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SYNOPSIS

Premature failure of bituminous mix has been a serious problem of highway engineer a flexible pavement undergoes different kinds failures like Formation of potholes, ruts, cracks, localized depression and settlement pavement may be considered as failure if there are in excess. For the accurate prediction of pavement performance under fast moving traffic and for reliable design of new pavements, it is necessary to use material properties, fatigue and rutting relationships developed under conditions similar to these expected in the field. Properties of pavement materials are essential inputs for evaluation of existing pavement and design of new pavements. With the increasing use of analytical approach for the design of pavements, the evaluation of elastic modulus, fatigue and rutting behaviour of pavement material has become necessary. An attempt has been made to evaluate the effects of lime filler on the Marshall properties of neat dense bituminous Macadam mix prepared using different percentages of lime filler (0%, 1%, 2%) by weight of aggregates. Number of trail mix were prepared using Marshall method of mix design to determine the optimum binder content and the Marshall properties of the mixture at the optimum binder content are calculated. From the experimental test results, it was observed that neat dense bituminous Macadam mix prepared using neat Bitumen with 2% filler material has higher Marshall stability, bulk density, VFB values and lesser Marshall Flow and VMA values compared to neat dense bituminous Macadam mix prepared using neat bitumen with 1% and 0% filler material. Similarly, neat dense bituminous Macadam mix prepared using neat Bitumen with 1% filler material has higher Marshall stability, bulk density ,VFB values and lesser Marshall flow, VMA values as compared to neat dense bituminous Macadam mix with 0% filler material. The Marshall stability test results clearly

indicate that as the filler content increases the Marshall stability, bulk density and VFB values increases and the Flow and VMA values decreases.

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CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION

1.1

GENERAL

Hot mixed asphalt concrete is a composite material of aggregate particle of crushed rock of different sizes glued together by a asphalt binder. The term dense graded is used since the percentage of air voids in it is less than 6%, Dense bituminous Macadam is used in flexible pavement as a binder/base course and profile corrective course. Apart from the constituent’s properties and their proportions, the performance of HMA in rutting, cracking, as well as the durability is directly related to the mixture response and environmental loads.

In recent years, many countries have experienced an increase in tire pressures, axle loads, and traffic volumes. Tire pressure and axle load increases mean that the bituminous layer near the pavement surface is exposed to higher stresses. High density of traffic in terms of commercial vehicles, overloading of trucks and significant variations in daily and seasonal temperature of pavements have been responsible for development of distress symptoms like raveling, undulations, rutting, cracking, bleeding, shoving and potholing of bituminous surfaces. Suitable material combinations and modified bituminous binders have been found to result longer life for wearing courses depending upon the percentage of filler and type of fillers used.When lime is used in hot mix, it reacts with aggregate, strengthening the bond between the bitumen and the stone. At the same time that it treats the aggregates, lime also reacts with the asphalt itself. Lime reacts with highly polar molecules that can otherwise reacts in the mix to form water- soluble soaps that promote stripping. When those molecules react with lime, they form insoluble salts that no longer attract water. The ability of hydrated lime to make an asphalt mix stiffer, tougher and resistant to rutting is a reflection of its superior performance as active mineral filler. Rutting is permanent deformation of the asphalt, caused when the elasticity of the material is exceeded. Hydrated lime significantly improves the performance of asphalt in this respect. Unlike most mineral filler, lime is chemically

active rather than inert. The overall objective of design of bitumen pavement mixtures is to determine an economical blend of lime that yields a mix having good durability.

  • 1.2 ADVANTAGES OF HYDRATED LIME

Hydrated lime acts as mineral filler, stiffening the asphalt binder.

  • 1.3 OBJECTIVE OF BITUMINOUS MIX DESIGN

It improves resistance to fracture growth (i.e., it improves fracture toughness) at low

temperatures. It favourably alters oxidation kinetics and interacts with products of oxidation to reduce

their deleterious effects. It alters the plastic properties of clay fines to improves moisture stability and durability.

Hydrated lime when added to marginal aggregates that have plastic fines can improve the

aggregates thought the mechanisms of cat ion exchange, flocculation reactions.

The overall objective of design of bitumen pavement mixtures is to determine an economical blend of lime that yields a mix having. Sufficient bitumen to ensure a durable pavement.

Sufficient strength to resist shear deformation under traffic at higher temperature

Sufficient air voids in the compacted bitumen to allow for additional compaction by traffic.

Sufficient workability to permit easy placement without segregation.

