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3.1
Introduction
The partial differential equations governing fluid flow and heat transfer include the continuity equation, the NavierStokes equations and the energy equation. These equations are intimately coupled and nonlinear making a general analytic solution impossible except for a limited number of special problems, where the equations can be reduced to yield analytic solutions. Because most practical problems of interest do not fall into this limited category, approximate methods are used to determine the solution to these equations. There are numerous methods available for doing so. The following sections briefly describe the method used by CFdesign. However, first some general definitions are presented.
3.1.1 Fluid Flow Definitions
The following paragraphs define some of the terms associated with fluid flow and computational fluid dynamics (CFD).
3.1.1.1 Incompressible  Compressible
The term compressible refers to the relationship between density and pressure. If a flow is compressible, changes in fluid pressure affect its density and vice versa. Com pressible flows involve gases at very high speeds. One major difference between com pressible and incompressible flow is seen in both the physical nature of pressure and consequently, the mathematical character of the pressure equation. For incompressible flow, downstream effects are felt everywhere immediately and the pressure equation is mathematically elliptic, requiring downstream boundary conditions. For compressible flow, particularly supersonic flows, downstream pressure cannot affect anything
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upstream and the pressure equation is hyperbolic, requiring only upstream boundary conditions. Downstream boundaries must be left free of pressure constraints.
3.1.1.2 Mach Number
One measure of compressibility is the Mach number, defined as the fluid velocity divided by the speed of sound, defined as:
a
=
(EQ 1)
where
Gas Constant and
can be assumed to be incompressible. Above this value, compressible effects are becoming more influential and must be considered for accurate solutions.
a
is the speed of sound,
γ
is the ratio of the specific heats,
R
is the Universal
T is the static temperature. For Mach numbers less than 0.3, flows
3.1.1.3 Adiabatic Compressible
If there are no heat transfer effects and the fluid is moving below sonic velocities (Mach = 1.0), the flow can be considered adiabatic. For this type of flow, total energy is conserved. That is, the sum of kinetic and thermal energy is a constant. In equation form, this can be expressed as:
^{h}
total
=
1
ρV ^{2}
2
+
^{h}
static
(EQ 2)
where V is the velocity,
energy. Assuming an ideal gas, this equation can be written using temperature:
ρ is the density and h is the volumetric enthalpy, a measure of
^{T}
total
=  1 ρV  ^{2}
2
C
p
+
^{T}
static
(EQ 3)
where C _{p} is the mechanical specific heat value calculated using:
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c
γR
=  gas
p γ – 1
(EQ 4)
where
cific heat and
called the stagnation gas temperature. The first term on the right hand side of this equa
tion is referred to as the dynamic temperature.
γ is the ratio of the constant pressure specific heat to the constant volume spe
R is the gas constant for this gas. The total temperature is also
3.1.1.4 Transonic, Supersonic and Hypersonic Flow
These 3 terms are classifications of compressible flow. Transonic flow is at or near sonic velocities. Supersonic refers to the Mach number range: 1<Ma<5. Flows with Mach numbers greater than 5 are called hypersonic. Transonic and supersonic flows can be modelled using the Ideal Gas assumption:
ρ
=
p

