the plot, the fatigue strength at 510
5
cycles
[log(510
5
) = 5.7] isabout 250MPa.
(c) Asnotedbytheother set of dashedlines, thefatiguelifefor 200MPaisabout 210
6
cycles
(i.e., thelogof thelifetimeisabout 6.3).
9.34 Weareaskedto computethemaximumtorsional stressamplitudepossibleat eachof several fa-
tiguelifetimesfor thebrassalloy, thefatiguebehavior of whichisgiveninProblem9.33. For each
lifetime, rst compute the number of cycles, and then read the corresponding fatigue strength
fromtheaboveplot.
(a) Fatiguelifetime= (1yr)(365days/yr)(24h/day)(60min/h)(1500cycles/min) = 7.910
8
cy-
cles. Thestressamplitudecorrespondingto thislifetimeisabout 130MPa.
(c) Fatiguelifetime=(24h)(60min/h)(1200cycles/min) = 2.210
6
cycles. Thestressamplitude
correspondingto thislifetimeisabout 195MPa.
9.48 Thisproblemasksthat wedeterminethetotal elongationof alowcarbon-nickel alloythat isex-
posedto atensilestressof 40MPa(5800psi) at 538

C for 5000h; theinstantaneousandprimary


creepelongationsare1.5mm(0.06in.).
Fromthe538

C lineinFigure9.43, thesteady-statecreeprate,
s
, isabout 0.15%/1000h
(or 1.510
4
%/h) at 40MPa. Thesteady-statecreepstrain,
s
, therefore, isjust theproduct of

s
andtimeas

s
=
s
(time)
= (1.510
4
%/h)(5000h) = 0.75% = 7.510
3
Strain and elongation are related as in Equation (7.2); solving for the steady-state elongation,
l
s
, leadsto
l
s
= l
o

s
= (750mm)(7.510
3
) = 5.6mm(0.23in.)
Finally, thetotal elongationisjust thesumof thisl
s
andthetotal of bothinstantaneousandpri-
marycreepelongations[i.e., 1.5mm(0.06in.)]. Therefore, thetotal elongationis7.1mm(0.29in.).
9.52* The slope of the line froma log
s
versus log plot yields the value of nin Equation (9.33);
that is
n =
log
s
log
We are asked to determine the values of nfor the creep data at the three temperatures in Fig-
ure 9.43. This is accomplished by taking ratios of the differences between two log
s
and log
values. Thusfor 427

C
n =
log
s
log
=
log(10
1
) log(10
2
)
log(85MPa) log(55MPa)
= 5.3
andfor 538

C
n =
log
s
log
=
log(1.0) log(10
2
)
log(59MPa) log(23MPa)
= 4.9
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9.55* Thisproblemgives
s
valuesat twodifferent temperaturesand70MPa(10,000psi), andthestress
exponent n= 7.0, and asks that wedeterminethesteady-statecreep rateat a stress of 50MPa
(7250psi) and1250K.
Takingthenatural logarithmof Equation(9.34) yields
ln
s
= lnK
2
+nln
Q
c
RT
WiththegivendatatherearetwounknownsinthisequationnamelyK
2
andQ
c
. Usingthedata
providedintheproblemwecanset uptwo independent equationsasfollows:
ln[1.010
5
(h)
1
] = lnK
2
+(7.0) ln(70MPa)
Q
c
(8.31J /mol-K)(977K)
ln[2.510
3
(h)
1
] = lnK
2
+(7.0) ln(70MPa)
Q
c
(8.31J /mol-K)(1089K)
Now,solvingsimultaneouslyfor K
2
andQ
c
leadstoK
2
= 2.5510
5
(h)
1
andQ
c
=436,000J /mol.
Thusit isnowpossibleto solvefor
s
at 50MPaand1250K usingEquation(9.34) as

s
= K
2

n
exp
_

Q
c
RT
_

s
= [2.5510
5
(h)
1
](50MPa)
7.0
exp
_

436000J /mol
(8.31J /mol-K)(1250K)
_
= 0.118(h)
1
9.D1* ThisproblemasksustocalculatetheminimumK
lc
necessarytoensurethat failurewill not occur
for a at plate given an expression fromwhich Y(a/W) may be determined, the internal crack
length, 2a(20mm), the plate width, W(90mm), and the value of (375MPa). First we must
computethevalueof Y(a/W) usingEquation(9.10), asfollows:
Y(a/W) =
_
W
a
tan
a
W
_
1/2
=
_
90mm
()(10mm)
tan
()(10mm)
90mm
_
1/2
= 1.021
Now, usingEquation(9.11) it ispossibleto determineK
lc
; thus
K
lc
= Y(a/W)

a
= (1.021)(375MPa)
_
()(1010
3
m) = 67.9MPa

m(62.3ksi

in.)
9.D7* Weareaskedinthisproblemto estimatethemaximumtensilestressthat will yieldafatiguelife
of 2.510
7
cycles, givenvaluesof a
o
, a
c
, m, A, andY. SinceY isindependent of crack lengthwe
mayutilizeEquation(9.31) which, uponintegration, takestheform
N
f
=
1
A
m/2
()
m
Y
m
_
a
c
a
o
a
m/2
da
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Andfor m= 3.5
N
f
=
1
A
1.75
()
3.5
Y
3.5
_
a
c
a
o
a
1.75
da
=
1.33
A
1.75
()
3.5
Y
3.5
_
1
a
0.75
c

1
a
0.75
o
_
Now, solvingfor fromthisexpressionyields
=
_
1.33
N
f
A
1.75
Y
3.5
_
1
a
0.75
o

1
a
0.75
c
__
1/3.5
=
_
1.33
(2.510
7
)(210
14
)()
1.75
(1.4)
3.5
_
1
(1.510
4
)
0.75

1
(4.510
3
)
0.75
__
1/3.5
= 178MPa
This 178 MPa will be the maximumtensile stress since we can show that the minimumstress
is a compressive onewhen
min
is negative, is taken to be
max
. I f we take
max
= 178
MPa, and since
m
is stipulated in the problemto have a value of 25 MPa, then fromEqua-
tion(9.21)

min
= 2
m

max
= 2(25MPa) 178MPa= 128MPa
Therefore
min
isnegativeandwearejustiedintaking
max
to be178MPa.
9.D16* Weareasked in this problemto calculatethestress levels at which therupturelifetimewill be
5yearsand20yearswhenan18-8Mostainlesssteel component issubjectedtoatemperatureof
500

C (773K). I t rst becomesnecessary, usingthespeciedtemperatureandtimes, tocalculate


thevalues of theLarson-Miller parameter at each temperature. Thevalues of t
r
corresponding
to 5 and 20 years are 4.3810
4
h and 1.7510
5
h, respectively. Hence, for a lifetime of 5
years
T(20+logt
r
) = 773[20+log(4.3810
4
)] = 19.0510
3
Andfor t
r
= 20years
T(20+logt
r
) = 773[20+log(1.7510
5
)] = 19.5110
3
UsingthecurveshowninFigure9.47, thestressvaluescorrespondingtotheve- andtwenty-year
lifetimesareapproximately260MPa(37,500psi) and225MPa(32,600psi), respectively.
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CHAPTER 10
PHASE DIAGRAMS
10.5 Thisproblemasksthat wecitethephaseor phasespresent for several alloysat speciedtemper-
atures.
(a) For an alloy composed of 90wt% Zn-10wt% Cu and at 400

C, fromFigure 10.17, and


phasesarepresent, and
C

= 87wt% Zn-13wt% Cu
C

= 97wt% Zn-3wt% Cu
(c) For an alloy composed of 55 wt% Ag-45 wt% Cu and at 900

C, fromFigure 10.6, only the


liquidphaseispresent; itscompositionis55wt% Ag-45wt% Cu.
10.7 Thisproblemasksthat wedeterminethephasemassfractionsfor thealloysandtemperaturesin
Problem10.5.
(a) For an alloy composed of 90wt% Zn-10wt% Cu and at 400

C, and phases are present,


and
C
o
= 90wt% Zn
C

= 87wt% Zn
C

= 97wt% Zn
Therefore, usingmodiedformsof Equation(10.2b) weget
W

=
C

C
o
C

=
9790
9787
= 0.70
W

=
C
o
C

=
9087
9787
= 0.30
(c) For analloycomposedof 55wt% Ag-45wt% Cuandat 900

C, sinceonlytheliquidphaseis
present, thenW
L
= 1.0.
10.9 Thisproblemasksthat wedeterminethephasevolumefractionsfor thealloysandtemperatures
in Problem10.5a, b, and c. This is accomplished by using the technique illustrated in Example
Problem10.3, andtheresultsof Problem10.7.
(a) ThisisaCu-Znalloyat 400