Sufficient flexibility to avoid premature cracking due to repeated loading of traffic.

Sufficient flexibility at low temperature to prevent shrinkage cracks.

1.4

FUNCTIONS OF DIFFERENT HIGHWAY MATERIALS

Bitumen:

It is used as binding material as well as water proofing material.

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Coarse aggregate:

The coarse aggregate should have good crushing strength, abrasion value, impact value. Its function is to bear stresses coming from wheels. It has a resist wear due to abrasive action of traffic.

Fine aggregate:

It shall be fractions 2.36mm IS Sieve and retained on 75 micron sieve consisting of crushed stone. Its function is to fill up the voids of coarse aggregate.

Fillers:

The fillers should be inert materials

which pass 75 micron sieve. Fillers

may be

limestone dust, cement, stone dust, brick dust, flier ash and its function to fill up the voids.

  • 1.5 AGGREGATES OF BITUMEN MIX

The mineral aggregates most widely used in bitumen mixes or crushed stone, slag, crushed or uncrushed gravel, sands and mineral fillers. Since mineral aggregates constitutes of approximately 88% to 96% by total weight of mix. Their influence upon the final characteristics of bitumen mixes is very great.The choice of an aggregate for use in bitumen construction depends upon the aggregates availability in which they are to be used. However gradation of construction type, on ideal aggregate for use in bitumen construction should have the following characteristics

Gradation and size appropriate to type of constructions

Strength and Toughness

Particle size.

Gradation and size

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One of the most important aspects of an aggregate affecting the stability any working properties of a mix is a gradation. Maximum aggregate size also has a great effect upon workability and density of bituminous mixtures. It is also observed that use of a maximum aggregate greater than 1 micron in graded mixtures often results in harsh or non-workable bituminous mixtures that tend to segregate in the handing operation. This result in pavement surface that have an objectionable surface voids which may lead to ravelling. The dense graded mix used in this project includes appropriate amount of all sizes from coarse to fine including the dust of the material. Dense graded mixes tend to have large number of point of contact between individual aggregate pieces resulting in high frictional resistances. The increase of contact points of compacted with poorly graded materials also results in great areas of load transfer from one aggregate to another. This decrease the possibility of crushing of the individual aggregate piece by point loading.

Strength and Toughness

The aggregate in bituminous mixtures supplies most of the mechanical stability. It supports the load imposed by the traffic and at the same time distributes this loads to a sub- base at a reduced intensity. The aggregate used in bituminous mixes tend to break or degrade by the load imposed upon them during construction and later by the action of traffic. Degradation may take place by compression failure from a concentrated load at points of contact between aggregate particles and by abrasion action by the individual pieces move with respect to others. The amount of the gradation is affected by both magnitude of applies loads and the resistance of crushing and abrasion value.

Particle shape

Irregular angular pieces when compacted tend to interlock and this possesses a mechanical resistance to displacement. This interlock is best obtained by cubical particles. The stability of open type mixes where the coarse aggregates is in only contact at few points is almost entirely due to effects of mechanical interlock regardless of grading of the aggregates for those mixes containing fine and coarse aggregates,.

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1.6

OBJECTIVES OF PRESENT STUDY

The main objectives of present study are

To conduct basic test on aggregates and access the results as per MORT&H specification

To conduct basic tests on bitumen and assess the result as per r MoRT&H specifications

To conduct Marshall method of mix design by preparing specimens with neat bitumen without

filler and to obtain the optimum bitumen content for the mix. To conduct mix design of the neat dense bituminous Macadam mix prepared with lime as filler

at 0%, 1% and 2% by weight of aggregates using Marshall stability test method and to obtain the optimum bitumen content for corresponding % of mix. To compare the results of Marshall stability test of neat dense bituminous Macadam mix at optimum bitumen content without filler material, with lime filler at 1% and 2% of total mix.

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CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1 GENERAL

In the late 1970s, a number of premature asphalt pavement failure occurred in the south eastern and western United States. Stripping was identified as a major problem, but its rather sudden appearance has never been fully explained. Probable causes in properties of asphalt associated with the Arab oil embargo of the mid 1970s, increase in traffic, drum mixing equipment, open graded friction course, paving fabrics and aggregate characteristics. A national co-operative highway research project (NCHRP), which was completed in 1991, presented a more comprehensive review of moisture damage problem about 70 percent of responding state and province departments of transportation in North America experienced moisture damage problems in their pavement and distresses in pavement. The major types of premature distress included, rutting or permanent deformation in the wheel paths, bleeding in selected areas of the pavement and alligator cracking. Because hydrated lime had been used by states prior to the 1970s, several states (including Georgia, Nevada, texas, Virginia and Utah) began using lime to solve their problems. Lime has become popular anti strip agent. A number of additives to reduce moisture sensitivity and stripping are used in United States. The most widely used anti-strip additive is hydrated lime. Other includes liquid amines and di amines, liquid polymers, Portland cement, fly ash and flue dust. Hence, hydrated lime is evaluated as filler in bitumen and is compared to similarly sized filler comprised of calcium carbonate, limestone. The impact of hydrated lime as a filler is dependent on its interaction with a specific bitumen.