RT
(EQ 5)
Hypersonic flows cannot be modelled using the Ideal Gas assumption and must con sider real gas effects.
3.1.1.5 Absolute, Total, Static and Dynamic Values
The term absolute is used in conjunction with pressure. Normally, the solution to the pressure equation is a relative pressure. This relative pressure does not contain the gravitational head or the rotational head or the reference pressure. It is the part of the pressure that is affected by the velocities in the momentum equation directly. The absolute pressure adds the gravitational and rotational heads and the reference pres sure to that calculated from the pressure equation. Referring to the relative pressure as
^{p} rel
, the absolute pressure is calculated as:
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^{p} absolute
=
p
rel
++
p
ref
ρ
∑
ref
i
g X
i
i
+
∑
^{ρ} ref
i
ω ^{2} X
i
2
i
(EQ 6)
refers to the 3 coor
dinate directions,
reference density is calculated at the beginning of the analysis using the reference pressure and temperature. For flows with a constant density, the reference density is the constant value. For flows which have no gravitational or rotational heads, the rela tive pressure is the gage pressure.
where the
ref
subscript refers to reference values, the subscript
i
g is the gravitional acceleration and
ω is the rotational speed. The
The terms dynamic and static are used most commonly with compressible fluids. The dynamic values are kinetic energylike terms:
^{T} dynamic
^{p} dynamic
=  V ^{2}
=
2c
p
1
ρV ^{2}
2
(EQ 7)
(EQ 8)
Note that the specific heat used to calculate the dynamic temperature is not the ther mal value entered on the property window, but is a mechanical value calculated using:
c
γR
=  gas
p γ – 1
(EQ 9)
where
cific heat and
γ is the ratio of the constant pressure specific heat to the constant volume spe
^{R} gas
is the gas constant for this gas.
The static temperature is determined by solving the energy equation. For adiabatic properties, the energy equation that is used to determine the static temperature is the constant total temperature equation. Hence, the static temperature is the total or stag nation temperature minus the dynamic temperature.
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The static pressure is the absolute pressure shown earlier. The total temperature is the sum of the static and dynamic temperatures. The total pressure is the sum of the static or absolute pressure and the dynamic pressure.
3.1.1.6 Laminar  Turbulent
Laminar flow is characterized by smooth, steady fluid motion. Turbulent flow is fluc tuating and agitated motion. The measure of whether a flow is laminar or turbulent is the speed of the fluid. Laminar flow is typically much slower than turbulent flow. The dimensionless number which is used to classify a flow as either laminar or turbulent is the Reynolds number defined as:
Re
=  ρVL
µ
(EQ 10)
where
greater than ~2500, the flow exhibits turbulent flow phenomena. Most engineering flows are turbulent.
ρ is the density, V is the velocity and
µ is the viscosity. For Reynolds numbers
Between the laminar and turbulent flow regimes is the transitional flow regime. In this flow regime, the flow goes through several stages of nonlinear behavior before it becomes fully turbulent. These stages are highly unstable, the flow can rapidly change from one type of behavior (turbulent spots, e.g.) to another (vortex breakdown, e.g.) and back again. Due to the unstable nature of this type of flow, it is difficult to numer ically predict.
3.1.1.7 Inviscid  Viscous Flow
Theory
Flows for which viscosity or shear effects are neglected are called inviscid. Viscous flows include viscosity or shear effects. All fluids have viscosity. However, there are a limited number of applications where shear effects can be neglected and meaningful results can be obtained.
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Inviscid flows are a class of ideal flows which are solved using Euler equations. These equations are a subset of the NavierStokes equations. Some compressible flow codes solve the Euler equations instead of the NavierStokes. The Euler equations are numerically easier to solve because the mathematical character of the equations never changes. If you include viscous effects, then the solution domain contains areas where elliptic effects dominate and also areas where hyperbolic effects dominate. This is a much more challenging problem.
If the inviscid flow is also irrotational, then you can define a velocity potential func
tion to represent the flow. Such flow is called potential flow. This type of flow is numerically easier still than solving Euler equations, because a single equation can be solved to determine all of the flow parameters. The assumptions of inviscid and irrota tional are extremely limiting. However, potential flow solutions can offer some infor mation regarding flow patterns for a very restricted class of fluid flow problems.
3.1.1.8 Boundary Layer Flow
As a fluid flows over a rigid surface, a boundary layer forms. This boundary layer grows as you move along the surface. The fluid shear is largely contained in the boundary layer. Boundary layer flow refers to a class of fluid flow problems which are primarily concerned with the growth of this shear layer. The boundary layer flow may be next to a surface or a jet wake type flow. For most boundary layer flows, the pres sure in the boundary layer is virtually constant. Outside the boundary layer, the pres sure gradient can be varying wildly and this will affect the boundary layer flow. This type of flow is characterized mathematically as parabolic since information is essen tially oneway, along the direction of boundary layer growth.
3.1.1.9 Newtonian or NonNewtonian Fluid
A Newtonian fluid is one which exhibits a linear relationship between fluid shear and
strain:
τ
xy
=
_{µ} ∂u
∂y

(EQ 11)
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where is the fluid shear stress, the velocity gradient represents one component of the strain rate tensor and is the coefficient of viscosity. For Newtonian fluids, the vis cosity is either constant or a function of temperature. For nonNewtonian fluids, the shear stress is a nonlinear function of the strain rate because the viscosity is also a function of the strain rate:
τ
µ
^{τ} xy
=
_{η} , ∂u _{η}
∂y
=
f
∂u

∂y
(EQ 12)
For a nonNewtonian power law fluid, the shear stress is written as:
^{τ} xy
=
_{m} ∂u

∂y
n
(EQ 13)
where m is the consistency index and n is the power law index. In terms of viscosity, this equation can be written:
µ
=
^{µ} 0
∂V

i
∂X _{j}
^{p}
where
µ _{0}
=
m
and
p
=
n – 1 .
A
HerschelBulkley nonNewtonian fluid can be described as:
In
^{τ} xy
=
τ
0
+
_{k} ∂u

∂y
n
terms of viscosity, this can be written as:
µ
=
µ
0
+
k
∂V

i
∂X _{j}
^{p}
(EQ 14)
(EQ 15)
(EQ 16)
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Another nonNewtonian fluid representation is a Carreau model fluid:
µ –
^{µ} ∞
 =
^{µ} 0
– ^{µ} ∞
1 +
∂V
i
λ 
∂X _{j}
^{2}
n – 1

