Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 802

LIBRARY

ANNEX

ALBERT

R.

MANN

tIBRARY*

State Colleges OF Agriculture and Home Economics'


"V
*
,

New York

AT

doRNELL University

NA

aoo.FM""'"""'"'''""-"'"'^

^llilMiiiiiliiiii?'''''^*"''*

" "'^ compara

3 1924 014 452 225

Cornell University Library

The
tine

original of

tliis

book

is in

Cornell University Library.

There are no known copyright

restrictions in
text.

the United States on the use of the

http://www.archive.org/details/cu31924014452225

A HISTORY

OF ARCHITECTURE
ON

THE COMPARATIVE METHOD.

"

"The

spirit of antiquity, enshrined In sumptuous buildings, vocal in sweet song, In picture speaking with heroic tongue. And with devout solemnities entwined Strikes to the seat of grace within the mind Hence forms that glide with swan-like ease along, Hence motions, even amid the vulgar throng,
:

To an harmonious decency
As
if

The To mutual

confined. the streets were consecrated ground, city one vast temple, dedicate

respect in thought and deed.

Wordsworth.

;;:. GOTHIC

i,

renaissance revivals

THE TREE OF ARCHITECTURE, Showing the main growth or evolution of the various
The Tree must
be taken as suggestive only,

styles.
be

indicated in a

for minor influences cannot diagram of this hind.

o M 3

HISTORY

OF

ARCHITECTURE
AMATEUR

ON THE COMPARATIVE METHOD


FOR

THE

STUDENT,

CRAFTSMAN,
BY

AND

Professor

BANISTER FLETCHER,
AND

F.R.I.B.A

(Formerly Professor of Architecture in King's College, London)

BANISTER

F.

FLETCHER,
;
'

F.R.I.B.A.,

Architect

{University Extension Lecturer on Architecture

Formerly Lecturer on Architecture


'

King's College, London ; R.I.B.A.

Godwin' Bursar, 1893,

Tite

'

Prize Medallist,

1895, Essay Medallist, 1896, Architectural Association Medallist for Design, 1888, Lecturer at the Architectural Association; Hon. Corr.

Member of the American Institute of Architects ; Author of " Andrea Palladia, his Life and Works,"

etc.)

FIFTH EDITION, REVISED AND ENLARGED


BY

BANISTER

F.

FLETCHER

WITH ABOUT TWO THOUSAND ILLUSTRATIONS

B.

T.

NEW

LONDON BATSFORD, 94, HIGH HOLBORN YOJ^K: CHARLES SCRIBNER'S SONS


,

nM^ MCMV.

PREFACE TO THE FIFTH EDITION.


In the Preface to the Fourth Edition I explained the many important additions which had been made since the original
publication of this book in 1896, and
I

desire to point out that in

the present Edition the nature of the revision has been on an even

more extensive

scale,

portion of the work.

amounting to the rewriting of the greater While much new matter has been intro-

duced, the importance of a thorough revision of that already


existing has not been overlooked, the utmost care having been

taken to verify all important statements and dates, and to amplify such descriptions where this appeared desirable. These remarks as to the text, apply equally to the illustrations, which have been
increased by the addition of

some

700, bringing their total

up

to

about
editions

2,000.

Many

of

the subjects

shown

in the

previous

havelbeen re-drawn and corrected


sale of four

in the light of the

most recent discoveries. few years book has been of service not only to the strictly professional student and those connected with design in its application to the minor arts and crafts, but also to that larger body of amateurs to whom Architectural History is year by year becoming a matter of lively interest. It is gratifying to know that it has been adopted as a text-book in Art Schools and in the leading Colleges and Technical Institutions of Great Britain, the United States of America, and Australia, for it is upon these centres we must depend for the formation of a cultivated taste, and the future growth of interest in the Arts. Many causes have combined in helping towards the proper appreciation and enthusiasm for architecture and the arts of design, among which the greatly increased facilities for travel, the conducted educational tours now so popular, and the general interest in photography are undoubtedly important factors.
large editions in the space of a
affords strong evidence that the

The

The History

of Architecture has, however, until recent years

X
1.

prefauk to the first edition.


Influences
iv.

continued.
'

Religion.

V. Social
vi.
2.
3.-

and

Political,

Historical.

Architectural Character. Examples of Buildings.


Comparative.

4.

A. Plan, or general distribution of the building. B. Walls, their construction and treatment. C. Openings, their character and shape. D. Roofs, their treatment and development. E. Columns, their position, structure, and decoration.
F. Mouldings, their form and decoration.
G. Ornament, as applied in general to any building.
5.

Reference Books.

Section
the

i is divided into the six leading influences that may be expected to shape the architecture of any country or people;

first

three being structural, the next


last

two the

civilizing

forces,

and the

containing those external historical events

which may alter or vary the foregoing. Section 2 describes the character of the architecture, that is, its special quality, and the general effect produced by the buildings
as a whole.

Section

3 contains the examples,

i.e.

the chief buildings in each

style, briefly
.

named and

described, being the corpus,

which the

preceding influences affect and from which the subsequent comparative analysis is deduced.

Section 4

comparative analysis, in which every style of regarded as the solution of certain fundamental problems, i.e. each building must have all or most of the parts A to G, and consequently there is both interest -and instruction to be gained in learning and comparing how each style has
is this
is

architecture

solved these points of the problem.

Section 5 gives authorities and more especially directs the reader who wishes to pursue the study of any style in further detail.
In treating of the buildings themselves under Section 3 the authors have endeavoured to avoid long descriptions, which are

PREFACE TO THE FIRST EDITION.


necessarily technical

XI

and intolerably dry, and

difficult to follow,

2ven by those

who have had

the technical training, and have

complete drawings of it before them. They have therefore provided the largest possible number of illustrations, and have confined the text to brief, but it is hoped vivid, notes of
either the building or

the special qualities and characteristics of the building referred to.


It is

hoped that the book

will appeal not only to students

who

require an outline of architectural history as part of their artistic

and professional education, but also to the increasing number of art workers who are interested in architecture in its relation to those accessory arts in which they are engaged. Lastly it is believed that a work in which architecture is treated as a result and record of civilization, will prove attractive to that increasing public which interests itself in artistic development.
;

2g,

New Bridge
New

Street,
Year's

LuDGATE Circus, E.G.


Day,
1896.

CONTENTS.
List of Illustrations

.....
.
.

PAGE
.

xv
.

li

Prehistoric Architecture

PART

I.THE
.
. .

HISTORICAL STYLES.

General Introduction

.4
9 32
4S ill
17^ 192

Egyptian Architecture Western Asiatic Architecture

Greek Architecture

Roman

Architecture

Early Christian Architecture


Byzantine Architecture

...
.

Romanesque Architecture in Europe (General Introduction) Italian Romanesque French Romanesque German Romanesque Gothic Architecture in Europe (General Introduction)
English Architecture
.

217 228

246 258 267 278


327 328

Anglo-Saxon

Norman
Early English Gothic Decorated Gothic Perpendicular Gothic
.

335 34'

Tudor

349 356
359 3^ 3^2 3^5 393

Scottish Architecture
Irish Architecture
.

French Gothic Architecture Belgian and Dutch Gothic

German Gothic
Italian Gothic

Spanish Gothic

Renaissance Architecture (General Introduction) Italian Renaissance Architecture

The Florentine School The Roman School The Venetian School


Vicenza and Verona

404 424 437 44^ 44^ 45^ 475 4^8


XIV
Italian Renaissance Architecture

CONTENTS.
continued.
.

page
. .

Milan and Genoa

495
'
. .

The Rococo

Style

49^

French Renaissance Architecture

497
S'? 5^7
533 545
551

German Renaissance

Belgian and Dutch Renaissance

Spanish Renaissance English Renaissance Architecture

...
.

The Elizabethan Style The Jacobean Style The Anglo-Classic (Seventeenth Century) Style The Queen Anne (Eighteenth Century) Style The Nineteenth Century Style (i 800-1 851)
. .

.....
. .

5^'

567 578

589
593
597 598

,, British Colonial Architecture

1851 to present time


.

Architecture in the United States

PART

II.THE
.

NON-HISTORICAL STYLES.
603 605 612

General Introduction
Indian Architecture
1.

...
. .

The,Buddhist Style

2.
3.

The Jaina Style The Hindu Style


(a) (b)
(c)

.....
.
. . . .

614 618 618


623

Northern Hindu Chalukyan Dravidian

628

Chinese and Japanese Architecture Ancient American Architecture Saracenic Architecture


.

Arabian
Syrian

...
. .

...
. .
. .

634 652 653 657 659

Egyptian Spanish
Persian

659 663
667

Turkish Indian
Glossary of Architectural Terms

669

.671
687 697

Index

Important Announcement

to

Professors and Lecttirers on Architecture,

Ornamental Art and Decoration.


the use of Professors and Lecturers, the unique series of i68 plates of line drawings of Architecture and Decorative Art contained in this work are now issued as

LARGE LECTURE DIAGRAMS. For


Large Lecture Diagrams, measuring 40

ins.

by 37

ins.

They form

the characteristic features of the various styles, and should undoubtedly form part of the necessary equipnnent of every important Institution where Architecture forms part of the curriculum. Further particulars and prices will be found in the advertisement at the end of this book.

a series of vivid presentments of

all

some

response to a desire expressed by lecturers, loose prints of the whole of the illustrations appearing in this volume (comprising 300 separate plates printed on one side of
the paper) are

CLASS ILLUSTRATIONS. In
now
available.

They

are supplied in sets, or grouped together in styles as follows


I.

Classic and Early Christian,

go Plates.
4s.

Price

4s. net.

II.

Medieval.

loa Plates.

Price

net.

III. Renaissance and Modern.


IV.

75 Plates.

Price4s.net.
net.

Non-Historical.

36 Plates.

Price

is. dd.

be found of considerable value for distribution amongst students and others attending classes and lectures, and for special
will

They

courses of study.
Lantern slides 6i all the illustrations are obtainable from George & Son, Ltd., 33, Fleet Street, E.G.

Philip

A 11
B.

applications for

Diagrams should

be addressed to

T.

BATSFORD,

94,

HIGH HOLBORN, LONDON.

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.

The

illustrations

have been specially prepared from the authorities


mentioned.

No.

Name.

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.
No.
8.
9.

Name.

Authorities.

Temple of Edfou

Photo.
Photo.

An

Egyptian House

10.

Egyptian Ornament.
Continuous coil spiral. Quadruple spirals Feather ornament Lotus bud and flower Hathor-head capital, Philae Base of column, Karnac Egyptian roll and bead
.

Flinders Petrie.

Palm capital Column from the great hall at Karnac. Column of Thothmes III., Karnac

Ward.

A vulture with outstretched wings A sphinx in granite


Incised wall decoration

....
and

WESTERN ASIATIC ARCHITECTURE.


Map
12.

of Babylonian Empires.

Persian

Perrot and Chipiez.

Assyrian Examples.
Assyrian System of Construction Ziggurat (Observatory) at Khorsabad,
elevation Palace at Khorsabad, section Ziggurat, Khorsabad, plan

angle North-west palace of Nimroud, plan State entrance at Khorsabad, elevation Sargon's palace at Khorsabad, southwest gateway State entrance at Khorsabad, section
.

...... ... .....


.

a
B
r

Fergusson.

enlarged view of

d
E F
Perrot and Chipiez.

13.

Assyrian Ornament.
Capital and base from the ruins of Persepolis Lion hunt from the N.W. palace of

Gailhabaud.
I

Nimroud.
Capital and base from the ruins of Persepolis Lion from great hall, N.W. palace,
-

Perrot and Chipiez.

Gailhabaud.

Nimroud, view Lion from great hall, N.W. palace of Nimroud, elevation. Carved slab, N.W. palace of Nimroud Capital and base from Persepolis,
.

... ...

D
e
F
1

From

a photo.

Carved
buds

slab,

N.W.

palace of Nimroud.

H
J

J
I

Perrot and Chipiez. Gailhabaud. Perrot and


Chipies:.

Ceiling decoration of lotus flowers

and

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.

XVU

GREEK ARCHITECTURE.
No.
14. 15.

Name.

Authorities.

of Greece. Pelasgic System of Construction,


Treasury of Athens, section plan ,, ,, Portion of shaft of column
Capital of a column
.

Map

...
.

a
B
c
Gailhabaud.
f

n
e

Perrot and Chipier.

The Gate
16.

of Lions, Mycenae Acropolis at Tiryns, plan

Gailhabaud.

Greek Examples

I.

Greek Construction
Portico of Parthenon, half elevation half transverse , , , section part plan ,, ,, S.W. angle of Parthenon as restored
, . .
.

A
\-

B C
D, E,

Cockerell.

Restoration of a Doric entablature


S.

G, H, J

W.

angle of Parthenon as at present

K, L

Penrose. Perrot and Chipiez. J Penrose.


1

17.
18.

Plan of the Acropolis at Athens

(Penrose and
I

Greek Examples

others.

II.

Comparative plans of various forms of Temples.


19.

Greek Examples III. The Doric OrderTemple of Ceres at Psestum Temple of Neptune (the Great Temple)
at

Psestum

Temple of Aphaia on
.iEgina

Temple of Theseus
Athens

..... ......
the Island

...

A
B C
Stuart and -Revett, Cockerell,

of

(The

Theseion),

The Parthenon (Temple


Athens

...

.,

of
.

Athena),
.

F.

Temple
20.

of Apollo, at Delos

Greek Examples IV. Temple of Aphaia (Jupiter

,,

Panhellenius)

at JEgiDSi

west pediment

A
B

..

..

east elevation transverse section


.

longitudinal tion
.

sec.
.

D
E
C. R. Cockerell..

,,

.,

plan

,,

view

of

upper
.

,,

,,

Acroterion Acroterion ridge


tile
. .

,.

,.

lower of Acroterion Antefixse


.
.

View

H
j

F.A.

XVlll
No.
21.

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.
Name.
Authorities.

Greek Examples V. The co-called Theseion,


,,

or

Temple

of

Hephaestos
,,

east elevation

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.
No.
26.

XIX
Authorities,

Name.

Greek Examples VIII. continued. The Propylsea, section through mutule


II
I

>>

plsn

Penrose.

transverse section

27.

Greek Examples IX. Temple of Apollo Epicurius,


,

at Bassae

north elevation
transverse section

A
B c

.,
.,

plan long section Interior detail of

D
E

Order

plan of Order
thian

Interior
.

P G
H,
J

-Cockerell.

detail of single Corin-

column

,,

details of capital of

Corinthian column
,,
,,

28.

setting out of flutes large details of


.

K
L, M,

Greek Examples X. The Temple of Neptune,


,, ,, ,,
,,

mouldings

Psestum, plan

long, section elevation


Basilica), plan
.

Gailbabaud.

Temple Temple
,,

at

Paestum (the
,,

D
E
F
\

Durand.

,,

elevation of Apollo Epicurius at Bassse,


.

plan
elevation section 71 II II Choragic monument of Lysicrates, Athens Plan, elevation, and section Tower of the Winds, Athens, elevation section ,, plan. >. .11 I, II Temple of Jupiter Olympius at Agrigen-

,,

Cockerell.

H
J
I

K
L

Stuart and Revett.

tum,

Sicily,

plan

Temple

of Jupiter Olympius at Agrigen tum, Sicily, section Temple of Jupiter Olympius at Agrigentum, elevation
.

....
.

.(Vol.

N
O

Cockerell. IV. Stuart and Revett's


'

Athens

').

29.

Greek Examples XI. The Ionic Order Temple on the Ilissus The Erechtheion, east portico The Archaic Temple of Diana, Ephesus
Temple of Minerva Polias at Priene Temple of Apollo Epicurius at Bassffi Temple at Eleusis
.

A, B, c,
E, F,
.

Stuart and Revett.

H,
L,

J,

K
R

Murray.

Mauch.
Cockerell.

30.

Greek Examples XII. The Erechtheion, Athens, N.W.


,,

...
from

N, o, P
Q,

Mauch.
Inwood, Middleton and others.
h 2

sketch

east elevation

XX
No.

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.
No.
37-

Name.

Authorities.

Comparative Examples of Greek and Roman Doorways.


Doorway
of the Pantheon, Rome, elevation of the Pantheon, Rome, details Doorway, Erechtheion, Athens, elevation
,, ,,

Doorway

......
,,

details

38-

Comparative diagrams of the Greek and Roman Orders of Architecture.


Greek Doric Athens

Temple

of

Theseus at

Roman
Roman

Greek Athens

Doric, by Vignola Ionic Temple on

the

Ilissus,

Ionic, by Scamozzi Greek Corinthian Choragic Monument of Lysicrates, Athens

Roman
39.

Corinthian

-Pantheon,
and
. .

....
Rome
.

Comparison of Mouldings
Comparison of Mouldings
,,

,,

Greek
I.

Roman
a a
to

40.

Greek
II.

and
,,

Roman
to
to

M
V

,,

41.

Greek Ornament I.
The
Ionic

Volute-

Volute from Cyprian tomb Capital from Egyptian wall painting Bronze armour plate from Tamassos, Cyprus Capital from Neandria Capital from the Heraion at Olympia Ionic Lycian tomb
.
.

Goldman's method of describing Ionic


Volute
.
.

G
H,
j,

Ionic Volute described by a whelk-shell Angle capital, N. portico of Erechtheion, half section .
,,
,,

half front view side view plan, looking up

Temple of Nike Apteros, sketch of angle


42.

Greek Ornament
Scroll

II.

ornament from roof of choragic Monument of Lysicrates, Athens

Sanctuary of the Bulls, Delos enlarged triglyphs, side view front view i> ,, i> enlarged capital, side view ,, front view ,, ,, ,, key plan ,, plan of piers ,,
,

elevation of piers

Canephora

.....

xxn
No.
42.

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.
Greek Ornament IL

continued.
with
!

Name.

Authorities.

Caryatid figure from Erechtheion Typical Greek Funeral Stele

Anthemion
43.

[
.
, .

Stuart and Revett.

Greek Ornament III. Capital, Temple of Jupiter Olympius,


Athens
Capital, Tower of the Winds, Athens Capital, choragic Monument of Lysicrates,

......
...
of Stele

Cockerell,
\
.Stuart

Athens
Sculpture's,

and

from Tower of the

Wilid.s, D,

Revett.

Athens Half elevation


44.

Head

Greek Ornament

IV. Honeysuckle ornament


.
.

A
_

Lion's head, front

side ,, Crowning ornament, choragic Monument


.

of Lysicrates

....
'

B C
-J.

C. Watt.

r
E
F

Stele head capital from Ereclitheibn Portion of frieze from Parthenon Metope from the Parthenon

Anta

1
J

H
J-

Stuart and Revett.


J.

Acanthus ornament Console from Erechtheion


Portion of caryatid figure Antefixa ornament

K, L

C. Watt, Stuart

M
N

and Revett.

ROMAN ARCHITECTURE.
45.
46.

Map of the Roman Empire. Roman Examples I.

Roman System of Construction Roman walling of concrete with

brick facing and methods of heating Roman vaulting and domes of concrete
.

J.

Henry

A
I

to

to

M
I

47.

Plan of the

Roman Fora
restored
.

!
'

Middleton. A. Choisy. Taylor and Cresy and


others.

48.

The Forum Romanum

Joseph
Gatteschi.

49.

Roman Examples II.


Temple of Fortuna
,,
,

Virilis,

Rome, plan
.

Arch

front fafade flank fafade , of Titus, Rome, section


,,
, .

Arch

elevation plan of Goldsmith's .or


,,

Silversmith's

_Taylor and Cresy.

Rome,
,,

view
.

from

,,

,,

,,

the south-west section plan elevation

. .

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.
No
49-

XXlll
Authorities.

Roman ExamplesII. continued.


Temple

Name.

of Satum,

Rome, plan
front fa9ade
details of entablature

M
N

iPalladio.

SO.

Roman Examples III.


Temple of Venus and Rome, Rome,
cross section

part

plan

....
.

A
B C

,,


,,

part front elevation long, section


at

D
E F G
-Palladio.

Temple of Diana
,, ,,

NSmes, plan

cross section part long, section front elevation part side elevation
.
'

Maison Carrie, Nlmes, plan

,,

H
;

K
Photo.

51-

52.

Maison Carree, Nimes Roman Examples IV.

Tomb

,,
,

at

Mylassa,
,,

Minor, half elevation half section perspective view half plans of base-

Asia

A
B
C
-Society of
Dilettanti.

ment
style
.

and

peri-

D
E
F
r

Tomb Tomb Tomb


view

of Csecilia Metella,
at

Rome

Wadi-Tagije, North Africa at Dugga, near Tunis, plan and


.
.

...

Sketches.

Tomb

at S.

Remi

in the

Temple
,, ,,

of

Antoninus

,,

South of France and Faustina,

H
I

Rome, plan
front fa9ade

Temple of Mars

,,

view of remains flank fa9ade Ultor, Rome, detail of to corbel, cornice enclosing wall detail of main cornice
,,

K
L

Taylor and
Cresy.

N
O
P

S3-

plan

Roman Examples V.
Temples

....
section.

at Baalbec, Syria, half section

half entrance fa9ade long, section through


.

Great Temple
transverse

Durand, "Dawkins, and

Great Temple plan

....
. ^ '

D
E

Wood.

Temple

54-

of Jupiter, section fafade

Roman ExamplesVI.
section half-plan Bronze mouldings round the " eye
at

The Pantheon

Rome,

A
B
C,

Taylor and
Cresy.
J.

H. Middleton.

XXIV
No.

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.
No.

XXV

XXVI
No.
71.

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.
Name. Optical Corrections in Architecture.
Correction of apparent proportions A Effect of color on proportions B The Parthenon Inclination of columns C Method of drawing entasis of column D The Parthenon : Optical corrections to prevent appearance of sagging B, F, G Optical illusions caused by convex and
:

Authorities.

Pennethorne.
Viollet-le-Duc,

Pennethorne.

A. Ghoisy.

concave curves, when drawn in xelation


to parallel straight lines

H, J

EARLY CHRISTIAN ARCHITECTURE.


72.

The

Basilica Church of

S Clemente,
Photo.

Rome
73-

. .

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.
No.
78.

XXVII
Authorities.

Name.

Early Christian Ornament continued. S. Giovanni, Rome, mosaic frieze


cloister
S.

...

in
.

11

Digby Wyatt.
Cattaneo. D'Agincourt.

Clemente, Rome, parapet and pilaster S. Maria Maggiore, Rome, mosaic S. Giovanni, mosaic floor
.
. .

K
L

Digby Wyatt.

BYZANTINE ARCHITECTURE
79-

Byzantine Examples I.
Byzantine System of Construction.

Dome
S. S.

Method
view view

construction to find outline of pendentive Sergius, Constantinople, interior


. .
.

A,
c,

1 f

Lelhaby and
Swainson.

...

Sergius,

.....
....
II.
.

E
F

Constantinople,

exterior
.

Tomb
S.

S. Sergius, Constantinople, plan of Galla Placidia, section Constantinople, sectional S. Sophia,


.
. .

H
J

A. Choisy.

view
view
80.

Sophia,

Byzantine Examples
S Sophia,
elevation
section

.....
Constantinople,
. .

exterior
.

K
.

Constantinople, north-east
.

S. Sophia, Constantinople, longitudinal S. Sophia, Constantinople,

....
interior
,,

ground plan

81.

S. Sophia, Constantinople, exterior


S,

82.
^83.

Sophia, Constantinople,

Comparative Examples of Early Domed Structures. The Minerva Medica, Rome, plan
S. Vitale,

section
.

Ravenna, plan

section ,1 ,, Cathedral at Aix-la-Chapelle, plan section

Byzantine Examples
S. S.

III.

Mark, Venice, section Mark, plan


.

S. Front, Perigueux, section


S. Front, Perigueux,

plan

8586. 87.

Mark, Venice, exterior Mark, interior Byzantine Examples IV.


S.

S.

Cathedral at Athens, sketch plan

W. and
section

E., elevations

....
. . .

Church of Theotokos, Constantinople, W. and S. elevations

plan

longitudinal section

XXVUl
No.

LIST O? ILLUSTRATIONS

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.
XsIJo.

XXIX
Authorities.

Name.

99.

The Abbaye-aux-Dames, Caen


French Romanesque Examples.
Abbaye-aux-Hommes,
,,

Photo.

100.

exterior transverse section interior

A
B C
Pugin.

>>

plan
section
11

n
B
F through
)
.

Angouleme Cathedral,
I)

plan

section

Sharpe.

dome
loi.
'102.

The Abbaye-aux-Hommes, Caen


Porch of
S.

Photo.

Trophlme,

Aries

Photo.

103.

French Romanesque Ornament.


Fleac, capital Pontorson, corbel table Vaison, frieze
S.

A
.

Ruprich-Robert.
Revoil.

C
D,

Trophlme, capitals S. Paul-Trois-Ch&teau, archivolt


frieze

Abbaye-de-Montmajour, corbel

AngouISme Cathedral,

.

H
1.

corbel

Ruprich-Robert.

D'Ouezy, capital
Plans of piers
104.

K
L
to P

Church of the Apostles, Cologne

Photo.

105.

German Romanesque Examples.


Church of the Apostles, Cologne, part

Worms
,,

,,

elevation part section plan Cathedral, part elevation part section ,, transverse section ,,
,,

A
-

Boisseree.

D
E
.

King.

plan

G
Photo.

106.
107.

Worms

Cathedral

....
.

German Romanesque Ornament.


Limburg Cathedral, capitals Church of S. Pantaleon, capital S. Gereon, Cologne, capital and base
A, B

Worms
S.

Cathedral, cornice

Gereon, Cologne, double capital Limburg Cathedral, towers Worms Cathedral, capital and base
.

Limburg Cathedral, capitals Ilsenburg Cathedral, capital


,,

column Laach Abbey Church, window Worms Cathedral, doorway


,,
. ,

XXX

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.

GOTHIC ARCHITECTURE.
No.

English Gothic Examples


Gothic Vaulting

I.

Comparative Examples, showing progress of

Waggon
,

vault

plan
stilted

,,

showing diagonal and transverse groins Abbaye-aux-Hommes, sexpartite vaulting external view Peterborough, Norman vaulting plan Salisbury, Early English groined vaulting Westminster Abbey, groined, with inter. . .

.... ....

A
B C

D
E F

H
J.

mediate ribs
Bristol Cathedral, Decorated Lierne vault S. Mary, Redcliffe, Perpendicular stellar vault interior view

K, N,
P,

M
O

....
. .

Gloucester Cathedral, Perpendicular fan vaulting


. .

US-

English Gothic Examples II. Types of Medijeval Open Timber Roofs


Stowe Bardolph Church,
roof Trinity roof
S.

trussed rafter

Mary Magdalen,
braced roof

.......
Chapel,
Cirencester,

tie-beam
collar-

Pulham,

Trunch Church, hammer-beam roof

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.
Name.

XXXI
Authorities.

English Gothic
continued.

