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Commercial Airplane Design 1

EAS 4700 Aerospace Design 1


Prof. P.M. Sforza
University of Florida
Commercial Airplane Design 2
1.Mission specification and market
survey
Number of passengers: classes of service
Range: domestic or international routes
Cruise speed: turbofans 0.72<M<0.86
Cruise altitude: 30,000 to 40,000 ft
Commercial Airplane Design 3
0
1000
2000
3000
4000
5000
6000
7000
8000
9000
10000
0 100 200 300 400 500 600
Np (Number of Passengers)
R

(
R
a
n
g
e

i
n

m
i
l
e
s
)
R=25Np R=20Np
R=15Np
Range versus number of passenger
seats for jet transports
Commercial Airplane Design 4
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
American US Air Delta Northwest United Continental
aircraft (hundreds) average age (years)
The market for commercial aircraft
Commercial Airplane Design 5
Annual sales of commercial aircraft:
2001-2008
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
Year (200_)
B
i
l
l
i
o
n
s

o
f

$
current $
constant $
(preliminary)
(estimate)
Commercial Airplane Design 6
Forecast of new aircraft deliveries:
2008 2027
0
5,000
10,000
15,000
20,000
25,000
Regional jets Single aisle Twin aisle Ultra-large
N
e
w

a
i
r
p
l
a
n
e

d
e
l
i
v
e
r
i
e
s
Time period: 2008-2027
Total new airplane
deliveries=29,400
Commercial Airplane Design 7
Forecast of market value of new
deliveries by aircraft type: 2008-2027
0
200
400
600
800
1000
1200
1400
1600
Regional jets Single aisle Twin aisle Ultra-large
M
a
r
k
e
t

v
a
l
u
e

(
2
0
0
7

$
B
)
Time period:
2008-2027
Total market
value=$3.2 trillion
Commercial Airplane Design 8
Forecast for the change the
commercial fleet: 2007-2027
0
5000
10000
15000
20000
25000
Regional jets Single aisle Twin aisle Ultra-large
A
i
r
c
r
a
f
t

i
n

t
h
e

f
l
e
e
t
Total number of aircraft:
2007=19,000
2027=35,800
Commercial Airplane Design 9
Forecast of market value share by
region: 2008-2027
Market Value Share by Region
North America
Asia-Pacific
Europe & CIS
Latin America
Middle East
Africa
38%
23%
25%
4%
8%
2%
Total Market value =$3.2 trillion
Commercial Airplane Design 10
0
200,000
400,000
600,000
800,000
1,000,000
1,200,000
1,400,000
0 100 200 300 400 500 600
Number of Passengers Np
T
a
k
e
-
o
f
f

W
e
i
g
h
t

W
t
o

(
l
b
s
)
General trend of take-off weight vs
number of passengers
A380
B747
B777
B787
B737
Commercial Airplane Design 11
Market Survey
Rigorously examine 3 or 4 existing aircraft which
closely satisfy the mission
Introduce mission specification, the competitor
aircraft, and special attributes of your aircraft
Present detailed quantitative data for the
competitor aircraft in tabular form, along with 3-
views, in an Appendix.
Photos of the competitor aircraft appear in
Chapter 1 along with airplane descriptions
Commercial Airplane Design 12
Aircraft data resources
Janes All the Worlds Aircraft
Aviation Week & Space Technology
Aerospace Source Book
Manufacturers websites
www.boeing.com
www.airbus.com
http://www.flightglobal.com/StaticPages/cutaways.html
Commercial Airplane Design 13
Federal Air Regulations
the Federal Aviation Agency (FAA), establishes
airworthiness requirements to ensure public
safety in aviation.
It issues Federal Aviation Regulations (FAR)
and FAA Advisory Notes laying down rules for
aircraft and their operation.
The FAR is Title 14 of the Code of Federal
Regulations and is available on-line (Ref. 1-4).
Subchapter C, Parts 1-59, deal with aircraft.
Commercial Airplane Design 14
2. Preliminary Weight Estimate
Commercial Airplane Design 15
2. Preliminary weight estimate
W
TO
= W
E
+ W
TFO
+ W
PLC
+ W
F,USED
+ W
F,RES
=Take-off Weight
W
E
=Empty Weight
W
F
= W
F,USED
+ W
F,RES
= Weight of Fuel Used+ Weight of Fuel Reserve
= Total Fuel Weight
W
PLC
=W
PL
+W
CREW
= Weight of Payload +Weight of Crew
M
TFO
= W
TFO
/ W
TO
=(Trapped Fuel and Oil Weight)/W
TO
M
FUEL
= W
F
/W
TO
= Fuel Fraction
Commercial Airplane Design 16
Solve for the empty weight knowing W
PLC
W
E
= (1 M
TFO
M
FUEL
)W
TO
W
PLC
= aW
TO
+ b
W
TO
W
E
0
-W
PLC
(1-M
TFO
-M
FUEL
)
increasing
Empty weight vs take-off weight
Fuel fraction
needed for
mission,
including
reserves
Commercial Airplane Design 17
W
F
= W
TO
W
FINAL
=W
TO
(Weight at End of Mission)
W
F
/W
TO
= M
FUEL
= 1 W
FINAL
/W
TO
= 1 M
FINAL
Fuel Needed for Mission
1 2 3
4
5 6
7
8
9
10
11
Mission profile
Normal
Diversion
Commercial Airplane Design 18
1 2 3
4
5 6
7
8
9
10
11
Mission profile
0.99 0.99 0.995
exp[-RC
j
/V(L/D)] exp[-C
j
/(L/D)] exp[-230C
j
/V(L/D)]
0.98 0.99
0.98 0.99
0.992
Segment weight fractions W
i
/ W
i -1
Commercial Airplane Design 19
11
1
0 1
n
FINAL i
FINAL
i
TO i
W W W
M
W W W
=