2
(EQ 17)
). Fluids which are
considered nonNewtonian include: plastic, blood, slurries, rubber and paper pulp.
Most engineering flows are Newtonian (air, water, oil, steam,
3.1.1.10 Conduction, Convection, Conjugate and Radiation Heat
Transfer
There are three modes by which heat can be transferred. In conduction, heat is trans ferred via molecular motion. The heat transfer rate is dependent upon the thermal con ductivity. Convection heat transfer refers to heat being transported by fluid motion. Radiation heat transfer is an electromagnetic phenomena which is dependent upon the optical conditions of the radiating media. Conjugate heat transfer refers to the combi nation of 2 or all 3 of these modes of heat transfer.
3.1.1.11 SurfaceToSurface Radiation
For most engineering applications, radiant energy interchange occurs from one solid surface to another. The gas contained by the solids is generally nonparticipatory. The exception to this rule is if the gas is burning or heated as in a furnace. The surfaceto surface radiant interchange will affect the surface temperatures and hence the gas tem peratures via convection and conduction. To include radiant interchange in the gov erning equations, an additional heat flux term, q _{r} is added to the wall surface elements. This term is calculated from:
^{q} ri
=
^{A} i
(
^{G} i
–
^{J} i
)
(EQ 18)
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where
tion.
element face
^{q} ri is the incident radiation on the face of element
G _{i}
i . The radiosity can be written as:
i
is the net heat flux to the fluid at element i
from surfacetosurface radia
and
^{J} i
is the radiosity of
^{J} i
=
( 1 – ε )G
i
i
+
^{ε} i ^{E} bi
(EQ 19)
where
power of element surface
^{ε}
i
is the emissivity of element surface
i :
^{E} bi
=
4
σT _{i}
i
and
^{E} bi
is the black body emissive
(EQ 20)
where 
σ 
is the StefanBoltzman constant. The incident radiation can be calculated 
from: 
^{G} i
=
N
∑
j = 1
^{J} j ^{F} i – j
(EQ 21)
where
the calculation i – j of the radiant heat flux requires the the calculation of view factors between all of the element surfaces. This calculation normally requires a great deal of computer memory and takes quite a long time. However, CFdesign uses an innovative approach to calculating view factors which is approximate but quite accurate for engi neering calculations. This approach is very fast and requires very little extra memory.
F
is the view factor between element surface
i
and element surface
j
. So
Theory
3.1.1.12 Natural, Mixed and Forced Convection
These terms refer to the type of heat transfer. In natural convection, fluid motion is generated or at least dominated by temperature differences which affect the fluid prop erties, most notably the density. These flows are also referred to as buoyantdriven flows because the gravity term or buoyancy term in the momentum equations domi nates the flow. Conversely, in forced convection flows, the temperature is dominated
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by the fluid motion and buoyancy or gravity has little or no effect. Mixed convection is a combination of these two, where fluid motion and buoyancy may both play a role. Natural convection frequently has no openings or no clearly defined inlets. Forced convection always has inlet region(s) and outlet region(s), as does mixed convection. Free convection is an unenclosed or open natural convection problem.
Convection problems may also be laminar or turbulent. For forced convection and most mixed convection problems, the Reynolds number is again the measure for determining flow regimes. For natural convection flows, the Grashof number is the measure. The Grashof number is defined as:
Gr
=  βgL ^{3} ∆T ν ^{2}
(EQ 22)
where
is a characteristic length, T is the temperature and
times, the Rayleigh number, which is combination of the Grashof and Prandtl num bers, is also referenced. The Prandtl number is defined as:
β is the volumetric expansion coefficient, g is the gravitational acceleration, L
ν is kinematic viscosity. Some
Pr
=  ^{C} P ^{µ}
k
The Rayleigh number is defined as:
Ra = GrPr
Ra
Ra
=
 βgL ^{3} ∆T  ^{C} p ^{µ}
ν ^{2}
k
L ^{3} ∆T
= 
βgρ ^{2} C
p
µk
where Cp is the constant pressure specific heat, density and k is the thermal conductivity.
µ
is the absolute viscosity,
ρ
(EQ 23)
(EQ 24)
is the
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3.1.1.13 Film Coefficients
CFdesign will calculate convection or film coefficients in one of two ways. The first way is to calculate the heat transfer residual. The heat transfer residual is calculated by forming the energy equation and substituting the last temperature (or enthalpy values) solution into the formed equations. The residual is the amount of heat required to maintain the solution temperature.
The heat transfer residual is used to determine the film coefficient from the relation:
h
= ^{q}  residual ∆T
(EQ 25)
where the temperature difference is that between the wall value and a near wall value.
The second method is to use an empirical correlation based on the Reynodls number. The empirical correlation requires the calculation of the Nusselt number which is defined as:
Nu
=
 hL
k
(EQ 26)
where h is the film coefficient, L is a characteristic length and k is the thermal conduc tivity. The Nusselt number is a ratio of convective to conductive heat transfer. The correlation that is used by CFdesign to calculate the Nusselt number is:
Nu
= CRe ^{a} Pr ^{b}
(EQ 27)
Theory
where Pr is the Prandtl number, a, b and C are constants. Note that both the Nusselt number and Reynolds number are dependent on a length. These lengths are not neces sarily the same and frequently are different. The Reynolds number length is usually an opening length, a cylinder diameter or step height. The Nusselt number length is gen erally the length along the surface for which film coefficients are being calculated.
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3.1.1.14 Distributed Resistances
For geometries with numerous flow obstacles, distributed resistances can be used to reduce the overall size (number of finite elements) of the problem. Rather than model each flow obstacle with the detail required to resolve pressure and velocity gradients, the flow obstacles can be modelled on a much larger scale and represented by a sink term in the momentum equations. They are effectively modelled as an extra pressure drop. In a shellandtube heat exchanger for example, the tubed region can be mod elled using a distributed resistance term rather than modelling each tube individually. This modelling technique can be used to model vents, louvres, packed beds, gratings, tube banks, card cages, filters and other porous media.
There are three forms which the distributed resistance terms can take. The first is the loss coefficient form, where the excess pressure gradient is written as:
∂p

∂ ^{X} i
=
^{K} i
2
ρV

2
i
(EQ 28)
where the i indicates a global coordinate direction. The Kfactor can be determined from measurements of pressure drop versus flow rate. This factor can also be found in fluid resistance handbooks such as: Handbook of Hydraulic Resistance, 3rd edition by I.E. Idelchik, published by CRC Press, 1994 (ISBN 0849399084). Note that the K factor used by CFdesign has units of length ^{}^{1} . Most handbooks use an unitlessKfac tor.
The second form for entering distributed resistances is the friction factor method. In this form, the excess pressure gradient is written as:
∂p