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2.2 EFFECT OF FILLERS AS ANTI STRIPPING ADDITIVES IN

PAVEMENT

MATERIALS (3)

Tienfuan Kerh, Yu Min wang &Yulern Lin have studied the effect of filler as Anti-Stripping additives in pavement materials, in Taiwan (2005).The main objective of this study is to determine the effective type of filler material that can be used as anti-Stripping agent in the asphaltic concrete, were different fillers like Rock flour, Rock flour with 1% lime & Rock flour with 1% Cement are studied based on Marshall stability test were performance of different fillers are assessed with different binder contents. Materials used in this are Binder grade (80\100),along with this aggregates(Both fine & coarse aggregates) whose specific gravity are 2.618 &2.579 respectively, filler materials like rock flour, lime, cement with binder content 4.5% ,5% ,5.5% ,6%. These materials are subjected to Marshall Stability test. They concluded that 1% lime & 1% cement when used higher stability is achieved at 6% binder content, were as use of only rock flour resulting in only 5.5%.The durability & economic concerned that rock flour is the best choice, but difference lacked is usage for long term is small. So, they used rock flour along with 1% lime which showed better resistance to deformation due to load & produced higher rigidity with 5.5% binder content were usage of cement with 1% resulted higher stability at 6% binder content. 1% lime with rock flour possessed higher “VMA” at same time resulted in higher stability & lower flow value.

2.3

THE

EFFECT

OF

QUALITY

AND

QUANTITY

OF

LOCALLY

PRODUCED FILLERS ON ASPHALTIC MIXTURES (3)

A shahrour & Bassam G. Saloukeh have studied the effect of quality & quantity of locally produced fillers on asphaltic mixtures in Dubai (1991).The main objective of this study is to determine the influence of different fillers extracted from different local aggregate sources on performance of asphaltic mixtures, fillers like cement, hydrated lime & sodium silicate which are few fillers among 10 filler materials. were filler added about 0.5 to 1.5%. materials used are asphalt binder of (60\70) grade of 3.5%,4%,4.5%,5% & 5.5% various filler materials used are lime stone, hydrated lime, cement, gibca, Manama, kadra, wad filly ,Altawoon siji ks300. All these materials passing 75 micron sieve, Grading-2 is adopted & fillers are varied from 0%, 2%, 4% & 6%. Binder content is selected from (3.5% to 4.5%)s kept for comparison of different fillers. Wad filly, cement has higher specific gravity; Manama has medium sp gravity & hydrated lime as low sp gravity. Finally he concluded that, the different filler adopted shows improvement in binder stiffening property under extreme high

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temperature. Hydrated lime filler shows superior stiffening properties when compared to different fillers. In addition of 0.8ratio of hydrated lime to bitumen. The softening point increases from 51.7 to 79.4 for (60\70) grade. Penetration decreases from 57 to 23 @ 25 degrees. Hydrated lime filler of quantity of 0.5 to 0.8 of bitumen content provides good performance of asphaltic mixtures.

2.4 THE EFFECT OF USING WASTE CEMENT DUST AS MINERAL FILLER ON MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF HMA (1)

Hassan Y Ahmed, Ayman M Othman & afaf A Mahmoud have studied the effect of using waste cement dust as mineral filler on mechanical properties of HMA (2006).the main objective of this study is to find the optimum cement dust content in the asphaltic concrete by usage of mechanical properties like Marshall stability, Indirect tensile strength & unconfined compressive strength. The materials used are asphalt binder content (60\70),the sp gravity of coarse & fine aggregates are 2.72 &2.67 respectively lime stone is used as mineral filler, along with this cement dust with varying percent of 0%, 25%, 50%, 75%, 100%, with a constant asphalt content of 5%.The basic test on coarse,fine,bitmen, lime are conducted. The specimens are prepared with these materials & subjected to Marshall Stability, indirect tensile, unconfined compressive test. The Marshall Stability value increases as cement dust content is increased, while the flow, % of VMA decreases. In case of indirect tensile strength increases with increase in cement content. The cement content increases, there is increase in compressive strength. Hence cement dust enhances the compressive strength characteristics of asphalt concrete mix & at the same time flow value, void ratio & voids in mineral aggregates decreases. Therefore the optimum cement dust content can replace lime stone as mineral filler.