Examples II.- -continued.

Types of Mediaeval Open Timber RoofsMiddle Temple Hall, double hammer-

beam

roof

....

114.

115.

116.

117-

xxxu
No.

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.

XXXIV
No.
I3S136.

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.
Name.
Authorities.

S.

John's Chapel, Tower of

London

Photo.

English Gothic Examples

XIII.
A
B
c
Sharpe.

Comparative Examples showing progress of English Gothic Cathedral Architecture Ely Cathedral, nave, interior and exterior Peterborough ,, ,, Ripon, choir, interior and exterior
.
.

Ely, presbytery
137.

-English Gothic Examples

XIV.

Comparative Examples showing progress of English Gothic Cathedral Architecture


(continued). Lichfield Cathedral, nave, interior and exterior Ely choir, interior and exterior Winchester, nave, interior and exterior
. . . . .
.

E
F

Sharpe.

G
Photo.

138.
139.

Iffley

Church, Oxon

Norman Mouldings.
Lincolnshire, zigzag S. Contest, Caen, chevron
.
.

Winchester, billet Canterbury ,, Westminster, chevron


.

.....
.
.

.A
.

B c

D
e
f
Parker, Rick
-

North Hinksey ,, Abbaye aux-Dames,

billet

Stoneleigh, double cone S. Peters-at-Gowts, nebule Iffley, Oxon., flower

H
j

man, Bloxam, and others.

...
. . .
.

K
L
.

North Hinksey, beaks head


Lincoln, embattled
140.

M
:

English Gothic Examples The Evolution


S. Peter,

XV.
.

of Gothic Spires in England

Raunds, Northants. S. John, Keystone, Hunts. S. Wulfran, Grantham, Lines. Salisbury Cathedral S. Mary, Bloxham, Oxon.
. . .

a
b c

D
e

C. Wickes.

S. Peter, Kettering, Northants. S. James, Louth, Lines.


.

.
.

g
.

S. Michael, Coventry,

Warwickshire

141.

English Gothic Examples

XVI.
Buttress
.
.

The Evolution of the Gothic Norman, Fountains Abbey

a
.

E. English, Southwell Minster Decorated, S. Mary Magdalen, Oxford Perpendicular, Divinity School, Oxford Detached Flying Buttress, Chapter Ho. Lincoln Flying Buttresses, Amiens and Rheims Constructive principle of the Mediaeval
. . . .

b
c

d
Sketches.

e
f,

Church

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.
No.

XXXV
Authorities.

Name.

142.

English Gothic Examples

XVII.

Comparative Examples showing progress of Gothic Tracery Development

Lynchmere, plate tracery Woodstock


Dorchester, bar tracery Minster Lovel, bar tracery

...
. . . .
.

A
B

d
E F

Headington, plate tracery Wimborne Minster, grouped lancet lights Warmington, grouped lancet lights Long Wittenham, geometrical tracery S. Mary Magdalen, curvilinear tracery Duston, clerestory vifindows Great Milton, curvilinear tracery New College Chapel, rectilinear tracery King's College Chapel ,> S. Mary, Dinan, Flamboyant example
. . . . . . .

H
j

'Parker.

K, L

M
N
O
P

143,

English Gothic Examples XVIII.


Comparative Examples of English Gothic

Doorways
Clare Church, elevation
,,

...
.
.

a
.

and base jamb moulding ,, ,, S. John, Cley, half exterior and interior capital and base ,, arch mould jamb and arch mould ,, capital and base ,, ,, Merton College Chapel, Oxford, elevation capital and base ,, jamb and arch ,, ,, ,, moulds jamb mould ,,

capital

B c

J.

K. Colling.

D
E F

Bowman
and Crowther.

,,

h
j

,,

K
L
rPugin.

,,

144.

English Gothic Examples

XIX.
.

Norman

Font, Coleshill, Warwickshire E. English Font, Lackford, Suffolk Decorated Font, Offley, Herts Perpendicular Font, Clymping Ch, Sussex Norman Piscina, Crowmarsh, Oxford.

A
b c
y

Parker.

D
E
F

Braddon.

shire

E. English Piscina, Cowling, Suffolk . Decorated Piscina, Gt, Bedwin, Wiltshire Perpendicular Piscina, Cobham, Kent E. English Tabernacle, Warmington,
.

H
Parker.
j

Northants

Mary, Leicester Decorated Tabernacle, Exeter Cathedral E. English Sedilia, Rushden, Northants Decorated Sedilia, Merton, Oxon Perpendicular Sedilia, S. Mary, Oxon
Sedilia, S.
.
.

Norman

K
L

M
N
o
C

XXX VI
No.

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.
Name.

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.
No.
149.

XXXVU
Authorities.

Name,

English Gothic Ornament

IV.

continued.
.

Sanctus Bell Bloxham Church, Oxon. Early English Lincoln CatheFinials


:

dral

Decorated
dral

....

D
1

From

a Photo.

E
F
.

Winchester Cathe-

Stone
Bosses
,,
:

Pendant

Perpendicular York Minster Perpendicular, All


:

Saints,

Evesham
Early English
,,

Lincoln Cathedral
.

H
J

i-J.

K.

Colling.

Westminster
Abbey
.

,,
,,

Decorated

Southwell Minster.

K
L

Mary's S. Church, Bury St. Edmunds Early English bracket S. Alban's Abbey Poppy-heads Paston Church, Norfolk Winchester Cathedral ,,
Perpendicular
.

M
N
o
P
J

ISO.

151-

Compton Wynyates, Warwickshire Examples of Scottish Architecture.


Rothesay Castle, plan
.

Nash.

A
.

Drum

Castle, plan Doune Castle, plan Castle Frazer, plan

C
.

D
E F

Cowane's Hospital, plan Glamis Castle, plan view from the south-east ,, ,, George Heriol's Hospital, plan
. .

MacGibbon and
Ross.

G H
J

,,

,,

entrance gate-

way
Grangepans, sketch from the S.E.
,,

K
L

plan

152-

Examples

of Irish Architecture.
.

Cormac's Chapel, Cashel, ground plan view from the ,, ,,


, , , , , ,

A
E

Arthur Hill.
Fergusson.

S.E. plan of

crofts.

,,

,,

,,

section through

nave
,,
,, ,,
,,

D
E
F
i-

,,

,,
.

long, section section through

Arthur

Hill.

sanctuary
,,

N. porch

H
G
;

Tower, Devenish Kilree, Kilkenny ,,

Fergusson.

FRENCH GOTHIC.
153-

French Gothic Examples

I.
.

Beauvais Cathedral, section plan ,,


,,
.,

A
C
D, E,
I

Burges.

plans of buttress
.

N&tre Dame, Paris, wheel window

f,

Gailhabaud.

XXXVIU

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.
No.
167.

XXXIX

Name.

Belgian Gothic Examples.


S.

Gudule, Brussels, elevation.


,,

A
.

section

interior elevation

B c

plan
section

D
E F

King.

Antwerp Cathedral,

168.
169. 170.

plan
.

Town Town

Hall,

Bruges

...
.
. .

Photo.

Hall,

Ghent

Photo.

German Gothic Examples I.


Cologne Cathedral, exterior

,,

A
.

section interior piers

c
.
.

Boisser^e.

D, E, G,

H
Photo.

plan

171. 172.

Ratisbon Cathedral,

Exterior.

German Gothic Examples H.


S.

Stephen, Vienna, plan


,,

A
. .

section
interior

S. Elizabeth,
,,

Marburg, plan

,,

exterior section interior

173.

S.

Stephen, Vienna

174.

German Gothic Ornament


Freibourg Cathedral, canopy capitals
S. Paul,

Woms,

capitals

Cologne, parapet
,,

,,

corbel capital gargoyles


.

doorway Gelnhausen, doorway


.

Bruges, miserere

Marburg, tomb
175. 176.

Milan Cathedral
Italian Gothic

Exterior

Examples I.
.

Milan Cathedral, plan


,,

long, section transverse section ,, S. Maria-dei-Fiori, Florence, plan long, section ,,


.

A b
c

D
.

177.

Milan Cathedral.

Interior
.

178.
179.

The Doge's

Palace, Venice

Italian Gothic

Examples
Ca

II.
. .

Palazzo della

d'Oro, elevation

A
B

Doge's Palace, Venice, facade


Palazzo Pisani, Venice, fafade Siena Cathedral, plan
.

Xl
No.
i8o. i8l.
182.

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.
Name.
Authorities

Ca d'Oro

Palace, Venice
Exterior

Photo.
Photo. Photo.
cloisters

Florence Cathedral.

Siena Cathedral.

Exterior

183.
184.

Monreale Cathedral.
Italian Gothic

The

Photo.

Ornament.
.

Baptistery at Pisa, detail of capital from pulpit plan of pulpit pulpit ,, ,, Florence, candelabra ,, Santo, Pisa, window Campo Pisa Cathedral, portion of pulpit lion and base of column Naples, capital Ducal Palace, Venice, capital Venice, angle window Palazzo Scaligeri, Verona, campanile
,
,

A D
B

Rohault de
Fleury.

L
c

Norman Shaw.
I

...
.

E F

Rohault de
Fleury.

H
j

Cicognara.

K
Photo.

E85
186. 187.

Burgos Cathedral.

Exterior
Interior

Burgos Cathedral.
S.

Photo.

Spanish Gothic Examples.


Maria del Mar, Barcelona, plan Barcelona Cathedral, plan
., ,,
,,
.

A
B
C
l-Street.

Gerona Toledo
Lerida
188. 189.
igo.

u
,, ,,
. . .

D
E
Photo. Photo.

S.

Juan de

los Reyes,

Toledo

S. Gregorio, Valladolid

Spanish Gothic Ornament.


Burgos Cathedral, ornament from tomb Gonzalo ,, ,, balcony
. . .

A
B

sculptured pier plan window of dome elbows of sedilia


.

...
.

H
L
J

K
D G
M, N

'Waring.

Miraflores, Infante's tomb base of Infante's pier of Las Huelgas, capitals


.

tomb
.
. . .

S. Gil,

canopy

E F

RENAISSANCE ARCHITECTURE.
191.

Florentine Renaissance Examples


Palazzo Strozzi, main cornice

I.
.

A
r

section * court

and elevation of
.

Raschdorff.

C E
J
^

plan
keystone

Grandjean Famin.
Raschdorff.

et

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.
No.
191,

xli
Authorities.

Name.

Florentine Renaissance Examples


Palazzo Riccardi, main cornice
,,
.

continued,
I.
( .

B
\

elevation

D
.

plan

Grandjean et Famin. Waring and Macquoid. Grandjean et Famin.


Photo.

192. 193-

Palazzo Riccardi, Florence


Florentine Renaissance

Pazzi Chapel, plan elevation ,, ,, section ,, S. Lorenzo, plan


S.
,, ,,

.... ... ....


. .

Examples II.

A
B c
I
I

Grandjean Famin.

et

D
E
F

D'Agincourt.

Andrea, Mantua, plan long section ,, porch ,,


.
. .

H
'

S. Spirito, capital

G
.

D'Agincourt.

194.

,,

plan

long, section

Florentine Renaissance Ornament.

Duomo

of Fiesole, console from tomb Palazzo Vecchio, capital Medici Chapel, Santa Croce, corbel Palazzo Strozzi, window Gondi,
.
.

A
B
I

Waring and
Macquoid.

D
. .

,,

Pandolfini,
,,

window
pilaster

E F
G, J

Grandjean Famin.

et

,,

Mercato Nuovo, niche Banner bracket

H
.

Raschdorff.

K
L

Piazzo Annunziata, bronze fountain

[Waring and Macquoid. I


Raschdor6f.

Palazzo Guadagni, lamp bracket


195196.

Palazzo Giraud,

Rome

Photo.

Roman

Renaissance Examples I.
,, ,,

Cancellaria Palace, elevation

plan

Letarouilly.

Massimi Palace, elevation


,,
,,

plan

T. F. Suys et L. P. Haudebourt.

197.
198.

Farnese Palace,

Rome
Rome

Photo.

Roman

Renaissance Examples
Details of main cornice

II.

Farnese Palace,

A,

Front fa9ade
.

D
e
F
G, j
\

Elevation of cortile Plan Section and plan through loggia Upper plan
.

Letarouilly.

xlii

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.

No.

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.
No,
207. 208.

xliii
Authorities.

Name.

Palazzo Vendramini, Venice

Photo.

Venetian Renaissance Examples


Palazzo Grimani, plinth
,,

I.

,,
,,

cornice, capitals elevation of half fa9adi

A, B, c D, E, F

G
J

plan

Cicognara.

Palazzo Vendramini, half fa9ade


,,

H
K, L

cornices

and

capital

209. 210.

The Pesaro
S.

Palace, Venice
II.

Photo.

Venetian Renaissance Examples


Mark's Library, fa9ade
,,

A
.

Waring and
Macquoid.
Cicognara.

cornices Doge's Palace, cornices


,,
.

fa9ade

piers
III.

C D, E F
B,

y
J.

G, H,

Venetian Renaissance Examples


S.

Maria dei Miracoli, fa9ade


,,
,,

A
B C

S.

section long, section


.

plan ,, ,, Giorgio dei Greci, fa9ade


,,
,,

D
E
F

long, section

,,
,,

,,

plan

-Cicognara.

doorhead

H
J

cornice ,, S. Giorgio Maggiore, ra9ade

K
.

,,
,,

plan
section

M
Photo.

212.
213.

S.

Maria

della Salute,

Venice
of

.Comparative
S. Paul,

Plans

Various
J.

Cathedrals.

London

Clayton.

S. Peter,

Rome
.

Pantheon, Paris

Durand.
Boisser^e.

Cologne Cathedral S. Maria della Salute


214.

Cicognara.

Venetian Renaissance Ornament.


S.

Mark, pedestal of flagstaff


Half plan,
to ditto
ditto
.

A
B E F C
>

Equestrian statue of CoUeoni, elevation


Entablature and capital
.

Cicognara.

Scuola di S. Marco, doorway

/Waring and
(

Macquoid.
Photo. Cicognara.

Window
S.

panel ,, and balustrade

G D

Palazzo Zorzi, capital

H
and
pilaster
I
.

M.

dei Miracoli, capital Greci, campanile


.

Photo.

(Waring and
1

Macquoid.
Photo.

2IS.

The

Basilica at Vicenza

xliv
No.
2i6.

Lloi ue iJ-LUSTRATIONS.
Name.
Authorities.

Renaissance Examples by Palladio. The Basilica at Vicenza, elevation


.

A
B
C

,,

section

Villa Capra, Vicenza, elevation section plan. Palazzo del Capitanio, elevation
.
.

plan

D
E F

Palladio.

Palazzo Porto Barbarano,


217.

H
Waring and
Macquoid.
Reinhardt.
I-

Renaissance Examples in Genoa and Verona.


Palazzo Pompeii, Verona, facade

\
.

Municipio, Genoa, fajade


,,
,,

section long, section

E C

D
E,

Reinhardt.

,,

plans

218.

Renaissance Ornament in Genoa and Verona, Palazzo Gambaro, angle of cornice to


doorway
,,

,,

plan of cornice

,, ,,
,

Carega, angle cornice key sketch ,,


.

key sketch

D
C
[

Reinhardt
J. Kinross.

Old Convent, Genoa, lavabo

Villa Cambiaso, coffered ceiling

E F G
K,

Typical cap

Doorway
219. 220.

.....
. .

pilaster

Reinhardt.
J. Kinross.

H
J
[
J

Waring and
Macquoid.
Photo.

Sanmicheli's house, Verona, doorway

Ch&teau de Blois, Escalier Francois Premier French Renaissance Examples I.

....

ChUteau de Bury, plan


,,
,, ,,

....

A
B C

elevation

Chambord, plan

The Louvre,

221. 222. 223.

elevation Paris, fagade


,,

D
E F

>

Durand.

block plan
.

Chliteau
S.

De Chambord

Photo.

Eustache, Paris French Renaissance, Examples


Les
Invalides,

Paris,

Photo.

II.
through
f

section

dome
,,

Gailhabaud.

plan
Paris,

The Pantheon,

>.

section

through

dome
plan
f

Durand.
Sauvageot. Sauvageot and Durand.

Chateau de Maisons, elevation


,,

plan
I

Luxembourg

Palace, Paris, part elevation


,<

..

Pl3"

Durand.
/

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.
No.

xlv

xlvi
No.
assise.

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.
Name.
Authorities..

Town

Hall, Seville

Photo.

Spanish Renaissance Examples.


Toledo, the Alcazar, portion of fa9ade Avila, the Casa Polentina courtyard
.

A. N. Prentice.

237.

Burgos, Courtyard of the

House of
Photo.

Miranda
238.

Comparative Plans of Various Buildings.

The King's House, Greenwich The Rotunda, Vicenza The Escurial, Spain
Villa of

Pope

Julius,

Blenheim Palace
239.

.... .... ....


Rome
.

A
B C D, E F

Campbell.
Palladio.

Thompson.
Letarouilly.

Kerr.

Spanish Renaissance Ornament.


Siguenza Cathedral, door from cloisters

A
B,

Cuenza Cathedral, iron screen


Alcala

De

Henares, window

Avila, iron pulpit

.....
at the

D
E

A. N.

Prentice.

240.

Map of Western Europe


Elizabeth.

Time

of

241. 242. 243244.

Hatfield House.

The Hall

Nash.
Nash.

Knole, Kent.

Staircase

....

I.

Haddon

Hall.

Long

Gallery

Nash.

English Renaissance Examples


Holland House, elevation

ground

floor plans
.

B,

Richardson. Princess of
Lichenstein,

Stockton House, side of drawing-room


Blickling
staircase

D
Henry Shaw.

Hall,

Norfolk,

the

great

245.

English Renaissance Examples

II.

Castle Ashby, Northamptonshire, south


elevation

,,

Hardwicke

Hall, elevation

plan
.

P. F.

Robinsou

246. 247.
248.
249.

plan

....
.

Kirby Hall, Northants


Little

Moreton Hall, Cheshire


of the old Schools, Oxford

The Tower
Hatfield

House

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.
No.
250.

xlvii
Authorities.

Name.

English Renaissance Ornament

I.

Bramshill House, Hants, balustrade oriel ,1 ,, arcade ,, ,,


>,
t,

A
E

Henry Shaw.
Richardson.

,,

plaster ceiling

M
B

Duke's House, Bradford, balustrade Hatfield House, newel


.

Blickling Hall, Norfolk, entrance


,,
,,

,,

chimney piece
Church,
wall

K
-Henry Shaw.
F

All Hallow's
tablet

...
frieze
.

(Barking)
frieze

House

at

Yarmouth,

Aston Hall,
Claverton,

....
rain
.

H
J

Somersetshire,
.

water
.

head
251.

Richardson.

English Renaissance Ornament

II.

Doorway in Broughton Castle Bay window, Hinchingbrooke Hall Chapel screen. Charterhouse, London Bookcase, Pembroke College, Cambridge

[j.

A. Gotch.

H. Tanner, junr.
J.

Tomb

of

Lord Burghley,
. .

S.
.

Martin,
.

Stamford stalls, Convocation Room Oxford Pulpit, North Cray Church, Kent Lead cistern, Victoria and Albert

A. Gotch.
junr.

Throne and

H. Tanner,

C. J. Richardson.

Museum
252.

Tablet, Peterhouse College Chapel, Cambs.

H. I. Triggs. H. Tanner, junr.

English Renaissance Examples


York Water-Gate, London,

III.
[

elevation

plan ,, Banqueting House, Whitehall, elevation


,, ,,
,,

Campbell.
Kent. Campbell. Kent.

plan

Whitehall Palace, ground plan


253.

English Renaissance Examples


S.

IV.
B C
Clayton and Gailhabaud.

Paul,
,,

London, Wren's
,,

original plan

section dome
.

through
"

,,
,,

,,
,,

plan sketch of peristyle


transverse section

,,
,,

,,

western fafade

'.

254.

S. Paul,

London

Photo,

255.

English Renaissance Examples S. Mary Le Bow, section


elevation ,, plans S. Bride, elevation section ,,
. .

V.
A
B 1-6 c
Clayton.

D
7-12

,,

plans

xlviii
No.
256.

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.
Name.

257.

258.

259260.

261.

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.
No.
262.

xlix

Name.

Comparative diagrams of the proportions of the Orders after Sir W. Chambers.


Greek Doric Tuscan

Roman

Ionic Corinthian

...
Doric
of Parliament,

Chambers.

Composite
263.

The Houses

London

Photo.

ARCHITECTURE IN THE UNITED STATES.


-264.

Garrick (formerly Schiller) Theatre, Chicago.

INDIAN ARCHITECTURE.
265.
266.

Map

of India.

Indian Examples and Ornament.


Sanchi, gateway

....
.

A
B,

Indian roof construction

c
E
f

Kanaruc
Sanchi,

in Orissa,

rail

...
,,
.

pagoda

-Fergusson.

D,

Seringham, compound pillar Bindrabund, Agra, plan


pillar

G
.

Le Bon.
-

H
J

Cole.

Vellore,

Greek Temple, Baillur, plan compound pillar


.

K
^

L
M, x, o,

Fergusson.

Stone ornaments
267
268.

Owen
Photo.

Jones

Karli.

Interior of rock-cut cave

Ajunta.

Fa9ade of rock-cut cave


Interior view of rock-cut cave Interior of

Photo.
Photo.

269
270.

Elephanta.

Mount Abu.
Palitana.

Dilwana Temple
.

Photo. Photo.

271
272.

Gwalior.

273
274,

Umber.

The great Chawmukh Temple The great Sas Bahu Temple The Hindu Temple of Tagat-

Photo.
Photo. Photo.

275
276,

277 278

Garwan HuUabid. The East door of the double Temple Ellora. The " rath " (Temple of Kailos) Tanjore. The Great Temple from the N.E. Mandura. The -West Gateway and Gopura
.

....

Photo.
Photo.

Photo.
Photo.

Tarputry.

Entrance to the old Temple

CHINESE AND JAPANESE ARCHITECTURE.


279.

The Emperor's
Shanghai.

Palace.

Pekin

Photo.

280.

typical

Chinese pagoda

Photo.

F.A

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.
Name.

No.
281.

Chinese and Japanese Examples,


Canton merchant's house
Pekin, Altar of Agriculture
Pekin, pavilion,
.

summer

palace

Nankin, porcelain tower Tokyo, Temple of Miyo-Jin-Kanda Japanese middle-class house Tea-house, Japan
Japan, public baths
282.

Pailoo

.....
.

283.

Chinese and Japanese Ornament. Columned brackets


Detail of eaves Roof construction Fret ornaments
.

Garden temple Great Temple, Canton Triumphal arch. Canton

Temple of Confucius Sketch of Tenno-ji Pagoda


Gate,

Temple

,,

of Miyo-jin, altar shrine


.

Japanese lamp

compound bracket
font shed

gable ends

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.
No.

DIAGRAM TABLE
OF THE

SYSTEM OF CLASSIFICATION FOR EACH STYLE.

1.

Influences.
I.

Geographical.
Geological.
Climate.
Religio.n.

Ti.

III.

IV.

V.

Social and Political.

VI.

Historical.

2.

Architectural Character.

3.

Examples.
Comparative Table.
A.

4.

Plan, or general distribution of the

building.

B.
C.

'Walls, their construction and treatment.

Roofs,

their treatment

and development. and shape.


structure,

D.
e.

Openings,

their character
their

Columns,
Mouldings,

position,

and

decoration.
F.

their

form and decoration.


in

G.

Ornament,
building.

as

applied

general

to

any

5.

Reference Books.

HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE
ON THE

COMPARATIVE METHOD.
PREHISTORIC ARCHITECTURE.
" Study mere shelter, now for him, and him Nay, even the worst just house them Any cave Suffices throw out earth A loop hole ? Brave But here's our son excels At hurdle weaving any Scythian ; fells Oak and devises rafters dreams and shapes His dream into a door post, just escapes
;

The mystery
Of brick and

of hinges.

The goodly growth


stone Our building-pelt was rough, But that descendants' garb suits well enough
!

portico-contriver.

The work marched Took each, nor too


For

*****
:

step

fit

by step a workman to one task, one time


prime,
lithe

fit

No leaping o'er the petty to the When just the substituting osier
To

brittle bulrush, sound wood for soft withe, further loam-and-rough-cast work a stage, Exacts an architect, exacts an age." Browning.

must have been connected intimately with the endeavours

The origins of architecture, although lost in the mists of antiquity, of man

to provide for his physical wants. It has been truly said that protection from the inclemency of the seasons was the mother of architecture. According to Vitruvius, man in his primitive savage state began to imitate the nests of birds and the lairs of beasts,

commencing with arbours of twigs covered with mud, then huts formed of branches of trees and covered with turf (No. 2 c). Other writers indicate three types of primitive dwellings the caves (No. 2 h) or rocks or those occupied in hunting or fishing.

PEEHISTOBIC AECHlTECTUi

Q)'"~

T, Temts


PREHISTORIC ARCHITECTURE.
3

the hut (No. 2 a, d, e) for the agriculturist, and the tent (No. 2 ]) for those such as shepherds leading a pastoral or nomadic life. Structures of the prehistoric period, although interesting for archaeological reasons, have little or no architectural value, and
will only

be lightly touched upon.


classified

The remains may be


i.

under

Monoliths, or single upright stones, a well-known example 63 feet high, 14

also

known

as menhirs,

feet in

diameter, and

weighing 260 tons, being at Carnac, Brittany. Another example is at Locmariaker, also in Brittany (No. 2 b). ii. Dolmens (Daul, a table, and maen, a stone), consisting of one large flat stone supported by upright stones. Examples are to be found near Maidstone and other places in England, also in Ireland, Northern France, the Channel Islands, Italy (No. 2 f) and India. iii. Cromlechs, or circles of stone, as at Stonehenge,(No. 2 g), Avebury (Wilts), and elsewhere, consisting of a series of upright stones arranged in a circle and supporting horizontal slabs. iv. Tumuli, or burial mounds, were probably prototypes of the Pyramids of Egypt (No. 4) and the beehive huts found in Wales, Cornwall, Ireland (No. 2 d, k) and elsewhere. That at New Grange (Ireland) resembles somewhat the Treasury of Atreus at Mycenae (No. 15).
V.
piles,
all

Lake Dwellings,

as discovered in the lakes of Switzer-

land, Italy
kinds.

and Ireland consisted of wooden huts supported on and were so placed for protection against hostile attacks of

These foregoing primitive or prehistoric remains have little constructive sequence, and are merely mentioned here to show from what simple beginnings the noble art of architecture was
evolved, although unfortunately the stages of the evolution cannot be traced, owing to the fact that the oldest existing monuments of any pretension, as in Egypt, belong to a high state of civilization.