C, wherein
C

= 87wt% Zn-13wt% Cu
C

= 97wt% Zn-3wt% Cu
W

= 0.70
W

= 0.30

Cu
= 8.77g/cm
3

Zn
= 6.83g/cm
3
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Using these data it is rst necessary to compute the densities of the and phases using
Equation(5.10a). Thus

=
100
C
Zn()

Zn
+
C
Cu()

Cu
=
100
87
6.83g/cm
3
+
13
8.77g/cm
3
= 7.03g/cm
3

=
100
C
Zn()

Zn
+
C
Cu()

Cu
=
100
97
6.83g/cm
3
+
3
8.77g/cm
3
= 6.88g/cm
3
NowwemaydeterminetheV

andV

valuesusingEquation10.6. Thus,
V

=
W

+
W

=
0.70
7.03g/cm
3
0.70
7.03g/cm
3
+
0.30
6.88g/cm
3
= 0.70
V

=
W

+
W

=
0.30
6.88g/cm
3
0.70
7.03g/cm
3
+
0.30
6.88g/cm
3
= 0.30
10.12 (a) Weareaskedto determinehowmuchsugar will dissolvein1500gof water at 90

C. Fromthe
solubility limit curvein Figure10.1, at 90

C themaximumconcentration of sugar in thesyrup is


about 77wt%. I t isnowpossibleto calculatethemassof sugar usingEquation(5.3) as
C
sugar
(wt%) =
m
sugar
m
sugar
+m
water
100
77wt% =
m
sugar
m
sugar
+1500g
100
Solvingfor m
sugar
yieldsm
sugar
= 5022g.
(b) Againusingthissameplot, at 20

C thesolubilitylimit (or theconcentrationof thesaturated


solution) isabout 64wt% sugar.
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(c) The mass of sugar in this saturated solution at 20

C (m

sugar
) may also be calculated using
Equation(5.3) asfollows:
64wt% =
m

sugar
m

sugar
+1500g
100
which yields a value for m

sugar
of 2667 g. Subtracting the latter fromthe former of these sugar
concentrationsyieldstheamount of sugar that precipitatedout of thesolutionuponcoolingm

sugar
;
that is
m

sugar
= m
sugar
m

sugar
= 5022g2667g= 2355g
10.21 Uponcoolinga50wt% Pb-50wt% Mgalloyfrom700

C andutilizingFigure10.18:
(a) The rst solid phase forms at the temperature at which a vertical line at this composition
intersectstheL-( +L) phaseboundaryi.e., about 550

C;
(b) The composition of this solid phase corresponds to the intersection with the -( +L)
phase boundary, of a tie line constructed across the +L phase region at 550

Ci.e., 22 wt%
Pb-78wt% Mg;
(c) Complete solidication of the alloy occurs at the intersection of this same vertical line at
50wt% Pbwiththeeutecticisothermi.e., about 465

C;
(d) Thecompositionof thelastliquidphaseremainingprior tocompletesolidicationcorresponds
to theeutecticcompositioni.e., about 66wt% Pb-34wt% Mg.
10.24 (a) Wearegiven that themass fractions of and liquid phases areboth 0.5for a30wt% Sn-70
wt% Pb alloy and asked to estimate the temperature of the alloy. Usingthe appropriate phase
diagram, Figure10.7, by trial and error with aruler, atielinewithin the +L phaseregion that
isdividedinhalf for analloyof thiscompositionexistsat about 230

C.
(b) We are now asked to determine the compositions of the two phases. This is accomplished
by noting the intersections of this tie line with both the solidus and liquidus lines. Fromthese
intersections, C

= 15wt% Sn, andC


L
= 42wt% Sn.
10.28 Thisproblemasksif it ispossibletohaveaCu-Agalloyof composition50wt%Ag-50wt%Cuthat
consists of mass fractions W

= 0.60and W

= 0.40. Such an alloy is not possible, based on the


followingargument. Usingtheappropriatephasediagram, Figure10.6, and, usingEquations(10.1)
and (10.2) let usdetermineW

and W

at just belowtheeutectic temperatureand also at room


temperature. At just belowtheeutectic, C

= 8.0wt% AgandC

= 91.2wt% Ag; thus,


W

=
C

C
o
C

=
91.250
91.28
= 0.50
W

= 1.0W

= 1.00.5= 0.50
Furthermore, at roomtemperature, C

= 0wt%AgandC

= 100wt%Ag;employment of Equa-
tions(10.1) and(10.2) yields
W

=
C

C
o
C

=
10050
1000
= 0.50
And, W

= 0.50. Thus, themassfractionsof the and phases, uponcoolingthroughthe +


phase region will remain approximately constant at about 0.5, and will never have values of
W

= 0.60andW

= 0.40ascalledfor intheproblem.
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10.35* Thisproblemasksthat wedeterminethecompositionof aPb-Snalloyat 180

C giventhat W

=
0.57and W
e
= 0.43. Sincethereisaprimary microconstituent present, then weknowthat the
alloy composition, C
o
, is between 61.9and 97.8wt% Sn (Figure 10.7). Furthermore, this gure
alsoindicatesthat C

= 97.8wt% SnandC
eutectic
= 61.9wt% Sn. Applyingtheappropriatelever
ruleexpressionfor W

=
C
o
C
eutectic
C

C
eutectic
=
C
o
61.9
97.861.9
= 0.57
andsolvingfor C
o
yieldsC
o
= 82.4wt% Sn.
10.47* Weareaskedtospecifythevalueof Ffor Gibbsphaseruleat point B onthepressure-temperature
diagramfor H
2
O. Gibbsphaseruleingeneral formis
P +F = C +N
For thissystem, thenumber of components, C, is1, whereasN, thenumber of noncompositional
variables, is2viz. temperatureandpressure. Thus, thephaserulenowbecomes
P +F = 1+2= 3
Or
F = 3P
wherePisthenumber of phasespresent at equilibrium.
At point B onthegure, onlyasingle(vapor) phaseispresent (i.e., P= 1), or
F = 3P = 31= 2
whichmeansthat bothtemperatureandpressurearenecessaryto denethesystem.
10.54 This problemasks that we compute the carbon concentration of an iron-carbon alloy for which
thefractionof total ferriteis0.94. Applicationof thelever rule[of theformof Equation(10.12)]
yields
W

= 0.94=
C
Fe
3
C
C

o
C
Fe
3
C
C

=
6.70C

o
6.700.022
andsolvingfor C

o
C

o
= 0.42wt% C
10.59 Thisproblemasksthat wedeterminethecarbonconcentrationinaniron-carbonalloy, giventhe
massfractionsof proeutectoidferriteandpearlite. FromEquation(10.20)
W
p
= 0.714=
C

o
0.022
0.74
whichyieldsC

o
= 0.55wt% C.
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10.64 Thisproblemasksif it ispossibletohaveaniron-carbonalloyfor whichW

= 0.846andW
Fe
3
C
=
0.049. I norder tomakethisdetermination, it isnecessarytoset uplever ruleexpressionsfor these
two mass fractions in terms of the alloy composition, then to solve for the alloy composition of
each; if bothalloycompositionvaluesareequal, thensuchanalloyispossible. Theexpressionfor
themassfractionof total ferriteis
W

=
C
Fe
3
C
C
o
C
Fe
3
C
C

=
6.70C
o
6.700.022
= 0.846
Solvingfor thisC
o
yieldsC
o
= 1.05wt% C. Nowfor W
Fe
3
C
weutilizeEquation(10.23) as
W
Fe
3
C
=
C

1
0.76
5.94
= 0.049
Thisexpressionleadsto C

1
= 1.05wt% C. And, sinceC
o
= C

1
, thisalloyispossible.
10.70 Thisproblemasksthat wedeterminetheapproximateBrinell hardnessof a99.8wt% Fe-0.2wt%
C alloy. First, wecomputethemassfractionsof pearliteandproeutectoidferriteusingEquations
(10.20) and(10.21), as
W
p
=
C

o
0.022
0.74
=
0.200.022
0.74
= 0.24
W

=
0.76C

o
0.74
=
0.760.20
0.74
= 0.76
Now, wecomputetheBrinell hardnessof thealloyas
HB
alloy
= HB

+HB
p
W
p
= (80)(0.76) +(280)(0.24) = 128
10.73* Weareaskedto consider asteel alloyof composition93.8wt% Fe, 6.0wt% Ni, and0.2wt% C.
(a) FromFigure10.36, theeutectoidtemperaturefor 6wt% Ni isapproximately650