= = =

M
FINAL
=(W11/W10)(W10/W9)(W9/W8).(W2/W1)(W1/W0)
,
, ,
1
F USED
F USED FINAL F RES
TO
W
M M M
W
= =
,
,
LAND NOM
FINAL F RES
TO
W
M M
W
= +
5 9
,
,
1 6
1 1
1
F RES
i i
F RES
i i
TO i i
W
W W
M
W W W
= =

| || |
= =
| |
\ \

Final Weight Fraction
Fuel Weight
Fraction Used
Nominal Landing Weight
Reserve
Fuel
Fraction
Commercial Airplane Design 20
0
0.05
0.1
0.15
0.2
0.25
0.3
0.35
0.4
0 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000
Range (mi)
1
-
M
f
i
n
a
l
Mission fuel fraction vs range
This is the nominal value of the ratio W
F,USED
/W
TO
1-M
FINAL
=0.00316(R-800)
1/2
Commercial Airplane Design 21
0
0.05
0.1
0.15
0.2
0.25
0.3
0.35
0.4
0.45
0.5
0 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000
Range (miles)
1

-

M
f
i
n
a
l
+
M
r
e
s
Total fuel fraction vs range
1-M
FINAL
+M
RES
=0.0048R
1/2
Nominal ratio of total fuel carried to take-off weight, M
FUEL
Commercial Airplane Design 22
0
0.0005
0.001
0.0015
0.002
0.0025
0.003
0 200,00
0
400,00
0
600,00
0
800,00
0
1,000,0
00
1,200,0
00
1,400,0
00
Take-Off Weight (lbs)
M
t
f
o
Fraction of trapped fuel and oil
M
TFO
=0.227(M
FUEL
)
2/3
(W
TO
)
-1/3
Correlation for the weight fraction of trapped fuel and oil
Commercial Airplane Design 23
Empty weight vs take-off weight for
45 airliners
0.0
100.0
200.0
300.0
400.0
500.0
600.0
700.0
0.0 200.0 400.0 600.0 800.0 1000.0 1200.0 1400.0
Take-off weight, Wto (klbs)
E
m
p
t
y

w
e
i
g
h
t
,

W
e

(
k
l
b
s
)
Actual weights
logWe=(logWto - A)/B
We=0.5Wto
Commercial Airplane Design 24
Empty weight vs take-off weight for
45 airliners
0.000
0.100
0.200
0.300
0.400
0.500
0.600
0.700
0.0 200.0 400.0 600.0 800.0 1000.0 1200.0 1400.0
Take-off weight, Wto (klbs)
E
m
p
t
y

w
e
i
g
h
t

f
r
a
c
t
i
o
n
,

W
e
/
W
t
o
We/Wto = 1.59/(Wto/1000)^.0906
Commercial Airplane Design 25
W
E
=aW
TO
-W
PLC
Historical
correlation
W
E
=0.504W
TO
W
E
0
-W
PLC
W
TO
Market survey aircraft
Estimating aircraft empty weight
Commercial Airplane Design 26
4
5
log
e
j
W V L
R
C D W
=
1
5
4
exp
j
W
V L
R
W C D

(
| |
(
=
|
|
(
\

0.76<M<0.86
0.5<C
j
<0.6
14<L/D<18
Breguet Range Equation
Ratio of Weight at End
of Cruise to Weight at
Start of Cruise
Mach Number
Specific Fuel Consumption
Lift to Drag Ratio
Cruise fuel requirement
Commercial Airplane Design 27
0
5
10
15
20
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1
Mach Number
L/D, Power approach
Convair CV-880
L/D
ML/D
35kft
23kft
35kft
23kft
L/D, Landing
L/D characteristics of a jet airliner
Commercial Airplane Design 28
125,800
Btu/gal
18,610
Btu/lb
-40C
to
-50C
6.76
lb/gal
JP-8 Jet A Kerosene
119,000
Btu/gal
18,720
Btu/lb
-50C
to
-58
6.36
lb/gal
JP-4 Jet B Wide-cut
gasoline
Jet fuel characteristics
Commercial Airplane Design 29
W
E
0
-W
PLC
Design curves for various values of V, C
j
,
and L/D
W
TO
Historical Correlation,
W
E
=0.5W
TO
Market survey aircraft
Design region
Design plot for estimating empty and
take-off weight of airplane
Commercial Airplane Design 30
3. Fuselage Design
Commercial Airplane Design 31
Fuselage design factors
Optimal aerodynamics, reducing aerodynamic drag
Suppression of aerodynamic instability
Comfortable and attractive seat design, placement, and storage
space
Safety features to deal with emergencies such as fires, cabin
depressurization, etc.; proper placement of emergency exits,
oxygen systems, etc.
Easy handling for cargo loading and unloading, safe and robust
cargo hatches and doors
Structural support for wing and tail forces acting in flight, as well
as for landing and ground operation forces
Commercial Airplane Design 32
Structurally optimized, saving weight while incorporating
protection against corrosion and fatigue
Optimized flight deck, reducing pilot workload and
protecting against crew fatigue and intrusion by passengers
Convenient size and placement of galleys, lavatories, and
coat racks
Suppressed noise and vibration, providing a comfortable,
secure environment
Control of cabin climate including air conditioning, heating,
and ventilation
Providing housing for different sub-systems, including
auxiliary power units, hydraulic system, air conditioning, etc.
Commercial Airplane Design 33
L
NC
L
L
C
L
TC

