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HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENTS IN MANUFACTURING (001)

Introduction to Manufacturing
What is manufacturing? Does manufacturing benefit human kind?
Is manufacturing important for the economy?
Manufacturing creates goods for our existence. The products of manufacturing are all around us. Every thing we wear, we live in, we travel on, even most of what we eat, has gone through some manufacturing process. Manufacturing ------latin-----manus(hand) ; factus(made) Manufacturing is the making of goods and articles by hand or especially by machinery, often on large scale and with division of labour.

Introduction to Manufacturing
The history of manufacturing is marked by gradual developments ;the cumulative effects have been of such substancial social consequences that they may be rightly regarded as revolutionary. The First Industrial Revolution At the end of 18th century, the development of steam engine made power available in large quantities and many locations. This spurred advances in manufacturing processes providing an abundance of goods ; The industrial revolution was characterized by the mechanical power supplementing the physical power of the worker. Toward the middle of 19th century, some functions of the worker were taken over by machines in which mechanical components such as cams and levers were ingeniously arranged to perform simple and repetitive tasks. Such hard automation eliminated some jobs. Around the turn of 20th century, development was further aided by the introduction of electric power.

Introduction to Manufacturing
The Second Industrial Revolution Beginning with the second half of the 20th century; Computers offerred the undreamed of computational power In the early 1970s the availability of microchip, with thousands of electronic components crammed onto a tiny silicon wafer, made it possible to perform computational, control, planning and management tasks at high speeds Many dangerous, physically challenging and boring jobs(mind skills) are performed by machines/robots controlled by computers. The capability for gathering and processing information has dramatically increased and it is commonly accepted that we have entered the information age. The belief is: we are in the process of developing into a post industrial society, in which manufacturing will wither and the service sector based on information processing will generate wealth.

Introduction to Manufacturing Do we really need manufacturing at all in the information age?


The Economic Role of Manufacturing Engineering:
The factory was the alternative willingly chosen the masses seeking to escape a rural existence burdened by famine and disease.

Manufacturing as a Technical Activity:


Products coming out from high-tech industry face new demands on safety and quality. Its manufacture too demands the most advanced techniques.

The Economic Role of Manufacturing Engineering


The GNP (sum of the value of all goods and services produced in a national economy) can be taken as a measure of material well being, though it excludes the work performed in home, voluntary organisations, etc. By analyzing the components of the GNP, it is evident that material wealth comes from two substantial sources: material resource & knowledge and energy that people apply in utilizing these resources. Manufacturing claimed the largest single share until 1950s. Since then much of the developments are in the service sector.

Increasing wealth is based on increasingly sophisticated manufacturing sector; this inturn creates the need for many increasingly sophisticated supporting activities ( research, design, finance, maintenence, distributon, field service, hospitality, travel industry, etc.) For statistical purposes all these supporting activities are termed as services Yet, unless a nation is exceptionally well endowed with natural resources, strong service sector can exist only if there is a similarly strong manufacturing sector.

The Economic Role of Manufacturing Engineering


In the information age, knowledge is the most valuable commodity. Wealth is generated abundantly by producing tradable articles in which knowledge is embodied (knowledge itself can be bought cheaply). No nation exists in isolation any more, and international trade has grown to a point where economies of all nations are inetrconnected. The flow of goods and services are increasingly liberated from the earlier restrictions. Manufacturing thus occupies a central position in the economies of all nations. Many economic activities provide essential inputs to manufacturing. Manufacturing creates all products needed for the conversion of energy and raw materials: construction, transportation, communication, health care, entertainment and leisure.

Manufacturing as a Technical Activity


Example 1 The jet engine is the machine designed with most advanced knowledge of thermal and fluid engineering principles, using all available computer models for design and performance evaluation. Its manufacture too demands the most advanced techniques, as components are subjected to extreme conditions in operation.