C (1200

F).
(b) FromFigure10.37, theeutectoidcompositionisapproximately0.62wt% C. Sincethecarbon
concentrationinthealloy(0.2wt%) islessthantheeutectoid, theproeutectoidphaseisferrite.
(c) Assumethat the-( +Fe
3
C) phaseboundaryisat anegligiblecarbonconcentration. Modi-
fyingEquation(10.21) leadsto
W

=
0.62C

o
0.620
=
0.620.20
0.62
= 0.68
Likewise, usingamodiedEquation(10.20)
W
p
=
C

o
0
0.620
=
0.20
0.62
= 0.32
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CHAPTER 11
PHASE TRANSFORMATIONS
11.4 Thisproblemgivesusthevalueof y(0.40) at sometimet(200min), andalso thevalueof n(2.5)
for the recrystallization of an alloy at some temperature, and then asks that we determine the
rateof recrystallizationat thissametemperature. I t isrst necessarytocalculatethevalueof kin
Equation(11.1) as
k =
ln(1y)
t
n
=
ln(10.4)
(200min)
2.5
= 9.010
7
At this point we want to compute t
0.5
, the value of t for y= 0.5, also using Equation (11.1).
Thus
t
0.5
=

ln(10.5)
k

1/n
=

ln(10.5)
9.010
7

1/2.5
= 226.3min
And, therefore, fromEquation(11.2), therateisjust
rate=
1
t
0.5
=
1
226.3min
= 4.4210
3
(min)
1
11.7 This problemasks us to consider the percent recrystallized versus logarithmof time curves for
copper showninFigure11.2.
(a) Theratesat thedifferent temperaturesaredeterminedusingEquation(11.2), whichratesare
tabulatedbelow:
Temperature(

C) Rate(min)
1
135 0.105
119 4.410
2
113 2.910
2
102 1.2510
2
88 4.210
3
43 3.810
5
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(b) Thesedataareplottedbelowaslnrateversusthereciprocal of absolutetemperature.
0. 0032 0. 0030 0. 0028 0. 0026 0. 0024
-12
-10
-8
-6
-4
-2
1/T (1/K)
l
n

R
a
t
e

(
1
/
m
i
n
)
The activation energy, Q, is related to the slope of the line drawn through the data points
as
Q = Slope(R)
whereR isthegasconstant. Theslopeof thislineis1.12610
4
K, andthus
Q = (1.12610
4
K)(8.31J /mol-K)
= 93,600J /mol
(c) At roomtemperature(20

C), 1/T = 3.4110


3
K
1
. Extrapolationof thedataintheplot to
this1/T valuegives
ln(rate)

= 12.8
or
rate

= e
12.8
= 2.7610
6
(min)
1
But since
rate=
1
t
0.5
then
t
0.5
=
1
rate

=
1
2.7610
6
(min)
1

= 3.6210
5
min

= 250days
11.15 Belowis shown an isothermal transformation diagramfor a eutectoid iron-carbon alloy, with a
time-temperaturepaththat will produce(a) 100% coarsepearlite.
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11.18 Belowisshownanisothermal transformationdiagramfor a0.45wt% C iron-carbonalloy, witha
time-temperaturepaththat will produce(b) 50% nepearliteand50% bainite.
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11.20* Belowisshownacontinuouscoolingtransformationdiagramfor a1.13wt% C iron-carbonalloy,
withacontinuouscoolingpaththat will produce(a) nepearliteandproeutectoidcementite.
11.34 Thisproblemasksfor estimatesof Rockwell hardnessvaluesfor specimensof aniron-carbonalloy
of eutectoid composition that have been subjected to some of the heat treatments described in
Problem11.14.
(b) The microstructural product of this heat treatment is 100% spheroidite. According to
Figure11.22(a) thehardnessof a0.76wt% C alloywithspheroiditeisabout 87HRB.
(g) The microstructural product of this heat treatment is 100% ne pearlite. According to
Figure11.22(a), thehardnessof a0.76wt% C alloyconsistingof nepearliteisabout 27HRC.
11.37 For thisproblemweareaskedtodescribeisothermal heat treatmentsrequiredtoyieldspecimens
havingseveral Brinell hardnesses.
(a) FromFigure11.22(a), inorder for a0.76wt% C alloytohaveaRockwell hardnessof 93HRB,
themicrostructuremust becoarsepearlite. Thus, utilizingtheisothermal transformationdiagram
for thisalloy, Figure11.14, wemust rapidly cool to atemperatureat which coarsepearliteforms
(i.e., to about 675

C), allowingthespecimento isothermallyandcompletelytransformto coarse


pearlite. At thistemperatureanisothermal heat treatment for at least 200sisrequired.
11.D1 Thisprobleminquiresasto thepossibilityof producinganiron-carbonalloyof eutectoidcompo-
sition that hasaminimumhardnessof 90HRB and aminimumductility of 35%RA. I f thealloy
ispossible, thenthecontinuouscoolingheat treatment isto bestipulated.
Accordingto Figures11.22(a) and(b), thefollowingisatabulationof Rockwell B hard-
nessesandpercentsreductionof areafor neandcoarsepearlitesandspheroiditefor a0.76wt%
C alloy.
Microstructure HRB %RA
Finepearlite >100 22
Coarsepearlite 93 29
Spheroidite 88 68
Therefore, noneof themicrostructuresmeetsbothof thesecriteria. Bothneandcoarsepearlites
are hard enough, but lack the required ductility. Spheroidite is sufciently ductile, but does not
meet thehardnesscriterion.
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CHAPTER 12
ELECTRICAL PROPERTIES
12.5 (a) I norder tocomputetheresistanceof thiscopper wireitisnecessarytoemployEquations(12.2)
and(12.4). Solvingfor theresistanceintermsof theconductivity,
R =
l
A
=
l
A
FromTable12.1, theconductivityof copper is6.010
7
(-m)
1
, and
R =
l
A
=
2m
[6.010
7
(-m)
1
]()

310
3
m
2

2
= 4.710
3

(b) I f V = 0.05V then, fromEquation(12.1)


I =
V
R
=
0.05V
4.710
3

= 10.6A
(c) Thecurrent densityisjust
J =
I
A
=
I

d
2

2
=
10.6A

310
3
m
2

2
= 1.510
6
A/m
2
(d) Theelectriceldisjust
E =
V
l
=
0.05V
2m
= 2.510
2
V/m
12.13 (a) Thenumber of freeelectronsper cubicmeter for copper atroomtemperaturemaybecomputed
usingEquation(12.8) as
n =

|e|
e
=
6.010
7
(-m)
1
(1.60210
19
C)(0.0030m
2
/V-s)
= 1.2510
29
m
3
(b) I n order to calculatethenumber of freeelectronsper copper atom, wemust rst determine
thenumber of copper atomsper cubicmeter, N
Cu
. FromEquation(5.2)
N
Cu
=
N
A

A
Cu
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Note: in the above expression, density is represented by

in order to avoid confusion with


resistivitywhichisdesignatedby. Thus
N
Cu
=
(6.02310
23
atoms/mol)(8.94g/cm
3
)(10
6
cm
3
/m
3
)
63.55g/mol
= 8.4710
28
m
3
Thenumber of freeelectronsper copper atomisjust
n
N
=
1.2510
29
m
3
8.4710
28
m
3
= 1.48
12.18 This problemasks for us to compute the room-temperature conductivity of a two-phase Cu-Sn
alloy. I t isrst necessaryfor ustodeterminethevolumefractionsof the and phases, after which
the resistivity (and subsequently, the conductivity) may be calculated using Equation (12.12).
Weight fractionsof thetwo phasesarerst calculated usingthephasediagraminformation pro-
videdintheproblem.
Wemight represent thephasediagramnear roomtemperatureasshownbelow.
Applyingthelever ruleto thissituation
W

=
C

C
o
C

=
378
370
= 0.784
W

=
C
o
C

=
80
370
= 0.216
Wemust nowconvert thesemassfractionsinto volumefractionsusingthephasedensitiesgiven
intheproblem. (Note: inthefollowingexpressions, densityisrepresentedby

inorder to avoid
confusion with resistivity which isdesignated by .) Utilization of Equations(10.6a) and (10.6b)
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leadsto
V

=
W

+
W

=
0.784
8.94g/cm
3
0.784
8.94g/cm
3
+
0.216
8.25g/cm
3
= 0.770
V

=
W

+
W

=
0.216
8.25g/cm
3
0.784
8.94g/cm
3
+
0.216
8.25g/cm
3
= 0.230
Now, usingEquation(12.12)
=

= (1.8810
8
-m)(0.770) +(5.3210
7
-m)(0.230)
= 1.36810
7
-m
Finally, for theconductivity
=
1

