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Chapter1:

PETROLEUMPRODUCTION SYSTEM

ProductionSystem
Acompleteoilorgasproductionsystem consistsofa:
Reservoir Well Flowline Separators Pumps GasCompressor

ProductionSystem

Reservoir
Areservoirisaporousandpermeableunderground formationcontaininganindividualbankofhydrocarbons confinedbyimpermeablerockorwaterbarriers. Reservoirswillbeclassifiedintofivegroupsonthebaseof fluidbehavior: Blackoil Volatileoil RetrogradeGas WetGas DryGas

Blackoil
Large,Heavy&nonvolatilemoleculesHighTcandLow Pc. InitialGOR<2000scf/STB. API<45.

Volatileoil
Fewerheavyandmoreintermediatemolecules. TclowerandPcgreaterthanblackoil. InitialGORbetween2000&3000scf/STB. Usuallygreen,brownandsometimesorangecolor.

RetrogradeGases
T>Tc whileforblack&volatileoilT<Tc. Cricondentherm >T>Tc. Iscalledretrogradesinceitisgasinitially,thensomeliquid formsinreservoirandlattersomepartofthisliquidtransfer togasphaseagain. Lightliquid(40<API<60)willbeproduced. Lightlycoloredliquid:whitewater,green,orangeorbrown. Sometimesiscalled:retrogradegascondensate,gas condensateorcondensate. InitialGOR>3000scf/STBandupto150,000scf/STB. Surfacegasisveryrichinintermediatehydrocarbons.i.e. (Propane,Butane,PentaneandHexane).

Retrogradecontd

Lowmolecularweightgases. T>CricondenthermNoliquidinreservoir. Someliquidformsinsurface.

WetGas

DryGas
MostlyMethanewithsomeintermediatemolecules. T>>Tc&Cricondenthermandthereisnoliquidformationin bothreservoirandsurface. Iscalleddrysincethereisnoliquidinsurface. SimplyiscalledGasreservoir.

OilReservoircondition&drive
IfP>Pb(bubblepointpressure),reservoiriscalled undersaturatedelseitiscalledsaturatedreservoir. Ifmoregascanbesolvedinoil,oiliscalledundersaturated andifnomoregascanbesolved,itiscalledsaturated. UndersaturatedreservoirSinglephaseflow. Saturatedreservoirtwo(oil&gas)phaseflow. Thereisseveraldifferentreservoirdrive: 1 waterdrivereservoir 2 gascapdrivereservoir 3 dissolvedgasdrivereservoir Insomecases,gascapandwaterdrivesexistsimultaneously.

Waterdrive
oilisincontactwithundergroundwater(aquifer). Watermovesupduringtheproduction,replacestheoiland maintainspressure. Therearetwotypeofwaterdrives:Bottom&Edgedrive.

GasCapdrive
Inthisdrive,gascapabovetheoilexpands,forcesoiltothe productionwellsandmaintainspressure. Gascapexistinitiallyinsaturatedreservoirsanditwillform graduallyinundersaturated.

DissolvedgasDrive
Thisdriveistheresultofoilexpansion. Ithappensjustinisolatedundersaturatedreservoirs. Pressuredropssharplyuntilgascapforms.

well
Oilandgaswellsaredrilledlikeanupsidedowntelescope. Thelargediameterboreholesectionisatthetopofthewell. Severalcasingsareusedandthelastoneisproductioncasing. Aftercementingproductioncasing,tubingisrunintothewell.

Flowline
Transportproducedfluidfrombottomofwelltothewellhead andsurface. Flowlineisplacedinthelastcasing(productioncasing). Apackerisusedtoseparateproductionzonefromother zonesandtoguidefluidtoflowinflowline.

Separator
Producedfluidusuallyconsistofgas,oil&waterandsome timessolidparticles. Thesefluidsandalsosolidshouldbeseparatedassoonas possibleandthereforeseparatorsareusedinsurface. thereistheretypeofseparators: 1 horizontal 2 vertical 3 spherical Themostcommonseparatorishorizontalseparators.

Pumps
Afterseparation,oilispumpedthroughthepipelinetosale point. Reciprocatingpumpsareusedforthispurpose. Reciprocatingpumpsarepositivedisplacementpumps (forcingfluidwithapiston). Therearetwotypesofthem:Singleaction&Doubleaction.

Gascompressor
Compressorsareusedforprovidinggaspressurerequiredto transportgasinpipelines toliftoilingasliftoperations. Twotypeofgascompressorsareused:reciprocating&rotary. Reciprocatingcompressorshavemoremovingpartsand thereforehavelessmechanicalefficiency.

Reference
PetroleumProductionEngineering,AcomputerAssisted Approach;BoyunGuo,WilliamC.Lyons,AliGhalambor; ElsevierScience&TechnologyBooks;2007. ThePropertiesofPetroleumFluids;WilliamD.McCain; PennwellBooks;1990.