Manufacturing as a Technical Activity Example 1


First Stage : Compression Second Stage : Combustion Third Stage : A large fan at the front of the engine increases thrust by increasing the mass of the air displaced: in a high-bypass turbo fan engine, the bypass ratio is 6:1 or higher, which means that 6 times as much air passes around the engine as passes through it. Compression raises the temperature of the incoming air, and in recent engines, the final-stage compressor blades are required to run red hot; we shall see throughout the text that new materials and technologies had to be developed for making the compressor blades. Developments in super alloys allowed a gradual increase in the operating temperature but a jump in performance came from cooling the blades by passing the uncombusted compressor air through small holes in the airfoil. Thus in addition to developing new processes for difficult ot manufacture alloys , techniques had to be found for very fine deep holes in very hard materials. Everybody recognizes jet engine is high-tech product.

Schematic diagram illustrating the operation of a low-bypass turbofan engine

A Pratt & Whitney F100 turbofan engine for the F-15 Eagle being tested in the hush house at Florida Air National Guard base. The tunnel behind the engine muffles noise and allows exhaust to escape (www.en.wikipedia.org)

Manufacturing as a Technical Activity- Example 2


Many changes had to be made by the automobile industry in the existing design of the automobiles, to satisfy new demands regarding safety, pollution level, gasoline consumption, durability, and quality of product. These changes have affected the choice of materials and manufacturing techniques.

Early automobile bodies had a steel frame to which wooden panels were attached. Soon wood was replaced with all steel body that was secured to a heavier chasis.

First bits get assembled onto chassis 1200cc Herald on Burlingtons new ladder chassis. Frame at the back is where the petrol tank will go.

A bare chassis of the new Proton Exora MPV exhibited at the Proton Technology Week.

The desire for weight reduction has led to uni-body construction

Polski Fiat on its side


The all-welded frameless steel bodies were made of low carbon steel which has desirable forming properties.

Aluminium chassis
Further interest in weight reduction and corrosion resistance led to the introduction of galvanized steel , HSLA steel and Al alloys specially for automotive applications. Much had to be learnt about the forming capabilities of these materials so as to predict their formability to comlex shapes.

Manufacturing as a Technical Activity- Example 2


Polymers have also been used first as fiber glass reinforced epoxies and more recently as mass produced body parts attached to a precision machined drivable steel space frame. The car, in its entirety, has become a sophisticated product, with several onboard computers performing critical control functions. Auto production now has all the characteristics of a high-tech industry.

Manufacturing as a Technical Activity- Example 3


Bioengineering offers examples where manufacturing benefits humans directly. One of the most frequently performed orthopaedic surgeries is the replacement of arthritic hip joints with surgical implants.Materials had to be found that could be implanted in to the body without adverse reactions that could withstand the adverse dynamic loading (of millions of cycles per year) by ever youger and active patients. The shape of the spherical head is critical and techniques had to be developed for high-precision machining. Better ways of fastening the replacement in the bones also had to be found since adhesive joints frequently fail after some years of service.

Hip joint replacements are advanced manufacturing products


The Ti alloy stem is inserted into the femur (thighbone) and the cup into the acetabulum (socket of the hip bone), with a wire resistant polymer lining providing the sliding surface( Zimmer Inc, Warsaw, Indiana)
Pure Ti wire of 0.25mm diameter is sintered into a porous mass to provide room for the ingrowth of fresh tissue which fixes the implant of the bone of an experimental animal( Dr.W.Rostoker).

Manufacturing as a Technical Activity- Example 4


Micro-electronics which is the heart of the second industrial revolution could be exploited only by adapting old and creating new manufacturing technologies, for new materials. Advanced manufacturing processes have made it possible to create millions of components on a single silicon chip.

Synthetic detail of an integrated circuit through four layers of planarized copper interconnect, down to the polysilicon (pink), wells (greyish), and substrate (green)

Microchips (EPROM memory) with a transparent window, showing the integrated circuit inside. Note the fine silver-colored wires that connect the integrated circuit to the pins of the package. The window allows the memory contents of the chip to be erased, by exposure to strong ultraviolet light in an eraser device

References
Introduction to Manufacturing, John.A.Schey, 3rd Edition, Mc Graw Hill International Editions, 2000. (www.en.wikipedia.org)