∂
^{X} i
=
f
2
ρV _{i}
 
^{D} H
2
(EQ 29)
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where f is the friction factor and D _{H} is the hydraulic diameter. The friction factor can be calculated using the Moody relation:
where
length units.
ε is the surface roughness in length units and
^{D} H
(EQ 30)
is the hydraulic diameter in
Friction factor can also be calculated using the relation:
f
=
aRe –b _{D} H
where a and b are constants.
(EQ 31)
The last form for the distributed resistance terms follows the Darcy relation:
where C is the permeability and
∂p

i
X
∂
=
CµV _{i}
µ is the fluid viscosity.
(EQ 32)
The form which should be used depends upon the information that is available. As mentioned previously, if pressure drop versus flow rate data is available, the Kfactor method is probably the best. For some packed beds, the permeability may be available and the last form is best. For geometries with large banks of tubes, the friction factor may be the most suitable form.
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3.1.2 Mathematical Concepts
The following paragraphs present definitions of some of the mathematical terms that are associated with solving CFD equations.
3.1.2.1 Linear  Nonlinear
The governing equations are listed in the next section. In these equations, two types of nonlinearities appear. The first kind of nonlinearity is exemplified by the advection terms. For example, in the u velocity equation, there appears a term:

ρu ^{∂}^{u} ∂x
(EQ 33)
So in these terms, u depends on the product of u and its derivative. The second of type of non linearity that appears in the governing equations is that the properties or fac tors of the terms depend upon the dependent variable. For example, the density in the energy equation depends upon the temperature, for which the equation is solved. Also, the eddy viscosity used for turbulent flows for the diffusion terms in the velocity equa tions is highly dependent upon the velocities. These two types of nonlinearities are by far the predominant influences on the numerical solution. For this reason, the equa tions must be solved in an iterative manner.
3.1.2.2 Explicit  Implicit
If a term is treated implicitly, it becomes part of the coefficient matrix and thus part of the solution. If it is treated explicitly, then previous iterates’ values are used instead of the most current information. These terms are usually part of the source term or the load vector. They are determined after the current iteration’s solution. For numerical stability, it is best to treat as many terms implicitly as possible.
For transient analyses, an implicit discretization method is used. This implies that the value at the current time is dependent on the neighboring values at the current time. An explicit discretization method implies that the value at the current time is depen
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dent on the neighboring values from the previous time. An implicit formulation is unconditionally stable numerically  it will yield a solution irregardless of the size of the time step. However, it requires an iterative solution within each time step. An explicit formulation is only conditionally stable numerically. It is highly dependent and frequently highly restrictive in terms of time step size. It is not unheard of to use time steps of 1.E10 seconds for explicit formulations. However, you do not need to iterate the solution inside each time step.
3.1.2.3 Symmetric  NonSymmetric
The governing partial differential equations in the next section are discretized, using finite elements, into a set of algebraic equations with the unknowns being nodal values of the solution variables. These algebraic equations can be written in matrix form as:
^{A} ij ^{U} j
=
^{F} i
(EQ 34)
where is the load vector, is the unknown vector and is the coefficient matrix.
^{F} i
^{U} j
^{A} ij
For a symmetric system of equations, the upper diagonals of A are a mirror image of the lower diagonals, i.e.,
^{A} 12
=
^{A} 21
^{A} 34
=
^{A} 43
(EQ 35)
For nonsymmetric systems, this is not true. In general, second order derivative terms (e.g., diffusion terms) will produce symmetric matrices and first order derivatives (advection terms) produce nonsymmetric matrices.
3.2 Governing Equations
Theory
The following paragraphs list the partial differential equations governing fluid flow and some of the associated constitutive terms.
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3.2.1 General Fluid Flow/Heat Transfer Equations
The governing equations for fluid flow and heat transfer are the NavierStokes or momentum equations and the First Law of Thermodynamics or energy equation. The governing pdes can be written as:
(EQ 36)
(EQ 37)
(EQ 38)
(EQ 39)
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The two source terms in the momentum equations are for distributed resistances and rotating coordinates, respectively. The distributed resistance term can be written in general as:
^{S} DR
=
–
K
i
2
ρV

f
2
i
+ 
H
D
–
CµV _{i}
(EQ 40)
where i refers to the global coordinate direction (u, v, w momentum equation) and the other terms are described in the previous section. Note that the Kfactor term can oper ate on a single momentum equation at a time because each direction has its own unique Kfactor. The other two resistance types operate equally on each momentum equation.
The other source term is for rotating flow. This term can be written in general as:
^{S} ω
=
– 2ρω
i
×
V
i
–
ρω _{i} ×
where i refers to the global coordinate direction, distance from the axis of rotation.
ω
i
×
^{r} i
(EQ 41)
ω is the rotational speed and r is the
For incompressible and subsonic compressible flow, the energy equation is written in terms of static temperature:
∂
∂T
k 
∂y
∂
∂T
k 
∂z
+++
∂y
∂z
^{q} V
(EQ 42)
Theory
For compressible flow, the energy equation is written in terms of total temperature:
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(EQ 43)
where
total energy equation for conciseness. The last three terms are only present for com
pressible flows.
Φ is the dissipation function. Note that Einstein tensor notation is used for the
The variables in these equations are defined in Table 1.
Variable 
Description 

