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360 Degree Performance Appraisal as a TQM Tool in Engineering Education

1.Manoj Khaladkar 2.Dr..A.S.Warke (Marathwada Mita Mandals College of Engg., Pune) 3.Shitalkumar Rawandale (Pimpri Chinchwad College of Engg., Pune) 4.Ratna Patil (Kanpur Institute of Technology, Kanpur) Abstract: Total Quality Management (TQM) concept of measurable & predictable error reduction can be applied to talent management. 360 degree performance appraisal processes have increasingly become a mode of evaluation & employee development. As an enhancement to a traditional review, where employees are given a single evaluation by superior, 360 degree performance appraisal provide a multisourced review. In this paper, an attempt is made to propose this system to engineering education. Concept, implementation strategy & reasons are discussed. Optimum utilization of human resource is the key in engineering education. Talent audit system can be used as best TQM tool in educational field. The predictive ability of 360 degree feedback process highlights long term success factors. Keywords: Performance appraisal, 360 degree feedback, talent audit systems, peers, multi source, multi layer.
Superior External customer Self Internal custome r

taking views of principal, head of the department, teaching staff members, students, laboratory assistants & university results. This appraisal system fits well with TQM initiatives in an educational institute. It will be a big task to measure individuals skills, competencies, motivational drivers, work habits & potential for developing future competencies precisely. It is the best tool for identification of strengths of staff members for career development. It also identifies weaknesses for training & it can be used for salary recommendations. Feedback can be obtained by using a questionnaire which asks participants to rate the individual according to observed competencies / behaviors & data.

II Concept

I Introduction
360 degree performance appraisal / feedback is an evaluation tool that utilizes opinions of many different people that interact with the employee on a routine basis. It generates more accurate feedback by gathering information from people about individuals performance as seen by the organizational structure & expectations of their boss, self, peers, subordinates & customers. Definition takes different form when this system is applied to engineering education. Here participants are principal, head of the department, teaching staff members, students & laboratory assistants. In industries, 360 degree performance appraisal system is widely used nowadays. In 1997, only 8% industries were using it, while this percentage has gone up to 52% by 2008. As far as engineering education is concerned (India & Abroad), this percentage is very less (upto 12%). Implementing 360 degree performance appraisal system provides more comprehensive performance ratings, as employees are given an opportunity to map their competencies. Performance rating of teacher can be decided by
Peer

Subordinat e

Fig.1. Concept of 360 degree performance appraisal (Industry lookout)

Typically, performance appraisals have been limited to a feedback process between employees & superiors. With the increased focus on teamwork, employee development & customer service, the emphasis has shifted to employee feedback from the full circle of sources. This multi input approach to performance feedback is called 360 degree assessment to connote that full circle as shown in fig. 1. This system is a holistic approach incorporating views from many angles, multi level & multi source appraisal. Now by changing focus from industry to academia, sources in the circle will change. Different methods are available to assess the performance. Proper questionnaire has to be

designed. For a teaching staff member, feedback from principal, students, colleagues, HOD & lab assistant will play an important role.
Principa l Students

Communit y partners

Organization should ensure that this system doesnt violate principles of fair employment practices. Head of institute/head of Dept. can provide written copy of standards to the teacher before appraisal. Standards must be based on observable/measurable behavior of data. Proper training is necessary to appraisers. Institute can implement an appeal system to settle disagreements. Methods: Following are few methods which can be mixed & questionnaire can be designed. Detailed description of methods is not covered in this paper: A)Trait method - Graphic rating scales. - Mixed standard scales. - Forced choice method. - Essay method. B) Behavioral method - Critical incidents method. - Checklist. - Observation scale. C) Result method:- Productivity measure. Marking scheme : As an introduction, 100 marks rating method is proposed here for teaching staff member & HOD as follows:

Lab Assistants

Self

Peers

HOD

Subject results

Fig.2. Concept of 360 degree performance appraisal (Institute lookout)

Different methods are available to assess the performance. Proper questionnaire has to be designed. For a teaching staff member, feedback from principal, students, colleagues, HOD & lab assistant will play an important role. Subject results should be compared with the university results. While taking feedback from students, rating of students should also be decided. Following aspects are important for teaching staff member : 1. 2. 3. 4. Subject matter Mastery Contribution to curriculum development Instructional design & delivery Establishing a positive learning environment Completing related administrative requirements

5.