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2.5 THE EFFECT OF DIFFERENT TYPE OF FILLER MATERIALS ON CHARACTERISTICS OF HMA (4)

Zemichael Berhe Mehari has studied the effect of different type of filler materials on characteristic of HMA (2007).The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of different types of mineral filler in HMA performance, different % by total wt of mixture is taken, filler like crushed stone, volcanic cinder, limestone passing 75 micron is sieve, with different specimens of different % of fillers OAC is found & various parameters of Marshall stability are found. Other materials used are asphalt binder (80\100).the basic test on aggregates, fillers & asphalt are conducted. The fillers are varied from 2%, 4%, 5%, 6%, 7% & 8%.the specimens are prepared on above materials OAC is found using this various parameters of Marshall is found, binder content varied from 5% to 7%. This showed that volcanic sinder possess higher asphalt content than lime stone & crushed stone. Crushed stone & lime stone has similar OAC @ 4% filler content OAC of both was 6.65% & 6.02% respectively, nearly 23% of increase in OAC was found when compared to 2% filler content. As % of limestone increases the unit wt also increases were crushed stone & volcanic cinder increases to maximum & up to some extent it decreases with increase in filler content.4% lime stone filler proved to have unit wt of 2365.89kg\cm2 & volcanic sinder was found to have high unit wt of 2409.35kg\cm2.volcanic sinder is more finer & they occupy more binder content which makes it most costlier & mix prepared of limestone & crushed stones are more similar. The stability of lime stone & crushed stone are found to be maximum & decreases from increasing the filler content were in volcanic sinder keeps on increasing with increase in filler content. They have lower film thickness around aggregates particles when compared o lime stone & crushed stone filler.

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.

  • 2.6 DIFFERENT LAYERS IN PAVEMENT STRUCTURE

Bituminous base course Consist of mineral aggregate such as stone, gravel, or sand bonded together by a bituminous material and used as a foundation upon which to place a binder or surface course.

Bituminous binder course A bituminous-aggregate mixture used as an intermediate coarse between the base and surface courses or as the first bituminous layer in a two-layer bituminous resurfacing. It is sometimes called a levelling course. Asphaltic/Bituminous concrete Bituminous concrete consists of a mixture of aggregates continuously graded from maximum size , typically less than 25 mm, through fine filler that is smaller than 0.075 mm. Sufficient bitumen is added to the mix so that the compacted mix is effectively impervious and will have acceptable dissipative and elastic properties.

  • 2.8 DESIRABLE PROPERTIES OF MIX

The desirable properties of a bituminous mix are as follows:

Stability to meet traffic demand

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Bitumen content to ensure proper binding and water proofing.

Voids to accommodate compaction due to traffic.

Flexibility to meet traffic loads (cold season).

Sufficient workability for construction.

Economical mix.

2.9

REQUIREMENTS OF BITUMINOUS MIX Stability

Sufficient binder must be available to coat all the particles at the same

time should

offer enough liquid friction. However, the stability decreases when the binder content is high and when the particles are kept apart. Stability is defined as the resistance of the paving mix to deformation under traffic load. Two examples of failure are.

 

Shoving: A transverse rigid deformation which occurs at areas subject to severe acceleration.

Grooving: Longitudinal ridging due to channelization of traffic. Stability depends on the inter- particle friction, primarily of the aggregates and the cohesion offered by the bitumen.

Durability

Durability is defined as the resistance of the mix against weathering and abrasive actions. Weathering causes hardening due to loss of volatiles in the bitumen. Abrasion is due to wheel loads which causes tensile strains. Typical examples of failure are

Pot hole: deterioration of pavements locally.

Stripping: loss of binder from the aggregates & are exposed. Disintegration is minimized by high binder content since they cause the mix to be air and waterproof and the bitumen film is more resistant to hardening.

Flexibility

Flexibility is a measure of the level of bending strength needed to counteract traffic load and prevent cracking of surface. Fracture is the cracks formed on the surface (hairline-cracks, alligator cracks), main reasons are shrinkage and brittleness of the binder. Shrinkage cracks are due to volume

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change in the binder due to aging. Brittleness is due to repeated bending of the surface due to traffic loads. Higher bitumen content will give better flexibility and less fracture.