^{C} 
p 
constant pressure specific heat 
g _{x} , g _{y} , g _{z} 
gravitational acceleration in x, y, z directions 

k 
thermal conductivity 

p 
pressure 

^{q} 
V 
volumetric heat source 
T 
temperature 

t 
time 

u 
velocity component in xdirection 

v 
velocity component in ydirection 

w 
velocity component in zdirection 

µ 
viscosity 

ρ 
density 
Note, the coupling between equations: xmomentum depends on ymomentum, etc. Besides, the nonlinearities discussed previously, this coupling between the equations is a source of solution difficulties.
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The continuity, momentum and energy equations represent 5 equations in the 5 unknowns: u, v, w, p, T or T _{0} . They describe the fluid flow and heat transfer under steadystate conditions for Cartesian geometries.
For axisymmetric geometriesand steadystate conditions with swirl velocity compo nent (outofplane component), these equations can be written as:
∂
µ  ^{v} z
∂r
2µv _{r}
– 
^{2}
r
∂
rµ  ^{v} z
∂r
∂
rµ  ^{u} r
∂z
∂
µ  ^{v} z
∂z
S
DR
+
^{S} ω
(EQ 44)
(EQ 45)
(EQ 46)
(EQ 47)
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The energy equations have no additional terms for axisymmetric flows. Note that the
w velocity component is the swirl velocity.
3.2.2 Turbulent Flow
The threedimensional timedependent continuity, NavierStokes and energy equa tions apply to laminar as well as turbulent flow. However, due to the infinite number
of time and length scales inherent in turbulent flows, the solution of these equations
would require a great deal of finite elements (on the order of 10 ^{6}  10 ^{8} ) even for a sim ple geometry as well as near infinitesimal time steps. For most practical applications,
it is unreasonable to model the flow in this manner.
To circumvent the need for such immense computer resources, the governing pdes are averaged over the scales present. There are several choices of scale types available for averaging. CFdesign solves the timeaveraged governing equations.
The timeaveraged equations are obtained by assuming that the dependent variables can be represented as a superposition of a mean value and a fluctuating value, where the fluctuation is about the mean. For example, the xvelocity component can be writ ten as:
u
=
Uu+
′
(EQ 48)
where U is the mean velocity and u
tation is substituted into the governing equations and the equations themselves are averaged over time. Using the notation that capital letters represent the mean values and lower case letters represent fluctuating values except for temperature, the aver aged governing equations can be written as:
′ is the fluctuation about that mean. This represen
∂ρ
∂ρv
 +++  = 0

∂y
∂t
∂ρu

∂x
∂ρw
∂z
continuity
equation
(EQ 49)
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(EQ 50)
(EQ 51)
(EQ 52)
(EQ 53)
Note that the averaging process has produced extra terms in the momentum and
energy equations: uu, uv, uw, vv, vw, ww, C _{p} uT , C _{p} vT ,
ρ
C
_{p} wT
′
ρρρ
ρρ
ρ
ρ
ρ
′
′
. These terms are combinations of fluctuating quantities resulting from
Theory
averaging the nonlinear inertia or advection terms. The extra terms in the momentum
equations are called the Reynolds stress terms.
With the addition of these extra terms, the above equations now represent 5 equations
with 14 unknowns: U, V, W, P, T,
ρρρ
uu,
uv,
uw,
ρρ
vv,
vw,
ρ
ww,
ρ
C
p
ut,
ρ
C _{p} vt,
ρ C _{p} wt. Additional equations can be derived for these last 9 extra terms by taking
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moments of the above equations. However, the process of taking moments of these equations will introduce still more unknowns. This closure problem can continue ad infinitum. At some point, the decision must be made to stop creating equations (and thus new terms) and find a way to “model” the extra terms; i.e., relate these terms back to the previous unknowns. At the zeroth level of closure, the Reynolds stress terms are linked to the mean values of the dependent variables, U, V, W, T.
One zeroth level closure that is widely used is the Boussinesq approximation which defines an eddy viscosity and eddy conductivity:
^{µ} t
== –ρuu
_{2} ∂U


∂x
–ρuv

∂U
∂V
 + 
∂y
∂x
=  –ρvw
∂V
 + 
∂W
∂y
∂z
=
^{k} t
wt
=== 
–
ρC _{p}
ut

–
ρC _{p}
vt
–
ρC _{p}
 

∂T 
∂T 
∂T 
 
 
 
∂x 
∂y 
∂z 
…
(EQ 54)
(EQ 55)
Note these definitions imply that the effect of turbulence is isotropic.
If these definitions are used in the averaged equations, the result is:
∂ρV
 +++  = 0

∂ρ
∂y
∂ρU

∂x
∂ρW
∂z
∂t
continuity
equation
(EQ 56)
(EQ 57)
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(EQ 58)
(EQ 59)
(EQ 60)
This leaves only the eddy viscosity and eddy conductivity to be determined.
CFdesign uses a twoequation model to determine these variables. The two equations describe the transport of the turbulent kinetic energy, K and the turbulent energy dissi
pation,
ε . The eddy viscosity and eddy conductivity are calculated using:
^{µ} t
=

^{C} µ ^{ρ} K 2
ε
(EQ 61)
^{k} t
^{µ} t ^{C} p
= 
^{σ} t
(EQ 62)
where
constant. The transport equations for K and
momentum equations. They are:
^{σ} t
is a turbulent Prandt number, usually taken to be 1.0 and
^{C}
µ
is an empirical
ε are derived using moments of the
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All of the modelled constants associated with this model are listed in Table 2. With
these two equations, there are now 9 equations in 9 unknowns: U, V, W, P, T,
K,
^{µ} t
, k _{t} ,
ε
.
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Constant 
Value 
CFdesign Name 
Result of Increasing Value 