REFERENCE BOOKS.
Garnier (C.) and Ammann (A.). " L'Habitation Humaine Prehistorique et Historique." 4to. Paris. 1892. Lineham (R.S.). " The Street of Human Habitations: An Account of Man's Dwelling-places, Customs, etc., in Prehistoric Times, and in Ancient Egypt, Assyria, Persia, India, Japan, etc." 8vo., cloth. 1894. VioUet-le-Duc (E. E.). "The Habitations of Man in all Ages." Translated from the French by B. Bucknall. 8vo. 1876. Waring (J. B.). -"Stone Monuments, TumuU, and Ornament of Remote Ages, with Remarks on the Early Architecture of Ireland and Scotland." Folio. 1870.

PART

I.

THE HISTORICAL STYLES.


General Introduction.
\
' Deal worthily with the History of Architecture and it is worthy to take place with ^he History of Law and of Language." Freeman.
'

its

introducing this Comparative treatment of Historical Archiis given of the course which the art has taken up to the present time in Europe, and also in those couritries, such as Egypt and Assyria, which have influenced that development. Architecture may be said to include every building or structure raised by human hands, and is here defined as construction with an artistic motive the more the latter is developed, the greaterbeing the value of the result. The first habitations of man were undoubtedly those that nature afforded, such as caves (No. 2 h) or grottoes, which demanded little labour on his part to convert into shelters against the fury of the elements, and attacks from his fellows or wild animals. As soon as man rose above the state of rude nature, he naturally began to build more commodious habitations for himSuch early forms are self, and some form of temple for his god. given under the heading of Prehistoric Architecture. To pass, however, at once into Historic times, there prevailed in Egypt a system of architecture which consisted of a massive construction of walls and columns, in which the latter closely spaced, short, and massive carried lintels, which in their turn supported the flat, beamed roof. In Babylonia, the development of brick construction with the consequent evolution of the arch and vault was due to the absence of more permanent building materials. The influeitiM of Egyptian and^A^ssyrian architecture on that of Greece is apparent in many directions."
T

tectur^, a general outline sketch

GENERAL INTRODUCTION TO THE HISTORICAL STYLES.


Grecian architecture
origin in the
is

considered by many to have had its or cabin formed of posts set in the earth, and covered with transverse beams and rafters, and this was the type which was developed in the early Mycenaean period into the prodomus of the Greeli house. This timber architecture, copied in marble or stone, was naturally at first very simple and rude the influence of the material, however, was soon felt, when the permanence and value of stone aided in the growth It should be noted, however, that many writers hold of the art. that Greek architecture is developed from an early stone type. As civilization and technical skill, moreover, advanced, the qualities of refinement in detail and proportion were perceived, and the different orders of architecture Doric, Ionic, and Corinthian (No. 38J came into existence. By the word " order" methods of proportioning and decorating a is meant certain column, and the part it supports, i.e., the entablature. The above " orders " are characteristic of Greek architecture, and the beauty and grace with which they were treated, and the artistic and mathematical skill with which they were constructed, illustrate the keen ar-tistic temperament of the Greeks. Greece eventually succumbed to the conquering Romans who,

wooden hut

however, adopted their architecture, and

in

many

Greek

artists in the erection of their buildings.

cases employed While borrowing

they added the use of the arch, which they had probably already learnt to construct from the Etruscans, the ancient inhabitants of Central Italy. The column and arch were used conjointly by the Romans for some time, good examples being the Colosseum at Rome (Nos. 62 and 63), and the Triumphal Arches (Nos. 65 and 66). This dualism is a very important fact to remember, because, as will be seen, it eventually ended in the exclusion of the beam altogether, and in the employment of the arch alone, throughout the entire constructive system of the building. In the numerous buildings which the Romans erected, it will be noticed that the column has, in the generality of cases, become merely a decorative feature, the actual work of support being performed by the piers of the wall behind, connected together by semicircular arches. As time went on, however, such practical people as the Romans could not but discard a feature which was no longer utilitarian, so the column as a decorative feature disappeared, and the arcuated system it had masked was exposed. Columns were, however, used constructively, as in tnany of the great basilicas, in which the semicircular arches spring directly from their capitals. As the Romans conquered the whole of the then known world, that is to say, most of what is now known as Europe (No. 45), so this feature of the semicircular arch was introduced in every part, by its use in the settlements
this trabeated architecture,

COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE.
.

which they founded. Roman architecture was prevalent in Europe in a more or less debased form up to the tenth century of our era, and is the basis on which European architecture is founded. The gradual breaking up of the Roman Empire, the formation of separate European states, and other causes which we shall enumerate separately, led to many variations of this semicircular arched style, both in construction and decoration. The transition commenced in the tenth, eleventh, and twelfth centuries, when the later Romanesque, so called as being derived from the Roman style, was in vogue. Constructive necessity,
aided largely by inventive genius, led, in the latter part of the twelfth century, to the introduction of the pointed arch. The pointed arch is the keynote of what is known as the Gothic or pointed style, which prevailed throughout Europe during the thirteenth, fourteenth, and fifteenth centuries, during which period were erected those magnificent cathedrals and churches, which form the most emphatic record of the religious feeling and character of the Middle Ages. The past styles of European architecture may be broadly Summarized as being divided into two great types, viz. (i) Classic, pr the architecture of the beam, and (2) Gothic, or the architecture /of the arch. Each of these types depends on an important constructive principle, and any style may be placed under one or other of these types. The early styles, including the Greek, belong to the former. Roman architecture is a composite transition 'Style, whose goal,if unchecked, would seem to have been the combination of the round arch and dome that are seen in the great examples of the Byzantine style. It was left to the Gothic style to formulate a complete system of arcuated construction, the working out of which was marvellously alike in all countries. It was a style, moreover, in which a decorative system was closely welded to the constructive, both uniting to reflect a more intense expression of its age than had, perhaps, hitherto been achieved in previous
:

architecture. The revival of the arts and letters in the fifteenth century was a fresh factor in the history of architecture. The condition of Europe at that period was one of ripeness for a great change, for the Gothic system, whether in architecture or in civilization regarded as a whole, may fairly be said to have culminated. Its

works were tinged by the coming change, or showed signs of becoming stereotyped by the mechanical repetition of architectural features. The new force was the belief that the old Romans had been wiser and more experienced than the mediaevalists, and the result was the earnest study of every Roman fragment, whether of art or literature, that had been preserved or could be recovered.
latest

GENERAL INTRODUCTION TO THE HISTORICAL STYLES.

For some three centuries this belief held good, till by the opening up of Greece to travel and study towards the end of the eighteenth century, the tradition was modified by the admission of Grecian remains to an equal or supreme place, beside or even above those of Rome. This second phase had not, however, an equal success for divers reasons a reaction was at hand in favour of mediaeval ideals, whether in the church, art, or the State. A conscious effort was then made the most earnestly in England to modify the current that had been flowing since the year 1500, and some of the results of this attempt may be traced by the student wise enough to follow up the clues indicated in the
;

concluding pages of the English Renaissance style. In acquainting himself with the buildings therein mentioned, he may feel that few of the diverse elements of bur complex civilization, at the beginning of the twentieth century, have failed to find some
architectural expression.

COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE.

GENERAL REFERENCE BOOKS.


N.B.

Lists

of Reference Books for special periods throughout the book.

and

styles

are given

Folio. 1867-/904. Bosc(E.). "Dictionnaireraisonndd'Architecture." 4 vols., 4to. Paris, 1877-1880. Brault (E.). " Les Architects par leurs oeuvres.'' 3 vols. Paris, i8ga-

1893. "Histoirede I'Architecture." a vols.,8vo. Paris, Choisy Cummings (C.A.). " A History of Architecture in Italy from the Time
(A.).
1899.

" Architectural Association Sketch Book."

of Constantine to the

D'Agincourt

(S.).

Renaissance." 2 "Dawn of theArt by Monuments." History of


its

vols., 8vo.

1901.

Translated

from the Italian by Owen Jones. Folio. 1847. Dehio (G.) and Bezold (G. v.). " Die Kirchliche Baukunst des Abendlandes." Folio. Stuttgart, 1884, etc. " Dictionary of Architecture, issued by the Architectural Publication Society." With Detached Essaysand Illustrations. 6 vols.,folio. 1848-1892.

" Parallele des Edifices de tout genre." Paris, 1800. (J.N.L.). Eulart (C.). " Manuel d'Archdologie Fran^aise depuis les temps Merovingiens jusqu'a la Renaissance." i. Architecture Religieux. 2. Architecture Civile. 2, vols., 8vo. Paris, 1902. Fergusson (J.). " History of Architecture in all Countries.'' 5 vols., 8vo. 1893, etc. Fletcher (B. F.). " The Influence of Material on Architecture.'' Imperial 8vo. 1897. Gailhabaud (J.). " L'Architecture du V. au XVII. siecle." 5 vols., folio and 4to. Paris, 1869-1872. Gailhabaud (J.). " Monuments Anciens et Modernes." 4to. Paris, 1850. Gwilt (J.). " Encyclopasdia of Architecture." Svo. 1900. " Handbuch der Architektur." Comprising anumber of volumes upon

Durand

'

the History and Practice of Architecture. Darmstadt. Milizia (F.). " Lives of Celebrated Architects." 2 vols., 8vo. 1826. Parker {]) " Glossary of Terms used in Architecture." 3 vols. 1850. Perrot (G.) and Chipiez (C). " History of Ancient Art." 12 vols.,

Svo. 1-883- 1894. Planat. " Encyclopddie d'Arohitecture et de la Construction." 1 1 vols. " Royal Institute of British Architects' Transactions." 1853 et seq. Dictionary of Architecture and Building." 3 vols., Sturgis. " New York, 1901. 4to. Vasari (G.). " Lives of the most Eminent Painters, Sculptors and Architects." Edited by Blashfield. 4 vols., Svo. 1897. VioUet-le-Duc (E.C.). " Dictionnaire de I'Architecture." 10 vols., Svo. Paris, -1859. VipUet-le-Duc. " Entretienssur I'Architecture." 3 vols. Paris, 1863. There is an English translation by B. Bucknall, entitled " Lectures on Architecture." 2 vols., Svo. 1877-18S1. Vitruvius (Marcus PoUio). " "The Architecture of." Translated by W. Newton. Folio, 1791. An edition by J. Gwilt. 4to. 1826.

mupi!
lElL-fLYAHUM

m
6ua

MKWffl
Elfffl'

immK.

cmnm

EDRn

EiW!

BMr

EGYPTIAN ARCHITECTURE.
"

Those works where man has rivalled nature most, Those Pyramids, that fear no more decay Than waves inflict upon the rockiest coast, Or winds on mountain steeps, and like endurance boast."

I.

INFLUENCES.
civilization

i.

Geographical.

The

of

every

country

has

been, aS- will bS"^own, largely determined by its geographical conditions, for the characteristic features of the land in which any race dwells shape their mode of life and thus influence their
intellectual culture. On referringto the map (No. 3) it will be seen that Egypt consists of a sandy desert with a strip of fertile country on the banks of the Nile; Egypt was the only nation of the ancient world which
at once easy access to' the N orthern, or "Mediterranean Sea, as well as to the Eastern, orTSraBian Sea for by way of the Red Sea, Egypt ilways coinmanded 'arraccess to both these highways. The consequence was that Egypt had outlets for her own productions and inlets for those of foreign jiartions. The possession of the Nile, moreover, was of immeifse advantage, not only on

had

10

COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE.

account of its value as a trade route, and as a means of communication, but also because its waters were the fertilizing agents that made desert sands into fruitful fields. It was on the banks of this ancient river that from time immemorial the cities^ the Egyptians were naturally placed here, therefore, are found the chief remains of the Tombs, Temples, and Pyramids. ii. Cipn^ng^r^ Tn this section throughout the volume an endeavour will be made to trace that influence on architectural style which the materials at hand in each country had in its development. The natural products of a country such as wood, brick, or stone, determine to a large extent its style of
;

art.

In Egypt there existed an abundance of li mestone in the north, of sandstone in the cen tral region, and of gra nite in the s outh. The latter is principally tound near Assuaii" (Syene), and is called Syenite.'^~<I^is hard and lasting building material largely influenced the architecture of the country, and to its durable qualities is due the fact that there are so many remains. Bricks were also employed, but were generally faced with some harder material. of a kind suitable for building wasnot available,

Wood

only small forests of palm and acacia existing. iii. Climate. The climate is equable andof warm temperature, snow and frost being wholly unknown, while sE5rrn7fogfad even rain are rare, which accounts to -a large extent for the good Egypt has been said to have but preservation o f the temples. two seasons, spring and summer. The climate was thus of importance in developing the qualities of the architecture, admitting of simplicity in construction, for though it demanded some protection against heat there was no necessity to provide against inclement weather. A close connection between religion and archiiv. Religion. The priesthood tecture is everywhere manifest at this epoch. was powerful, possessed of almost unlimited authority, and equipped with all the learning of the age. The religious rites A tinge of were traditional, unchangeable, and mysterious. mystery is one of the great characteristics of the Egyptian archiThe Egyptians tecture as well in its tombs as in its temples. attained to a very high degree of learning in astronomy, mathematics, and philosophy the remains of their literature have been preserved to us in the papyri, or MSS. written on paper made from the pith of the papyrus. In theory the r eligion was mon oa multiplicity of theistic, but in practice it became_pol^theistic gods was r.rftaip.n ny p ersonifying natural j hennrnpna, such as the sun, moon, and stars, as well as the brute creation. The Egyptians were strong believers in a future, sta te ;- hence their care in the preservation of their dead, and the erection-^f such Herodotus mentions everlasting monuments as the Pyramids.


EGYPTIAN ARCHITECTURE.
that the dwelling-house was looked upon by them as a temporary lodging, the tomb being the permanent abode.
' '

II

mere

What

availeth thee thy other buildings


art sure.
;

Of thy tomb alone thou

On
V.

the earth thou hast nought beside


else is

Nought of thee

remaining."

for

Social and Political. -^A vagt^^opulatipn was available employment on public works, the workmen probably receiving no other pay than their food. Thus a state of cjjeap labour existed which was eminently favourable to the execution of~Targe and
important structures.
In addition there existed a centralized which, perhaps more than any other, favoured the execution of monuroentai-warks. It is assumed by some that the spare time which occurs during the annual floods enabled the population to be employed on these state buildings. It is also possible that the transport of stone required for the
despoti^___ government
this season.

was effected by means of rafts floated down at During the reign of Rameses II. the_capiisies-and foreignerg, who had largely increased, were put to enforced labour upon the public works, and in the first chapter of the book of Exodus the natives are said to have viewed with alarm the growing numbers and power of these strangers. vi. Historical. Egyptian civihzation is the most ancient of any of which there is a clear knowledge its history is partly derived from Holy Scripture and from Greek and Roman authors, but more particularly from the Egyptian buildings, by which it can be traced back for more than 4,000 years b.c. The Pyramids are thought to be a thousand years older than any building which has yet been discovered in Western Asia, the subject of the next division. The Kings or Pharaohs (from the title " Peraa " = " great house ") have been arranged in thirty dynasties, extending down to B.C. 332. These have been based on the list of Manetho, an Egyptian priest who lived about b.c 300, and compiled a history of Egypt in the Greek language, and may be divided
great buildings

into the following periods 1. Prehistoric Period, B.C. 23000 (?)-j^.yyj. 2. The Ancient Empire (Dynasties I.-X.), e.g. 4777-2821. The capital being at Memphis, the tombs of this period are at Abydos, Nak&.deh, Memphis, Sakkara, Gizeh and
:

Abusir.
3.

4.

The Middle Empire (Dynasties XI.-XVL), b.c 2821-1738; A prosperous period in which much building was carried " This period includes the dynasties of the " Hyskos out. or shepherd kings. The New Empire (Dynasties XVII.-XX.), b.c. 1738-950. This period had Thebes as the capital, and many imposing buildings were erected at Karnac, Luxor, and elsewhere.

12
5.

COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE.

6.

7.

XXI. -XXV.), of Foreign Domination (Dynasties 950-663. The Late Egyptian Period (Dynasties XXVI.-XXX.), B.C. 663This period includes the Persian Domination. 332. The Graco-Roman Period, B.C. 332-A.D. 640 i. Alexander the Great and Ptolemaic Period, B.C. 332-30.
Period
B.C.
:

8.

The Roman Period, b.c. 30-A.D. 395. The Bysantine Period, a.d. 395-640. Mediaeval Egypt (Mahometan Period), a.d. 640-1517.
ii.

iii.

a.d. 1517 to the present time. This section of the book deals with the architecture comprised in periods 1-7. For periods 8 and 9 see pages 653, 659. The nineteenth dynasty, founded by Rameses I. (b.c. 1400-1366), may be taken as the most brilliant epoch of Egyptian art. The evidence of his greatness, and that of his grandson, Rameses II. (b.c 1333-1300), as builders, is to be seen in the Temples of Thebes and elsewhere. During the twejity-sixth dynasty the country was conquered by the Persians in B.C. 527, from whom it was wrested in B.c.332by the Grecian general, Alexander the Great. On Alexander's death and the division of his empire, Egypt passed to Ptolemy, one of Alexander's generals, who founded a dynasty that ruled from b.c 323 to B.C. 31. After the wars which ended in the death of Cleopatra, Egypt passed, as did nearlythe whole of the then known world, into the hands of the conquering Romans, and became a Roman province. On the spread of Mahometanism, in a.d. 638, Egypt was conquered by the Arabs, who left important monuments (see Saracenic Architecture, page 659)., In a.d. 1517 it became a part of the Turkish dominions.
9.

Modern Egypt (Turkish Domination),

2.

ARCHITECTURAL CHARACTER.

is the gift of a great seat of the most ancient civilization, a primitive architecture of mud or puddled clay and bundles of reeds changed in later times to a style of stone and granite. The primitive structure was composed of bundles of reeds bound together and placed vertically in the ground at intervals, the angle bundles being of greater strength. Joining these reeds, at the top, were laid horizontally other bundles, which bound the heads of the uprights together. The origin of the characteristic cornice (No. 10 j), is held to be due to the pressure of the clay, of which the primitive roofs were constructed, on the upright reeds, which formed the framework of the walls. This formed the slightly projecting cornice, the reeds keeping the rammed clay in a projecting position and allowing the curve to be terminated by a flat fillet which gave the level of the terrace. The jambs and

In the valley of the Nile, the land which

river,

and the

EGYPTIAN ARCHITECTURE.
lintels of

13

the doors and windows were made of reeds in the of palm trunks in those of more pretension. Here, then, is seen a fair and likely prototype of the construction of an Egyptian wall, the form of which is more suitable to a structure of rushes overlaid with mud or puddled clay than to one consisting of large stones. Still, an important point remains the batter or slope which is invariably given to the walls. Viollet-le-Duc's theories as to the origin of this batter do not point to the influence of material, and this feature is alleged by him to have been introduced at a later stage, having been promulgated by a royal decree. He infers the custom to have been derived from the Pyramids, which were found to remain undisturbed during earthquakes, while straight-sided houses were upset, owing to their walls being more easily overturned. It seems, however, more reasonable to attribute it to a mud origin, for nothing would be more natural, in order to strengthen such buildings, than to slightly tilt the bundles of reeds towards the interior, forming as it were an arch, a treatment which in any other material scarcely seems to be feasible. Proceeding to the internal architectural features of the style, a very distinct reminiscence of the pri mitive reeds tied tog ether at intgryals,_an d crowne d wi th the lo tus bud, is found iiithe later granite column and 'capital (No. io l, uf. During the Theban kiilgdom especially (b c. 3000-B.c. 2100), examples in stone of capitals and columns derived from timber and reed originals are frequent. At Beni-HasS.nsome pillars represent a bundle of four reeds or lotus stalks bound together near the top and bulging above the ligature, so as to form a capital, in imitation of a^lotug bud. Such a pier must evidently have been originally employed Tir~^ooden architecture only, and the roof which it supports, in this instance, represents a light wooden construction having the slight slope necessary in the dry Egyptian climate. This type of column was largely used in later Egyptian times in a more substantial lithic form (No. 10 m), and in conjunction with the hollow-formed capital of the bell type (No. 10 l), of which the earliest example appeared in the eighteenth dynasty. In fact, throughout, although materials changed, the forms of the early reed and clay construction were adhered to and the endeavour of the conservative Egyptian was to reproduce in stone and granite, superimposed in layers, the appearance assumed in the early reed and mud type. The surface decoration executed on the later granite buildings (No. 10 p), apparently came from the " sgraffito " (incised plaster) work on the earlier mud walls. The surfaces of such walls could not be modelled or carved with projections of high relief, but their flat surfaces, when plastered, provided an admirable field for decoration and for instruction through the use of hieroglyphics. The

humbler dwellings and

EGYPTIAN ARCHITECTURE.

15

Egyptian system of decoration consisted in not contravening the form adopted, but in clothing it with a kind of drapery more or less rich, which never presented a projecting outline, contenting itself with enveloping the geometric form as would an embroidered
stuff,

or a diapered covering.
;

Remarkable then as were the arts of Egypt, it is clear that the and that spirit of criticism and logical method were wanting traditional forms, hallowed by long use, were clung to and reproduced when the method of building which suggested them had been replaced by other systems. Egyptian art proceeded on an uninterrupted line or course of tradition, and when necessity dictated a change in the methods of construction, or in the materials, the immutable form was not thereby affected, but was perpetuated in
spite of novel cpnditions.

The principal remains of ancient Egyptian architecture are the Pyramids, or royal tombs of the kings, and the temples, a contrast in this respect with Assyria, where the palaces of the kings are the chief remains. The Egyptian wall-paintings, sculptures, jewellery, bronze implements and utensils, which have been unearthed from their temples or tombs, show that the race had attained to a high degree in art. As regards the architecimpression given to the mind of the spectator is that these buildings were erected for eternity, all the remains having a character of immense solidity, and usually of grand uniformity. he Pyra mids (Nos. 4 and 5) are the most extravagant of all ancient buildings in many ways. The relative return in irripressiveness and the higher beauties of the art is small when compared with the amount of labour, expense, and material used
ture, the

in their erection.

The
and

finishing

and

fitting of

remarkable, for

many

such large masses of gr anite is of the blocks, perfectly squared, polished

fitted, are at least 20 feet long by 6 feet wide. The method of quarrying and of transportation for long distances by land and water, and the raising of these blocks of stone into position, is even now uncertain, although M. Choisy in his latest work (see Reference Books, page 30) has produced many probable theories. The Architectural Character of the is striking and characteristic (Nos. 5, 7 and 8). The buildmgs decrease in he^ht fro front to back, presenting a disconnected collection of various sized structures, often built at different times, and thus forming a direct contrast to the harmonious whole of a Greek temple, which is all comprised within one " order " of columns, and which is distinctly, both in appearance and reality, one building. The character of the tombs consists in the planning of their mysterious chambers and corridors, which, covered with paintings and hieroglyphics, produce an effect of gloom and solemnity on the spectator.

tem^s

EGYPTIAN EXAMPLES.

EGYPTIAN ARCHITECTURE.
3.

17

EXAMPLES. THE SPHINX

(No. 4), whose date is unknown, is situated near the great pyramids, in the centre of an ancient stone quarry, and is a natural rock cut to resemble a Sphinx, with rough masonry added An Egyptian Sphinx (No. 100) had the head of a king, in parts. a hawk, a ram, or more rarely a woman, on the body of a lion. The dimensions of the Great Sphinx, which represents a recumbent lion with the head of a man, are as follows it is 65 feet high by 188 feet long, the face is 13 feet 6 inches wide, and the mouth 8 feet 6 inches long. Greatly mutilated, it is still a marvel, as it has been throughout the ages. The symbol for an insoluble problem, it is, and probably ever will be, a mystery. It was excavated in 1816 by Captain Caviglia, who found a temple between the paws, and it has since been examined by Marietta and Maspero.
:

THE PYRAMIDS

"^

of Gizeh, near Cairo, all erected during the fourth dynasty (b.c. 3gg8-B.c. 3721), form one of several groups within the necropolis of the ancient capital city of Memphis, and rank among the oldest monuments of Egyptian architecture. The other groups are those of Abu-Roash, Z4wiyet-el-Ary4n, Abusir, Sakk&ra, and Dashfir. These were built by the kings as their future tombs, the go\erning idea being to secure immortality by the preservation of the mummy, till that time should have passed, when, according to their belief, the soul would once more return to the body. Their construction has been described by many writers, including

Herodotus.
(B.C.

(Nos. 4 and 5 c, d), by Cheops (Khufu) 3733-B.c. 3700) the Second Pyramid (No. 4), by Cephron (Khafra) b.c 3666-B.c. 3633) the Third Pyramid by Mycerinos (Menkhara) (b.c. 3633-B.c. 3600), are 'the best

The Great Pyramid


;

of Cheops is square on plan, 760 feet area being about 13 acres, i.e., twice the extent of S. Peter, Rome, or equal to the size of Lincoln's Inn Fields, London. The faces of the pyramid are equilateral triangles laid "sloping and meeting in a point. The sides face directly north, south, east and west, as in all the pyramids, and they make an angle with the ground of 51 degrees 50'minutes. The original height was 482 feet. The entrance (No. 5 c), which is on the northern side, is 47 feet 6 inches above the base, and is now reached by The passage to which it means of an earthen embankment.

known examples. The Great Pyramid


each way,
its


l8

COMPARATIVE AltCHITECTURE.

gives access first slopes downwards, and afterwards re-ascends towards the heart of the pyramid, where the King's Chamber is situated. In this chamber, which is 34 feet 6 inches by 17 feet and ig feet high, was placed the' sarcophagus of the king containing' his embalmed body.' The upper part is elaborately constructed with stones one above the other (No. 5 d), and the entrance is protected by a massive stone acting as a portcullis, fitting into a rebate or recess, and weighing from 50 to 60 tons. Two aiir channels, each about 8 inches by 6 inches, led to the outer face of the pyramid for ventilation. There were two other chambers in the Great Pyramid,one known as the Queen's Chamber, connected with a passage leading off that to the King's Chamber, and the other below the ground. The exterior of this pyramid was originally cased with a sloping face of limestone, but this has now disappeared; showing the original stepped surface in tiers of 4 feet, on which the casing was placed, and which still exists in the Pyramid of Mycerinos.

TOMBS.
Besides the Pyramids or royal tombs are others for private
individuals.
(a.) In the Ancient Empire the Mastabas, probably derived from rude heaps of stones piled up over earlier mummy holes, were rectangular structures, with sid'es sloping at an angle of 75 degrees, and having flat roofs. They were divided into three

parts:
outer chamber, in which were placed the offerings to the " Ka " or " double," having its walls decorated with representations of festal and other scenes, which are valuable from an historical standpoint. ii. Inner secret chambers, known as the " serdabs," containing statues of the deceased, and members of his family, iii. well of great depth, leading to the chamber containing the sarcophagus with its mummy. The Mastaba of Thy, Sakk^ra, is well preserved and has been restored. It dates from the fifth dynasty, and was erected to Thy, who in his day held the position of royal architect and
i.