=
1
1.36810
7
-m
= 7.3110
6
(-m)
1
12.30 (a) I n this problem, for a Si specimen, we are given pand , while
h
and
e
are included in
Table12.2. I norder tosolvefor nwemust useEquation(12.13), which, after rearrangement, leads
to
n =
p|e|
h
|e|
e
=
10
3
(-m)
1
(1.010
23
m
3
)(1.60210
19
C)(0.05m
2
/V-s)
(1.60210
19
C)(0.14m
2
/V-s)
= 8.910
21
m
3
(b) Thismaterial isp-typeextrinsicsincep(1.010
23
m
3
) isgreater thann(8.910
21
m
3
).
12.38 For this problem, we are given conductivity values at two different temperatures for an intrin-
sic semiconductor, and are then asked to determine its band gap energy. I t is possible, using
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Equation(12.18), to set uptwo independent equationswithC andE
g
asunknowns. At 20

C
ln = C
E
g
2kT
ln[1.0(-m)
1
] = C
E
g
(2)(8.6210
5
eV/atom-K)(293K)
or
C = 19.80E
g
At 373K
ln[500(-m)
1
] = C
E
g
(2)(8.6210
5
eV/atom-K)(373K)
6.21= C 15.55E
g
Fromthesetwo expressions
E
g
= 1.46eV
12.45* I nthisproblemweareaskedtodeterminethemagneticeldrequiredtoproduceaHall voltageof
1.010
7
V, giventhat = 1.510
7
(-m)
1
,
e
= 0.0020m
2
/V-s, I
x
= 45A, andd=35mm.
CombiningEquations(12.21) and(12.23b), andafter solvingfor B
z
, weget
B
z
=
|V
H
|d
I
x

e
=
(|1.010
7
V|)[1.510
7
(-m)
1
](3510
3
m)
(45A)(0.0020m
2
/V-s)
= 0.58tesla
12.52* We want to compute the plate spacing of a parallel-plate capacitor as the dielectric constant is
increasedfrom2.5to4.0,whilemaintainingthecapacitanceconstant.CombiningEquations(12.29)
and(12.30) yields
C =

r

o
A
l
Now, let us use the subscripts 1and 2to denote the initial and nal states, respectively. Since
C
1
= C
2
, then

r1

o
A
l
1
=

r2

o
A
l
2
And, solvingfor l
2
l
2
=

r2
l
1

r1
=
(4.0)(1mm)
2.5
= 1.6mm
12.58* (a) We want to solve for the voltage when Q = 3.510
11
C, A = 160 mm
2
, l = 3.5 mm, and

r
= 5.0. CombiningEquations(12.27), (12.29), and(12.30) yields
Q
V
=
r

o
A
l
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And, solvingfor V
V =
Ql

o
A
=
(3.510
11
C)(3.510
3
m)
(5.0)(8.8510
12
F/m)(160mm
2
)(1m
2
/10
6
mm
2
)
= 17.3V
(b) For thissamecapacitor, if avacuumisused
V =
Ql

o
A
=
(3.510
11
C)(3.510
3
m)
(8.8510
12
F/m)(16010
6
m
2
)
= 86.5V
(e) ThepolarizationisdeterminedusingEquations(12.35) and(12.6) as
P =
o
(
r
1)
V
l
=
(8.8510
12
F/m)(5.01)(17.3V)
3.510
3
m
= 1.7510
7
C/m
2
12.D2 Thisproblemasksthat wedeterminetheelectrical conductivityof an80wt%Cu-20wt%Znalloy
at 150

C usinginformationcontainedinFigures12.8and12.35. I norder tosolvethisproblemit


isnecessaryto employEquation(12.9) whichisof theform

total
=
t
+
i
since it is assumed that the alloy is undeformed. Let us rst determine the value of
i
at room
temperature(25

C), avaluewhichwill beindependentof temperature. FromFigure(12.8), at25

C
andfor pureCu,
t
(25) = 1.7510
8
-m. Now, sinceit isassumedthat thecurveinFigure12.35
was generated also at roomtemperature, we may take as
total
(25) at 80wt% Cu-20wt% Zn
whichhasavalueof 5.310
8
-m. Thus

i
=
total
(25)
t
(25)
= 5.310
8
-m1.7510
8
-m= 3.5510
8
-m
Finally, wemaydeterminetheresistivityat 150

C,
total
(150), bytakingtheresistivityof pure
Cuat 150

C fromFigure12.8, whichgivesus
t
(150) = 0.5510
8
-m. Therefore

total
(150) =
i
+
t
(150)
= 3.5510
8
-m+0.5510
8
-m= 4.1010
8
-m
And, usingEquation(12.4) theconductivityiscalculatedas
=
1

=
1
4.1010
8
-m
= 2.4410
7
(-m)
1
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CHAPTER 13
TYPESAND APPLICATIONSOFMATERIALS
13.5 Weareasked to computethevolumepercent graphitein a3.5wt% C cast iron. I t rst becomes
necessary to compute mass fractions using the lever rule. Fromthe iron-carbon phase diagram
(Figure 13.2), the tie-line in the and graphite phase eld extends fromessentially 0wt% C to
100wt% C. Thus, for a3.5wt% C cast iron
W

=
C
Gr
C
o
C
Gr
C

=
1003.5
1000
= 0.965
W
Gr
=
C
o
C

C
Gr
C

=
3.50
1000
= 0.035
Conversion from weight fraction to volume fraction of graphite is possible using
Equation(10.6a) as
V
Gr
=
W
Gr

Gr
W

+
W
Gr

Gr
=
0.035
2.3g/cm
3
0.965
7.9g/cm
3
+
0.035
2.3g/cm
3
= 0.111or 11.1vol%
13.21* I n this problemwe are asked to nd the maximumtemperatures to which magnesia-alumina
refractoriesmaybeheatedbeforealiquidphasewill appear.
(a) For a spinel-bonded alumina material of composition 95wt% Al
2
O
3
-5wt% MgO we must
use Figure 10.22. Accordingto this phase diagram, the maximumtemperature without a liquid
phasecorrespondstothetemperatureof theeutecticisothermontheAl
2
O
3
-richsideof thephase
diagram, whichisapproximately2000

C (3630

F).
13.23* Thisproblemcallsfor usto computethemassfractionsof liquid for four refractory materialsat
1600

C. I norder to solvethisproblemit isnecessarythat weusetheSiO


2
-Al
2
O
3
phasediagram
(Figure10.24), inconjunctionwithtie-linesandthelever ruleat 1600

C.
(a) For C
o
= 6wt% Al
2
O
3
themassfractionof liquidW
L
isjust
W
L
=
C
o
C
SiO
2
C
L
C
SiO
2
=
60
70
= 0.86
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CHAPTER 14
SYNTHESIS, FABRICATION, AND PROCESSING OFMATERIALS
14.19 (a) Thispart of theproblemcallsfor usto construct aradial hardnessprolefor a50mm(2in.)
diameter cylindrical specimenof an8640steel that hasbeenquenchedinmoderatelyagitatedoil.
I nthemanner of ExampleProblem14.1, theequivalent distancesandhardnessestabulatedbelow
weredeterminedfromFigures14.8and14.11.
Radial Equivalent HRC
Position Distance, mm(in.) Hardness
Surface 7(5/16) 54
3/4R 11(7/16) 50
Midradius 14(9/16) 45
Center 16(10/16) 44
Theresultingproleisplottedbelow.
14.26 (a) Belowisshownthelogarithmviscosityversusreciprocal of temperatureplotfor theborosilicate
glass, usingthedatainFigure14.16.
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(b) Solvingfor theactivationenergy, Q
vis
, fromtheequationgivenintheproblem, weget
Q
vis
= RT ln+RT lnA
Theactivationenergy, Q
vis
, maybecomputedfromthisplot accordingto
Q
vis
= R

ln

1
T

whereR isthegasconstant, andln/(1/T) istheslopeof thelinethat hasbeenconstructed.