Skid resistance

It is the resistance of the finished pavement against skidding which depends on the surface texture and bitumen content. It is an important factor in high speed traffic. Normally, an open graded coarse surface texture is desirable.

Workability

Workability is the ease with which the mix can be laid and compacted, and formed to the required condition and shape. This depends on the gradation of aggregates, their shape and texture, bitumen content and its type. Angular, flaky, and elongated aggregates workability. On the other hand, rounded aggregates improve workability.

CHAPTER 3 EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION

GENERAL

In this study, the Marshall Stability test was conducted on neat dense bituminous mix in order

to study the behaviour by varying the lime filler content.

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Aggregates: Aggregates offer good compressive, shear strength; along with this they provide good interlocking facility with sufficient permeability. Aggregates are collectively taken as coarse, fine, crushed aggregates. Generally they account of about 92% to 96% of total mix of the volume, the remaining volume is binding materials used like bitumen etc.

Table 3.1: Test results on aggregates

Binder

Bitumen is a waterproofing agent. At normal temperature they are in the form semi-solid, it is heated until liquefied before blending it with the aggregates. Various tests have been developed for use in control of quality of bitumen that have been found significant in predicting the stability of bitumen

 

Test

Table 500-8

result

Requirements as per

Description of aggregate test

(Avg of

MORT&H

2trails)

Specifications

Aggregate impact value (%)

23.8

Max 24%

Los Angeles Abrasion Value (%)

 
  • 29.38 Max30%

Flakiness and Elongation Index

 
  • 31.47 Max 30%

(Combined) (%) Water absorption (%)

0.6

Max 2%

Aggregate specific Gravity 1.Coarse aggregate

2.65

 

2.Fine aggregates

2.67

------

of some given application, basically these tests are used to measure consistency, ability of mixing and placing, durability, the ability to remain effective in hostile environments and rate of loading. In this

study the binder of Neat bitumen is used.

Table: 3.2 Tests results on Neat Bitumen

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Description of aggregate test

Test result (Avg of 2trails)

Requirements

Penetration at 25 o C (1/10th of mm)

 
  • 69.33 60-70

Softening point(R&B) ( o C)

 
  • 52.25 45-55

Ductility @27 o C, cm

80

75 minimum

Specific Gravity

1.01

0.99-1.02

Flash point , o C

215

175 minimum

Filler

Filler basically consists of finely divided mineral matter such as rock dust, hydrated lime or cement approved by the engineer. The filler shall be free from organic impurities & have plasticity index not greater than 4.Generally they are taken about 2% by weight of total aggregates. The plasticity index is not applicable if the filler material is cement. The specific gravity test conducted in laboratory & result is tabulated as shown in table below.

FILLER

SPECIFIC GRAVITY

Lime

2.78

3.2 GRADATION OF AGGREGATES

Table 3.3: Aggregate gradation for dense graded bituminous Macadam mix Grade-2 adopted as per Table-500-10, of MORT&H (IV-revision) Specifications.

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IS Sieve size

% Passing

IS Sieve

in mm

specified

37.5

100

26.5

90-100

19

71-95

13.2

56-80

4.75

38-54

2.36

28-42

0.3

7-21

0.075

2-8

3.3 MARSHALL METHOD OF MIX DESIGN

Marshall stability test of a mix is defined as maximum load carried by a compacted specimen at a standard test temperature at 60 degree Celsius. The flow value is the deformation the Marshall test specimen under goes during the loading up to the maximum load in 0.25 mm units. The Marshall Stability test is applicable for hot mix design using bitumen and aggregates with maximum size of 25mm. In this method, the resistance to plastic deformation of cylindrical specimen of bituminous mixture is measurement when the same is loaded. This test procedure is extensively used in routine tests programmes for paving jobs.

There are two major features of Marshall Stability method of designing mixes they are.

Density voids analysis.

Stability flow test.