The

manager of pyramids. It consists of a small vestibule, beyond which is a large court where offerings to the deceased took place, and from which a mummy shaft led through a passage to a tomb chamber. The masonry of this tomb is carefully jointed and covered with flat reliefs, which are generally considered the best

tomb chamber, 22

principal reliefs are in a second by 23 feet 9 inches and 12 feet These reliefs represent harvest operations, ship6 inches high. building scenes, scenes representing the arts and crafts of the

specimens of their kind.

The

feet 9 inches

C 2

20

COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE.
and Thy himself
through the marshes in a boat with a surrounding papyrus

period, the slaughtering of sacrificial animals,


sailing

thicket.

Pyramidal (6.) In the Middle Empire tombs were either of the form, as at Abydos, or were rock-cut, as in the vertical cliffs bounding the Nile valley (No. 6). The Tombs at Beni-Has&n, in Upper Egypt, form a remarkThere are 39 in all, able group of thes^Seis^eaf^eXamples. arranged in a row in the rocks as shown (No. 6). They were made during the twelfth dynasty (b.c. 2778-2565), a period which was particularly remarkable for the progress of the arts of peace. The entrance to the Tomb of Khnemhotep, known as Tomb No. 3, has two sixteen-sided columns, sometimes considered to be a prototype of the Greek Doric order. These are slightly fluted and have an entasis, and the deeply projecting cornice has stone beams carved out of the solid rock, indicating a derivation from a

wooden
(c.)

origin.

During the

New Empire tombs were rock-cut and structural,

"and

many cases accompanied by sepulchral temples. Thebes, which for a time was the neccopolis of the Egyptian
in

number of tombs dating mostly from the New Empire, and forming a contrast to the pyramids which formed the graves of the earlier kings. These tombs consist of a series of chambers connected with passages hewn in the rock, and were
kings, has a large

intended only for the reception of the sarcophagi. Amongst the most important of these are those of Rameses III., IV., and IX., and that of Sethos I., usually known as Belzoni's tomb from its discoverer in 181 7. The structure of all is very similar, consisting of three corridors cut in the rock leading into an ante-room, beyond which is the sepulchral chamber, where the granite' sarcophagus was placed in a hollow in the floor. The walls, from the entrance to the sarcophagus chamber, were sculptured with hieroglyphics of pictures and texts necessary to the deceased in the future life, and mostly representing him sailing through the under-world accompanied by the sun gcd. The texts were mostly taken from various books relating to the ceremonies which were essential for insuring the immortality of the departed. The mortuary or sepulchral temples, such as those of DSr-elbahri, Medinet-Habou, the Ramesseum, and others, were utilized for offerings and other funereal rights for the dead.

TEMPLES.
The purposes for which they were used and their compoflent parts are important. They were sanctuaries where only the king and priests penetrated, and in which mysteries and processions formed a great part of the religious services. They differ,

a
">>
.

CM

fc

5
en

H
< W s

_j.

u
nS
1-1

22
therefore,

COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE.

from the Greek temple, the Christian church, and the for they were not places for the meeting of the faithful or the recital of common prayers, and no public ritual was celebrated within them. The priests and king only were admitted beyond the hypostyle hall, and the temple, therefore,

Mahometan mosque,

was a kind of royal oratory reared by the king in token of his own piety and in order to purchase the favour of the gods. -'The student is referred to Lockyer's theories as to the orientatildji 'of temples with regard to the particular stars. The " mammeisi " were temples (dedicated to the mysterious accouchement of Isis) each consisting of one small chamber with statue and altar as at Elephantine, approached by a flight of steps. Ill this forni they are generally considered to be the prototypes of the Greek temples. The more usual type of temple, however, consisted of charnbers for the priests, with courts, colonnades, and halls, all surrounded by a high wall. In order that the student may understand the general distribution of the parts of an Egyptian temple, a plan is here given of the Temple of Khons, near the Great Temple of Ammon, at Karhac (No. 5), on the eastern bank of the Nile, which may be taken as a fair example of the ordinary type of plan. The entrance to the temple was between " pylons," or massive sloping towers, on each side of the central gateway (No. 7). In front of the entrance were placed obelisks, and in front of these an avenue of sphinxes, forming a splendid approach to the temple. This entrance gave access to the large outer courtyard, which was open to the sky in the centre, and therefore called "hypaethral" (from two Greek words, meaning "under the air").' This courtyard was surrounded by a double colonnade on three sides, and led up to the hypostyle hall, in which light was admitted by means of a clerestory above, formed by the different height of the columns (No. 5 b). Beyond this is the sanctuary, surrounded by a passage, and at the rear is a smaller both the last chambers must have been dark or only hall imperfectly .lighted. The whole collection of buildings forming the temple was surrounded by a great wall as high as the buildings themselves. Thebes, the site of which occupied a large area on the east and west banks of the Nile, was the capital of Egypt during the New Empire (Dynasties XVII. -XX.). The eastern bank had an important group of Temples at Karnac, including the Great Temple of Ammon, and the Temple of Khons (twentieth dynasty). At Luxor, also on the eastern bank, was another Temple of (eighteenth and nineteenth dynasties). On the western bank lay the Necropolis or Tombs of the Kings and Queens, and a large number of mortuary temples, which included those of D6r-el-bahri, the Ramesseum, and Medinet Habou.
;

Ammon

I o
< w

^ o
o
-^

Oi

bo

o
J3

24

COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE.

The Great Temple of Ammon, Karnac, is the grandest, extending over an area of 1,200 feet by 360 feet, and originally was connected with the Temple of Luxor by an avenue of sphinxes. It was not built on an original plan, but owes its size, disposition and magnificence to the additions of many later kings, from the first monarchs of the twelfth dynasty down to the Ptolemaic period. It has six pylons added in successive generations, a great pourt measuring 338 feet by 275 feet, the great hypostyle hall, and other halls, courts and a sanctuary. ,The HypostyU kail measures 338 feet by 170 feet, covering about the same area as Notre Dame, Paris. The roof is supported by 134 columns in sixteen rows. The central avenues are about So feet in height as compared with 140 feet at Amiens Cathedral, and have columns 69 feet high and iif feet in diameter, the capitals of- which are of the lotus blossom- type (No. 10 l) so as
from the clerestory. The side avenues are about 46 feet high and have columns 42 feet 6 inches in height and 9 feet in diameter, the capitals being of the lotus bud type, on which the. clerestory light would fall. The impression produced on the- spectator by the forest of columns is most aweinspiring, and the.eyetis led from the smaller columns of the side avenues, which gradually vanish into semi-darkness, giving an idea of unlimited size, to the larger columns of the central avenues lighted by the clerestory, which is formed in the difference of height between the central and side avenues, a form of lighting more fully developed in the Gothic period. The walls of the hall, the column shafts, and the architraves are covered with
to receive the light:

incised inscriptions, still retaining their original colored decorations relating to the gods and personages concerned in the erection of the structure. The Temple of Sethos I., Abydos, was dedicated to Osiris and other deities of Abydos. It was built by Sethos I.

1366-1333), and completed by Rameses II. (b.c. 1333-1300). walls are of fine grained limestone, and the reliefs on them are among the finest Egyptian sculptures. In common with other temples it has py lons, a first and second fore-court and two hypostyle halls, but instead of one sanctuary it has seven arranged side by side, dedicated to six deities and a deified king hence the front of this temple was divided into seven parts, each with its separate gateway and portal. The seven sanctuaries are each roofed by means of horizontal courses, every course projecting beyond that immediately below, and the undersides afterwards rounded off in the form, of a vault by the chisel. It further differs from- others in having a wing at right angles to the main structure in consequence of a hill immediately behind the temple.
(b.c.

The

The Great Temple of Abu-Simbel,


(b.c.

1333-1300),

is

built by Rameses II. one of the most stupendous creations of

EGYPTIAN ARCHITECTURE.

25

Egyptian architecture, and was entirely excavated out of the solid rock. It has a fore-court, at the back of which is the imposing fafade, iig feet wide and over loo feet high, formed as a pylon, and having four seated colossi of Ramesis II., each over
65 feet in height. The entrance leads to a vestibule, the ceiling of which is supported by eight pillars, the walls having vividly colored reliefs. Eight smaller chambers, probably used to store
the temple utensils- and furniture, adjoin this vestibule, and in the rear is a small hypostyle hall, 36 feet by 25 feet, having four pillars. Behind this is a long narrow chamber out of which are three apartments, the centre and largest one being the sanctuary, with an altar and four seated, figures of the deities worshipped. The Temple of Isis, Island of Philae, is an interesting example of the Ptolemaic period, and, like earlier examples, was The fore-court, entered through the work of several generations. a massive pylon, 150 feet broad and 60 feet high, has on the west side the Birth House, a small colonnaded temple dedicated to Hathor-Isis and to the memory of the birth of her son Horus, and on the east a colonnaded building used by the priests. On the fourth side of the court is the second pylon, which is 105 feet broad and 40 feet high. Beyond is the temple proper, consisting of courts, a hypostyle hall with eight columns, two small vestibules, a sanctuary, and other adjoining chambers, all nearly in This group, including the second pylon, has its total darkness axis at an angle to that of the first pylon and courtyard. The entire structure has the walls, both inside and out, covered with
inscriptions.

The Temple of Hathor, Dendera (a.d. first century), is another Ptolemaic example, but was not completed till the reign of Augustus. It has no pylons, fore-court, or enclosing outer walls, but has a great vestibule with twenty-four columns, six of which form the facade, having low screen walls between them on Behind this is the hypostyle either side of the central entrance. hall, having six columns with elaborate Hathor-beaded capitals. On each side of this hall and beyond are chambers, used as lavatory, treasury, store-rooms and behind are two ante-chambers with a sanctuary beyond. Staircases on either side lead to the roof of the temple. During the Grseco-Roman period many temples were erected, of which the Temple of Edfou, commenced by Ptolemy III. A massive pylon, (B.C. 237), is the best preserved example. faced with reliefs and inscriptions, gave access to a great court, The back of this court was formed surrounded by a colonnade. by the front of the great hypostyle hall, the portal of which was the centre intercolumniation of a row of six columns, the narrower spaces between the side columns having low screen walls (No. 8). Twelve larger columns with elaborate capitals support
;

EGYPTIAN ARCHITECTURE.

27

the roof over this hall, beyond which was a smaller hypostyle hall, the roof of which was carried by twelve columns, having rich floral capitals, embellished by so-called heads of Hathor. Behind this were vestibules, smaller chambers, and the sanctuary.

OBELISKS
are monumental pillars, originally employed in pairs before the principal entrances of temples. They are monoliths, i.e., single upright stones, square on plan with slightly rounded faces, and tapering sides, with a pyramidal summit. The height is usually about nine to ten times as great as the diameter, and the four faces were cut with hieroglyphics. The capping was of metal, for the groove into which it was fitted is in some cases still visible. The quarrying and transport of such a mass of stone without the power of a steam-engine was an engineering feat of considerable skill. Many obelisks were removed from Egypt by. the Roman emperors, and at least twelve are in Rome itself. That in the centre of the Piazza of S. John Lateran is the largest in existence. It is of red granite from Syene, and is 104 feet high, or with the pedestal 153 feet, 9 feet square at the base, 6 feet 2 inches at the top, and altogether weighs about 600 tons. Cleopatra's Needle on the Thames Embankment, another example, brought to London from Alexandria, although originally erected at Heliopolis (b.c. 1500), is 68 feet 6 inches high, 8 feet square at the base, and weighs 180 tons.

DWELLINGS.
All these have disappeared, being only built of wood or of sun-dried bricks. Houses are shown on paintings and sculptures which have come down to us, from which they appear to have had one, two, or three stories. In the absence of any authentic remains, an illustration of the Egyptian House is given (No. g), conjecturally restored, and erected at the Paris Exhibition, 1889, by M. Charles Gamier. The design was founded on an ancient painting, and had a garden The house in front, laid out in a formal style, with fish-ponds. was divided by a corridor in the centre, giving access to the rooms. The staircase at the back led to a verandah, and also to a flat roof, extending over the whole length of the structure. The whole building was treated with color, the upper part of the house being painted a bright yellow, and the long external

wooden columns

blue.

28

COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE.
4.

COMPARATIVE.

A. Plans. The temples have already been slightly compared with Greek examples (pages 15 and 22), and as already noticed they were especially planned for internal effect. The hypostyle hall seemingly unlimited in size, crowded with pillars, and mysteriously illuminated from above, realized the grandest conExternally the massive ceptions of Egyptian planning (No. 5). pylons ornamented with incised decorations formed the chief fafade, a contrast being obtained by the slender obelisks which usually stood in front of them, while the approach was through an impressive avenue of innumerable sphinxes. The erection of these temples was in progress during many In this respect they centuries by means of continual additions. resemble the growth of English cathedrals as also in the disregard for symmetry in the planning of one part in relation to another. This may be seen in many of the later temples erected under the Ptolemys, the temple on th^sland of Phils being a notable instance. The walls, the py'loiis, and other features are placed on differeiit" axes, free frorn any pretence of regularity. The freedom and picturesqueness of grouping thus obtained is remarkable. B. Walls. These were immensely thick, and in important buildings were of granite, while in the less important they were of brick faced with granite. The faces of the temple walls slope inwards or batter towards the top, giving them a massive appearance (No. 7). Viollet-le;

Duc traces this inclination to the employment of mud for the walls of early buildings. ""GuLumns -Sjhich form the leading features of Greek external architecture arenistfound on the exterior of Egyptian buildings, which have normally a massive blank wall crowned with a characteristic cornice, consisting of a large hollow and roll moulding (No. 10 j, m). For the purposes of decoration, the walls, even when of granite, were generally covered with a fine plaster, in which were executed low reliefs, treated with bright color Simplicity, solidity, and grandeur, qualities (Nos. 7 and 10 p). obtained by broad masses .of unbroken walling, are the chief characteristics of the style.
These were all square-headed and covered with c. Openings. massive lintels, for the style being essentially trabeated, the arch appears to have been but little used. Window openings are seldom found in temples, light being admitted by the clerestories in the earlier examples at Thebes, or over the low dwarf walls between the columns of the front row, as at Luxor, Edfou (No. 8), Dendera, or Philas, a method peculiar to the Ptolemaic and

Roman
D.

periods.

Roofs. These were composed of massive blocks of stone supported by the enclosing walls and the closely spaced columns


EGYPTIAN ARCHITECTURE.
29

(No. 5 f). Being flat, they could be used in dwelling-houses (No. 9) as a pleasant rendezvous for the family in the evening for the enjoyment of the view and the fresh breezes which spring up at sunset, and at certain seasons may have been used for repose. They may also have been used in the daytime, if protected from the sun by temporary awnings. The flat roofs of the temples seem to have been used in the priestly processions. In the rockcut emples the ceilings are sometimes slightly arched in form, and as at the tombs at Beni-Has^n, the roofing is made to represent timber construction (No. 6). E. Columns. The papyrus, a tall, smooth reed, and the lotus, a large white water-lily of exquisite beauty, offered many suggestions. The columns, seldom over six diameters in height, were made to represent the stalks, and at intervals appear to be tied by bands (No. 10). The capitals were mostly derived from the lotus plant (No. 10 D, E, f), as follows (a ) The lotus bud, conventionalized, tied round by stalks (No. 10 m). (b.) The fully -grown lotus flower, which formed a bell-shaped capital, sculptured or ornamented with color decoration (No. 10 l). " capital, the main outline of the palms being (c.) The " palm painted or sculptured (No. 10 k). In addition, the Isis or Hathor-headed capital, as at Dendera and Philse, is formed of heads of the goddess Isis, supporting the model of a pylon (No. 10 g). These were few, viz., the hollow and bead F. Mouldings. generally used in conjunction, but the bead was also used by itself. The two combined invariably crowned the upper part of the pylons (Nos. 7 and 10 j, m), and walls. This was symbolical, and was an G. Ornament (No. lo). important element in the style, iiicluding such features as the solar disc or globe and the vulture with outspread wings (No. 10 n), as a symbol of protection, while diaper patterns, spirals (No. 10 a, b) and the feather ornament (No. 10 c) were largely used. The scarab, or sacred beetle, was considered by the Egyptians as the sign of their religion, much in the same way as the cross became the symbol of Christianity. It probably attained its sacred character as the emblem of resurrection because of its habit of allowing the sun to hatch its eggs from a pellet of refuse. It must be remembered that the decoration of the walls of a temple consisted largely in acts of adoration on the part of the monarch to his gods, to whose protection he ascribed all his warlike The Egyptians were masters in the use of color, successes. blue, red, and yellow. The chiefly using the primary ones (a) It was first wall to be decorated was prepared"*as follows chiselled smooth and covered with a thin layer of plaster or cement.

30
after

COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE.

which a colored wash was put over the whole, (b) The drawn on with a red line by an artist, being corrected with a black line by the chief artist (c) the
figures or hieroglyphics were then
;

sculptor next incised the outline, rounding slightly the inclosed form towards its boundaries (d) the painter then executed his work in the strong hues of the primary colors. (See the Egyptian Court at the Crystal Palace.) The hieroglyphics were often, however, incised direct on the granite and then colored, as may be seen on the sculptures at the British Museum. They are instructive as well as decorative, and from them is learnt most of what is known of Egyptian history (No. lo p). The Egyptians possessed great power of conventionalizing natural objects such as the lotus plant, the symbol of fertility and abundance, produced by the overflowing Nile, the palm, the papyrus," and others, each being copied as the motif for a design, being treated by the artists in a way suitable to the material in which they were working. The distinguishing, or essential, feature of the natural object, or its class, thus passed by a process of idealizing into forms adapted for ornamentation.
;

5.

Champollion (J. F., le jeune). " Monuments de I'Egypte et de la Nubie." 6 vols., folio. Paris, 1845. Choisy(A.). " L'art debatir chez les Egyptiens." Imp. 8vo. Paris, 1904. " Description de I'figypte " (known as " Napoleon's Egypt "). 23 vols.,

REFERENCE BOOKS.

large folio.

Paris, 1809-1832.

(A.)." Life in Ancient Egypt." 8vo. 1894. Herz(M.l "Mosqueedu Sultan Hassan auCaire." Folio. Cairo, 1899. Lepsius (R.). " Denkmaeler aus Aegyptenund Aethiopien." 12 vols., large folio, and i vol. text. Berlin, 1849-1859. Maspero (G.)." The Dawn of Civilization." 8vo. 1897. Parrot and Chipiez." History of Art in Ancient Egypt." 8vo. 1883. Petrie (W. N. F.). " The Pyramids and Temples of Gizeh." 4to. 1883. Petrie. " Ten Years Digging in Egypt." 8vo. 1892. Petrie. " Egyptian Decorative Art." 8vo. 1895. Prisse d'Ayennes (E.). " Histoire de I'Art Egyptien." 2 vols., large

Erman

folio,

text in 4to. Paris, 1 879. Rawlinson (G.). " History of Ancient Egypt." 2 vols., 8vo. 1881. Smyth (C. Piazzi). " Life and Work at the Great Pyramid, 1865." Edinburgh, 1867. 3 vols., 8vo. Publications of the " Archaeological Survey of Egypt " and the " Egypt

and

^Exploration Fund."

Ebers (G.). " An Egyptian Princess." Haggard (H. Rider). " Cleopatra.''

Ward

(T.).

" The Sacred Beetle."

(Historical Novel.)

Demy

8vo.

1902.

The Egyptian Court at the Crystal Palace and the Egyptian Rooms at the British Museum give a good idea of the Architecture and decoration of the style. The latter place contains a most complete collection of
Egyptian antiquities, which will give the student a better knowledge of the style than can be gleaned merely from books.

WESTERN

ASIATIC ARCHI'

TECTURE.
'

Babylon,

Learned and wise, hath perished utierly, Nor leaves her speech one word to aid the sigh That would lament her." Wordsworth.

I.

INFLUENCES.

On referring to the map (No. ii) it will be i. Geographical. seen that the principal ancient cities of Western Asia were situated in the valley of the twin-rivers Tigris and Euphrates. The district was one of the earliest seats of civilization, being celebrated for its great fertility, and has been styled the cradle and tomb of nations and empires. The plain of ^Mesopotamia, once the seat of a high civilization, was irrigated bynumerou s" canals between the above-mentioned rivers, and was highly cultivated, supporting an immense population round Nineveh and
Babylon.

The earliest known buildings appear to have been erected at the mouth of the great rivers draining the country, and in this respect can be compared with Egypt (No. 3), where the

WESTERN

ASIATIC ARCHITECTURE.

33

Pyramids and other early structures were near the delta of the Nile. In Western Asia the march of civilization spread northwards from Babylon (the Gate of God) to Nineveh, while in Egypt it spread southwards from Memphis to Philae, but in both cases it developed from the sea inland. ii. Geological. The whole district of Chaldsea or Lov/er Mesopotamia is alluvial, being formed of the thick mud or clay deposited by the two great rivers Tigris and Euphrates. The soil, containing no stone and bearing no trees, could be made into bricks, which thus became the usual building material. The general body of the walls was constructed of the ordinary sundried bricks, while " kiln-burnt " and sometimes glazed or vitrified bricks of different colors were used as a facing. As a cementing material, bitumen or pitch, applied in a heated state, seems to have been used, being obtained from bitumen springs found in the Mortar, made of calcareous district, as at Is, on the Euphrates. earth, was used in the latest periods. In Assyria, where stone was not scarce, the walls were also faced, internally and externally, with alabaster or limestone slabs, on which were carved the bas-reliefs or inscriptions, which are so important from an historical point of view. The unhealthy exhalations from the vast swamps iii. Climate. in Chaldsea, and the swarms of aggressive and venomous insects infesting the entire region during the long summer, rendered the construction of elevated platforms for the towns and palaces not

only desirable, but almost essential. Moreover, the floods during the rainy season, when torrents fell for weeks at a time, further demanded the need for such structures. Persia is for the most part a high tableland and has been described as a country of sunshine, gardens, and deserts, with a climate ranging from the extremes of heat and cold. The people were worshippers of the heavenly iv. Religion. bodies, such as the sun and the moon, and of the powers of nature, such as the wind and thunder. Numbers of omen tablets have survived, and bear witness to the extreme superstition which

existed.

Ormuzd, the god of light and of good, as opposed to Ahriman, the god of darkness and evil, was worshipped with fire as his symbol. Temples, and even images, do not seem to have been necessary, as sacrifices and the worship of fire and sun appear to have been conducted in the open air, and thus the essential stimulus was wanting for the rise and development of religious On the other hand, the man-headed bulls, placed at the art. entrances of temples and palaces, probably had a mythical meaning, and appear to belong to the class of beneficent genii or to that of the great deities of the Chaldaean pantheon. V. Social and Political.Judging from their history, the

34

COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE.

Assyrians were a sturdy, warlike, but cruel people, and in their battles the conquering monarchs took thousands of prisoners, who were employed in raising the enormous mounds mentioned hereafter. It has been calculated by Rawlinson that the erection of the great platform or mound of Koyunjik upon which the buildings of Njneveh stood would require the united exertions of

10,000

men

for twelve years, after

which the palaces would have

to be built.

The Assyrian sculptures give in a very rriinute way the social conditions of the period, and show us the costumes of the time and the military character of the period, for the long inscriptions and series of pictures with which the palace walls were covered form an illustrated history of the battles and sieges of succeeding monarchs, the sculptor thus explaining the political events of the period in a lasting manner. The cuneiform or wedge-shaped characters which form the inscriptions consist of groups of strokes placedin different positions. These characters were impressed on clay tablets or cylinders, while still moist, with a triangular ended instrument of wood, bone, or metal. Libraries of these strange MSS, were formed on a large scale, and by the translation of these inscriptions much knowledge of the social condition has been acquired. The Persian astronomer-poet, Omar Khayyam, in his writings, indicates the national love of beauty and the influence exerted by environment and climate. vi. Historical. From the study of Assyrian history can be gleaned certain facts which considerably assist in forming the divisions of the periods. The earliest Babylonian king mentioned in the cuneiform inscriptions was Eannadu, who reigned B.C. 4500, and the empire he founded was gradually extended northwards, following the course of the great river Tigris. In B.C. 1 700 Assyria, the northern part of the early Babylonian empire, asserted her independence and became the great power of Western Asia. Of the Assyrian kings, the most celebrated was Sargon (e.g. 722 he 705), who erected the great palace at Khorsabad was the first Assyrian king who came in contact with the Egyptian army, then in alliance with the Philistines, a combination of forces which he defeated. The Assyrians conquered and occupied Egypt in B.C. 672, sacking the ancient city of Thebes in B.C. 666 but the Egyptians finally shook themselves free from the Assyrian yoke. The destruction of Nineveh took place in B.C. 609, and the great Assyrian kingdom was then divided among its conquerors, Assyria being handed over to the Medes. Babylon then took the leading place until it was finally conquered by the Persians, a hardy race from the mountainous. district north of the Persian Gulf, under Cyrus, in b.c. 539. The reigns of Darius B.C. 521-485) and Xerxes (e.g. 485-465) are irnpprtant as bping

'

WESTERN

ASIATIC ARCHITECTURE.

35

those in which some of the most interesting palaces were erected The country remained under the rule of at Susa and Persepolis. the Persians until the time of Alexander the Great, B.C. 333, when it became a possession of the Greeks. The conquest of Egypt by Cambyses, b.c. 525, and the dazzling impression left by the marvellous buildings of Memphis and Thebes, caused the development of the use of the column amongst the Persians. In the seventh century a. d., the Arabs overran the country and settled there Bagdad becoming a new capital of great magnificence. Towards the close of the tenth century, the Turks, a barbarous people pouring in from the eafet, settled in the country, which is at the present moment in a desolate state owing to Turkish misrule.

2.