Thevalueof thisslopeis4.3610
4
. Therefore,
Q
vis
= (8.31J /mol-K)(4.3610
4
)
= 362,000J /mol
14.43 (a) This problem asks that we determine how much adipic acid must be added to 50.0 kg of
ethyleneglycol to producealinear chainstructureof polyester accordingto Equation14.5. Since
the chemical formulas are provided in this equation we may calculate the molecular weights of
eachof thesematerialsasfollows:
A(adipic) = 6(A
C
) +10(A
H
) +4(A
O
)
= 6(12.01g/mol) +10(1.008g/mol) +4(16.00g/mol) = 146.14g/mol
A(glycol) = 2(A
C
) +6(A
H
) +2(A
O
)
= 2(12.01g/mol) +6(1.008g/mol) +2(16.00g/mol) = 62.07g/mol
The50.0kgmassof ethyleneglycol equals50,000gor
50000 g
62.07 g/mol
= 805.5mol.AccordingtoEquation
(14.5), eachmoleof adipicacidusedrequiresonemoleof ethyleneglycol, whichisequivalent to
(805.5mol)(146.14g/mol) =1.17710
5
g= 117.7kg.
(b) Nowweareasked for themass of theresultingpolyester. I nasmuch as onemoleof water is
givenoff for everymer unitproduced,thiscorrespondsto805.5molesor (805.5mol)(18.02g/mol) =
14,500gor 14.5kgsincethemolecular weight of water is18.02g/mol. Themassof polyester isjust
the sumof the masses of the two reactant materials (as computed in part a) minus the mass of
water released, or
mass(polyester) = 50.0kg+117.7kg14.5kg= 153.2kg
14.D1 A one-inchdiameter steel specimenistobequenchedinmoderatelyagitatedoil. Wearetodecide
which of vedifferent steels will havesurfaceand center hardnesses of at least 55and 50HRC,
respectively.
I nmoderatelyagitatedoil, theequivalent distancesfromthequenchedendfor aone-inch
diameter bar for surfaceandcenter positionsare3mm(1/8in.) and8mm(11/32in.), respectively
[Figure14.11(b)]. Thehardnessesat thesetwo positionsfor thealloyscited(asdeterminedusing
Figure14.8) aregivenbelow.
Surface Center
Alloy Hardness(HRC) Hardness(HRC)
1040 50 30
5140 55 47
4340 57 57
4140 56 54
8640 56 52.5
Thus, alloys4340, 4140, and8640will satisfythecriteriafor bothsurfaceandcenter hardnesses.
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14.D5 We are asked to determine the maximumdiameter possible for a cylindrical piece of 4140steel
that is to be quenched in moderately agitated oil such that the microstructure will consist of
at least 50% martensite throughout the entire piece. FromFigure 14.8, the equivalent distance
from the quenched end of a 4140 steel to give 50% martensite (or a 42.5 HRC hardness) is
26 mm(11/16 in.). Thus, the quenching rate at the center of the specimen should correspond
to thisequivalent distance. UsingFigure14.11(b), thecenter specimen curvetakeson avalueof
26mm(11/16in.) equivalent distanceat adiameter of about 75mm(3in.).
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CHAPTER 15
COMPOSITES
15.4 Thisproblemasksfor themaximumandminimumthermal conductivityvaluesfor aTiC-Cocermet.
Usingamodiedformof Equation(15.1) themaximumthermal conductivityk
c
(u) iscalculatedas
k
c
(u) = k
m
V
m
+k
p
V
p
= k
Co
V
Co
+k
TiC
V
TiC
= (69W/m-K)(0.15) +(27W/m-K)(0.85) = 33.3W/m-K
Theminimumthermal conductivityk
c
(l) will be
k
c
(l) =
k
Co
k
TiC
V
Co
k
TiC
+V
TiC
k
Co
=
(69W/m-K)(27W/m-K)
(0.15)(27W/m-K) +(0.85)(69W/m-K)
= 29.7W/m-K
15.12 Thisproblemasksfor ustodetermineif it ispossibletoproduceacontinuousandorientedaramid
ber-epoxymatrixcompositehavinglongitudinal andtransversemoduli of elasticityof 57.1GPa
and4.12GPa, respectively, giventhat themodulusof elasticityfor theepoxyis2.4GPa. Also, from
Table15.4thevalueof E for aramidbersis131GPa. Theapproachto solvingthisproblemisto
calculatetwo valuesof V
f
usingthedataandEquations(15.10b) and(15.16); if theyarethesame
thenthiscompositeispossible.
For thelongitudinal modulusE
cl
,
E
cl
= E
m
[1V

] +E
f
V

57.1GPa = (2.4GPa)[1V

] +(131GPa)V

Solvingthisexpressionfor V

yieldsV

= 0.425.
Now, repeatingthisprocedurefor thetransversemodulusE
ct
E
ct
=
E
m
E
f
[1V
ft
]E
f
+V
ft
E
m
4.12GPa =
(2.4GPa)(131GPa)
[1V
ft
](131GPa) +V
ft
(2.4GPa)
Solvingthisexpressionfor V
ft
leadstoV
ft
= 0.425. Thus, sinceV

andV
ft
areequal, theproposed
compositeispossible.
15.17 Theproblemstipulatesthat thecross-sectional areaof acomposite, A
c
, is320mm
2
(0.50in.
2
), and
thelongitudinal load, F
c
, is44,500N (10,000lb
f
) for thecompositedescribedinProblem15.11.
(a) First, weareaskedto calculatetheF
f
/F
m
ratio. Accordingto Equation(15.11)
F
f
F
m
=
E
f
V
f
E
m
V
m
=
(131GPa)(0.30)
(2.4GPa)(0.70)
= 23.4
Or, F
f
= 23.4F
m
(b) Now, theactual loadscarriedbybothphasesarecalledfor. Since
F
f
+F
m
= F
c
= 44,500N
23.4F
m
+F
m
= 44,500N
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whichleadsto
F
m
= 1824N (410lb
f
)
F
f
= 44,500N 1824N = 42,676N (9590lb
f
)
(c) To compute the stress on each of the phases, it is rst necessary to knowthe cross-sectional
areasof bothber andmatrix. Thesearedeterminedas
A
f
= V
f
A
c
= (0.30)(320mm
2
) = 96mm
2
(0.15in.
2
)
A
m
= V
m
A
c
= (0.70)(320mm
2
) = 224mm
2
(0.35in.
2
)
Now, for thestresses,

f
=
F
f
A
f
=
42676N
(96mm
2
)
= 445MPa(63,930psi)

m
=
F
m
A
m
=
1824N
(224mm
2
)
= 8.14MPa(1170psi)
(d) Thestrainonthecompositeisthesameasthestrainoneachof thematrixandber phases, as

m
=

m
E
m
=
8.14MPa
2.410
3
MPa
= 3.3910
3

f
=

f
E
f
=
445MPa
13110
3
MPa
= 3.3910
3
15.21 I nthisproblem, for analignedglassber-epoxymatrixcomposite, weareaskedtocomputethelon-
gitudinal tensilestrengthgiventhefollowing: theaverageber diameter (0.010mm), theaverage
ber length(2.5mm), thevolumefractionof bers(0.40), theber fracturestrength(3500MPa),
theber-matrix bond strength (75MPa), and thematrix stressat compositefailure(8.0MPa). I t
isrst necessarytocomputethevalueof thecritical ber lengthusingEquation(15.3). I f theber
length ismuch greater than l
c
, then wemay determine

cl
usingEquation (15.17), otherwise, use
of either Equation(15.18) or (15.19) isnecessary. Thus,
l
c
=

f
d
2
c
=
(3500MPa)(0.010mm)
2(75MPa)
= 0.233mm(0.0093in.)
I nasmuch as l > l
c
(2.5 mm> 0.233 mm), but l is not much greater than l
c
, then use of Equa-
tion(15.18) isnecessary. Therefore,

cd
=

f
V
f

1
l
c
2l

m
(1V
f
)
= (3500MPa)(0.40)

1
0.233mm
(2)(2.5mm)

+(8.0MPa)(10.40)
= 1340MPa(194,400psi)
15.D1 I norder to solvethisproblem, wewant to makelongitudinal elasticmodulusandtensilestrength
computations assuming 50vol% bers for all three ber materials, in order to see which meet
thestipulated criteria[i.e., aminimumelastic modulusof 50GPa(7.310
6
psi), and aminimum
tensilestrengthof 1300MPa(189,000psi)]. Thus, it becomesnecessaryto useEquations(15.10b)
and(15.17) withV
m
= 0.5andV
f
= 0.5, E
m
= 3.1GPa, and

m
= 75MPa.
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For glass, E
f
= 72.5GPaand

f
= 3450MPa. Therefore,
E
cl
= E
m
(1V
f
) +E
f
V
f
= (3.1GPa)(10.5) +(72.5GPa)(0.5) = 37.8GPa(5.4810
6
psi)
Sincethisislessthanthespeciedminimum, glassisnot anacceptablecandidate.
For carbon(PAN standard-modulus), E
f
= 230GPaand

f
= 4000MPa(theaverageof
therangeof valuesinTableB.4), thus
E
cl
= (3.1GPa)(0.5) +(230GPa)(0.5) = 116.6GPa(16.910
6
psi)
whichisgreater thanthespeciedminimum. I naddition, fromEquation(15.17)

cl
=

m
(1V
f
) +

f
V
f
= (30MPa)(0.5) +(4000MPa)(0.5) = 2015MPa(292,200psi)
whichisalso greater thantheminimum. Thus, carbon(PAN standard-modulus) isacandidate.
For aramid, E
f
= 131 GPa and