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Test procedure for preparing Marshall specimens

1) The aggregates were proportioned and mixed as given in table 3.2, (aggregates and filler contribute to 1200 gm) the aggregate were heated to a temperature of 150 0 2) Required quantity of bitumen i.e. 4.0, 4.5, 5.0, and 5.5 percent by weight of aggregate was heated to temperature of 120-145 degree C 3) The heated bitumen was added to the heated aggregates and thoroughly mixed at a desirable temperature 150 0 – 160 0 c. 4) The mix was placed in a pre-heated mould of 10.16 cm diameter and 6.35 cm with base plate and collar. 5) After levelling the top surface, the mix was compacted by means of rammer of weight 4.54 kg and with a height of fall 45.7 cm with 75 blows on either side at a temperature of 130 0 - 140 0 6) The compacted specimens were removed from the mould after 24 hours using the specimen extractor. 7) The diameter, mean height, weight in air, weight in water of the specimen was noted and bulk density is calculated. 8) The specimens were kept in a thermostatically controlled water bath maintained at 60±1 0 c for 30 minutes. The specimen were taken out, placed in Marshall Test head and tested to determine the Marshall Stability value, which is the maximum load in kg before failure, and the flow value, which is deformation of specimen in mm at to the maximum load. The equipment used was strain controlled with a strain rate of 5 cm/min. 9) The corrected Marshall Stability value of each specimen was determined by applying appropriate correction factor, if the average height of the specimen is not exactly 63.5 mm Graphs are plotted taking bitumen content (%) on x-axis and Marshall stability value, flow value, bulk density, percentage air voids in total mix, percentage of mineral aggregate and percentage of voids filled with bitumen on y-axis. The optimum binder content for the mix is found by taking the average of following three bitumen content found from the graphs of the results.

Bitumen content corresponding to maximum stability, maximum unit weight and maximum of 4% air voids.

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CHAPTER 4 ANALYSIS OF DATA

4.1 GENERAL

Marshall stability test was conducted on dense bituminous Macadam mixes to determine optimum bitumen content, Marshall stability, Marshall flow, bulk density, total air voids, voids in

mineral aggregates and voids filled with bitumen.

Table 4.1 Marshall Properties of neat dense bituminous Macadam mix

 

without

filler

         

Voids

Voids in

Marshall

Bulk

Air

Bitumen

Flow

filled with

mineral

stability

density

voids

content%

Kg

mm

g/cc

%

bitumen

aggregates

%

%

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40

987

 
  • 3.20 54.14

2.306

 
  • 7.84 17.07

 
 
  • 4.5 1150

 
  • 3.75 63.26

2.333

 
  • 6.11 16.64

 
 
  • 5.0 1232

 
  • 3.80 74.64

2.367

 
  • 4.04 15.88

 
 
  • 5.5 1164

 
  • 4.00 78.86

2.365

 
  • 3.48 16.49

 
 

Marshal Stability Vs Bitumen

 

Marshal Stability Kg

1300

1200

1200

1100

1000

900

800

 

3.5

4.0

4.5

5.0

5.5

6.0

 

Bitumen %

Flow Vs Bitumen

 

5.00

4.00

4.00

Flow Value

3.00

2.00

1.00

 

0.00

 

3.5

4.0

4.5

5.0

5.5

6.0

 

Bitumen %

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Unit Wt Vs Bitumen 2.340 2.380 2.360 2.320 2.300 4.5 4.0 5.5 3.5 6.0 5.0 Unit
Unit Wt Vs Bitumen
2.340
2.380
2.360
2.320
2.300
4.5
4.0
5.5
3.5
6.0
5.0
Unit Wt g/C-cm
VFB Vs Bitumen Bitumen %
VFB Vs Bitumen
Bitumen %
Bitumen % 60.0 65.0 85.0 80.0 55.0 90.0 50.0 70.0 75.0 4.5 4.0 5.5 6.0 5.0
Bitumen %
60.0
65.0
85.0
80.0
55.0
90.0
50.0
70.0
75.0
4.5
4.0
5.5
6.0
5.0
3.5
VFB %

% Air Voids Vs Bitumen

10.0 8.0 6.0 4.0 2.0 0.0 % Air Voids 3.5 4.0 4.5 5.0 5.5 6.0 Bitumen%
10.0
8.0
6.0
4.0
2.0
0.0
% Air Voids
3.5
4.0
4.5
5.0
5.5
6.0
Bitumen%

Figure 4.2: Marshall Properties of neat dense bituminous Macadam mix with 1% lime filler to determine optimum binder content

Table 4.2: Marshall Properties of neat dense bituminous Macadam mix with lime filler content of 1%