TC
Major components of fuselage
Commercial Airplane Design 34
A circle has the greatest cross-sectional area per unit
perimeter. The drag of a typical fuselage, which has a rather
large fineness ratio (l/d), is dominated by skin friction
A circle is strongest under internal pressure. At stratospheric
cruising altitudes the outside pressure is 0.2 to 0.3
atmospheres, while the internal pressure is maintained at that
at 8,000 feet, or about 0.7 atmospheres. Pressure difference
across the thin skin of the cabin ranges from 0.4 to 0.5
atmospheres, or 6 to 7 psi (40 to 50 kPa)
A circle more easily accommodates growth in Np in terms of
manufacturing since cylindrical sections, called plugs, can be
reasonably easily added to so-called stretched versions of a
given aircraft.
Circular fuselage cross-section
Commercial Airplane Design 35
Limited space outside the passenger compartment for
auxiliary systems and cargo. The passenger compartment
must be located around a diameter of the circle for the
greatest width for seats and aisles.
Awkward circular sectors above and below the passenger
compartment to house other items.
Modern designs have expanded the lower portion of the
circular cabin into a more rectangular cross-section in the
vicinity of the wing root chord to accommodate more internal
carriage.
Cabin forward and aft of the wing root is maintained as a
circular cross-section, and stretching will require plugs to be
added in these regions.
Circular cross-section limitations
Commercial Airplane Design 36
a a
Cargo
containers
Passenger seats
Passenger
compartment floor
Pressure
shell
Passenger
aisle
d
Overhead
storage bins
Layout of the cabin cross-section
Commercial Airplane Design 37
Cabin cross-section
a a
Cargo
containers
Passenger seats
Passenger
compartment floor
Pressure shell
Passenger aisle
d
Overhead storage
bins
Commercial Airplane Design 38
Cabin floor plan
Commercial Airplane Design 39
L/d = 0.9(L
C
/d) + 5
(L
TC
+L
NC
)/d = 5 0.1(L
C
/ d)
0 2 4 6 8 10 12
L
C
/d
10
5
0
Correlation of fineness ratio and
fuselage dimensions
L/d=0.9(L
c
/d+5)
(L
TC
+L
NC
)/d=5-0.1(L
C
/d)
Commercial Airplane Design 40
4
3
2
1
0
L
NC
/d
L
TC
/d
Tail
cones
Nose
cones
0 2 4 6 8 10
L
C
/d
Nose and tail cone correlations
Commercial Airplane Design 41
L
NC
L
L
C
L
TC

w
p
p
p
d

w
Fuselage drag breakdown
, , , , , , p NC f NC p C f C p TC f TC
D D D D D D D = + + + + +
D
0
Base drag
Commercial Airplane Design 42
Nose cone pressure drag is
approximately zero
C
p
1.0
0
S
Underpressure
Overpressure
S
The overpressure is just about balanced by the underpressure
so that the pressure drag on the nose cone is approximately
zero, D
p,NC
~0
Commercial Airplane Design 43
( )
, , , ,
.
Re,
f NC f C f TC p BASE
p BASE
wetted
D f
D D D D D
D
S D
c c M
qS S qS
= + + +
= = +
General equation for fuselage drag
( )
,
3/ 2 3
1.5 7
4 Re, 1
D fuselage F
c kc M F
F F
| |
= + +
|
\
Commercial Airplane Design 44
Variation of fuselage drag with
fineness ratio
0
0.02
0.04
0.06
0.08
0.1
0.12
0 5 10 15 20
Fineness ratio
C
d

b
a
s
e
d

o
n

f
r
o
n
t
a
l

a
r
e
a
M=0.85 at 35,000ft altitude
Re~3x10^8
Commercial Airplane Design 45
Optimal fineness ratio
The minimum drag coefficient occurs for F~3 but this
would not be a practical fuselage design for safely and
efficiently packing passengers
For compressible flows where M~1 the slimmer fuselages
would have reduced wave drag due to compressibility and
they have the advantage of efficient use of space