f
= 3850 MPa (the average of the range of values in
TableB.4), thus
E
cl
= (3.1GPa)(0.5) +(131GPa)(0.5) = 67.1GPa(9.7310
6
psi)
whichvalueisgreater thantheminimum. Also, fromEquation(15.17)

cl
=

m
(1V
f
) +

f
V
f
= (50MPa)(0.5) +(3850MPa)(0.5) = 1950MPa(283,600psi)
whichisalsogreater thantheminimumstrengthvalue. Therefore, of thethreeber materials, both
thecarbon(PAN standard-modulus) andthearamidmeet bothminimumcriteria.
15.D3 This problemasks us to determine whether or not it is possible to produce a continuous and
orientedglassber-reinforcedpolyester havingatensilestrengthof at least 1400MPainthelon-
gitudinal direction, and a maximumspecic gravity of 1.65. We will rst calculate the minimum
volume fraction of bers to give the stipulated tensile strength, and then the maximumvolume
fractionof berspossibleto yieldthemaximumpermissiblespecicgravity; if thereisanoverlap
of thesetwo ber volumefractionsthensuchacompositeispossible.
Withregardto tensilestrength, fromEquation(15.17)

cl
=

m
(1V
f
) +

f
V
f
1400MPa = (15MPa)(1V
f
) +(3500MPa)(V
f
)
Solving for V
f
yields V
f
= 0.397. Therefore, V
f
> 0.397 to give the minimum desired tensile
strength.
Now, uponconsiderationof thespecicgravity, , weemploythefollowingrelationship:

c
=
m
(1V
f
) +
f
V
f
1.65= 1.35(1V
f
) +2.50(V
f
)
And, solvingfor V
f
fromthisexpressiongivesV
f
= 0.261. Therefore, it isnecessaryfor V
f
< 0.261
inorder to haveacompositespecicgravitylessthan1.65.
Hence, such a composite is not possible since there is no overlap of the ber volume
fractionsascomputedusingthetwo stipulatedcriteria.
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CHAPTER 16
CORROSIONAND DEGRADATIONOFMATERIALS
16.5 (a) Weareaskedtocomputethevoltageof anonstandardCd-Feelectrochemical cell. Sinceironis
lower in theemf series(Table16.1), wewill begin by assumingthat iron isoxidized and cadmium
isreduced, as
Fe+Cd
2+
Fe
2+
+Cd
and
V = (V

Cd
V

Fe
)
0.0592
2
log
[Fe
2+
]
[Cd
2+
]
= [0.403V (0.440V)]
0.0592
2
log

0.40
210
3

= 0.031V
(b) SincetheV isnegative, thespontaneouscell directionisjust thereverseof that above, or
Fe
2+
+Cd Fe+Cd
2+
16.13 Thisproblemcallsfor usto computethetimeof submersionof asteel piece. I norder to solvethis
problem, wemust rst rearrangeEquation(16.23), as
t =
KW
A(CPR)
Thus,
t =
(534)(2.610
6
mg)
(7.9g/cm
3
)(10in.
2
)(200mpy)
= 8.810
4
h = 10yr
16.20 (a) Thisportionof theproblemasksthat wecomputetherateof oxidationfor Pbgiventhat both
theoxidationandreductionreactionsarecontrolledbyactivationpolarization, andalso giventhe
polarization data for both lead oxidation and hydrogen reduction. The rst thingnecessary is to
establish relationships of the formof Equation (16.25) for the potentials of both oxidation and
reduction reactions. Next we will set these expressions equal to one another, and then solve for
the value of i which is really the corrosion current density, i
c
. Finally, the corrosion rate may be
calculatedusingEquation(16.24). Thetwo potential expressionsareasfollows:
For hydrogenreduction
V
H
= V
(H
+
/H
2
)
+
H
log

i
i
o
H

Andfor Pboxidation
V
Pb
= V
(Pb/Pb
2+
)
+
Pb
log

i
i
o
Pb

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SettingV
H
= V
Pb
andsolvingfor logi (logi
c
) leadsto
logi
c
=

Pb

[V
(H
+
/H
2
)
V
(Pb/Pb
2+
)

H
logi
o
H
+
Pb
logi
o
Pb
]
=

1
0.12(0.10)

[0(0.126) (0.10){log(1.010
8
)} +(0.12){log(210
9
)}]
= 7.809
Or
i
c
= 10
7.809
= 1.5510
8
A/cm
2
AndfromEquation(16.24)
r =
i
c
nF
=
1.5510
8
C/s-cm
2
(2)(96500C/mol)
= 8.0310
14
mol/cm
2
-s
16.34 For this problem we are given, for three metals, their densities, chemical formulas, and oxide
densities, and areasked to computethePilling-Bedworth ratios, and then specify whether or not
the oxide scales that formwill be protective. The general formof the equation used to calculate
thisratio isEquation(16.33) [or Equation(16.32)]. For tin, oxidationoccursbythereaction
Sn+O
2
SnO
2
andtherefore
P-B ratio =
A
SnO
2

Sn
A
Sn

SnO
2
=
(150.69g/mol)(7.30g/cm
3
)
(118.69g/mol)(6.95g/cm
3
)
= 1.33
Hence, thelmwouldmost likelybeprotectivesincetheratio liesbetweenoneandtwo.
16.36 For thisproblemwearegivenweight gain-timedatafor theoxidationof Cuat anelevatedtemper-
ature.
(a) We are rst asked to determine whether the oxidation kinetics obey a parabolic, linear, or
logarithmic rate expression, expressions which are described by Equations (16.34), (16.35), and
(16.36), respectively. Onewayto makethisdeterminationisbytrial anderror. Let usassumethat
theparabolicrelationshipisvalid; that is, fromEquation(16.34)
W
2
= K
1
t +K
2
which means that wemay establish threesimultaneous equationsusingthethreesets of given W
andtvalues, thenusingtwo combinationsof two pairsof equations, solvefor K
1
andK
2
; if K
1
and
K
2
have the same values for both solutions, then the kinetics are parabolic. I f the values are not
identical thentheother kineticrelationshipsneedto beexplored. Thus, thethreeequationsare
(0.316)
2
= 0.100= 15K
1
+K
2
(0.524)
2
= 0.275= 50K
1
+K
2
(0.725)
2
= 0.526= 100K
1
+K
2
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Fromthe rst two equations K
1
= 510
3
and K
2
= 0.025; these same two values are obtained
usingthelast two equations. Hence, theoxidationratelawisparabolic.
(b) Sinceaparabolicrelationshipisvalid, thisportionof theproblemcallsfor usto determineW
after atotal timeof 450min. Again, usingEquation(16.34) andthevaluesof K
1
andK
2
W
2
= K
1
t +K
2
= (0.005)(450min) +0.025= 2.28
Or W=

2.28= 1.51mg/cm
2
.
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CHAPTER 17
THERMAL PROPERTIES
17.4 (a) For aluminum, C
v
at 50K may be approximated by Equation (17.2), since this temperature
issignicantly belowtheDebyetemperature. Thevalueof C
v
at 30K isgiven, and thus, wemay
computetheconstant A as
A =
C
v
T
3
=
0.81J /mol-K
(30K)
3
= 310
5
J /mol-K
4
Therefore, at 50K
C
v
= AT
3
= (310
5
J /mol-K
4
)(50K)
3
= 3.75J /mol-K
and
c
v
= (3.75J /mol-K)(1mol/26.98g)(1000g/kg) = 139J /kg-K
(b) Since425K isabovetheDebyetemperature, agoodapproximationfor C
v
is
C
v
= 3R
= (3)(8.31J /mol-K) = 24.9J /mol-K
And, convertingthisto specicheat
c
v
= (24.9J /mol-K)(1mol/26.98g)(1000g/kg) = 925J /kg-K
17.14 This problemasks for us to determine the temperature to which a cylindrical rod of tungsten
10.000mmindiameter must beheatedinorder for it to just t into a9.988mmdiameter circular
hole in a plate of 316stainless steel, assumingthat the initial temperature is 25

C. This requires
theuseof Equation(17.3a), whichisappliedto thediametersof therodandhole. That is
d
f
d
o
d
o
=
l
(T
f
T
o
)
Solvingthisexpressionfor d
f
yields
d
f
= d
o
[1+
l
(T
f
T
o
)]
Nowall weneed do isto establish expressionsfor d
f
(316stainless) and d
f
(W), set themequal to
oneanother, andsolvefor T
f
. AccordingtoTable17.1,
l
(316stainless) = 16.010
6
(