ARCHITECTURAL CHARACTER.

of the Tigris and Euphrates presented only alluvial where wood suitable for building was rare. The country, however, possessed an abundance of clay, which, being compressed in flat square moulds and dried in the sun, was the material of which were formed the huge platforms upon which temples and palaces were built. These immense platforms were at first faced with sun-dried bricks, and subplains,

The banks

sequently with kiln-burnt bricks, or in the later Assyrian period with stone slabs from the mountains that separate Assyria from Media. It will be perceived how the salient characteristics of the architecture may be explained by the nature of the materials at hand, for the walls being of brick, each unit, in general, was, a repetition of its neighbour, and rarely of special The buildings thus constructed could only be decorated shape. by attached ornament, similar in principle to the mats and hangings spread over floors or walls as a covering, for the Assyrians either cased their walls with alabaster or with a skin of glazed brickwork of many colors. The arch was applied to important openings (No. 12) and also to vaults. In some cases it was not a true arch, but one formed by corbelling or projecting horizontal courses. The true arch however was also practised, being probably accidentally hit upon through the use of small units for as the Chaldaeans were unable to support walls over openings upon beams of stone or timber, owing to the lack of these materials in suitable forms, they had to devise some It is a general law, which study and other means for doing so. comparison will confirm, that the arch was earliest discovered and most invariably employed by those builders who found themselves condemned by the geological formation of their country to the employment of the sijiallest units.. Arches, therefore, in the absence of piers, rested on thick and
;

36
;

COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE.

solid walls and whether used for the formation of vaulted drains under the immense platforms, or to form imposing entrances of colored and glazed brickwork in elaborate fa9ades, held a space 7of extreme importance in the style. In Chaldaea, isolated supports, such as are found in the hypostyle halls of Egypt and Persia, or in Greek temples and Latin basilicas, were not UFed, for the want of suitable stone rendered any such arrangement impossible. The Chaldseans and Assyrians scarcely ever used stone constructively except as the envelope for a brick wall but on the other hand as stone was abundant in the rocky country of Persia, the Persians used it for walls and columns at Susa and Persepolis. Assyria undoubtedly gave many of her architectural forms to Persia, who later borrowed much from Egypt and Asiatic Greece. The bracket and scroll capitals of the columns at Persepolis and Susa retain much of the form of their wooden prototypes, and demonstrate very clearly that a form which, applied to wood, is natural and inoffensive, becomes inappropriate when applied to
;

stone (No. 13 a, c, g). Texier's description of the great mosque at Ispahan might, it is believed, be applied with general accuracy to the palaces of Nineveh and Persepolis, if the power of a Merlin could bring them back to our view " Every part of the building, without exception, is covered with enamelled bricks. Their ground is blue, upon which elegant flowers and sentences taken from the Koran are traced in white. The cupola is blue decorated with shields and arabesques. One can hardly imagine the effect produced by such a building on an European accustomed to the dull uniformity of our colorless buildings." The palaces would differ principally from the description" of this mosque owing to the rules of the Koran as to the prohibition in sculpture and decoration of the copying of natural objects (page 654). The appearance of the monuments must, however, be entirely left to the imagination, for the effect of the towering masses of the palaces, planted on the great platforms, and approached from the plains by broad stairways, can only be imagined. The portal, flanked by colossal winged bulls (Nos. 12 b, f, g, h, and
:

13 D, e), led to an audience-chamber paved with carved slabs of alabaster. This apartment had a dado, 12 feet high, of sculptured slabs, with representations of battles and hunting

and was surmounted by a frieze containing animals in glazed and brightly colored brickwork a beamed roof of cedar, through which small openings gave a sufficient illumination, probably covered the apartment (No. 12 b). At Khorsabad an ornamentation of semi-cylinders in juxtaposition was employed externally, a style of decoration which
scenes (No. 13
;

f,

h),

figures of

men and


WESTERN
is

ASIATIC ARCHITECTURE.

37

a last reminiscence of the timber stockading which had originally served to keep up the tempered earth before the regular use of sun-dried bricks. In Asia Minor many of the buildings present stone forms borrowed from a timber type, and the influence of this tradition is better seen in the tombs of Lycia than in any other remains. An example of one of these at the British Museum has a double podium iff. Glossary) upon which is placed a chest or sarcophagus crowned with a roof of pointed-arch form, the mortises and framing, including the pins, being copied from a wooden form. In Lycia many rock-cut tombs present flat and sloping roofs, in which unhewn timbers were copied and the last stage shows an Ionic facade certainly developed from these carpentry ^rms (No. 41 f). The copying of timber forms in stone has also been traced in Egypt in India, where it was introduced by the Bactrian Greeks, i-between the second and third century B.C., and in Greece somewhat earlier than in Lycia, in the seventh century b.c. It may, therefore, be admitted that a material from which a style is evolved continues for a period to have its influence even when another material is substituted. It was only, however, in the infancy of stone architecture that timber forms were adhered to for as soon as habit gave familiarity with the new material, the incongruities of such forms applied to stone structures were by degrees abandoned, and features suitable to the new material were evolved.
;
1

3.

EXAMPLES.
into three tolerably

Western Asiatic Architecture can be divided


distinct periods
(a.)
:

The

first

or Babylonian (Chaldasan) period (e.g. 4000 (?)-

1290).
(b.)
{c.)

The second or Assyrian period (b.c. 1290-538). The third or Persian period (b.c. 538-333).

THE FIRST OR BABYLONIAN PERIOD


was a
of
temple -building epoch, the principal

remains being the temple

Birs-Nimroud near Babylon, and the temple at Khorsabad. Colonel Rawlinson has shown by his investigations that the
of

Temple
spheres.

Birs-Nimroud was

dedicated to the seven heavenly

In Chaldaea every city had its "ziggurat" (holy mountain), surmounted by a richly decorated temple chamber, which served as a shrine and observatory from which astrological studies could be made (No. 12 a, c, d). These temples were several stories in height, constructed in

ASSYRIAN EXAMPLES,

12.

WESTERN

ASIATIC ARCHITECTURE.

39

receding terraces, and each of different colored glazed bricks. A walled inclosure surrounded the whole structure. The angles of these temples were made to face the cardinal points, in contrast to the Egyptian pyramids, whose sides were so placed. The attempts of the Babylonians to build a tower which should " reach to heaven " (Gen. xi. 4), may be referred to here, and it is a fact worth noting that in Western Asia and Egypt, countries both remarkable for their dulness and sameness of aspect, man should have attempted his highest flights of audacity in the way of artificial elevations.

THE SECOND OR ASSYRIAN PERIOD


was a palace-building epoch, and terminated with the destruction of Babylon by Cyrus, B.C. 539. ^ The principal remains are the palaces at Nineveh (or Koyunjik), Nimroud, and Khorsabad. The Palace of Sargon, Khorsabad (b.c. 722-705), is the best example of the general type, and has been the most completely studied by means of systematic excavations, chiefly by Place. It was erected about nine miles north-north-east of the ancient city of Nineveh, and with its various courts, chambers, and corridors is supposed to have occupied an area of 25 acres. As in all Assyrian palaces, it was raised upon a terrace or platform of brickwork faced with stone, 46 feet above the plain, from which it was reached by means of broad stairways and sloping planes or ramps. The
palace contained three distinct groups of apartments, corresponding to the divisions of any palatial residence of modern Persia, Turkey, (a.) The Seraglio, including the palace proper, the or India, viz. men's apartments, and the reception rooms for visitors, in all containing 10 courts, and no less than 60 rooms or passages; (&.) the Harem, with the private apartments of the prince and his family and (c.) the Khan or service chambers, arranged round an immense courtyard, having an area of about 2 J acres, and forming the principal court of the palace. There was also a temple The great observatory on the western side of the platform. entrance portals on the south-east fagade led into the great court already mentioned. These portals formed probably the most impressive creations of Assyrian Architecture, and were rendered imposing by no fewer than ten human-headed winged bulls, ig feet in height (No. 12 f, g, h), examples of which are now preserved in the British Museum. In the principal apartments a sculptured dado of alabaster about 10 feet high, which seems to have been sometimes treated with color, lined the lower portions of the walls, above which was a continuous frieze of colored and glazed brickwork. Conjectural restorations have been made by various authorities (No. 12 b).
: ;

40

COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE.

of the Palace of Sennacherib, Nineveh, 705-681, and the Palace of Ashur-nasir-pal, Nimroud, b.c. 885-860, have revealed a large amount of information concerning Assyrian Palaces, and many of the sculptures with which the walls were lined are now in the British Museum.

The excavations

B.C.

The method of roofing is

still

much

in dispute.

Some authorities

hold that the long and narrow rooms were roofed with beams of poplar or palm, resting upon the summits of the walls, and that the large halls would have a central portion open to the sky, with porticos around, similar to that of a Roman atrium. Other authorities hold that the arch, which was used largely in the drains and water channels of the great platforms and in the city gates (No. 12 f), also played an important part in the construction of the palaces themselves, specially in view of the thickness of the walls, which would indicate that the architect had to provide solid abutments for arched vaults which supported a heavy roof. From a bas-relief found by Layard, it would appear that domed roofs both spherical and elliptical were also employed.

THE THIRD OR PERSIAN PERIOD,


from the time of Cyrus
important
Persepolis,

remains

of

to that of Alexander the Great, has palaces, tombs and temples, at Susa,

and Passagardae. Persians having no architecture of their own, proceeded to adapt that of the conquered Assyrians, as later the Romans assimilated that of the Greeks. In the neighbourhood of their new cities, Susa and Persepolis, good stone was to be found, and, as a consequence, many architectural features, which are wanting in the earlier periods, are still extant. Persepolis, one of the important capitals of Persia, has inteThese resting remains of no less than eight different buildings. were erected on a great platform, 1,500 feet long by 1,000 feet wide, of four different levels, partly cut out of the solid rock and It was from 20 to 50 feet above the plain and partly built up. was reached by a wide stairway on the western side. The most important buildings erected by Darius are his Palace and the Hall of the Hundred Columns, while his son Xerxes built the Propylaea, the Hypostyle Hall and a famous palace. The Hall of the Hundred Columns, 225 feet square, was probably used as an audience and throne-hall. It was surrounded by a brick wall, 10 feet 8 inches thick, in which were forty-four stone doorways and windows. The bas-reliefs are on a magnificent scale, representing the king surrounded by the arms of subject states, receiving ambassadors, rows of warriors and other subjects. The columns, of which only one is still in situ, had capitals of curious vertical

The

WESTERN
types (No. 13
a, c).

ASIATIC ARCHITECTURE.

4I

Ionic-like scrolls (No. 13 g), or of the double-bull or double-horse

The Hypostyle Hall of Xerxes

(b.c. 485),

probably used as a throne room, and having no enclosing walls, occupied an area larger than the Hypostyle Hall at Karnac, or any Gothic cathedral except Milan. It originally had seventy-two black marble columns, 67 feet in height, arranged in a somewhat novel manner supporting a flat roof. Of these only seventeen now exist, and have capitals either of brackets and volutes, or formed of a pair of unicorns or bulls the bases are bell-shaped (No. 13 A, c, g) and the shafts are fluted with fifty- two flutes. Susa has important remains in the palaces of Xerxes and Artaxerxes, from which splendid examples of colored and glazed brickwork have been excavated, especially the frieze of lions and the frieze of archers in which the figures, about 5 feet high, are now in the Louvre, Paris, and give a good idea of the glazed and
;

colored

work

of the Persians.

of Darius, Naksh-i-Rustam, near Persepolis, has a rock cut fagade, reproducing the Palace of Darius, and forming one of four rock-hewn sepulchres of the Akhaemenian kings. In this facade the columns are of the double-bull type with cornice over, above which are two rows of figures supporting a prayer platform, upon which stood a statue of the king, about 7 feet high, with his arm uplifted towards an image of the god Ormuzd. Jewish Architecture. The Hebrews apparently borrowed their architectural forms from Egyptian, Assyrian, Greek and Roman sources. Remains are unimportant, consisting principally of tombs in the valleys near Jerusalem. The only great attempt at a monumental structure was the Temple at Jerusalem. This was commenced by Solomon (b.c. 1012), and the biblical description (i Kings vi., vii., 2 Chronicles iii., iv.) is interesting, portraying entrance pylons, courts, cedar woodwork, metal work, and the isolated brazen columns Jachin and Boaz. The Temple was afterwards added to by Herod (b.c 18), and the site is now occupied by the Mosque of Omar.

The

Tomb

(Page 659.)
4. A.

COMPARATIVE.
feet to

early,

Plan. A special character was given to the temples of the and the palaces of the later period, by raising them on

terraces or platforms

some 30

50 feet in height (No. 12

g),

and by grouping the buildings round quadrangles. Whereas the sides of the Egyptian pyramids face the cardinal points of the compass, the angles of the Assyrian ziggurats were so placed. Egyptian temples were designed mainly for internal effect, while Assyrian palaces were designed so as to be effective internally and externally, being raised on the platforms mentioned
above.

WITH BTTEKMp^ra0nN.W.ra[SCE 5iT MIWD, KlM61NH15CMieT

mw^nmm,
^rapimwR.
(ElLIMSMci'-

13-

WESTERN

ASIATIC ARCHITECTURE.

43

B. Walls. The Assyrians in the early period used stone only as a facing to their brick walls, forming a contrast with the solid marble work of the Greeks, and with the constructive use of stone and granite by the Egyptians. In Assyria, the massive walls, which were of cased brickwork, only remain, the columns being of wood having perished. In Persia, however, the walls which were thin have disappeared, leaving the massive stone or marble blocks forming the door and

window openings, immense columns, and broad stairways which


alone have survived the ravages of time. The slabs of alabaster with which the walls of the palaces were faced reveal much of the social history of the people, and many of the slabs are now in the British Museum (No. 13). c. Openings. The lighting to the temples is conjectural, but it appears to have been effected by means of a " clerestory " (No. 12 b), somewhat similar to that in use in the Egyptian temples. It is believed that the Assyrian architects counted chiefly on the doorways, which were of great size, to give their buildings a

supply of light and air, and openings may also have been formed in the upper parts of the walls. The use of the arch, both circular and pointed, was practised by the Assyrians, as is proved by the discoveries of Sir Henry Layardat Nimroud, and of M. Place at Khorsabad (No. i2f, g, h), where semi-circular arches spring from the backs of winged bulls with human heads. D. Roofs. -The roofing appears to have been effected by means of timber beams reaching from one column to the next, and resting on the backs of the " double-bull " capitals (No. 12 b). Some authorities consider that the halls of the palaces were covered with brick tunnel vaults, but in many cases the roof of considerable thickness was flat, formed of very tough but plastic clay and debris, and kept in condition by being occasionally rolled, as in modern eastern houses. Perrot and Chipiez, however, are of opinion that Assyrian builders made use of domes in addition to barrel vaults, because of the discovery of a bas-relief at Koyunjik in which groups of buildings roofed with spherical or elliptical domes are shown. Strabo (xvi. i. 5) also mentions expressly that all the houses of Babylon were vaulted. E. Columns. These were primarily of wood, but in the later period at Persepolis, the Persians, on their return from Egypt, built them of the natural stone which had been wanting in Chaldsea. They were not so massive as in Egypt, where stone roofs had to be supported. The capitals were characteristic, being of the " double-bull,"
sufficient

" double-unicorn," " double-horse " or " double-griffen " type (No. 13 A, c), and the Ionic scroll occurs in some examples. F. Mouldings. As in the case of Egypt, in Western Asia

44

COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE.

the use of mouldings does not appear to have advanced to any great extent. In the Assyrian palaces the sculptured slabs and colored surfaces took their place. At Persepolis the bead, hollow and ogee mouldings may be noticed in the bases, while the volutes of the capital were treated with plain sinkings. G. Ornament. The Assyrian sculptures in alabaster exhibit considerable technical skill and refinement, while the repousse pattern work on bronze bowls, shields, and gate fittings is also notable. From the decorative treatment of Assyrian architecture can be traced much of the peculiar and characteristic detail used by the Greeks, and on the sculptured slabs (No. 13 b, f. h), already mentioned at Nimroud and Nineveh, are represented buildings with columns and capitals of Ionic and Corinthian form in

embryo.
Further, it may be said, that Greece took from Assyria the idea of the sculptured friezes, the colored decorations, and the honeysuckle (No. 12 j) and guilloche ornaments, the latter being seen in a pavement slab from the palace at Nineveh (Koyunjik), now in the British Museum.
will be seen that Greece adopted much from the preceding styles of Egypt and Western Asia, which are thus of extreme interest in enabling the evolution of architectural forms from the earlier periods to be traced.

In the next chapter

it

of her decorative

art

5.

REFERENCE BOOKS.
vols., folio.
(P.). vols., folio.

folio.

" L'Art Antique de la Perse." 5 Paris, " Voyage en Perse." 5 Flandin (E.) Coste Paris, 1844-1854. Layard(A. H.). " Monuments of Nineveh." 2 1853. Layard. " Nineveh and Palaces." 3 8vo. 1849. Perrot and Chipjez. " History of Art in Chaldsea and Assyria, Persia, Phrygia, and Judeea." 5 8vo. 1884-1892. Place (Victor). " Ninive et L'Assyrie." 3 large Paris, 1867-1870. "Chaldea." 8vo. 1888. (A most interesting account Ragozin {Z. of the people and their history.) " L'Arnifeie, Perse, et la Mesopotamie," 2 Texier large Paris, 1842-1852. " Sarchedon" (Historical Novel). Whyte-Melville.
Dieulafoy (M.).
et

1884-1889.

vols., folio.

its

vols.,

vols.,

vols.,

folio.

A.).

(C.).

la

vols.,

visit to the Assyrian galleries and basement of the British Museum will afford much interest and information to the student and will impress

him with the

dignity

and importance of the

style.

Ii^^ill!Bi@[iS!lliS)

EfZflriTiuF]

mmm
SE(3

(LIC(lRnH3JU3

"if^wC^^f^flgjj^
RHODES

14.

GREEK ARCHITECTURE.
" Fair Greece sad relic of departed worth Immortal, though no more though fallen, great "
!

Byron.

" And downward thence to latest days The heritage of beauty fell

And
Till

Grecian forms and Grecian lays Prolonged their humanising spell,

when new worlds for man to win The Atlantic riven waves disclose, The wildernesses there begin

To blossom
I.
i.

with the Grecian rose."

Lord Houghton.

INFLUENCES.

Geographical. A reference to the map of Greece (No. 14) shows a country surroundetJ-OH-tbree. sides by the sea, possessed of many natural hairbours^ and convenient tor the development of trade. By means of these havens the Phoenician merchants in early times carried on commerce with the country. The influence
of the sea in fostering national activity should not be forgotten
-

an influence to which Great Britain owes her present position. Again, the mountainous character of the country, with scarcely a
road until Roman times, was calculated to isolate the inhabitants into small groups, and together with the tempting proximity of a whole multitude of islands, was instrumental in producing
a hardy and adventurous people,

who might be

expected to

make good

colonists.

ii. Geological. In Greece the principal mineral product was marblg, the most monumental building material in existence, and -one which favour s pur ity of line and refineme nt in detail. This material is found in greal abundance iirvariou~J)arts of Greece, e.g., in the mountains of Hymettus and Pentelicus, a few miles


46
_

COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE.

from Athens, and


effort to obtain

In the in the islands of Paros and Naxos. refinement of line and smoothness of surface where crude bricks were used, they were in many cases coated with a fine cement formed of marble dust and lime where stone was employed, as at Paestum and elsewhere, it appears also to have been coated with this marble cement, while marble itself was often treated in the same way, the cement being susceptible, of a higher polish than the uncemented surface. The country was also rich in silver, copper, and iron. iii. Climate. The climate of Greece is remarkable for the hot sun and the heavy rains, factors probably answerable for the porticos which were important features of the temples. Greece enjoyed a position intermediate between the rigorous surroundings of the Northern nations and the relaxing conditions of Eastern life. Hence the Greek character combined the activity of the North with the passivity of the East in a way that conduced to the growth of a unique civilization. iv. Religion. The Greek religion was in the main a worship of natuai4ihenaaiena(nature-worship, major and minor), of which the g ods were personific ations. There are, however, numerous traces of ancestor- worship, fetishism, and other primitive forms of religion. Itlhould be bome in mind that Greek cults were always local, each town or district having its own divinities, ceremonies, and traditions. The priests had to perform their appointed rites, but were not an exclusive class, and often served only for a period, retiring afterwards into private life. Both men and women officiated, and a small bright " cella " took the place of the mysterious halls of the priest-ridden Egyptians (page 20). The principal deities of the Greeks with their Roman names
;

are as follows
Greek.

Roman.
Chief of the gods and supreme ruler Jupiter (Jove). Wife of Zeus and goddess of marriage Juno. The son of Zeus ' and father of ] [ ^sculapius. The god who punj < ishes, heals and helps. Also the > Apollo. god of song and music, of the sun, j and founder of cities. [ )
I

Zeus

Hera

Apollo

Hestia Heracles

Hearth (sacred fire) Strength, power


|

Vesta. Hercules.
^""^
P"^"^"!

Athena
Poseidon Dionysos

P""^""'

P^^^^'

^f^?^'"'
feasting, revelry Earth, agriculture Hunting (goddess of the chase) ^"^^^ ""^ messenger of the gods therefore eloquence with wmged feet

Minerva.

Sea Wine,

Neptune. Bacchus.
Ceres,

Demeter
Artemis

Diana.
1 ]

Hermes
Aphrodite

I
\

y^^ '>-"-"

J'

Beauty
Victory

Venus.
Victoria.

Nike

GREEK ARCHITECTURE.

47

The early inhabitants were known V. Social and Political. Their civilization to the ancients under the name of Pelasgi. belonged to the bronze age, as is evident from the remains of it found at different points round the ^Egean sea, viz., in Crete, at
Hissarlik in the Troad, at Mycenae, Tiryns, and elsewhere. It before the iron weapons and greater courage of invaders from the North, viz., the Achasans or Homeric Greeks. The war against Troy affords proof of an early connection of the inhabitants of Greece with Asia. The Achseans in their turn succumbed to a fresh influx of invaders from the North, hardy mountaineers called Dorians, who established themselves at Sparta and elsewhere in the Peloponnese. In classical times the land wds peopled by lonians {i.e., the old Pelasgic population), jfEolians (i.e., descendants of the Achaeans), and Dorians. Dorian Sparta and Ionian (Pelasgian) Athens are the two principal factors in the drama of Greece. It was not till some 500 years after the fall of Troy that the new Hellenic civilization was evinced in the construction of the Temple of Corinth (b.c. 650), one of the earliest Doric temples known. As regards the people themselves, it is clear that the national games and religious festivals united them in reverence for their religion, and gave them that love for music, the drama, and the fine arts, and that emulation in manly sports and contests for which they were distinguished. It should be remembered that the people led an open-air life, for the public ceremonies and in many cases the administration of justice were carried on in the
fell

open

air.

as already indicated, were great colonists, and the coast of Asia Minor and the Mediterranean, was a government measure dating from about B.C. 700, undertaken not only to establish trade, but also to reduce the superfluous population, and to provide an outlet for party strife. It thus came about that the colonies were often peopled with citizens of a more energetic and go-ahead character than and it will therefore be found that those of the mother country many of the important buildings of Greek architecture, especially in the Ionic style, are in their colonies of Asia Minor, and that this connection with the East had some influence upon
emigration,
especially to
;

The Greeks,

their architecture. vi. Historical. bard who sang for


life

The poems of Homer, apparently a Pelasgic

Achaean masters, give a picture of Greek about the twelfth century b.c Whether or no the war with Troy be an actual fact, the incidents related have a substratum of truth, and the tale probably arose out of the early conflicts of the Greeks in north-west Asia. The Hesiodic poems, circ. b.c 750,
depict the

peasantry at a time

gloomy prospects and sordid life of the Boeotian when art was almost in abeyance. For the

; ;

48

COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE.

fourth and fifth centuries b.c. there are the more or less critical The histories of Herodotus, Thucydides, Xenophon, and others. cities of Greece had by this time settled down in their several forms of government tyrannic, aristocratic, or democratic and The Persians under most of their colonies had been founded. Cyrus, having captured Sardis, overthrew the kingdom of Lydia whereupon the Greeks of Asia Minor became subject to Persia. It was the revolt of these lonians in B.C. 499-493 which led to the Persian wars. The first great Persian invasion resulted in the victory of the Greeks at the battle of Marathon, B.C. 490 ; and the second invasion by Xerxes terminated in the naval victory of Salamis (b.c 480). National exaltation caused by the defeats of the Persians is largely responsible for the fact that all the important temples now found in Greece were built in the " fifty

years " which succeeded the battles of Salamis and Plataea. The wonderfully rapid growth of Athens excited the jealousy of the slower Spartans, and the Peloponnesian war, which followed, lasted from b.c 431 to 404. The rule of Pericles (b.c 444-429) marks the climax of Athenian prosperity. The Peloponnesian war left Sparta the chief power in Greece but her arbitrary and high-handed conduct roused other states against her, and the supremacy passed successively to Thebes and Macedonia. The latter had hitherto been considered a half- barbarian state but thanks to the ability of Philip King of Macedonia and of his son Alexander the Great, it rose to a leading position in Greece. In b.c 334 Alexander set out on his great expedition, and in six years he subdued the Persian Empire, having besieged and taken Tyre en route and received the submission of Egypt, where he founded and gave his name to the famous city of Alexandria. His conquests extended to Northern India, and the effect of these was most important, for Hellenic civilization was thus introduced far and wide throughout Asia., On his death at Babylon in b.c 323, the empire he had created was split up among his Generals, Egypt falling to the share of Ptolemy, who founded a dynasty (page 12). In Greece itself the formation of leagues, as the Achaean and .(Etolian, between cities was attempted but the Roman interference had commenced, and gradually increased until in B.C. 146 Greece became a Roman province. The isolation and mutual animosity of the Greek communities afforded all too good an opportunity for the intrusion of the better-centralized and more united power of Rome. En revanche, where arts not arms were concerned,
; ;

" Graecia capta ferum victorem cepit et artes Intulit agresti Latio."


GREEK ARCHITECTURE.
2.

49

ARCHITECTURAL CHARACTER.
still

Greek culture owed to the preceding Oriental the change effected by the Greeks has so profoundly influenced the development of European progress that Greece must be regarded as the veritable source of literary and artistic inspiration. As a recent writer puts it, " Whate'er we hold of beauty, half is hers." Greek architecture stands alone in being accepted as beyond criticism, and as being an obligatory
as
civilizations,

Much

study for students of otherwise very different principles. The character of the early or Mycenaean period, also known as the Pelasgic, Cyclopean or Primitive period, is very different from the later or Hellenic period, and, as mentioned on page 53, consists of rough walling of large blocks of stone, often unworked. In this period the Greeks often had recourse to the corbel system, to inclined blocks over openings, and even to the true arch. The Hellenic Period which followed the Mycenaean is dealt with specially here because it is notable for the development of the trabeated style which the Greeks approved and developed, and which is recognised as the special Grecian type. The following diagram emphasizes the main facts
:

Greeks.

Etruscans.

Greek,
'

Trabeated.

Roman. >}. \ Trabeated and Arcuated.

Gothic.

Arcuated.

This style was essentially columnar and trabeated (trabs a beam),, and the character was largely influenced by the use of finely-dressed marble. J Stability was achieved solely by the judicious observance of the laws of gravity the weights acting only vertically, and consequently needing but vertical resistances. Stone or marble lintels being difficult to obtain of any great length, the columns or supporting members had to be placed comparatively close together, a method of design which called for a certain simplicity of treatment characteristic of the style. Mortar was unnecessary because it would have been of no use for distributing the pressure between the stone or marble blocks of
;

which the walls and columns were constructed, as the beds of these were rubbed to a very fine surface and united with iron cramps. Further, careful study of the materials at hand was made, for Choisy found in the temples at ^Egina and Peestum (Nos. 20, 28), that the stones were laid on their natural bed or otherwise, according to the pressures they had to bear thus the architraves, which had to support a cross pressure, were placed with the planes of their beds vertically, as they were then better able to withstand a cross-strain, and a wider intercolumniation could also be obtained.
;

^Y^TEM OP COM^T^PCTION,
iHEFBiHaML

(nmm mim or weizona / fflcH m mm mm ob to mt


IS

T@

fmim THE roM w^i mbocei


-*Tffi

mm.m ihe msstsm FSM mt wmt, Mi mi ^ /


BY

mmm
<s

m Mi\ii. im mmmni
WFiLE or

mmm Sww the miictmi imm racE

THE WSBLE WHS laiCTM

.^

^_ fmsm n

ireciD FFi9yc

XlSWlOM TWOOM

BIMCIML efflMilB. WWE.TOEIEFT


Biy

Lbt,u

ap^><

5IIE SHOWS TO? ^(ff)n IffiESalS F0

umArnt
miSME
eAP.oFcoLuw M.