^{C} 
µ 
0.09 
CMu 
more mixing, mores shear, greater change in pressure 
C 
1 
1.44 
CE1 
less mixing, lower shear, smaller change in pressure 
C 
2 
1.92 
CE2 
more mixing, mores shear, greater change in pressure 
^{σ} 
K 
1.0 
(not available for user modifica tion) 

^{σ} 
ε 
1.3 
(not available for user modifica tion) 
The twoequation turbulence model just described has been used for numerous appli cations and generally works quite well for most engineering applications. However, this turbulence model does not predict separation points as accurately as is sometimes required. To improve the prediction of separation without greatly increasing the com plexity of the analysis and usually the ability to obtain a solution, another twoequa tion model called the RNG twoequation model is also available in CFdesign. In this model, the momentum equations are transformed to wavenumber space and renor malization group theory is used to derive the equations for calculating eddy viscosity. Because the resulting equations have a firmer theoretical foundation, the results using the RNG model are usually more accurate. However, this model is less stable numeri cally and hence subject to more convergence difficulties. It is probably best to start an analysis with the original twoequation model and then switch at some point to the RNG model.
Theory
The RNG turbulence model is also an eddy viscosity turbulence model. The turbulent kinetic energy and turbulent dissipation rate are calculated as before. The difference between the two turbulence models lies in the determination of the constants in Table 2. The values for the RNG model are listed in Table 3 with C1 caluculated using the expression:
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where
η
G
is defined as:
=
2
∂U ^{2}

∂x
+
∂V

∂y
2
+
^{C} 1
=
∂W ^{2}

∂z
ε
∂U
 + 
∂x
∂V
2
++
∂y
∂U
 + 
∂W
∂z
∂x
2
+
∂V
 + 
∂W ^{2}
∂y
∂z
(EQ 65)
(EQ 66)
While several of the constants in Tables 2 and 3 can be adjusted by the user, care should be taken in interpreting the results using modified parameters.
Constant 
Value 
CFdesign Name 
Result of Increasing Value 

^{C} 
µ 
0.085 
CMu 
more mixing, mores shear, greater change in pressure 
C 
0 
1.42 
RNG CE0 
less mixing, lower shear, smaller change in pressure 
C 
2 
1.68 
CE2 
more mixing, mores shear, greater change in pressure 
β 
0.015 
RNG Beta 
more mixing, mores shear, greater change in pressure 

η 
0 
4.38 
RNG Eta 
more mixing, mores shear, greater change in pressure 
^{σ} 
K 
0.7179 
(not available for user modifica tion) 

σ 
ε 
0.7179 
(not available for user modifica tion) 
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3.2.2.1 Inflow Boundary Condition
Inlet boundary conditions must be specified for K and
are available. However, in most practical applications, they are not and estimates must be made for them. In order to arrive at these estimates, some definitions will be needed.
ε . In rare cases, these values
The turbulent kinetic energy is defined as:
K
=
1

2
( u ^{2} +
v
2
+ w ^{2} )
(EQ 67)
where the velocities in this equation are the fluctuating portion of the velocity. The turbulence intensity is defined as:
I
w
=== 
u

v

U
V
W
(EQ 68)
The combination of two equations above yield an estimate for the inlet turbulent kinetic energy based on the inlet velocity distribution:
K
=
1

2
[ (IU) ^{2} +
(IV)
2
+ (IW) ^{2} ]
(EQ 69)
The turbulence intensity is more frequently available or can be more easily guessed. This value can be entered by the user under the “CONTROL” main menu and the “TURBULENCE PARAMETERS” submenu. It is listed as the INTENSITY FAC TOR”. A default of 5% is used for internal flows and 1% for external flows. If the incoming flow is highly turbulent such as in swirling flows, a higher value on the order of 1020% may be substituted for the default. In many internal flow cases, the inlet values do not play a significant role in the downstream effects where local shear dominates the turbulence quantities.
Theory
The turbulent energy dissipation can be defined in terms of length scale as:
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ε
=
^{C} µ
_{K} 1.5

^{δ} s
(EQ 70)
^{δ} s
where is the length scale. Again, the length scale is not typically available so an
estimate should be used. The length scale is normally reported as a fraction of the the inlet opening. On TURBULENCE PARAMETERS window, we call this fraction the LENGTH SCALE FACTOR”. For most internal flows, this fraction can be assumed to be 1% which is the default value. For external flows the wall surface area is used to calculate a length scale. Since the length scale is usually quite small in external flows, a LENGTH SCALE FACTOR of 0.1% is used for the default value. If the pressure coefficient at the stagnation point is extraordinarily large, the LENGTH SCALE FACTOR should be reduced further.
3.2.2.2 Wall Model
Both of the turbulence models discussed in the previous section are “high Reynolds number” models. That is, these models are only strictly applicable in the fully turbu lent regime and do not apply to the inner layers of the boundary layer. There are “low Reynolds number” models which can be used in the boundary layer and which theo retically apply to re laminarization zones as well. However, these models require that several nodes (10  100) be placed within the boundary layer (y ^{+} values of 1 to 5). For most engineering flows, this mesh requirement would preclude the use of these mod els as the total analysis model would likely be in the millions of nodes. Rather than use the low Reynolds number models, we have chosen to implement the high Reynolds number models and then use “wall functions” to model the turbulent flow next to the wall. The “wall functions” replace the turbulence model in the wall elements and gen erally only require the placement of one node in the boundary layer. The use of wall functions with high Reynolds number turbulence models do quite well for most turbu lent flows.
The main purpose of the “wall functions” is to enforce the Law of the Wall, which can be written as:
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where B and defined as:
U ^{+}
1 
log 
+ 
+ B 