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Marshal Stability Vs Bitum Unit Wt Vs Bitum Voids Voids in Bitumen Marshall Bulk Air 2.3750
Marshal Stability Vs Bitum
Unit Wt Vs Bitum
Voids
Voids in
Bitumen
Marshall
Bulk
Air
2.3750
1500
Flow
filled with
mineral
content
stability
density
voids
2.3700
1400
mm
bitumen
aggregates
2.3650
%
1300
Kg
g/cc
%
%
%
1200
2.3600
1100
2.3550
4.0
1126 2.80
2.351
5.99
60.76
15.48
1000
2.3500
3.5
4.0
4.5
5.0
5.5
6.0
4.5
1383 3.40
2.370
4.66
3.5
69.59
4.0
4.5
5.0
15.32
5.5
6.0
Bitum en %
Bitum en
5.0
1394
3.55
2.367
4.09
74.28
15.93
5.5
1310
3.85
2.366
3.46
79.02
16.47
Marshal Stability Kg
Unit Wt g/C-cm

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VFB Vs Bitume

90.00 85.00 80.00 75.00 70.00 65.00 60.00 55.00 50.00 VFB % 4.0 4.5 6.0 3.5 5.0
90.00
85.00
80.00
75.00
70.00
65.00
60.00
55.00
50.00
VFB %
4.0
4.5
6.0
3.5
5.0
5.5

Bitum en

% Air Voids Vs Bitum

8.0 6.0 4.0 2.0 0.0 % Air Voids 3.5 4.5 4.0 6.0 5.0 5.5
8.0
6.0
4.0
2.0
0.0
% Air Voids
3.5
4.5
4.0
6.0
5.0
5.5

Bitum en

Flow Vs Bitumen

4.80 4.20 3.60 3.00 2.40 Flow Value 3.5 4.0 4.5 5.0 5.5 6.0 Bitumen %
4.80
4.20
3.60
3.00
2.40
Flow Value
3.5
4.0
4.5
5.0
5.5
6.0
Bitumen %

Figure 4.2: Marshall Properties of neat dense bituminous Macadam mix with 1% lime filler to determine optimum binder content

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Table 4.3 Marshall Properties of neat dense bituminous Macadam with lime filler content of 2%

         

Voids

Voids in

Bitumen

Marshall

Bulk

Air

Flow

filled with

mineral

content

stability

density

voids

%

Kg

mm

g/cc

%

bitumen

aggregates

%

%

4.0

  • 1248 3.22

 

2.358

 
  • 5.76 15.19

62.09

 

4.5

  • 1419 3.25

 

2.394

 
  • 3.65 14.42

74.72

 

5.0

  • 1439 3.50

 

2.400

 
  • 2.40 14.45

83.33

 

5.5

  • 1398 3.70

 

2.398

 
  • 2.11 15.31

86.63

 

Marshal Stability Vs Bitumen

1450 1400 1350 1300 1250 1200 Marshal Stability Kg 3.5 4.0 4.5 5.0 5.5 6.0 Bitumen
1450
1400
1350
1300
1250
1200
Marshal Stability Kg
3.5
4.0
4.5
5.0
5.5
6.0
Bitumen %

Unit Wt Vs Bitumen

2.42 2.41 2.40 2.39 2.38 2.37 2.36 2.35 Unit Wt g/C-c 3.5 4.0 4.5 5.0 5.5
2.42
2.41
2.40
2.39
2.38
2.37
2.36
2.35
Unit Wt g/C-c
3.5
4.0
4.5
5.0
5.5
6.0
Bitumen %

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% Air Voids Vs Bitumen

8.0 6.0 4.0 2.0 0.0 % Air Voids 3.5 4.0 4.5 5.0 5.5 6.0 Bitumen%
8.0
6.0
4.0
2.0
0.0
% Air Voids
3.5
4.0
4.5
5.0
5.5
6.0
Bitumen%

VFB Vs Bitumen

90.00 65.00 60.00 85.00 80.00 55.00 50.00 75.00 70.00 VFB % 4.0 4.5 6.0 5.0 3.5
90.00
65.00
60.00
85.00
80.00
55.00
50.00
75.00
70.00
VFB %
4.0
4.5
6.0
5.0
3.5
5.5

Bitumen %

Flow Vs Bitumen

4.00 3.80 3.60 3.40 3.20 3.00 Flow Value 3.5 4.0 4.5 5.0 5.5 6.0 Bitumen %
4.00
3.80
3.60
3.40
3.20
3.00
Flow Value
3.5
4.0
4.5
5.0
5.5
6.0
Bitumen %

Figure 4.3: Marshall Properties of neat dense bituminous Macadam with lime filler 2% to determine optimum binder content

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4.2

NEAT

DENSE

BITUMINOUS

MACADAM

AT

OPITMUM

BINDER CONTENT

Marshall Specimen was prepared and tested foe Marshall Properties of neat dense bituminous macadam at optimum binder content.