BPTHI EaBTH.TME^UK "0a OF THE

mmmmf
(MB WITH

mm
^emmi
mt tiryni.

mnm sr toe

4*

F CYCLOIFIE^KI nBSOMBT COMTOIi) 'GF BlOCKf QF STONE fi TD 10 ItlT j^Q 3 FEgT WIGS
15-

GREEK ARCHITECTURE.

The general architectural character of the early works of the Hellenic period is heavy and severe, the influence of the Mycenaean period being apparent but a gradual change towards refinement and beauty took place, and in the later periods the proportions of the columns were more slender, and the mouldings more refined. Unity of effect in the larger temples was obtained by the colonnade surrounding the shrine-cell, forming a contrast with the number of courts, halls, and chambers, decreasing in size from the entrance pylons, comprised in a typical Egyptian temple. Greek Tmildings have the qualities of harmonyf^raplicity and unity, because of the excellence of their proportions, their truthful and apparent construction, and the employment of one constructive
;

principle.

Many refinements in design were practised in the best period of Greek art, in order to correct optical illusions, as has been discovered by the late Mr. Penrose in many temples, and especially in the Parthenon. The long lines of the architrave, stylobate, pediments and other features, which, if built straight in reality, would appear to sag or drop in the middle of their length, were formed with slight convex lines. For instance, in the Parthenon the stylobate has an upward curvature towards its centre of 2 'Si inches on the east and west fronts, and of 4-39 inches on the flanks. The vertical features were made to incline inwards in order to correct the tendency which such features have of appearing to fall outwards at the top. Thus, in the Parthenon the axes of the outer columns lean inwards 2'65 inches, and would meet if produced at a distance of a mile above ground. The faces of the architrave (No. 71, c) were also given an inward inclination. The shafts usually have an entasis which, in the case of the Parthenon column, amounts to about three-quarters of an inch in a height of 34 feet, and is shown on No. 71 d. The close spacing of the angle columns has been already referred to, and these were increased in thickness as it was found that seen against the sky owing to irradiation (No. 71, b) they would appear thinner than those seen against the darker background formed by the cella wall. According to Pennethorne a further correction is pointed out in an inscription from the Temple of Priene (No. 71, a), where according to Vitruvius, Bk. vi., chap. 2, the letters at the top of the inscription were increased in size, and the letters at the lower part decreased so that they might all appear of one size when seen from the point of sight. Sculpture and carving of the highest class completed the effectiveness of their most important buildings, and these were influenced very largely by the hard, fine-grained marble employed, which rendered possible the delicate adjustment and refined treatment characteristic of this period.
E 2

GREEK EXAMPLES.

I.

CNJ)TPCTIM.
ItlWW
|iiiii[fii[)iii|i5)-

pBllillllD))

MM mitt
iim)oii

iracr

mmmoii

mmmM
\im\sm
if,

MK-fBlTfilEi^*

fJiLf Tl^fJjftOg JECTrt eF fWfc*!*

MMiLE ff f^miWi
i6.

J^) Ti:

prdent-

53

GREEK ARCHITECTURE.

Color and gilding were applied very largely by the Greeks both to their buildings and sculpture, and some of the remains which have been lately excavated at Athens, Delphi, and elsewhere still exhibit traces of their original coloring. The Greeks developed the so-called " Orders of Architecture,"
the Doric, Ionic and Corinthian being used by them. To these, in later times, the Romans added the Tuscan and Composite, " thus completing the " five orders of architecture." An " order in Greek and Roman architecture consists of the column or support, including base and capital, and the entablature, ^or part supported. The latter is divided into the architrave or lowest portion the frieze, or middle member, and the cornice or uppermost part. The proportions of these parts vary in the different orders, as do the mouldings and decorations applied (No. 38). The origin and evolution of the different parts of the three Greek orders are dealt with later under their respective headings, but the characteristics are well expressed in the following lines
;
:

" First, unadorn'd, And nobly plain, the manly Doric rose Th' Ionic, then, with decent matron grace. Her airy pillar heaved luxuriant last, The rich Corinthian spread her wanton wreath. The whole so measured, so lessen'd oflf By fine proportion, that the marble piles, Forra'd to repel the still or stormy waste Of rolling ages, light as fabrics look
;

That from the wand

aerial rise."

Thomson.

well observed that Art is stages (i) The ardent and inspired embodiment of a great idea this gives strength and grandeur (2) the original inspiration tempered by increasing knowledge and a clearer appreciation of limits the result being symmetry (3) ebbing inspiration, details being elaborated, and novelties introduced to make up for its loss this occasions a brilliant but somewhat disproportioned style. This progress can be traced in all departments of Greek life. In architecture, there is the solid strength of the Doric capital, the clear-cut beauty of the Ionic, and the florid detail of the Corinthian, in poetry the rugged grandeur of jEschylus, the exquisite symmetry of Sophocles, and the brilliant innovations of Euripides, and in sculpture, an Ageladas, a Pheidias, and a Praxiteles.

The late J. Addington Symonds commonly evolved through three


;

3.

EXAMPLES.

The Mycenaean Period has already been defined as extending to shortly after the war with Troy, though in the Islands (e.g., Cyprus, Crete, and Delos), it lasted on till the eighth century b.c. but remains of a pre-Mycenaean period called Minoan, dating
;


54

COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE.

back to about b.c. 3000, have been discovered by Dr. Arthur Evans, of which the Min6an Palace at Knossos in Crete is an example. The architectural remains of these periods include town-walls, palaces, and tombs. The walls are of three kinds of masonry (i) " Cyclopean," i.e., masses of rock roughly quarried and piled on each other, without cramp-irons, but with clay mortar, the interstices between the larger being filled with smaller blocks. Examples at Argos, Tiryns, Mycenae, Knossos in Crete,
:

'and Athens. (2) Rectangular, i.e.^ carefully hewn rectangular blocks arranged in regular courses, but the joints between stones Examples at in the same course are not always vertical. Mycenae in the entrances and towers, and the entrance passage in " tholos " or beehive-tombs. (3) Polygonal, i.e., many sided blocks accurately worked so as to fit together. Examples at Mycenae, wall of Acropolis at Athens, and Cnidus. Thus all three styles occur in structures of " Mycenaean " age, although 'in out-of-theway places, as in Caria, they survived for centuries. The first is seemingly the parent of the other two but the common assumption that polygonal is later than rectangular masonry cannot be proved with regard to the Pelasgic period. In addition various characteristic features were used Corbels. Sometimes horizontal courses were employed projecting one beyond the other till the apex was reached, producing either a triangular opening as is found above the doorways of the tholos-tombs (No. 15 a, e), or an apparent arch as at CEniades in Acarnania, Assos, and the gallery at Tiryns, or a dome-shaped roof as in the Treasury of Atreus at Mycenae (No. 15 a, b). Inclined Blocks. Sometimes inclined blocks forming triangular headed openings were employed as in the early, perhaps prehistoric, sanctuary on Mount Ocha in Euboea, and the ancient shrine of Apollo on Mount Cynthus (Delos). Arches. A few examples of Greek arcuated work are extant, viz., a Cyclopean arch at Cnidus, an arch with a key-stone
: :

and an arched gateway at water-channel or drain at Athens, which crosses the town from east to west, is partly arcuated and partly roofed with advancing corbels. The barrel-vault ("kamara") occurs in subterranean funeral chambers in Macedonia, and also in the vaulted passages at the theatre of Sicyon, the tunnel leading to the Stadium at Olympia and other places. The "tholos" or beehive-tombs at Mycenae, Orchomenos, and Amyclae were originally modelled on underground huts for the living (Vitruv. ii., i), the precise shape being found by Prof. Adler in Phrygia. At Mycenae the tholoi are confined to the lower city as opposed to the shaft-graves of the upper city. The largest and It best preserved is the so-called " Treasury of Atreus " (No. 15). consists of a long entrance passage or " dromos," 20 feet broad by
(partially dropped) in Acarnania,

OSniades.

GREEK ARCHITECTURE.

55

115 feet long, a large vaulted chamber, about 50 feet broad by 50 feet high, and a small square tomb-chamber adjoining. similar tomb at Orchomenos in Boeotia has a magnificently ornamented ceiling in its sepulchral chamber, while another at Menidi in Attica has no less than five superposed lintels to support the mass of earth above it {c.f. section of Great Pyramid, No. 5 d). These tombs belong to the second stage in the evolution of the dwelling-house, the complete series being (o) natural cave (No. 2 h) ; (6) artificial

cave below ground [c) artificial cave above ground, i.e., hut (No. 2 e). The famous Gate of Lions on the Acropolis at Mycenae also belongs to this period (No. 15 k). The Hellenic Period contains all the principal temples and monuments v.'hich were erected between the years B.C. 700 and the Roman occupation B.C. 146. The masterpieces of Greek architecture, however, were all erected in the short spate of about 150 years, viz., between the defeat of the Persians, e.g. 480, and the death of Alexander, B.C. 323. Many of the Greek cities were upon or in the immediate vicinity of a hill which was known as the Acropolis (Greek = an upper city), and formed a citadel upon which ^^^ Drincipal temples or treasure-houses were erected for safety, ^a. the Acropolis at Athens in the British Museum will give a .^ general idea of the disposition of the important buildings placea thereon, as also the plan No. 17. Other great centres of architectural activity were Olympia, Delphi, Psestum in South Italy, Sicily, and Asia Minor.
;

<

"

'

_JM

56

COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE.

The Temples formed the most important class of buildings erected during this period, and a general description applicable to all is therefore given. Their points of difference with Egyptian examples have been already referred to. (Pages 15, 21, 28). They were built with special regard to external effect, and were ornamented with sculpture of the highest class in order to form fitting shrines They were for the deities in whose honour they were erected. generally placed in a " temenos " or sacred enclosure, and consisted of a." naos " or cell, usually oblong in plan, in which was placed the statue of the god or goddess a treasury or chamber beyond and a front and rear portico, with flanking colonnades, the whole generally raised on a stylobate of three steps. In the larger temples were internal colonnades of columns placed over each other to support the roof (Nos. 18 h, 20, 23, 25, 28 a, b, and 31). On the two end facades above the columns a triangularshaped pediment, usually but not always filled v^ith sculpture, terminated the simple span roof (Nos. 16 a, 20, 21, 23, 26, 27, 28, These roofs were constructed of timber and covered 30, and 31 a). with marble slabs the ends of the overlapped joints being provided with ante-fixse. at the eaves (Nos. 16 d, 20 h, j, and 44 n). The door was almost always placed in the centre of the end wall, behind the portico of columns, and frequently planned so that the sun might enter and light up the statue opposite. The general absence of windows in the temples, that, at Agrigentum being the only exception (No. 28 o), has given rise to many theories as to how light was admitted. The method of lighting by a clerestory concealed in the roof which is favoured by Mr. Fergusson (No. 25 a), can be seen practically in Sir Arthur Blomfield's restoration of S. Peter, Eaton Square, London. Another theory by Herr Botticher is also shown (No. 25 b). The temple was occasionally " hypsethral," that is to say, there was an opening in the roof which admitted air- and light to the central portion of the naos or cell. The use of an hypaethr-al opening has been often refuted, but it appears to have been used in the larger temples as in that of Jupiter Olympius at Athens (No. 18 j) (see Vitruvius), and in the Ionic Temple of ApolloDidymseus, near Miletus, as mentioned in Strabo (lib. xiv.). The temple was the house of the loc9,l god, being merely a glorified dwelling-house, and some hold that the opening in the centre of an ordinary house must have had some counterpart in that of the divinity. Both alike were developed out of the smokehole of the primitive hut the whole development being ably traced in an article on " domus " in Daremberg et Saglio, " Diet, des Antiquit^s." An extant hypsethral opening is that of the Pantheon, Rome (Nos. 54, 55). Many authorities hold that light was obtained solely through
; ; ;

GREEK EXAMPLES.

II.


>
l'

Temple Rhamnus
IN

* *

'

Dl STYLE

AnTIS

TpMPLE
Temple or Vesta AT TivoLi
Circular Perip teral
Cdork)

OH Txe

(OORC)

[LI5SUS(lOmC}

IPHI-PROSTYLE MPH ETRASTYLE. fTE-

58

COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE.

the doorways, others that the transparent Parian marble roofing slabs would admit sufficient light. Artificial illumination by means of lamps may also have been

employed.

The different kinds of temples are classified, by the disposition of their columns, and a sheet of plans (No. i8) is given in order to indicate the general distribution of parts, and also to show the evolution from the simple shrine-cell of the smaller examples. The different methods of spacing the columns one from the other is shown in No. 39, R, s, t, u, v. _ i. Di-style in antis at one end (the simplest form, having two columns between antae). Ex.Templeof Rhamnus(No. i8a). ii. Di-style in antis at both ends. Ex. Doric Temple at Eleusis (No. 18 b). iii. Prostyle tetrastyle (a front portico of four columns). Ex. Doric Temple at Selinus, Sicily (No. 18 d). iv. Amphi-prostyle tetrastyle (front and rear porticos of four columns). Ex. Ionic Temple on the Ilissus (No. 18 e), and Temple of Nik^-Apteros (No. 18 n). V. Peripteral circular (a ring of columns surrounding a circular cjsU)t^-JEx. Philipeion at Olympia, The Tholos at Epidauros "" (No. 18 k). vi. Peripteral hexastyle (a temple surrounded by columns, the Ex. The Theseion porticos at each end having six). Athens (Nos. 18 f and 21 d). Temple of Neptune, Psestum (No. 28 A, B, c), Temple of Apollo at Bassse (No 27 c). vii. Peripteral octastyle (as last, but with eight columns to each
viii.

portico). Ex. the Parthenon Athens (Nos. 18 h, 23 h). Pseudo-peripteral (having columns attached to cella walls,

a favourite form afterwards adopted by the Romans. See page 12). Greek ex. Temple of Jupiter at Agrigentum
(No. 28 m).
Dipteral octastyle (double rows of columns surrounding temple, having ranges of eight at each end). Exs. Temple of Jupiter Olympius, Athens (No. 18 j), and Temple of Diana at Ephesus (No. 31 b). X. Pseudo-dipteral octastyle (as last, with the inner range left out). Ex. Great Doric Temple of Selinus, Sicily (No. 18 l). xi. Dipteral decastyle (as ix., but with ten columns at ends). Ex. Temple of Apollo Didymaeus, near Miletus. Roman example is the Great Temple at Baalbec (No. 53 e). xii. Octagonal. Ex. Tower of the Winds Athens (No. 28 k, l). Ex. Erechtheion, Athens (Nos. 18 m, xiii. Irregular planning, 30 f), The Propyloea, Athens (No. 18 n), Teleskrion at Eleusis. In order to keep the descriptions of classic temples together, mention is made here that the Romans employed the circular
ix.


GREEK ARCHITECTURE.
form as in the Pantheon (Nos. circular temples as follows
:

59
also planned smaller
'

54,

57

e),

and

(a.)

Peripteral.

Temple

of Vesta, Tivoli (No. 18 c),

and

Temple
(b.)

of Vesta,

Rome

(No.

47).

Monopteml (in which the roof was supported by columns only, without walls). (c.) Pseudo-peripteral (the cella wall having attached
columns).

The

varieties of temples described were erected in either the Doric, Ionic, or Corinthian style, which will be referred to now in detail with their principal examples.

THE DORIC ORDER.


The Doric order, the oldest, plainest, and most sturdy, is traced by many to an Egyptian prototype as exemplified at Beni- Hasan (No. 6) but as the origin of this, the earliest of the Greek orders, is of special interest, the theories put forward by several authorities,
;

are here stated. Perrot and Chipiez, in their monumental work on " Art in Primitive Greece," discuss the question of the wooden origin of the Greek Doric column and its entablature, and endeavour to show its derivation from the wooden-built prodomus or porch of the Mycenaean palace (No. 16). They themselves, suggest no origin of the Capital, and decline to consider the derivation from the examples at Beni-Hasan in Egypt. They make various interesting suggestions, e.g., the derivation of the " guttae " from constructive wooden pegs, and the restoration they give of the timber architecture of Mycenaean palaces, and the explanation of the wooden types used decoratively in the later stone architecture, form a consistent and attractive theory a theory, moreover, which is yearly gaining ground and is to many minds convincing. Illustrations showing these reconstructions are given in No. 16. Viollet-le-Duc, however, held a decided opinion that the orders of Greek architecture involved an original stone treatment. He was unable to conceive how the Greek Doric capital could have been derived from a timber form, and he considered the triglyphs which in the frieze, not as the petrified ends of wooden beams could not be seen on four sides of a building, and which would be very difficult to flute across the grain of the wood but as original stone uprights, fluted to express their function of vertical support, and therefore treated ip .this respe'qfj-in, the same manner as the
.

columns, which were certairily fluffed when in position. He likewise observed that '" the form giypn to the entablature of the Doric order can be adapted with some unimportant variations to a structure in stone as well as of wobd, in neither Case involving

GREEK EXAMPLES.

III.

THE DORIC QBDER.

GREEK ARCHITECTURE.

6l

the necessity of falsifying the form or the structure." He was not prepared to admit, then, that a wooden original suggested a stone structure in the composition of the Doric order indeed, he would rather suppose the converse. Garbett goes so far as to call the wooden theory an " insolent libel," and asserts that in the case of the inclination of the soffit of the cornice this barbarous theory is at once disproved by two facts, the inclination being observed on the fronts equally with the sides of the building, and its angle being wholly independent of that of the roof. later writer, Mr. H. H. Statham, in a recent work on architecture, rejects the wooden theory as far as the Doric column and capital are concerned, and adds that its adherents have to explain these facts (i.) That the greater the age of the known and approximately dated examples, the thicker the columns are, while the reverse would probably have been the case had the original forms been wooden and (ii.) That the characteristic moulding under the abacus of the Doric column is an essentially" stone form, and one which it would not be at all easy to work in wood. These opponents of the wooden theory might, however, have modified their views, had they been familiar with the recentlydiscovered examples of Pelasgic or " Mycenaean " construction. The similarities between these proto-historic buildings and the later Greek styles of architecture are too numerous to be accidental, and Pelasgic or "Mycenaean" palaces undoubtedly had columns and entablatures of wood. The column, which has no base, but stands directly on a stylobate usually of three steps is, including the cap, from 4 to 6|times the diameter at the base in height. The circular shaft diminishing at the top from f to f of this diameter is divided as a rule in 20 shallow flutes or channels separated by sharp arrises. Occasionally the flutes number 12 (Assos), 16 (Sunium), 18 (Greek Temple at Pompeii), or 24 (Passtum, No. ig b). The division into twenty flutes seems to have been selected in order that a projection or arris might come under each of the angles of the square abacus above', and at the same time a flute in the centre of the column as seen from the front, back or sides. It will be found that no other number of flutes between twelve and twenty-eight will enable this to be done, thus following out one of the Greek constructive principles of placing projections over projections. The shaft has normally an outward curvature of profile called the "entasis" (No. 17 a), to counteract the hollow appearance of straight sided columns. In early works this is often too obtfu^ sive (e.g.. Basilica at Paestum) where it is omitted altogether (e.g., Corinth) the effect is lifeless but the happy mean may be seen in the Parthenon (page 67). The column is surmounted by a distinctiv'?eaDital formed of abacus, echinus and annulets. The
;

GREEK EXAMPLES.
IKIE

IV.

TEMFLI

MMM.,

[JPFIIEE FAHHELLEffll!

This

Temple

is

BUILT IN DHOIIS. MATERIAL

SsroSENTABLATOl[
Of PARANMAIilLE. S

NtxASTYii pejipteml. some coLOMNS.noNOUTtts^THEis ASOFT YELLOW LWtSTONt OWNAILY CMTED Wlffl WAS PAINTED. CYMATION/ORNICE IILK SCULPTO E f THE flOT Of-fTONAOS HAS S(KMt HOLES fC FIXING METAL
iS-COBIOlBLY DIVIDED

W^i
LE|

.ANTEflX/tOI!

Se

TKCTOTICUH OTmiA ME ffiMAJWLE

kS

FiGnrTmra

TLIt OBLOCIG JLOCKS THE WESIERN Ir ES1 fRCSEMD PEDIMEKT lEPIESof HE GKEEKs t tkuans ovei; the
Y

TMI

'eaves TILL.
WMIIUrGILIlCJX

Wy

patms

^-j^.

S ANEAJUE8 EXPEDITION AGAINST TPOY,

ACKOTERION

20.


GREEK ARCHITECTURE.
abacus

63

is a square slab under which is a large convex moulding the echinus, which is somewhat similar in outline to a human hand supporting a book. The profile of the echinus varies according to the date of erection, the earlier examples, such as the Temples at Paestum (No. ig a, b), being fuller in outline (approximately parabolic section), whereas in the later examples such as the Theseion (No. ig d), and the Parthenon (No. ig e) the curve approaches a straight line (approximately hyperbolic section). Annulets or horizontal fillets varying from three to five in number are placed beneath the echinus of the capital in order to form a stop or contrast to the long lines of the arrises between the flutes. Immediately below is the trachelion or necking, having beneath it the hypotrachelion formed of three groves in the older or archaic examples and one in the later. The entablature, usually about one quarter of the height of order, is supported by columns, and has three main divisions ' (a.) The architrave is derived from its prototype, the wooden beam. It has considerable depth, and only one vertical face, whereas in the Ionic and Corinthian orders the usual number is three. Separating this from the freize is a flat moulding called the tenia, and underneath this at intervals corresponding to the triglyphs is a narrow band called the regula, having six guttae. (b.) The frieze has triglyphs, ornamented with three channels, and metopes or square spaces between them, sometimes filled with sculpture of the highest quality (page 72). Beneath the triglyphs The triglyphs are placed at are guttse or small conical drops. equal distances apart, and come immediately over the centre of each column and intercolumniation. At the angles, however, this is not so, because the two triglyphs meet with a bevelled edge, and in consequence the. intercolumniation of the two outer columns in each front is less by about half a triglyph in width than that of the others. (c.) The cornice consists of an upper or crowning part consisting of cymatium and birdsbeak mouldings beneath which is a The soffit is inclined upwards vertical face known as the corona. and parallel with the slope of the roof, and its underside has flat projecting blocks called mutules, which recall the feet of sloping rafters, one over each triglyph and metope, their soffits being ornamented with eighteen guttae in three rows of six each. The principal examples are found in Greece, Sicily, and South

S^Sl

Italy.

Doric Examples

in

Greece.
Date.
Architect.

B.C. 700 'T\\eHemion,OlympiaQio.'iic,T>,-pdige66) B.C. 650 -The Temple of Athena, Corinth B.C. 6th cent. l^ie. Temple of Foseidon, Island of Pans B.C. 472-469 The Temple of Zeus, Olympia (page 67)
.
. .

Libon.

GREEK EXAMPLES.
The
FtDIMtNTAL SCOIPTORE
MtTOPES IHE FRONT
!

Y.
(?)

so-called Theseion or Temple, of Hephaestos


THE

B.C. 465.

UBOUB

Of HERACLE5.-

ummttmrn.'

l,H.lillEnEA

UOW: E.H.M0Utt)SK5mv-

ll;hVMA;3,H4

"

\!,cmmmL
5,t\MW
MASEOf
l!IHEIIE;6,H.MI

CEIilEI!US;?H.M

8.H.SIAWK
Ei)iiyra;aHi5
ATTACKED

nUI-

nEGtRYO(l;IC/,l

RECEiVINtAmt

Fm BESFEOKS.

(g) East

Elevatwm

Tiansveuse Secti@m p

(^HALF

SWTIHI

ELEVATWM

'

HALF LOMS.SECTWM iAMBMATOEY

(E)FLAIM

EXISTIWG Lacbmmia

Settingout section?
METOPFS OH

%m

mi tFiNCTHwm

r/mnF-TUFSFii.'i
WITH THE

columnkaseh

THIiOMElOPL

TOLL OF SUMEflS j1CTOre5 0H-ll.5IDE; NS5.THE5E0S KILLS CRtON KING OE KIL13 ANIAEUS; Z'TNESEOS OVtKiOtllllG 5KII!0)I;5,THESE(15 KILUNGTNE CROmYOBIANSlM.
IISCOVEI!

DESTWING THE MINOT; 2. THESEUS MWMTHON; 3&4.T00 MOCH WINED 10

toBTPebEIS

TheThESEION fSOCALk
ED) ISTlif BEST PRESERV-

ED
IS

ANatNT TEMPLE.

IT

BUILT OP PENTELICdS.

MAEBLE AND STANDS ON*


ANASTIPICIALrOUNDATMN

OFLAIGEUMESTONE*

f RIEZE

Of

WEST CELLA WALL.


CENIAOffi.

A SMAIi PORTION OF COFFERED CEIUNG IS NOW IN THE BRItiSHta


BLOCKS.

JiEPKESENTS CONTESTS Of GREEKS*

MUSEUM-

21.

in

Z
w

<
o

H
M

66

COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE.
Doric Examples
in

Greece
Date.

(continued).
Architect.

The

Thtseion (so called) or Temple of B.C. 465 (?) Hephaestos^ Athens (No. 19 D, 21, 22,

38 a) (page 67).

The Temple of Aphaia


lenius)

(Jupiter

on the Island of yS^ina.

Panhel- B.c.470-450 (Nos.


BC.4.54-438 Ictinus and Callicrates.

19 C, 20) (page 67).

fXhe Parthenon, Athens (No.


c,

40

16 A, B, D, E, F, 17, 18 H, 19 E, 23, 24, 25, A, D, K, 44 G, H) (page 67).


.
.

The Temple of Poseidon, Sunium The Propylcea (Entrance Gateway), Athens

B.C.

The

Mnesicles. (Nos. 17, 18 N, 26) (page 93). Temple of Apollo Epicurius (" The B.C. 430 Ictinus. Ally"), BasscE, near Phigaleiain Arcadia (No. 27 A, B, C, D, L, M, N, 28 F, G, H) (page 72). The Temple of Demeter (Ceres), or the Hall B.C. 435-310 Ictinus and Philon. of tlie Mysteries, Eleusis. The Tholos,' Epi^dauros (No. 18 k) BC. 4th cent. Polycleitos the younger. The Temples of Themis and Nemesis (No. 18 a), Rhamiius. The Temple of Apollo, Island of Delos (No. B. c. 300 19 F).
B.C.
. .