Community partnership includes developing partnerships with individuals, groups, social organizations outside the institute.

Sr. No. 1 2 3

Marks 20 20 15 10 10 10 5 5 5

III Implementation
Planning Piloting 360 Degree Performance Appraisal

Review

Feedback Fig. 3. Cycle of implementation

Implementation

4 5 6 7 8 9

Participant in Feedback Students' feedback Subject Result HOD Community partnership Self development Peers Principal Lab assistant Self appraisal

Table 1. Marks Rating for teaching staff

vii) viii)
5% 5% 10% 5% 20% 1 2 3 4 5 10% 20% 6 7 8 10% 15% 9

Support Establish goals

Some issues related to execution of 360 degree Performance Appraisal : 1) How will the new process be communicated to staff members? 2) Should an outside consultant be used? 3) Whether computer based evaluation or paper & pencil form be used. For teaching staff members, six questionnaires of following participants are expected : a)HOD b)Student c)Peers d)Principal e)Lab Assistant f)Self Head of institute will take care of marking of community partnerships. At the end, engineering institute can be in a position to prepare Talent Audit System. This is information repository where organizations have a complete inventory of strengths & weaknesses of all the employees in every key position. IV. Reasons to implement 360 degree performance appraisal For educational institutes, it is necessary to align personal goal of staff member with organizational expectation. This system can be used as a diagnostic & assessment tool to increase employee participation & to demonstrate a commitment to their workforce. 1)360 degree feedback determines relationship between strategic plan/vision of institute & performance expectations. 2) It increases focus on customer service & reinforce TQM & continuous process improvement programs. 3)Team based culture can be a catalyst for attaining organizational objectives. Staff members become more inclined to consider factors beyond HODs expectations when exhibiting behaviors & striving for results. 4)It detects barriers to success. Following lacunas come out:-

Pie chart 1 : Marks Rating for teaching staff

Sr. No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Marks 20 20 15 15 10 10 5 5

Participant in Feedback Principal Dept. Staff Students' feedback Subject Result Self development Community partnership Lab assistant Self Appraisal

Table 2. Marks Rating for HOD

5% 10%

5% 20% 1 2 3 4 5 20% 6 7 8 15%

10%

15%

Pie chart 2 : Marks Rating for HOD

It is expected that all marking will be done only after proper setting of questionnaire. Guidelines:i) Ask for self assessment ii) Invite participation iii) Express appreciation iv) Minimize criticism v) Change behavior, not the person. vi) Focus on solving problems

i)

Inflexibility

ii) iii)

Lack of initiative Inappropriate leadership style

5)

iv) Unwillingness to learn recent technologies. Each Dept. can use these results to plan departmental training needs. Easy to implement: Steps of implementation: 1. Design questionnaire 2. Feedback process 3. Evaluation & communication 4. Formation of developmental plans. 5. Follow up 6. Survey. (V) Conclusion Good engineering institutes are those where activities are designed & prompted which result in personal, social, academic & career oriented growth of students & staff. 360 degree performance appraisal is the best tool to achieve this goal. Objective of this system is to identify areas for both organizational & individual improvement.

US office of personnel management supports research that shows assessment approaches with multiple rating sources provide more accurate reliable & credible information. In industries ROI as high as 700% is observed after successful implementation. If implementation takes place in a systematic way, as described then new era of TQM implementation will be open for the educational organizations.

REFERENCES:

1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8)

www.hr.com www.businessballs.com http://humanresources.about.com www.managers.org.uk www.quality.org www.opm.org www.opm.gov TQM-Journal for quality April 2007.