Table 4.4 Marshall Properties of neat dense bituminous Macadam mix at optimum binder content.

 

Lime filler

Lime filler

Lime filler

 
 

Marshall

Requirements as per

 

content

content

content

 

properties

0%

1%

2%

MoRT&H specification

 

Optimum binder content %

5.03

4.77

4.71

4.5

minimum

 

Marshall

       
 

1220

1390

1410

9.0

minimum

 

stability KG

 
 

Marshall flow

       
 

3.82

  • 3.57 3.50

2.0

– 4.0

 

mm

 
 

Air voids

       
 

4.09

  • 3.90 3.88

3.0

– 6.0

 

%

 
 

Voids in

       

Mineral

15.92

15.44

  • 15.73 12 minimum

Aggregates %

 

Voids filled

       

with bitumen

70.69

  • 72.34 73.59

65 - 75

%

.

 

- 24 -

Figure 4.2: Shows graph of Marshall stability vs. bitumen for neat dense bituminous Macadam mix with

Figure 4.2: Shows graph of Marshall stability vs. bitumen for neat dense bituminous Macadam mix with lime filler content 0%, 1%, 2%

Figure 4.2: Shows graph of Marshall stability vs. bitumen for neat dense bituminous Macadam mix with

Figure 4.2: Shows graph of bulk density vs. bitumen content for neat dense bituminous Macadam mix with lime filler content 0%, 1%, 2%

- 25 -

Figure 4.2: Shows graph of Marshall flow vs. bitumen content for neat dense bituminous Macadam mix

Figure 4.2: Shows graph of Marshall flow vs. bitumen content for

neat dense

bituminous Macadam mix with lime filler content 0%, 1%, 2%

Figure 4.2: Shows graph of Marshall flow vs. bitumen content for neat dense bituminous Macadam mix

Figure 4.2: Shows graph of % air voids vs. Bitumen content for neat

dense

bituminous Macadam mix with lime filler content 0%, 1%, 2%

- 26 -

Figure 4.2: Shows graph of voids filled with bitumen vs. Bitumen content for neat dense bituminous

Figure 4.2: Shows graph of voids filled with bitumen vs. Bitumen

content

for neat dense bituminous Macadam mix with lime filler

content 0%, 1%, 2%

- 27 -

CHAPTER 5 DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION

  • 1. It is observed from the table 3.1 the test results of the aggregates are satisfying the requirements as

per table 500 -8 of MoRT&H (IV revision) specifications.

  • 2. It is observed from the table 3.2 the results of neat 60/70 penetration grade bitumen are satisfying

the requirements

  • 3. From table 4.4 it was observed that the optimum binder content of neat dense bituminous macadam

using Marshall Method of mix design for 0%, 1%, and 2% was found to be 5.03%, 4.77% and 4.71% respectively.

It shows that the filler occupies the voids in mineral aggregates which results in marginal reduction in volume of binder content.

  • 4. It was observed from the table 4.4 the Marshall stability of neat dense bituminous macadam for

0%, 1%, 2% of lime filler was found to be 1220kg, 1390kg, and 1410 kg respectively.

By increasing the % of lime filler stability values increases. It shows that lime filler

acts as a stiffening agent to the binder which increases the viscosity and thus resulting in increase in stability of the mix.

  • 5. It was observed from the table 4.4 the Marshall flow of neat dense bituminous macadam for 0%,

1%, 2% of lime filler was found to be 3.82mm, 3.57mm, and 3.50mm respectively.

It shows that increase in stability values the flow value is reduced.

  • 6. It was observed from the table 4.4 the % of air voids of neat dense bituminous macadam for 0%,

1%, 2% lime filler was found to be 4.09%, 3.9%, 3.88% respectively.

By increasing lime filler content causes reduction in the voids in fine aggregate and thus increases the bulk density of the mix.

  • 7. It was observed from the table 4.4 the voids in mineral aggregates of neat dense bituminous

macadam for 0%, 1%, 2% was found to be 15.92%, 15.73%, and 15.44% respectively.

- 28 -

Increasing the fines, the bitumen content absorbed into the aggregates is more and thus decreases the value of voids in mineral aggregates.

8. It was observed from the table 4.4 the voids filled with bitumen of dense bituminous macadam for 0%, 1% and 2% lime filler content was found to be 70.69%, 72.34% and 73.49% respectively. Thus by increasing the lime filler VFB value increases, VMA value decreases.

- 29 -