440 437-432

Doric Examples
The Great Temple,
18 L).
Selimis,

in Sicily
(No.

and South Italy.


Date.
Architect.

Sicily

B.C.

610-509

as the " Basilica," B.C. 550 Pcestum (No. 28 D, E). The Temple of Ceres, PcEstum (No. 19 A). B.C. 550 The Temple of Concord, Agrig-entum B.C. 550 The Temple ofJuno, Agrigenlum B c. 550 The Temple of Poseidon (Neptune), Pcishtm, B.C. 500 S. Italy (No. 19 B). The Temple of Athena, Syracuse, Sicily B.C. 6th cent. The Temple of Egesta, Sicily B.C. 5th cent. Temples (several) at Selinits, Sicily B C. 628-410 The Temple of Zeus (Jupiter) Olympius, B c. 480 Agrigentum (Girgenti), Sicily (No. 28 M, N, o) (page 75)-

The Temple known

Theron.

of Hera), Olympia (b.c. 700) believed to be the most ancient of all Greek Temples hitherto discovered. It stands on a stylobate of two steps, measurin|f i58 feet by 64 feet 6 inches. The cella is very long in proportion to its width, and has on either side a range of eight columns, the alternate ones being connected to the cella wall by means of short transverse walls. The peristyle columns, which with the capitals measured 17 feet in height, varied much in diameter and are both monolithic and built in drums. It is generally held that the original columns were of wood replaced by stone columns as they decayed (see page 59, on the

The

Heraion
c,

(Temple

(Nos. 31

D, 41

e), is

GREEK ARCHITECTURE.

67

origin of the Doric Order). Pausanias mentions that in the 2nd century a.d. two of the columns in the opisthodomos were of oak. The Temple of Zeus, Olympia (b.c. 472 469) is peripteral hexastyle on plan. The columns, of which there are thirteen to the sides, equal those of the Parthenon in height, but are much greater in diameter. The building was especially famous for its

sculptured pediments by Pseonias and Alcamenes. The so-called Theseion (? b.c. 485) (Nos. 18 f, 19 d, 21, 22, 38 a), is now generally believed to be the Temple of Hephaestos, and, although the best preserved Doric example in Greece, both date and name are a rriatter of doubt. It is peripteral hexastyle on plan with thirteen columns on each flank. The existing lacunaria, especially at the eastern end, still retain some of their original colourmg. The metopes and portions of the frieze are

shown on No. 21, but although both pediments were ornamented with sculpture none of this now remains. The Temple of Aphaia (Jupiter Panhellenius), (b.c 470 450), (No. 19 c),on the Island of iEgina is an interesting and wellpreserved example of an early peripteral hexastyle temple. On the interior are two rows of five columns which help to support the roof. A general description is given on No. 20. The Parthenon (b.c 454 438) (Nos. 16, 17, 23, 24) was erected in the time of Pericles, being dedicated to Athena Parihenos (the virgin Athena). Ictinus and Calhcrates were the architects and Phidias was the superintending sculptor. The temple is peripteral octastyle on plan, with seventeen columns on the flanks. It is placed on a stylobate of three steps, the dimensions on the top step being 102 feet by 228 feet, i.e., a relation of breadth to length of about 4 to g. Each of the steps measures about I foot 8 inches high and 2 feet 4 inches wide, and being too steep to ascend with comfort, intermediate steps were provided at the centre of the east and west ends (No. 23 f). On the east, the principal doorway led into the cella, which, measuring 100 Attic

feet

in

length,

was

called the

"

Hecalompedon."

The

cella,

62 feet 6 inches wide, was divided into a nave and aisles by two rows of ten Doric columns, 3 feet 8 inches in diameter, and having sixteen flutes, as may be seen by the marks of their basis on the marble paving. Three columns were placed at the western end, so making the aisle continuous round three sides of the cella. Near the western end of the cella was the famous statue of Athena, mentioned hereafter. To the west of the cella was the Parthenon proper(i.., virgin's chamber), from which the temple took its name. This chamber is a peculiarity differentiating the temple from most others, and it appears to have been used as the Hieratic treasury. It was entered from the opisthodomos by a large doorway corresponding to the eastern one, and its roof was supported by four Ionic columns (No. 23 a, c). The cella and the Parthenon were

GREEK EXAMPLES.

VI.

HEniounw
J

VtCWjNamHllKTMGtE
16Hs6B:116l(3M

GREEK ARCHITECTURE.

6g

enclosed by walls about four feet thick, having on the outside, encircling the building, an ambulatory 9 feet wide on the sides and 1 1 feet in the front and rear. Both the pronaos and opisthodomos (measuring about 60 feet by 12 feet) were planned in a somewhat

unusual manner, having six columns about 5J feet in diameter feet high, forming a prostyle portico on an upper stylobate of two steps. They were both used as treasure stores, and in order to render them secure, lofty metal grilles extending from the floor to the roof were fixed between the columns, the central intercolumniation having gates for means of access. The internal columns supported an upper row of smaller Doric columns carrying the roof timbers and forming the side aisles in two heights (an arrangement still to be seen in the Temple of Poseidon (Neptune) at Paestum). Near the western end of the cella stood the famous statue of Athena Parthenos, being one of the most marvellous works of Phidias, representing Athena fully armed with spear, helmet, segis and shield, supporting a winged " victory in her right hand (No. 23 k). It was a " chryselephantine (gold and ivory) statue, about 40 feet in height, including the pedestal, and was constructed on a wooden core. The gold plates of which it was partly composed were detachable and could- be

and 33

removed in case of national dangers. The face, hands, and feet were of ivory, but the drapery, armour, and accessories were of solid gold, and precious stones were inserted for the eyes. The manner of lighting the interiors of Greek temples has already been referred to (page 56), and the theories there set forth apply especially to the Parthenon. The most prominent external features are the fluted marble columns, 34 feet 3 inches high, forming the peristyle and resting on the stylobate. Only thirtytwo are still standing they are 6 feet 3 inches in diameter at the base and 4 feet 7 inches under the echinus, and support an
;

entablature 11 feet high with the usual divisions of architrave, The former frieze, and cornice, as already described (page 59). is three slabs in thickness, and was ornamented on its eastern and western fronts with bronze shields, probably selected from those presented by Alexander the Great in b.c. 334, with dedicatory The flanks of the building inscriptions between in bronze letters. were enriched by the antefixag placed at the bottom of the rows of marble tiles which covered the roof. The pediments or low gables which terminated the roof at each end had at their lower angles an The apex (59 feet above the acroterion and a carved lion's head. stylobate) was also ornamented by a large sculptured acroterion The peristyle ceiling was of the anthemion ornament (No. 16 a). richly ornamented with " lacunaria " and marble beams, some of which at the western end are still in situ. The triangular enclosed portions (tympana) were filled with sculpture of the most perfect The eastern pediment represents the birth of Athena and type.

GREEK ARCHITECTURE.

24.

The Parthenon, Athens.


View
of Angle.

GREEK EXAMPLES.

VII.

K
siffBiii:

FERGUSSON.
METHOD,

OF

LIGHTING BY CLERESTORY

SCALE

OF

FEET

BOTTICHER
METHOD OF LIOHTINC BY SKYLIGHT
25-

The Parthenon, Athens.

72

COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTXJRE.

the western the contest of Athena and Poseidon for the possession of Athens. The celebrated Panathenaic frieze was carved along the top of the outside of the cella wall, being taken across the east and west ends above the six columns to pronaos and opisthodomos. It is 3 feet 4 inches high, in very slight relief (i| inches), and is carefully sculptured so as to be effective by reflected light (No. 23 f). It represents the Panathenaic procession every " fourth year to the Acropolis in order to present the " peplos or robe to the goddess Athena, and shows the preparations of the Athenian knights, procession of Athenian cavalry, chariots, men with olive branches, musicians, youths, sacri-, ficial animals, maidens with sacrificial vessels, magistrates and gods, terminating with a great central group at the eastern end over the principal entrance to the temple. Out of a total length of 525 feet only 335 feet are in existence. The western frieze, excepting the three central figures, is in its original position the greater portion of that belonging to the northern, southern, and eastern sides is in the British Museum, the remainder, with the exception of eight fragments of the eastern frieze in the Louvre, being in the Athens museum. The sculptured metopes, about 4 feet 4 inches square, numbering fourteen on each front and thirty-two on each side, are in high relief. Those on the eastern fa9ade represent contests between the gods and giants, on the western, between Greeks and Amazons, on the southern, between centaurs (man-headed horses) and Lapithae, and on the northern, scenes from the siege of Troy. In the 6th century the Parthenon was converted into a Christian church, dedicated to the " Divine Wisdom," when
;

an apse was formed at its eastern end. From 1206 1458 it was, under the Prankish Dukes of Athens, a Latin church. From 1458 it was again an orthodox Greek church until 1460, when it was converted into a mosque. In 1687, during the capture of Athens by the Venetians, it was much damaged by a shell which fell into a portion of the building used as a powder magazine. In 1688, Athens was restored to the Turks and the building suffered considerable injury at their hands, until in iBoi, through
the instrumentality of Lord Elgin, sculptures were removed to the British
'

many

of

the

principal

Museum.

As

Earth proudly wears the Parthenon the best gem upon her zone."

Emerson.

The Temple of Apollo Epicurius (The Ally or Helper), Bassse, near Phigaleia in Arcadia (b.c. 430) (Nos. 27, 28 f, g, h, 29 N, o, p), of which Ictinus was architect, was an exceptional design in which all the three Grecian orders of architecture It is a peripteral Doric, Ionic, and Corinthian were employed.

GREEK EXAMPLES.

VIII.

5<_
itHOBUH.OR
1 1

EKTHNCLCHnwi;
PEBIOCaSfWARCNh

KT NEaat3)8a'
ftC7-438

iiisajiTirPEmii

jrHtllESTtNDirit

uxmitMiemas
of*riionrji!B
POfinroACEKTHAL

iwrniimnmc

emBtwmm
HCVERnHBHEBian" IMJlDIWCENniCKHQfllOHntEIEHCNIB

Tcminmmtm.

emctmwm

26.

GREEK EXAMPLES.

IX.

%LElAii

-(infiM "v

(^fwawiHAiL w^ammmmmam.hmmnMammmibmmm.

FRONT

27.

GREEK ARCHITECTURE.
in

75

hexastyle temple with fifteen columns on each flank, all built up drums. The principal fagade faces north, an unusual arrangement, and apparently due to its erection on the site of an earlier temple. The statue of Apollo was placed to one side at the southern end of the cella forming the sanctuary of the earlier building, which was orientated, light being admitted by an opening in the eastern wall. Owing to the narrowness of the cella, internal rows of columns were avoided, but instead of these a range of five fluted Ionic half-columns on each side forming the ends of short cross walls connected to the cella walls. The two columns furthest from the entrance on each side are joined to walls placed diagonally with those of the cella. The single column at the southern end was of the Corinthian order, and is generally referred to as the earliest example known (No. 27 g, h, j). The lighting of the interior is conjectural, but the cella north of the more ancient sanctuary was probably hypaethral or had openings in order to admit top-light to the celebrated frieze above the internal half-columns (No. 27 b, d, e). These have a new and original treatment of the capital, with angle volutes, and have boldly moulded bases (No. 29 n, o, p). The sculptured frieze, about 2 feet in height and 100 feet in length, represents the battles of the Centaurs and Lapithse, and the Athenians and Amazons. The building is constructed of a hard grey limestone, which being covered with a beautiful pink lichen of the district has a very picturesque appearance. The roof was covered with Parian marble slabs, measuring The 3 feet 6 inches by 2 feet, and less than 2 inches in thickness. ceiling of the peristyle was very richly treated in marble panels or lacunaria, and those to the pronaos and opisthodomos had
.

marble beams in addition. The Temple of Zeus Olympius, Agrigentum (b.c. 480) (No. 28 M, N, o), of which Theron was the architect, is of exceptional design, and ranks as second in size among Grecian examples. It is pseudo-peripteral septastyle in plan, having seven half-columns These half-columns are on the front and fourteen on each side. of great size, being 13 feet in diameter, and are represented internally by flat pilasters. The triple cella is of immense size and is believed to have been lighted by windows high in the wall. The building was never completed, the illustrations being from

Owing to its immense size, restorations by Professor Cockerell. structural truth (usually so important in Greek buildings) had to be sacrificed, the order being built up of small pieces, which in features like the echinus, abacus, and architrave is a departure from Greek principles, as is also the use of attached half-columns. The architrave is supported not only by the half-columns, but by the intervening screen wall to which they are attached.

GREEK EXAMPLES.

X.

The TEMPLE w iEPTyiE,P^ISTyiMKSiD^i!l?Kffi"

PECUllflR

IN

HWINt DORIC

COLONNADE, IONIC Vl

@FOfllCMlSM Cly
^mEMgM335.in.HfmM~^
4iTHEC0NmtNG
OF WATER CLOCK
SUItDMLAND
,

COLUMNS ffTENDS OFJHOm"


DWIJIONflLW/lLU

mmtmu]
EACH SIDE
HAVING
fl-

^UJTOED
lEFOPlUE

(g^EtEW^TlMl
"tK)'

TEPP>LEFJWB1Ii LYMWy; ^T ^asEiTyM,siaDrEC48o


RANKS A5 SECOND IN MACNITUDE AMONSST CREEK TEMPLES AND IS PECULIAR IN HAVING (ITTflCHED HALf

COLUMNS TO FACADES AND SPOARE


DIVISIONALW/llLSPMIERIOR.WBDOffi
IN

PIERS TO (Mt. WLLM IN


FACADES

WING AN OBB NUMBER OF C0LUMN5 TO END

PROBABLE

rosiw'
OFDaBliS

ATEBD

10
I I
I

SCALE FOR PI/1N3 SO ISO

m
I

JOOFITT

10

SCALE FOR ELEVATIONS iO 30 AO

TtMPLE
ip
^

OfTn

GREEK ARCHITECTURE.

77

THE IONIC ORDER.


The Ionic order (No. 38 c) is especially remarkable for its scroll or volute capital. This, like so many other decorative motifs, seems to have been derived from the lotus bud of the Egyptians (No. 41 b), undergoing sundry modifications on its way from Egypt by way of Assyria to Asia Minor, but to what influence these modifications should be attributed is not at present clear. The spiral is also found in early Mycenaean jewellery and domestic articles as early as B.C. 800, and these origins might be sufficient to account for its adoption in a later period. The earliest extant Ionic capitals at Lesbos, Neandra, and Cyprus exhibit volutes of a distinctly vegetable type with a palmette interposed, and early Ionic capitals at Delos and Athens form a link between these and later types. The columns have shafts usually about nine times the lower diameter in height, including the capital and base,
having twenty-four flutes separated by fillets, and not sharp edges as in the Doric order. The earlier examples, however, have shallow flutes separated by arrises, and the flutes number forty in the shafts in the Archaic Temple at Ephesus (No. 29 k) and at Naukratis, and forty-four at Naxos. There is a moulded base (No. 40 h) usually consisting of a torus and scotia, but no square plinth. In the later examples a lower torus was added, making
is known as the Attic base. The capital consists of a pair of volutes or spirals, about two-thirds the diameter in height, on the front and back of the column, connected at their sides by what is known as the cushion, sometimes plain and sometimes ornamented, and on the front and back an echinus moulding carved

what

with the egg and dart, and a bead moulding under.

The volutes were either formed by hand or by various geometrical processes easily acquired, one of which is shown on No. 41 G, where it will be seen it can also be formed by twisting a A further string round an inverted cone or common whelk shell. development was to make the angle capital with volutes facing the two fa9ades by joining the two adjacent volutes at an angle The Temple at Bassae (Nos. 27, approximating 45 (No. 41 p). 29 N, o, p), is an instance of all the volutes being thus placed. The entablature varies in height, but is usually about one-fifth It consists of (a) an architrave usually formed of the whole order. as a triple fascia, probably representing superimposed beams (&) a frieze, sometimes plain, but often ornamented by a band of (c) a cornice, with no continuous sculpture (Nos. 27, 29 c) mutules, but usually with dentil ornament reminiscent of squared tiWbers, and having above it the corona and cyma-recta moulding. The principal examples of the Ionic order are found in Greece and Asia Minor. The Doric order provided a setting for sculptors' work. The
; ;

GREEK EXAMPLES,
THE

XI.

IONIC orori^

ll

^ THElEMfLE lif mMILI330S_


DtSTROYEb)
"-,?":

ESEfflim!
reV^n.

KErrL(.(NOW

EA3T Portico

lMMfEflilE303(g),

TES?LE
fit

EiLbOSO

"'i

|iiii|jjinnm

COLUMM roUMB
on 5ITL.

ffci^TiKiE Temple

ii
i

:tH THETEMIFLE?! j^roLLo EncoUS at!

KEY PLAN.

3cftHw Comma.

"

KEY PLAN.

Scale. n.ClLTAILS.

29.

GREEK ARCHITECTURE.

79

Ionic incorporated it with the order itself, usually in the form of carved enrichments on its main lines.

Ionic Examples.
Date.

{Diana), Ephesus (No. 29 H, J, k) (page 84) The Temple on the Ilissus, Athens (Nos. 18 B, 29 A, B, c, D, 38 c) (see below). The Temple of NikS-Apteros ("Wingless Victory "), Athens (Nos. 18 N, 26 B, F, 41 p) (see below). The Propyleca^ Athens (six internal columns) (page 93) (No. 17, 18 N. 26, 40 F). The Temple of Apollo Epicurius, Bassee (The Internal order only) (No. 27, 28 F, 29 N, o, p) (page 72). The Erechtheion, Athens (No. 17, 18 M, 29 E, F, G. 30) (page 81). The Mausoleum, Halkarnassos (No. 35) (page 94). The Temple of Dionysus, Teos
.

The Archaic Temfle of Artemis

The Temple of Hera, Samos The Philipeion, Olympic (External


nade).

colon-

The Temple of Artemis

(Diana), Ephesus (No. 31 A, B), (page 84). The Temple of Apotlo-Didymceus near Miletus or Branchida (fage 84). The Tefnple of Minerva Folias (Diana) at Priene, near Miletus (No. 29 1., m).
'

The Temple on the Ilissus, Athens (b.c. 484) (Nos. 18 e, 29 A, p, c, D, and 38 c), was amphi-prostyle tetrastyle, placed on a platform or stylobate of 3 steps. The cella was only 15 feet The columns, including base and capital, were 4 inches square. 14 feet 8 inch'es high, and supported an entablature 4 feet deep. The Temple was entirely destroyed by the Turks in 1780. The Temple of Nike Apteros (Athena Nike), Athens (B.C. 438) (Nos. 17, 18 N, 26 B, F, 41 p), Calhcrates being the architect, is perched picturesquely on the south-western spur of the Acropolis Rock, and is a beautiful example of a smaller Ionic Temple. In front of the Temple at the eastern end stood the sacrificial altar of the goddess, and the platform of rock on which the edifice stands was surrounded on three sides by a is amphi-prostyle tetrastyle marble balustrade. It in plan, and is raised on a stylobate of 3 steps, the cella being only 13 feet The Ionic columns to the east and 9 inches by 12 feet 5 inches. west porticos resemble the internal columns of the Propylsea. They have a systyle intercolumniation, are i foot g inches in diameter, and 13 feet 6 inches high, and support an entablature 4 feet 3 inches in height. The total height to the apex of the

GREEK EXAMPLES.

XII.

1lElClimiQM,A1IlEM5B.c.42o^0-

8niEorE|0IIWI|SEiIlOK
.

SOLEofPLAN

10

JO

40 r,

(J_^

30-

GREEK ARCHITECTURE.
pediment

01

is only 23 feet. The sculptured frieze, 18 inches high, originally consisting of fourteen slabs (four are in the British

Museum), is in high relief. The marble balustrade mentioned above was 3 feet 2 inches high, enriched with very fine sculpture dating from B.C. 425-400. The Temple was removed by the Turks in 1684 and built into a battery on the Acropolis. In 1836, on the destruction of the battery, the materials were recovered and reconstructed by the architects Ross, Schaubert, and Hansen. The Erechtheion, Athens (b.c. 420-393) (Nos. 17, 18 m, 29 e, F, G, and 30), of which Mnesicles was the architect, is situated on the Acropolis, north of the Parthenon, and was erected on the site of an older temple burnt by the Persians in b.c. 480. The temple was regarded with special veneration by the Athenians, as it contained the memorials of the religion of the State, viz. the sacred olive tree that Athena called forth in her contest with Poseidon, the salt well produced by the trident of Poseidon, the
:

tomb of Cecrops, the olive wood Xoanon (primitive statue) of Athena Polias, the golden lamp of Callimachus, and other curiosities and spoils from the Persians. It is an interesting example of unusual and irregular planning, due to its sloping site and the fact
that it consisted of three distinct shrines. The distribution of the interior, which measures 61 feet 3 inches by 31 feet 6 inches, is still a matter of conjecture. It has no side colonnades, hence it is called " apteral." The eastern portion was appropriated to the shrine of Athena Polias (guardian of the city), the western portion to those of Erechtheus and Poseidon, the Pandroseion being probably included within the precincts to the west of the temple proper. There are three porticos of different designs an eastern Ionic hexastyle portico, a northern Ionic tetrastyle portico, and a southern Caryatid portico. The eastern portico probably formed The columns are two diameters apart the principal entrance. The (systyle), the northern one being now in the British Museum. northern portico gave access to the western cella it is on a level 10 feet lower than the eastern one, from which it is approached by It projects westward of the a wide flight of steps on the north. main building, and its columns, three diameters apart (diastyle), are arranged in a manner unknown in other Greek buildings. They are 2 feet 9 inches in diameter and 25 feet high. The doorway in this portico is of the finest workmanship (No. 37) with carved consoles and architrave enrichments. The southern or Caryatid portico (as it is called) was probably not an entrance, but a raised " tribune," as it had only a small entrance on its eastern side, whence the lower level of the western cella was
: ;

reached by means of steps (No. 30 d, f). It has six sculptured draped female figures, 7 feet 9 inches high (Nos. 30 g and 42 g), similarly spaced to the columns of the northern portico, but resting on a solid marble wall about 8 feet above the level of the

"

82
terrace

COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE.

and supporting an unusual entablature on which rests the marble coffered roof. All the figures face southwards, the three western leaning on their right (outer) legs, and the three eastern on their left, thus correcting the same optical illusion as in the Parthenon and other temple fa9ades. (The second Caryatid from the west is in the British Museum, being replaced in the building by a terra-cotta copy.) The exterior, constructed in marble from

Mount Pentellicus, owes much of its character to the sloping site and unusual and irregular dispositipn of the three porticos, unlike The north portico is an in character, height, and treatment. example of a very rich treatrnent of the Ionic order. The capital has a plaited torus moulding between the volutes once inlaid with colored stones or glass, and bronze embellishments were formerly
enriched with interwhile the cushions (sides) have hollows and projections carved with the bead and reel ornament (No. 41 l, m, n, o). The abacus is enriched with the egg and tongue ornament. The neckings of the columns are carved with the " anthemion (palmette) ornament, which is also applied to theantse (No. 44 f), and carried round the entire building under the architrave. The shafts of the columns have an entasis, and the upper torus of the bases have plaited enrichments. The order of the eastern portico is very similar although less rich. The angle columns in each portico have the volutes arranged The main building is crowned with so as to show on both faces. an entablature 5 feet high, with the usual triple division of architrave, frieze, and cornice, with water-leaf and egg-and-tongue enrichments. The skyline was enriched by the acroterion ornaments of the pediments and the antefixae of the marble roofing slabs. The frieze to the porticos and main building was formed of black Eleusinian marble, to which the sculptured figures of, white marble were attached by metal cramps, a method of showing up the sculptured figures which in other temples was frequently gained by the use of color. The pediments appear to have been devoid of sculpture. The west wall was provided in Roman times with four Ionic half-columns, angle antae and three windows. The Erechtheion has passed through various vicissitudes. It was transformed into a church in the time of Justinian, and after the Turkish annexation it was converted into a harem. In 1827, during the Greek revolution, the north portico and coffered ceiling and portions of the rest of the building were destroyed, only three of the Caryatides remaining in position. In 1838 the walls were partially rebuilt in their present state, and in 1845 the Caryatid In 1852 a storm damaged the building, portico was re-erected. overthrowing the upper half of the western wall and engaged Roman columns.
is

affixed to other parts of the capital. appears to have been finished by hand

The
and

spiral of the volute

mediate

fillets,

GREEK EXAMPLES.

XIII.

4^;*

wtz* >

#
34S' S'-

B)PD&N
OFDIANAat"
^

EPHE503.
(AflD!.

AS MURRAY)

llll81tMPlt(KNcNA30NE;

oriitaEvtmttittiBor

KWLDW8

BUILT Bf DIN0CWTOAI!airB.C330

ONTHtaitOfANaDER
tMPLt.irBRWJRMBir

MIBSCCxIHinbKmBMlBsPEOESTALa

TffiHEPDNrODfMPIA6c?Dortt(MOH) a> Joy < mj_^/fm ._^....9 y _ _!9 dWLC lOB PtW Tje...?
. . . .

r:

31-


84

COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE.

The Temple of Artemis (Diana), Ephesus (b.c. 330) (No. 31 A, b), occupied the site of two previous temples. The oldest archaic temple (No. 29 h, j, k), erected from the designs of Ctesiphon (e.g. 550), was burnt in B.C. 400. It was either restored or rebuilt by the architects Paeonius and Demetrius, of Ephesus, but was again burnt in e.g. 356, on the night of Alexander's birth. The later temple, regarded as one of the seven wonders of the world, was erected in e.g. 330, in the time of Alexander the Great. The site of the temple was discovered by the architect Wood in 1869 74, and many of the remains both of the archaic and later temples are now in the British Museum. The building rested on a lower stylobate of four steps, having at. each end an additional flight of steps, placed between the first and second rows of columns, Conjecturally restored by in order to reac;h the upper platform. the late Dr. Murray, by the aid of Pliny's description, the plan is dipteral octastyle, having double ranges of twenty columns on each flank. In addition to the cella, there were a pronaos, posticum, treasury, opisthodomos, and staircases leading to the Pliny mentioned that the temple had one hundred columns, roof thirty-six of which were sculptured on the lower drum, but he does not mention the sixteen front and rear columns with square sculptured pedestals, which are shown on a lower level, so that their top surface is level with the upper platform. Behind these at each end are eight of the columns with sculptured drums, two being placed in antis to the pronaos and posticum, thus making the thirty-six columns with sculptured drums mentioned by Pliny.

The cella is believed to have had superimposed columns to carry the roof. The building externally must have been one of the most impressive among Greek temples, owing to its size, and the sculpture on the above-mentioned square sub-pedestals and
thirty-six circular

drums, which were probably suggested by the


(e.g.

archaic temple, are distinctive of this building.

