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The Jacksonian Impulse chapter 11 Jackson was the 1st president not to come from a prominent colonial family.

He symbolized the changing social scene and the emergence of the common man in political life. By 1828 u.s. was 24 states and 13 million people. Population doubled every 23 years. British investment in American enterprises helped fuel an economic boom and transportation revolution. A traditional Jeffersonian economy of artisans and craftsmen and subsistence farmers was giving way to a modern system of centralized workshops mills and factories dependent upon large #s of wage laborers. With the onset of the factory system and urban commerce, rural people migrated from farms and shops to town and factories. With this change came the change of widespread effort to democratize the political process. Jacksonian era never actual produced true economic and social equality, contrary to some historians word. SETTING THE STAGES Jacksons dad died before he was born and mother died at 15. During a duel Jackson let opponent fire first and a bullet wedged itself through his heart, he then fired back and won. Jackson was most popular politician since Washington. I was born for a storm, a calm does not suit me. Jefferson said his passions are terrible. As a victorious wildly popular general, Jackson often behaved as a tyrant 1815 battle of new Orleans jackon took over and declared martial law and jailing even city officials and judges APPOINTMENTS AND RIVALRIES Jaskson believed that politicians shold serve a term in govt then return to the status of private citizen for officials who stayed in office too long grew corrupt. Jasksons admin was from the outset divided between the partisans of Secretary of Staet Martin Can Buren and those of vice Pres.John Calhoun. INTERNAL IMPROVEMENTGS Jackson opposes federal aid to internal improvement projects (largely bc Calhoun supported them) and vetoes the mayhill road bill presented by congress in 1830. CALHOUNS THEORY

Tarrif of 1828 influenced Calhoun to write south Carolina exposition and protest in opposition, which contained a theory of nullification whereby a state could in effect repeal a federal law THE WEBSTER HAYNE DEBATE Wayne argues that the east restricted development of the west and the govt placed hardship on on e section of the union for the benefit of the other, endangering the union Webster defend the east, the union would be a rope of sand, the evolution of the union validated websters position more and more NULLIFICATION CRISIS IN SOUTH CAROLINA South Carolinians feared that federal authority to impose tarrifs might eventually end slavery. The nullification ordinance repudiated the tariffs acts of 1828 and 1832. Jackson asked for a force bill authorizing him to use the army to compel compliance with federal law in south carolina. Passage of this rested on henry clay who created a compromise which introduced a plan that gradually reduced the tariff until 1842 by which time the tariff would be no more than 20%. RACIAL PREJUDICE IN THE JACKSONIAN ERA Roger B. Taney, AJ's attorney general, declares blacks a "separate and degraded people" and could therefore be discriminated against Free blacks are disenfranchised while white male voting qualifications are eased INDIAN POLICY Jackson's opinion -- Indians are barbarians and better off out of the way, John Marshall rules Georgia law unconstitutional in that Georgia claimed to have sovereignty over the Cherokee nation in Georgia. Jackson would love to see Marshall enforce his ruling and does nothing to enforce the court's decision. The Cherokees give in an sign a treaty in 1835 -- by 1838 17,000 Cherokees and 2,000 blacks depart westward on the Trail of Tears THE BANK CONTROVERSY Jackson staunchy opposes the national bank -- public distate for it; questions of its Constitutionality. Biddle forces a recharter before the election of 1832, which Jackson vetoes, later causing financial crisis THE ANTI-MASONIC PARTY The first third party, the first party to hold a national nominating convention, and the first to announce an official platform

The major parties followed suit and had similar conventions Jackson defeats Clay overwhelming in the electoral college, not as much in the popular vote JACKSON RENEWED WAR ON THE BANK Jackson removes all government deposits in the national bank, distributing them to state Banks. By the end of 1833, 23 state banks -- "pet banks" -- had the benefit of government deposits. By tightening the nation's money supply through Biddle's requirement of specie (he tried to bring the economy to a halt to show the bank's importance) credit tightened, causing business distress by 1834. States began freely printing bank notes without the specie to back it up, plunging. States into massive amounts of debt THE SPECIE CIRCULAR July 11, 1836 -- The government after August 15 would only accept hard specie for payment of land in order to relieve the economy's debts in paper loans. The new party system Whigs -Jackson's opponents -- the National Republican party (Clay, Webster, J.Q. Adams). Social elitism and conservatism, national economic policy, valued internal Improvement THE ELECTION OF 1836 Van Buren demolishes Harrison THE PANIC OF 1837 VB inherits a financial crisis. A depression in England tips the scales since American. Expansion depends on European markets. 1/3 of the workforce becomes jobless, clothing and food prices skyrocket. VB proposes an independent Treasury instead of continuing depositing government money. In pet banks, keeping funds in their own vaults and doing business entirely in hard money