= 
 
y 

κ 
(EQ 71)
κ are dimensionless constants. The inner variables U ^{+} and y ^{+} are
U ^{+}
y ^{+}
ν
(EQ 72)
where U _{t} is the velocity tangent to the wall,
sity,
adjusts the wall effective viscosity based on the velocity and fluid properties next to
the wall to enforce the Law of the Wall. With the exception of separating flow, the Law of the Wall is quite valid in the range:
^{τ} w
is the wall shear stress,
ρ is the den
δ
is the distance from the wall, and
ν
is the kinematic viscosity. CFdesign
35
≤
y ^{+} ≤ 350
(EQ 73)
The y ^{+} values calculated by CFdesign are output to the postprocessor files so they can be plotted. For some of the verification problems which were done by CFdesign, we found that y ^{+} values below 35 were usually associated with underpredicting the pressure drop in internal flows. Values of y ^{+} above 350 corresponded to overpredict ing the pressure drop in internal flows. Also, it is not uncommon to observe y ^{+} values outside of this range near the inlet, especially if a uniform velocity field is specified at this boundary.
For rough walls, the Law of the Wall is modified as:
U ^{+}
=
1
 log
κ
y
+
+
B
–
1

κ
log
1
+
rS
V
.3 
ν
(EQ 74)
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where r is the average roughness height (in length units) measured from the wall, is the kinematic viscosity and S _{V} is the shear velocity. The default value of r is 0.0, so the extra roughness terms disappear as a result. This value can be changed by the user from the “CONTROL” main menu and “TURBULENCE PARAMETERS” sub menu. Note that the value entered in CFdesign is used for all walls.
ν
The wall constants which can be changed and their default values are listed in Table 4.
Constant 
Value 
CFdesign Name 
Result of Increasing Value 
A ^{+} 
26.0 
VanDriest 
less thermal mixing in wall boundary layer 
B 
5.50 
Wall Parameter 
lower wall shear, smaller change in pressure 
r 
0.0 
Roughness 
higher wall shear, greater change in pressure 
κ 
0.40 
Kappa 
higher wall shear, greater change in pressure 
For turbulent heat transfer problems, the Temperature Law of the Wall is enforced. Two different forms of this relationship are used by CFdesign depending upon the rel ative values of the turbulent and laminar Prandtl numbers. The difference between the two equations is which expression is substituted for the eddy viscosity distribution near the wall. In the first case, Spalding’s Inner Law [1] is used to obtain:
T ^{+}
=
σ
L
U
+
σ
S
– σ
T
L
κ
V
log
1

^{σ} L
+ 
1
^{σ} T
κe
–κB
1
+
rS
V
.3 
ν
e
U
κ 
S
V
(EQ 75)
where
laminar Prandtl number is:
^{σ} L
is the laminar Prandtl number and
^{σ}
T
is the turbulent Prandtl number. The
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^{σ} L
C µ
p
= 
k
(EQ 76)
Here, C
tivity. T ^{+} is defined as:
p
is the specific heat,
µ is the absolute viscosity and k is the thermal conduc
T ^{+}
^{C} p ^{δ}^{τ} _{w}
= 
^{k} w
(EQ 77)
where
conductivity in the wall layer. This formula for the Temperature Law of the Wall is used for laminar Prandtl numbers which are less than the turbulent Prandtl number, which is assigned the value of 1.0 by CFdesign. So, most air or gas flows should use this formula.
δ is the distance from the wall,
^{τ} w
is the wall shear stress and k _{w} is the thermal
For fluids with higher laminar Prandtl numbers (like water), the Van Driest formula for eddy viscosity is used in the Temperature Law of the Wall to yield:
T ^{+}
= ^{σ} T
U

^{S} V
σ
L
+  – 1
σ T
^{σ}

σ
T
L
1

4
A

+
κ
1

2
π

π
4 sin 
4
(EQ 78)
where A ^{+} is Van Driest’s constant. This constant is assigned the value of 26.0 by CFdesign. It can be modified under the “CONTROL” main menu and “TURBU LENCE PARAMETERS” _{s}_{u}_{b}_{} _{m}_{e}_{n}_{u}_{.}
3.2.3
Properties
Theory
From the previous sections, the fluid properties required for fluid flow and heat trans fer analysis are listed in Table 5. A set of consistent units for cm and inches is shown. Other units may be used by making the appropriate conversions. Note for inches, the
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values in Table 5 are obtained by dividing common table values of these properties by the conversion factor, g _{c} and converting feet to inches, where g _{c} is also defined in Table 5. A more complete list of consistent units is included in earlier chapters of the CFdesign User’s Guide.
Symbol 
Description 
Units  cm 
Units  inch 

^{C} 
p 
constant pressure 
Joule/gramK 
Btuinch/lb _{f} sec ^{2} R 
specific heat 

^{g} 
c 
conversion factor 
1.0 gramcm/sec ^{2} dyne 
386.4 lb _{m} inch/lb _{f} sec ^{2} 
k thermal conductivity 
Watt/cmK 
Btu/secinchR 

γ ratio of specific heats 

µ absolute viscosity 
gram/cmsec 
lb _{f} sec/inch ^{2} 

ρ density 
gram/cm ^{3} 
lb _{f} sec ^{2} /inch ^{4} 
3.3 Discretization Method
In CFdesign, the finite element method is used to reduce the governing partial differ ential equations (pdes) to a set of algebraic equations. In this method, the dependent variables are represented by polynomial shape functions over a small area or volume (element). These representations are substituted into the governing pdes and then the weighted integral of these equations over the element is taken where the weight func tion is chosen to be the same as the shape function. The result is a set of algebraic equations for the dependent variable at discrete points or nodes on every element.
3.3.1 Streamline Upwind
With the exception of the continuity equation, the governing equations describe the transport of some quantity (e.g., U, V, T) through the solution domain. The governing equations take the form:
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ρU ^{∂}^{φ} +