C)
1
and

l
(W) = 4.510
6
(

C)
1
. Thus
d
f
(316stainless) = d
f
(W)
(9.988mm)[1+{16.010
6
(

C)
1
}(T
f
25

C)]
= (10.000mm)[1+{4.510
6
(

C)
1
}(T
f
25

C)]
Nowsolvingfor T
f
givesT
f
= 129.5

C.
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17.24 This problemasks that we treat a porous material as a composite wherein one of the phases is
a pore phase, and that we estimate upper and lower limits for the room-temperature thermal
conductivity of a magnesiumoxide material having a 0.30 volume fraction of pores. The upper
limit of k(k
upper
) maybedeterminedusingEquation(15.1) withthermal conductivitysubstituted
for theelasticmodulus, E. FromTable17.1, thevalueof kfor MgO is37.7W/m-K, whilefor still
air intheporephase, k=0.02W/m-K. Thus
k
upper
= V
p
k
air
+V
MgO
k
MgO
= (0.30)(0.02W/m-K) +(0.70)(37.7W/m-K) = 26.4W/m-K
For thelower limit weemployamodicationof Equation(15.2) as
k
lower
=
k
air
k
MgO
V
p
k
MgO
+V
MgO
k
air
=
(0.02W/m-K)(37.7W/m-K)
(0.30)(37.7W/m-K) +(0.70)(0.02W/m-K)
= 0.067W/m-K
17.29 Wewant toheat thecopper wireinorder toreducethestresslevel from70MPato35MPa;indoing
so, wereducethestressin thewireby70MPa 35MPa= 35MPa, which will beacompressive
stress (i.e., = 35MPa). Takinga value for E of 110GPa (Table 7.1) and solvingfor T
f
from
Equation(17.8)
T
f
= T
o


E
1
= 20

C
35MPa
(11010
3
MPa)[1710
6
(

C)
1
]
= 20

C +19

C = 39

C(101

F)
17.D1 This problem stipulates that 1025 steel railroad tracks are laid at a temperature of 10C. We are
asked to determine the hottest possible temperature that can be tolerated without the introduction
of thermal stresses if the rails are 11.9 m long, and for a joint space of 4.6 mm. For these railroad
tracks, eachendisallowedtoexpandone-half of thejoint spacedistance, or thetrack mayexpand
a total of this distance (4.6mm). Equation (17.3a) is used to solve for T
f
, where
l
for the 1025
steel isfoundinTable17.1. Thus,
T
f
=
l

l
l
o
+T
o
=
4.610
3
m
[12.010
6
(

C)
1
](11.9m)
+10

C
= 32.2

C +10

C = 42.2

C(108

F)
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CHAPTER 18
MAGNETIC PROPERTIES
18.1 Thisproblemconcernsacoil of wire0.20mlongthat has200turnsandcarries10A.
(a) Wemaycalculatethemagneticeldstrengthgeneratedbythiscoil usingEquation(18.1) as
H =
NI
l
=
(200turns)(10A)
0.2m
= 10,000A-turns/m
(b) I navacuum, theuxdensityisdeterminedfromEquation(18.3). Thus,
B
o
=
o
H
= (1.25710
6
H/m)(10,000A-turns/m) = 1.25710
2
tesla
(c) When a bar of titanium is positioned within the coil, we must use an expression that is a
combinationof Equations(18.5) and(18.6) inorder tocomputetheuxdensitygiventhemagnetic
susceptibility. I nasmuchas
m
= 1.8110
4
(Table18.2), then
B =
o
H +
o
M =
o
H +
o

m
H =
o
H(1+
m
)
= (1.25710
6
H/m)(10,000A-turns/m)(1+1.8110
4
)

= 1.25710
2
tesla
whichisessentiallythesameresult aspart (b). Thisisto saythat theinuenceof thetitaniumbar
withinthecoil makesanimperceptibledifferenceinthemagnitudeof theBeld.
(d) ThemagnetizationiscomputedfromEquation(18.6):
M =
m
H = (1.8110
4
)(10,000A-turns/m) = 1.81A/m
18.4 For thisproblem, wewant toconvert thevolumesusceptibilityof silver (i.e., 2.3810
5
) intoother
systemsof units.
For themasssusceptibility

m
(kg) =

m
(kg/m
3
)
=
2.3810
5
10.4910
3
kg/m
3
= 2.2710
9
For theatomicsusceptibility

m
(a) =
m
(kg) [atomicweight (inkg)]
= (2.2710
9
)(0.10787kg/mol) = 2.4510
10
18.6 Thisproblemstipulatesthat themagnetic ux density within abar of somematerial is0.435tesla
at anHeldof 3.4410
5
A/m.
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(a) Wearerst of all askedtocomputethemagneticpermeabilityof thismaterial. Thisispossible
usingEquation(18.2) as
=
B
H
=
0.435tesla
3.4410
5
A/m
= 1.264510
6
H/m
(b) Themagneticsusceptibilityiscalculatedas

m
=

o
1=
1.264510
6
H/m
1.25710
6
H/m
1
= 610
3
18.27 (a) TheB-Hdataprovidedintheproblemareplottedbelow.
1200 1000 800 600 400 200 0
0.0
0.4
0.8
1.2
1.6
H (A/m)
B

(
t
e
s
l
a
)
(b) Thisportionof theproblemasksfor ustodeterminevaluesof theinitial permeabilityandinitial
relativepermeability. Therst four datapointsareplottedbelow.
60 50 40 30 20 10 0
0.0
0.1
0.2
0.3
H (A/m)
B

(
t
e
s
l
a
)

i
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PB017-18 PB017-Callister September 18, 2000 15:20 Char Count=0
Theslopeof theinitial portionof thecurveis
i
(asshown), is

i
=
B
H
=
(0.150) tesla
(500) A/m
= 3.010
3
H/m
Also, theinitial relativepermeability[Equation(18.4)] isjust

ri
=

i

o
=
3.010
3
H/m
1.25710
6
H/m
= 2400
(c) Themaximumpermeabilityisthetangent totheB-Hcurvehavingthegreatest slope;it isdrawn
ontheplot below, anddesignatedas(max).
1200 1000 800 600 400 200 0
0.0
0.4
0.8
1.2
1.6
H (A/m)
B

(
t
e
s
l
a
)
(max)
Thevalueof (max) is
(max) =
B
H
=
(1.30.3) tesla
(16045) A-m
= 8.7010
3
H/m
18.32 (a) GivenEquation(18.12) andthedatainTable18.7, weareaskedtocalculatethecritical magnetic
eldsfor tinat 1.5and2.5K. Fromthetable, for Sn, T
C
= 3.72K andB
C
(0) = 0.0305tesla. Thus,
fromEquation(18.3)
H
C
(0) =
B
C
(0)

o
=
0.0305tesla
1.25710
6
H/m
= 2.4310
4
A/m
Now, solvingfor H
C
(2.5) usingEquation(18.12) yields
H
C
(T) = H
C
(0)

1
T
2
T
2
C

H
C
(2.5) = (2.4310
4
A/m)

1
(2.5K)
2
(3.72K)
2

= 1.3310
4
A/m
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(b) Nowweareto determinethetemperatureto whichleadmust becooledinamagneticeldof
20,000A/minorder for it tobesuperconductive. Thevalueof H
C
(0)must rst bedeterminedusing
B
C
(0) giveninthetable(i.e., 0.0803tesla); thus
H
C
(0) =
B
C
(0)

o
=
0.0803tesla
1.25710
6
H/m
= 6.3910
4
A/m
SinceT
C
= 7.19K wemaysolvefor T usingEquation(18.12) as
T = T
C

1
H
C
(T)
H
C
(0)
= (7.19K)

1
20000A/m
63900A/m
= 5.96K
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PB017-19 PB017-Callister October 11, 2000 10:42 Char Count=0
CHAPTER 19
OPTICAL PROPERTIES
19.9 We want to compute the velocity of light in calcium uoride given that
r
= 2.056 and
m
=
1.4310
5
. The velocity is determined using Equation (19.8); but rst, we must calculate the
valuesof and for calciumuoride. Accordingto Equation(12.30)
=
r

o
= (2.056)(8.8510
12
F/m) = 1.8210
11
F/m
Now, utilizingEquations(18.4) and(18.7)
=
o
(
m
+1)
= (1.25710
6
H/m)(11.4310
5
) = 1.25710
6
H/m
And, nally
v =
1

=
1

(1.8210
11
F/m)(1.25710
6
H/m)
= 2.0910
8
m/s
19.11 Thisproblemasksfor us, usingdatainTable19.1, toestimatethedielectricconstantsfor silicaglass,
soda-limeglass, PTFE, polyethylene, andpolystyrene, andthentocomparethesevalueswiththose
citedinTable12.4andbrieyexplainanydiscrepancies. FromEquation(19.10)

r
= n
2
Thus, for fusedsilica, sincen= 1.458

r
= (1.458)
2
= 2.13
When wecomparethisvaluewith that given in Table12.4at afrequency of 1MHz (i.e.,
r
= 3.8)
thereisasignicant discrepancy. Thereason for thisisthat, for thismaterial, an ionic component
to the dielectric constant is present at 1 MHz, which is absent at frequencies within the visible
electromagneticspectrum, frequencieswhichareontheorder 10
9
MHz. Thiseffect maybenoted
inFigure12.32.
19.19 I n thisproblemweareasked to calculatethefraction of nonreected light transmitted through a
20mmthicknessof transparent material, giventhat thefractiontransmittedthrougha10mmwidth
is0.90. FromEquation(19.18), thefractionof nonreectedlight transmittedisjust I

T
/I

o
. Usingthis
expressionwemust rst determinethevalueof as
=
1
x
ln

T
I

1
10mm

ln(0.90) = 1.0510
2
mm
1
Now, solvingfor
I

T
I

o
whenx= 20mm
I

T
I

o
= exp(x)
exp[(1.0510
2
mm
1
)(20mm)] = 0.81
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19.30 Thisproblemasksfor thedifferenceinenergybetweenmetastableandgroundelectronstatesfor
arubylaser. Thewavelengthof theradiationemittedbyanelectrontransitionfromthemetastable
to ground stateiscited as0.6943m. Thedifferencein energy between thesestates, E, may be
determinedfromEquation(19.6), as
E = h =
hc

=
(4.1310
15
eV-s)(310
8
m/s)
6.94310
7
m
= 1.78eV
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CHAPTER 20
MATERIALSSELECTIONAND DESIGNCONSIDERATIONS
20.D3 (a) Thisportion of theproblemasksthat wederiveaperformanceindex expression for strength
analogoustoEquation(20.9) for acylindrical cantilever beamthat isstressedinthemanner shown
intheaccompanyinggure. Thestressontheunxedend, , for animposedforce, F, isgivenby
theexpression[Equation(20.24) inthetextbook]
=
FLr
I
(20.D1)
where L and r are the rod length and radius, respectively, and I is the moment of inertia; for a
cylinder theexpressionfor I isprovidedinFigure7.18:
I =
r
4
4
(20.D2)
Substitutionfor I into Equation(20.D1) leadsto
=
4FL
r
3
(20.D3)
Now, themassmof somegiven quantity of material istheproduct of itsdensity () and volume.
I nasmuchasthevolumeof acylinder isjust r
2
L, then
m= r
2
L (20.D4)
Fromthisexpression, theradiusisjust
r =

m
L
(20.D5)
I nclusionof Equation(20.D5) into Equation(20.D3) yields
=
4F
1/2
L
5/2

3/2
m
3/2
(20.D6)
Andsolvingfor themassgives
m= (16F
2
L
5
)
1/3

2/3
(20.D7)
Toensurethat thebeamwill not fail, wereplacestressinEquation(20.D7) withtheyieldstrength
(
y
) dividedbyafactor of safety(N) as
m= (16F
2
L
5
N
2
)
1/3

2/3
y
(20.D8)
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Thus, thebest materialstobeusedfor thiscylindrical cantilever beamwhenstrengthisaconsider-
ationarethosehavinglow

2/3
y
ratios. Furthermore, thestrengthperformanceindex, P, isjust the
reciprocal of thisratio, or
P =

2/3
y

(20.D9)
Thesecond portion of theproblemasksfor an expression for thestiffnessperformance
index. Let usbegin by consideration of Equation (20.25) which relates, theelastic deection at
theunxed end, to theforce(F), beamlength (L), themodulusof elasticity (E), and moment of
inertia(I) as
=
FL
3
3EI
(20.25)
Again, Equation (20.D2) gives an expression for I for a cylinder, which when substituted into
Equation(20.25) yields
=
4FL
3
3Er
4
(20.D10)
And, substitutionof theexpressionfor r[Equation(20.D5)] into Equation(20.D10), leadsto
=
4FL
3
3E

m
L

4
=
4FL
5

2
3Em
2
(20.D11)
Nowsolvingthisexpressionfor themassmyields
m=

4FL
5

1/2

E
(20.D12)
Or, for thiscantilever situation, themassof material experiencingagivendeectionproducedbya
specicforceisproportional tothe

E
ratiofor thatmaterial.And,nally,thestiffnessperformance
index, P, isjust thereciprocal of thisratio, or
P =

(20.D13)
(b) Hereweareaskedtoselect thosemetal alloysinthedatabasethat havestiffnessperformance
indices greater than 3.0(in SI units). (Note: for this performance index of 3.0, density has been
taken in terms of g/cm
3
rather than in theSI units of kg/m
3
.) Seventeen metal alloys satisfy this
criterion; theyandtheir

E/ valuesarelistedbelow, andrankedfromhighest to lowest value.


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Alloy Condition

E

AZ31B Mg Rolled 3.790


AZ31B Mg Extruded 3.790
AZ91D Mg Ascast 3.706
356.0Al Ascast, highproduction 3.163
356.0Al Ascast, custom 3.163
356.0Al T6 3.163
6061Al O 3.077
6061Al T6 3.077
6061Al T651 3.077
2024Al O 3.072
2024Al T3 3.072
2024Al T351 3.072
1100Al O 3.065
1100Al H14 3.065
7075Al O 3.009
7075Al T6 3.009
7075Al T651 3.009
(c) We are nowasked to do a cost analysis on the above alloys. Beloware tabulated the /

E
ratio, therelativematerial cost ( c), andtheproduct of thesetwo parameters; also thosealloysfor
whichcost dataareprovidedareranked, fromleast to most expensive.
Alloy Condition

E
c c

AZ91D Mg Ascast 0.2640 5.4 1.43


6061Al T6 0.3250 7.6 2.47
356.0Al Ascast, highproduction 0.3162 7.9 2.50
6061Al T651 0.3250 8.7 2.83
AZ31B Mg Extruded 0.2640 12.6 3.33
1100Al O 0.3263 12.3 4.01
AZ31B Mg Rolled 0.2640 15.7 4.14
7075Al T6 0.3323 13.4 4.45
2024Al T3 0.3255 14.1 4.59
356.0Al Ascast, custom 0.3162 15.7 4.96
356.0Al T6 0.3162 16.6 5.25
2024Al T351 0.3255 16.2 5.27
1100Al H14 0.3263
2024Al O 0.3255
6061Al O 0.3250
7075Al O 0.3323
7075Al T651 0.3323
I t is up to the student to select the best metal alloy to be used for this cantilever beamon a
stiffness-per-massbasis, includingtheelement of cost, andother relevant considerations.
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20.D6 (a) This portion of the problemasks that we compute the maximumtensile load that may be
applied to a spring constructed of a
1
4
hard 304 stainless steel such that the total deection is
less than 5mm; thereare10coils in thespring, whereas, its center-to-center diameter is 15mm,
and thewirediameter is2.0mm. Thetotal springdeection
s
may bedetermined by combining
Equations(20.14) and(20.15); solvingfor theloadFfromthecombinedequationleadsto
F =

s
d
4
G
8N
c
D
3
However, it becomes necessary to determine the value of the shear modulus G. This is possible
usingEquation (7.9) and valuesof themodulusof elasticity (193GPa) and Poissonsratio (0.30)
astakenfromTablesB.2andB.3inAppendixB. Thus
G =
E
2(1+)
=
193GPa
2(1+0.30)
= 74.2GPa
Substitution of thisvalueand valuesof theother parametersinto theaboveequation for Fleads
to
F =
(510
3
m)(210
3
m)
4
(74.210
9
N/m
2
)
(8)(10coils)(1510
3
m)
3
= 22.0N(5.1lb
f
)
(b) We are now asked to compute the maximumtensile load that may be applied without any
permanent deformation of thespringwire. Thisrequiresthat wecombineEquations(20.12) and
(20.13), and then solve for F. However, it is rst necessary to calculate the shear yield strength
andsubstituteit for inEquation(20.12). Theproblemstatement stipulatesthat
y
= 0.6
y
. From
TableB.4inAppendixB, wenotethat thetensileyieldstrengthfor thisalloyinthe1/4hardened
stateis515MPa; thus
y
= 309MPa. Thus, solvingfor Fasoutlinedabove
F =

y
d
3
(1.6)(8)(D)

D
d

0.140
=
(30910
6
N/m
2
)(210
3
m)
3
(1.6)(8)(1510
3
m)

1510
3
m
210
3
m

0.140
= 53.6N(12.5lb
f
)
73