∂x
ρV  ∂φ ∂y

+ ρW ^{∂}^{φ}
∂z
=
∂
∂x
Γ
φ
∂φ

∂x
∂
Γ
∂φ
∂
Γ
∂φ
+++
∂y
φ

∂y
∂z

φ
∂z
^{S} φ
(EQ 79)
Note that the genaral scalar transport equation is also in this form without a source term.
The finite element method described above is used directly on the diffusion and source terms. However for the advection terms, the streamline upwind method is used along with the weighted integral method. These terms are transformed to streamwise coor dinates:
ρU ^{∂}^{φ} +

∂x
ρV  ∂φ ∂y

+ ρW ^{∂}^{φ}
∂z
=
∂φ
ρU _{s}  ∂s
(EQ 80)
where s is the streamwise coordinate and U _{s} is the velocity component in the stream wise coordinate direction. For a pure advection problem this term is a constant. With this in mind, the weighted integral of the advection terms can be written as:
∫
N
ρU  ∂φ + ∂x
ρV  ∂φ ∂y
+ ρW  ∂φ ^{} dV
∂z
=
∂φ
ρU _{s} 
∂s
∫
NdV
(EQ 81)
The advection terms in all of the governing partial differential equations (pdes) will be treated with the streamline upwind.
3.3.2 Transient Discretization
Theory
For transient analyses, the transient terms are discretized using an implicit or back ward difference method. Using the matrix algebra notation, a typical steadystate transport equation (momentum, energy, turbulence variables, scalar) can be written:
^{A} ij ^{u} j
=
^{F} i
(EQ 82)
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where
equations,
) and
A
ij
^{F} i
contains the discretized advection and diffusion terms from the governing
^{u} j
is the solution vector or values of the dependent variable (u, v, w, T, K,
contains the source terms.
The transient terms in the governing equations took the form:
_{ρ} ∂ϕ

∂t
where
a backward difference:
ϕ
represents the dependent variable (u, v, w,
_{ϕ} new _{ϕ} old
 _{≈} 
∂ϕ
–
∂t
∆t
).
(EQ 83)
This term is discretized using
(EQ 84)
We can add this term to the matrix equation above:
where
^{B} ii
(
^{A} ij
+
^{B} ii
)u _{j} new
=
F
i
+
^{B} ii ^{u} j
old
is a diagonal matrix composed of terms like:
^{B} ii
=
1

∆t
∫ N _{i} ρdV
(EQ 85)
(EQ 86)
This discretized transient equations must be solved iteratively at each time step to determine all of the new variables (variable values at the latest time).
3.4 Solution Method
Each of the above governing pdes are discretized using the finite element method described previously. The resulting set of algebraic equations must be solved to deter
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mine the values of the dependent variables at the nodes on the finite elements. The algorithm used by CFdesign to solve these equations is described in this section.
3.4.1 Segregated Solver
The first issue to resolve in solving the discretized equations is that of the missing pressure. If the momentum equations are used to calculate the velocity components, then the continuity equation must be used to determine the pressure. However, pres sure never appears explicitly in the continuity equation. There are a plethora of ave nues available to circumvent the numerical difficulties with the implicit pressure coupling. Many of these solution methods require that the continuity and momentum equation be solved simultaneously on every node in the finite element mesh. For small problems, this solution is quite adequate. However, for most reallife problems, this solution places a severe penalty on computer resources and in fact may prevent a solu tion to a problem. To ease this restriction, an equation explicit in pressure must be found.
The pressure equation solved by CFdesign is derived from the continuity equation. The weighted integral of the continuity equation is taken where integration by parts is used to reduce the order of integration:
=
∫
°
NρUdΓ +
∫
°
∫
N
NρVdΓ
+
∂ρU
 + 
∂ρV
∂y
∂x
∫
°
NρWdΓ
+  ∂ρW ^{} dΩ
∂z
–
∫
∂N
ρU + ρV
∂x
∂N
∂y
+
ρW ∂N ^{} dΩ
∂z
(EQ 87)
Theory
The first three integrals on the righthandside (RHS) of this equation represent the mass flux across element boundaries. These integrals will cancel at the interior ele ment faces and will be zero for all boundaries across which no mass flows (symmetry, walls). So these terms represent the natural boundary condition for the pressure equa tion.
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To force the appearance of pressure in this equation, a relationship between velocity and pressure must be derived. This relationship can be deduced from the momentum equations. Using a semidiscretized form of the momentum equations, the velocity pressure relationship can be written as:
U
V
W
=
=
=
U
h
^{V} h
^{W} h
–
–
–
∂P

∂x
∂P

∂y
^{K} U
^{K} V
^{K} W
∂P

∂z
(EQ 88)
In these equations, the U _{h} , V _{h} , W _{h} terms contain all of the offdiagonal terms in the momentum equations. If these three equations are now substituted into the previous continuity equation, the following pressure equation results:
=
–
∫
°
NρUdΓ
∫
–
ρK ∂N
∂x
U
 ∂P + ∂x
∫
°
NρVdΓ
–
∫
°
ρK ∂N
∂y
V
NρWdΓ
∂P

∂y
+ ρK ∂N
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