The Temple of Apollo Didymaeus, near Miletus


320),

335
of

was by the

architects Peeonius of

Ephesus and Daphne

There was an archaic temple having seated figures on either side and a lion and sphinx, which were dedicatory (Ten of these seated figures and the lion and offerings to Apollo. sphinx are in the archaic room of the British Museum.) This archaic temple was destroyed by the Persians under Darius, on
Miletus.

The new temple the suppression of the Ionic revolt in B.C. 496. is referred to by Strabo, who says, " In after times, the inhabitants of Miletus built a temple which is the largest of all, but which on account of its vastness remains without a roof, and there now exists inside and outside precious groves of laurel bushes." The building is dipteral decastyle on plan, the cella being hypsethral. It has a very deep pronaos, having beyond it an

GREEK ARCHITECTURE.

85

ante-chamber with stone staircases on either side. The cella walls were ornamented with Ionic pilasters, six feet wide and three feet deep, resting on a continuous podium, ranging with the peristyle level. These pilasters were crowned with capitals of varied design, having between them a sculptured band of griffins

and lyres. At the eastern (entrance) end on either side of the doorway were half-columns having Corinthian capitals, the acanthus leaves being unusually placed and the central volutes undeveloped. At the western end of the cella Messrs. Rayet and Thomas discovered
the foundations of a shrine.

The peristyle columns of the Ionic order are fluted, and the bases are of very varied design, being octagonal with carved panels on each face.

THE CORINTHIAN ORDER.


38 e, 43 a, b, c), which is used by the Greeks. The colurrin, the: base and shaft of which resemble those of the Ionic, is generally about ten times the diameter in height, including the capital, and is placed on a stylobate in the same manner as the other orders. The distinctive capital is much deeper than the Ionic, being about one to one-and-oiie-sixth diame(Nos. 33
f,
still

The Corinthian Order


more ornate than the

Ionic,

was

little

The origin of the capital is still unknown. It may have been derived from the Ionic, such as the Erechtheion example, where bands of sculpture occur berieath the scrolls, or it may have been borrowed from the bell-shaped capitals of the Egyptians,
ters in height.

with the addition of the Assyrian spiral. Callimachus of Corinth, a worker in Corinthian bronze, is sometimes referred to as the reputed author of the capital, and as the earlier examples appear to have been of this metal, the name may have been derived from the fact, for Pliny (xxxiv. cha:p. iii.) refers to a portico which was called Corinthian, from the bronze It consists normally of a deep bell on capitals of the pillars. which were carved two tiers of eight acanthus leaves, and between those of the upper row eight caulicoli (caulis = a stalk) surmounted by a curled leaf or calyx, from which spring the volutes (also known as caulicoli and helices by different authorities) supporting the angles of the abacus, and the small central volutes supporting a foliated ornament. The abacus is moulded and curved on plan on each face, the mouldings at the angles either being brought to a point as in the Temple of Apollo Didymaeus, at Miletus, Temple of Jupiter Olympius, at Athens (No. 43 a), and the Stca or Portico, Athens (No. 33 F, g), or having their edges chamfered off as in the 'Monument of Lysicrates (No. 38 e).
'

COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE.

32.

Choragic Monument of Lysicrates, Athens.

GREEK ARCHITECTURE.

87

Another type of capital has one row of acanthus leaves with palm leaves over, and a moulded abacus square on plan, as in the Tpwer of the Winds, Athens (No. 43 b).

The entablature, which is usually about one-fifth of the height of the entire order, bears a general resemblance to the Ionic, having the usual triple division of architrave, frieze, and cornice, the mouldings of the latter having additional enrichments.

Date.
B.C.

430

00

COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE.

ii feet 7 inches high, projecting rather more than half These rest on a secondary base encircling the their diameter. whole building, and are complete in themselves, as shown on No. 38 E. Between the columns are panels, the upper part of each originally being sculptured in bas-relief. The flutings of the columns are peculiar in that they terminate The capitals, i foot 7 inches at the top in the form of leaves. high, bear some resemblance to those of the half-columns of about the same date in the cella of the Temple of Apollo Didymaeus at

columns

Miletus. On the inside, where, they could not be seen they were The foliage is different from the later type in unfinished. having a lower row of sixteen small lotus leaves, then a single row of very beautiful acanthus leaves, having between them an The channel eight petalled flower resembling an Egyptian lotus. just above the foliated flutings of the shaft probably had a bronze collar, although the Greeks were accustomed to these sinkings under their Doric capitals. The architrave and frieze are in one block of marble, the former bearing an inscription, and the latter being sculptured to represent the myth of Dionysos and the Tyrrhenian pirates. The cornice is crowned with a peculiar honeysuckle scroll, forming a sort of frilling, used instead of a cyma-recta moulding, and probably an imitation of ante-fixse terminating the joint tiles, as in Greek temples. The outside of the cupola is beautifully sculptured to imitate a covering of laurel leaves, and from the upper part branch out three scrolls (Nos. 42 a, 44 d), the upper ends of which are generally supposed to have supported dolphins. The central portion is carried up as a foliated and moulded stalk or helix in conjunction with acanthus leaves branching in three directions, having on their upper surfaces cavities in which the original tripod feet were placed. Tl}e Tower of the "SA^inds, Athens (b.c. 10Q.-35) (Nos. 28 k, L, 43 B, D, e), also known as the Horologium of Andronikos Cyrrhestes, was erected by him for measuring time by means of (a) a clepsydra or water-clock internally (b) a sun-dial externally and it also acted as a weathercock. The building rests on a stylobate of three steps, and is octagonal, each of its eight sides facing the more important points of the compass. It measures 22 feet 4 inches internally, and on the north-east and north-west sides are porticos having Corinthian columns. From the south side projects a circular chamber, probably used as a reservoir for the water-clock. The interior has a height of 40 feet 9 inches, and the upper part is provided with small fluted Doric columns resting on a circular band of stone. The Corinthian columns, 13 feet 6 inches high, to the external porticos are fluted. They have no base and the capitals are of a plain unusual type, without volutes, the upper row of leaves resembling those of the palm, The wall of the octagonal structure is quite plain for a
left
;

33-

go

COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE.

height of 29 feet, with the exception of the incised lines forming the sun-dial, above which on each face are sculptured figures, boldly executed to represent the eight principal winds (Nos. 43 D, e). The roof is formed of twenty-four equal sized blocks of marble, and was suirmounted by a bronze Triton (see Vitruvius, I., chapter vi.). The Olympieion (Temple of Jupiter Olympius), Athens (No. 18 j), stands on the site of an earlier Doric temple commenced

by Pisistratus, in B.C. 530. It was commenced by Antiochus Epiphanes of Syria in b.c. 174, Cossutius, a Roman architect, being employed hence it is often designated Roman architecture. It remained incompleted, and in b.c 80 Sulla transported some of the columns to Rome for the Temple of Jupiter Capitolinus, as related by Pliny. The building was completed by Hadrian in A.D. 117, but only fifteen columns of the original one hundred and four forming the peristyle are standing. It was dipteral octastyle on plan, having twenty columns on the flanks, and occupied an area of 354 feet by 154 feet (equalling the Hypostyle Hall at Karnac), and was placed in the centre of a magnificent peribolus or enclosure, measuring 680 feet by 424 feet, part of the retaining wall of which still remains at the south-east comer. It is described by Vitruvius as hypsethral, but it ;was unfinished in his time. The peristyle columns were 6 feet 4 inches in diameter, and had a height of 56 feet a proportion of about one to nine.
;

The

capitals (No. 43 a) are very fine specimens of the Corinthian order, and appear to date from both periods mentioned above.

GREEK THEATRES.
The Greek theatre was generally hollowed out of the slope of a hill near the city, and was unroofed, the performances taking In plan (No. 34) it was usually rather place in the daytime. more than a semicircle, being about two-thirds of a complete The auditorium consisted of tiers of marble seats, rising circle. Those one above the other, often cut out of the solid rock. spectators who sat at the extremities of the two wings thus faced The Greek towards the orchestra, but away from the stage. theatre, which was constructed more for choral than dramatic performances, had a circular " orchestra " or dancing place (corresponding to the stalls and pit of a modern theatre) in which the chorus chanted and danced. The orchestra was the " germ " of the Greek theatre. The stage was known as the logeion or " speaking place," its back- wall being the skene (= booth or tent for changing in), the The latter name being preserved in the modern word " scene." actors being few, the stage consisted of a long and narrow platform, To what height above the level of with permanent background.

'

WJm mmimn.
M% C6HJ11SKTIW OP^^
,

fflWBI

MMwm

fmm im

THE mUfS^lSh W%?> Mfe IN3TE?6


9F
BEIfiS

ffiJWKTffi TOE;

XT
WSrJEL mSETO
T

iaK,iESIPOMBIMS Tf

// \

"SBfiXT

TOE SftES

FT. ISHfi BY

II61?T.H!;

92

COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE.

the orchestra this platform was raised is a question that has been much debated in recent years. The most probable view seems to be the following: (i.) In pre-^schylean drama, before regular theatreg were made, an actor mounted on a table, probably the table-altar of the god Dionysos, and held a dialogue with the dancers or chorus. The rude table stage illustrated on some vases from South Italy may represent a local retention of this primitive custom. (2 ) In the fifth century B.C. no direct evidence is available but a low wooden stage is practically certain, connected by means of a ladder with the orchestra. (3.) The fourth century is the earliest period in which there is monumental evidence. At Megalopolis a platform of wood from 3 feet 3 inches to 4 feet 6 inches high appears probable, with a stone colonnade behind it. At Epidauros there was a wooden floor supported by a wall 12 feet high. (4.) In Hellenistic and Roman times, Vitruvius tells us, the Greek stage was 10 to 12 feet high, and this statement is borne out by many extant examples. The Theatre of Dionysos, Athens, (No'. 17), completed b.c. 34^3, in which thirty thousand spectators could be accommodated, is the prototype of all Greek theatres, and was the one in which the plays of the great Athenian dramatists were produced. The Theatre, Epidauros, was constructed by the architect Polycleitos, and is the most beautiful as well as the best preserved example extant. The circle of the orchestra is complete, and is about 66 feet across, the entire theatre being 378 feet in diameter. Thirty-two rows of seats forming the lower division are separated by a broad passage (diazoma) from twenty rows above. Twenty-four flights of steps diverge as radii from bottom to top.

THE PALACES AND DOMESTIC BUILDINGS.


excavations lately carried out by Dr. Arthur Evans at in Crete (page 54), and those by the Italians at Phaestos, in the same island, have revealed palaces more remote' in date than the Mycenaean period, to which is given the name " Mih6an." The excavations of the Palace of King Minos, Knos$os, show the remains of a remarkable structure laid out on a plan afterwards used in the Roman palaces and camps. This building is believed Underneath to date from about b.c 2000, and was unfortified. the upper palace were found the remains of an earlier one, which About five acres of this is believed to date from about b.c 3000. remarkable structure have been uncovered. The apartments, round a central oblong courtyard (about 180 feet by 90 feet), are constructed in several stories, which are reached by staircases. Some remarkable wall frescoes and coloured plaster ceilings, an olive press with huge oil jars, and the remains of a system of drainage, with terra-cotta drain pipes, were discovered.

The

Knossos

GREEK ARCHITECTURE.

93

At Tiryns, situated by the sea coast to the south-west of Athens, and at Mycenae, remains have been discovered of recent years by Drs. Schliemann and Dorpfeld which are of the greatest interest in showing the general arrangement of other palaces (No. 15 f). At Mycenae, flights of steps lead to an outer courtyard, from which, by traversing a portico and vestibule, the megaron, or principal men's apartment, is reached. From this megaron, surrounded by a roof and open to the sky in the centre, were reached
other chambers, whose uses are not defined. The women's chambers are considered by some authorities to be planned so as to afford the greatest seclusion, while others, notably Prof. Ernest Gardner, hold that little or no attempt was made at seclusion, and bring strong evidence to bear from literary authorities, principally from Homer. The plans of domestic buildings appear to have resembled, on a smaller scale, the general arrangement of the palaces as is seen in the remains at Athens, Delos, and Priene, dating from the Hellenic period. They appear to have been of one story only, and grouped around an internal courtyard or peristyle. Vitruvius (Book VI., chapter x.) refers to thei~r general arrangement, when he says there was no atrium, but a peristylium with a portico on three sides, and chambers grouped around. It is generally held that the Grseco- Roman houses of Pompeii may be taken as typical examples (No. 65 a, b), and these may be referred to on page 162.

PROPYL^A.
Propylaea were erected as entrance gateways to many of the principal cities of Greece, and those at Athens, Epidauros, Sunium, Eleusis, and Priene are the best known. The Propylaea, Athens (No. 26), were erected under Pericles by the architect Mnesicles in b.c. 437. It is at the west end of the Acropolis (No. 17), being reached by a long flight of steps from the plain beneath. It has front and rear hexastyle Doric porticos at different levels, giving access to a great covered hall, having a wide central passage bounded by two rows of Ionic columns, and having at its eastern end a wall in which are five doorways of different heights. On either side of the western entrance portico are projecting wings having three smaller Doric columns, that to the north being used as a picture gallery, while that to the south was never completed. The general external appearance is well shown in the restored view (No. i).

TOMBS.
found

The most important from an architectural point of view are in Asia Minor. The Harpy Tomb, Xanthos, in Lycia

94
(B.C. 550), is

COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE.

an early or archaic example, with sculptured reliefs, from which the tomb is named, and is now in the British Museum.
is (b.c. fifth century), Xanthos, generally considered to have been erected as a trophy monument. Important fragments discovered by Sir Charles Fellows, and the model in the British Museum, indicate a building consisting of a central chamber or cella surrounded by a colonnade of fourteen Ionic columns, the whole elevated on a basement standing on two steps. The sculptured figures of nereids or marine nymphs, from which the building takes its name, originally stood between the

The Nereid Monument

columns and had under them marine


has important sculptured

attributes.

This monument

and pediments. The Mausoleum, Halicarnassos (No. 35), was the most famous tomb. It was erected to the King Mausolos (b.c 353) by his widow Artemisia, and consisted of a square plinth supporting a tomb-chamber, which was surrounded by Ionic columns and surmounted by a pyramidal roof with a marble quadriga and group of statuary at its apex (see p. 108). The architects were Satyros and Pythios, and Scopas was the
friezes, acroteria

Portions of the frieze, the statue of .superintendent sculptor. Mausolos and Artemisia, with the horses and chariots of the quadriga, and other fragments are in the British Museum. The Lion Tomb, Cnidus (No. 36), also consists of a

square basement surrounded by a Doric colonnade of engaged columns surmounted by a stepped roof, and crowned with a lion, now in the British Museum. The interior was circular and roofed with a dome in projecting horizontal courses. The Sarcophagus from a Tomb at Cnidus (No. 36 e, g) is an interesting and beautiful example of a smaller type, as is also the Tomb of the Weepers (b.c fourth century) (No. 36 h), found at Sidon (now in the Museum at Constantinople), which is executed in the form of a miniature Ionic temple, having sculptured female figures between the columns. The so-called Alexander Sarcophagus (b.c fourth century), found near Sidon, and now in the Constantinople Museum, is the most beautiful and best preserved of all. It is so called because its sides, which are of marble, represent battle and hunting scenes in which Alexander was engaged, and is especially remarkable for the colored work which is still preserved on the sculpture. There are also important examples of rock-cut tombs at Cyrene (North Africa) and Asia Minor (No. 41 f), and reference has also been made to the Lycian Tombs (page 37), of which the two brought to London by Sir Charles Fellows in 1842 are

now in the British Museum. The Stele was a class of tombstone

in the design of which the Greeks excelled. It consisted of a flat stone placed upright in the ground like a modern tombstone and crowned with the

GREEK EXAMPLES.

XIV.

HILT KTOAIiailta? 6ATf05

trrmoi miT Kdsimof

smiEUfffiiiiiEmiiiRmsrfr atvuN TO UMiKtD MJNDERa OF THE WOULD. MA1ISI103 SJCCEEDEIl HI5 BBElll

mms m

SATRAP

^TTM

mtlL -m KING arKfik


4KD"reAM5FERRED THE

SaTOFSJIERNMEHTFKMTilt

INrWIDTlWNoFMTaSATO HAUrARNA330S. ONWDEATK


OFHAUSOIOSHIiWIFEAJltmSIA 5IICCEEI)E05ElCBO[r'l5

5HEt!LEBRATB)HI3MKBf IHEToRlnLsmWliC CoNTESIb


BUT OIIEFLT

m THE emiKToN

OFTHSBMB. ITISRECORDED THSrTHERElWNarlMElonillSH


rTDURIICHERREICNtACtllRDIHS

TBPUNYlllIASIMPLEIEDBfTMC

ARI15r5ABB0UROF|SVE.
ITIS EJATUn Br

Kb LySIER BffAH
HAO

TINE AUTHORS THAT HA1IS0I25

lllM3ELFflEBIKTtTiB.
fol

KMJm Of 8 JOHH TM KMSm


IT rr AND lECD IHE (UnSASAOUW MIWEIIALililHUTttOSTUF JKItR.

MAHY CEIlHRBTUEIom If HAWED UIMT. AJ1I THE

ftlW

fi THE CHIEF AOIHORnY a Kid lESTORATIOIB HIKE BEEN BASEO.

HE 518 THAT THE NAS0UI111 BAD

AmrBASfflEMTofSREDI
1U-5T0HE OHIrfH^H 511DDAK

DiMsRiwsHmomiiEDly <
AWP1INADECPIEI0K)of36
'

UUJMKSaPPOmlNGASEfP-r jljl^L

5TtVEN50MIS96
THE 5CllimE3 WERE

B-

EnnEBnilHRIANNARBlEl KKSnOFFBf RtDAND CUJE Colour. 9.9. .

AnmTliESBTOMTlOMwHlWTOK^PinMM

35-

GREEK EXAMPLES.

XV.

GREEK ARCHITECTURE.
Anthemion
British

97

(Nos. 42 H, 43

design, the lower portion having panels in bas-relief F, and 44 e). Many of these can be seen in the

Museum.

AGORA.
The agora, or open meeting -places for the transaction of public business, were large open spaces surrounded by stose or open colonnades, giving access to the public buildings, such, as temples, basilicas, stadion (racecourse), and the palaestrae or
gymnasia.

PUBLIC BUILDINGS.
Stoae or Colonnades were formed for the protection of pilgrims between public monuments, or as shelters adjoining open spaces, and were an important class of structure. The most important of these were the Stoa Pacile, or Echo Colonnade, about 300 feet by 30 feet, at Olympia two at Epidauros one two stories in height acting as shelters for the patients who came to be healed at the shrine of .(Esculapius three examples at Delphi and the remarkable example near the " Propylaea at Delos, known as the " Sanctuary of the Bulls (No. 42). The Stadion was the foot racecourse found in cities where games were celebrated, and it came eventually to be used for It was usually straight at one end, other athletic performances. the starting-place, and semicircular at the other, and was always 600 Greek feet in length, although the foot varied, and was sometimes planned with the semicircular end on the side of a hill, so that the seats could be cut out of the sloping sides, as at Olympia, Thebes, and Epidauros, or else constructed on the flat, as at Delphi, Athens, and Ephesus. The Stadion at Athens, now completely restored, was commenced in B.C. 331, and finished by Herodes Atticus, and accommodates between 40,000 and 50,000 people. The Hippodrome was. a similar type of building used for
to the various shrines, as connections

horse racing.

The Palaestra or gymnasia, as at Olympia and Ephesus, were the prototypes of the Roman thermae, and comprised exercise courts, tanks for bathers, exedrae or recesses for lectures, with
seats for spectators.

4.

COMPARATIVE.

These were simple, well A. Plans (Nos. i8, 20 e, and 27 c). judged, nicely balanced, and symmetrical, exceptions to the latter being the Erechtheion (No. 18 m), and the Propylaea (No. 18 _n), Plans involving at Athens, and probably the private houses.

CiHiHTIYtHMffiStaHMilflM lilMt

__.

8Sill-

XK m mrm.

l^

THSVEmsCSiMICIfc.

ml f 1 ? litMMTilllliiliffllBfl,ffl|ffi
} ^

37-

(1!5WV-.9.I,^

-+

llll-:mTOB-9-.8,8l

->!

H 2

100

COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE.

the use of the orders were rarely extensive or complicated, being generally very regular; yet certain departures were made from the general rules, either for the purposes of effect or from necessity, as when columns were placed nearer together at the angles of Doric temples (No. i6 a), and as in the ceiitral intercolumniation at the Propylsea, Athens (No. 26), which was wider than the others, probably for the passage of chariots. Greek temples might be described as Egyptian turned inside out, the courtyard, porticos, and columned halls being replaced by a small cella, usually colonnaded on every face. The relations and proportions of these columns constitute the charm of Greek
exteriors.

Circular planning was also adopted, as in the Tholes at Epidauros (No. 18 k), the theatres (Nos. 17 and 34 a), and choragic monuments (No. 28 j), and octagonal planning, as in the Tower of the Winds at Athens (No. 28 k, l). B. Walls. The construction of walls was solid and exact. No mortar was used, the joints being extremely fine, and the finished surface of the walls was obtained by a final rubbing down of the surface by slaves. The use of marble was accountable for the fine smooth face and exact jointing displayed.

Hollow wall construction in the entablature was practised at the Parthenon, to lessen the weight upon the architraves, and perhaps for economy of material (No. 16). In temples the cella walls were mostly masked behind columns (No. 18). The base of a temple was always well marked and defined by steps, giving a real and apparent solidity to the structuire (Nos. 16 A and 24). The top of the walls was always finished by a cornice, the use of intermediate cornices being almost unknown. __ No towers were used in Greek architecture except in the case of fortified walls, the lofty mausoleum at Halicarnassos (No. 35) and the Lion Tomb at Cnidus (No. 36), both in Asia Minor, and of pyramidal shape, being the nearest approach to tower form (page 94). c. Openings. Greek architecture was essentially a trabe'ated style, all openings being spanned by a lintel, and being therefore square-headed. The trabeated construction necessitated great severity in treatment the supports were of necessity close together, because stone lintels could not be obtained beyond a certain length. The sides of openings sometimes incline inwards, as in the doorway to the Erechtheion (No. 37 d). Relief to the fagades of temples was obtained by the shadow of the openings between the columns (No. 22). D. Roofs. These coincided with the outline of the pediment. In temples they were sometimes carried by internal columns or by the walls of the cella, and were framed in timber and covered with marble slabs (Nos. 16 d, 20 h). Internal ceilings were

COMPARISON OF GREEK AND ROMAN MOULDINGS.


I.

MmK
(E

niLET.I

OUlLLOCUr

^i

Dim

/Rn

liMILllSISTlBTiSilSTLlll

DI?15TYLEr

INClgEB OSWflMEMT Of WHITE

,?& #(y)MMMim^
INTEBOTLUnWlfiTIOM. PSIMTB6 TEBSSCOTffl COgWICI

39-


102

COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE.

probably also framed into deep coffers, as were the marble lacunaria of the peristyles (No. 21 b, c, e). E. Columns. As the temples were usually one story high, the columns with their entablature comprise the entire height of the building, except in some interiors, as the Parthenon (Nos. 23, 25), the Temple of Neptune, Passtum (No. 28 b), and elsewhere, where a second range of columns was introduced into the cella to support the roof. The orders having been fully dealt with on pages 59, 77, 85, are merely summarized as follows The Doric (No. 19) is the oldest and plainest of the orders, the finest examples being the Parthenon and the Theseion (page 67). The Ionic (No. 29) was more ornate, and is best seen at the Erechtheion (page 81), and the Temple on the Uissus (page 79). The Corinthian was little used by the Greeks, the best known examples being the monument of Lysicrates at Athens (Nos. 32, 38 a), and the Temple of Jupiter Olympius (No. 43 a), upon which the Romans founded their own special type. Caryatides (No. 42 g) and Canephora (No. 42 f), or carved female figures which were sometimes used in the place of columns, as at the Erechtheion, Athens (No. 30), and are of Asiatic origin.

F. Mouldings. Refer to illustrations of Greek mouldings compared with Roman given on Nos. 39 and 40. Mouldings are the means by which an architect draws lines upon his building, and a true knowledge of the effect of contour is best obtained from actual work rather than from drawings, the examples at the

being available for this purpose. principal characteristic of Greek mouldings was refinement and delicacy of contour due to the influence of an almost continuous sunshine, a clear atmosphere, and the hard marble
British

Museum

The

in

which they were formed. These mouldings had their sections probably drawn by hand,

but approach very closely to various conic sections, such as


parabolas, hyperbolas, and ellipses. As a general rule the lines of the enrichment or carving on any Greek moulding correspond to the profile of that moulding. This is a rule which was rarely departed from, and therefore, is worthy of notice, for the profile of the moulding is thus emphasized by the expression in an enriched form of its own curvature. The examples given from full-size sections taken at the Parthenon, the Erechtheion, and elsewhere, may be studied on No. 40. The following classified list gives the most important mouldings : When (a.) The cyma-recta (Hogarth's "line of beauty"). enriched it is carved with the honeysuckle ornament, whose outline corresponds with the section (No. 39 j).

COMPARISON OF GREEK AND ROMAN MOULDINGS. II.

40.

GREEK ORNAMENT.

I.

ROMANS METHOD^BESCMlNeTHEMC^folOTl,

3IIMCII0H
UmflHWG.IUiANG

mmfCHnaED
kxiukkuti:

REVIEW X.X.
2.5i

nes^iEsaiiNSmioNic

llM?MEH6?A<aCKlE
5HHL.HiiraKnm
icanuLiricaiiLiwwtKii'an.

wrutinrttusiBtk

au

mmM

isiicii

nuiiEmLewiniKiMn' K-

mcfiH die ponoN

snnsiwiEieniiHiiiiin

ItOIOH.

;0> -FROM NORTH


PORTICO
41.
Of fflEERECHraaON

Smm TRCSmENTorANCLE

CAP S ANTA i WrrcHED nMAPHOTO(jRAPHjailSSS


.

GREEK ORNAMENT.

II.

42.


I06
(b.)

carved with the


it

COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE.
The cyma The
ovolo

reversa.

When

enriched
l).

it

is

water-lily
(c.)

and tongue (No. 39


(egg-like).

When

enriched

is

carved with

the egg and dart, or egg and tongue ornament (No. 39 n). {d.) The fillet, a small plain face to separate other mouldings (No. 39 a). This is usually without enrichment. (.) The bead serves much the same purpose as the fillet, and approaches a circle in section. When enriched it is carved with the bead and reel or with beads, which in fact gave the name to the moulding (No. 39 c).
(/.)

{g.)
(A.)

The The

cavetto is
scotia is

a simple hollow (No. 39

e).
is

the deep hollow occurring in bases, and

generally not enriched (No. 39 g).

The torus is really a magnified bead moulding. When enriched it is carved with the guilloche or " plat " ornament, or with bundles of leaves tied with bands (No. 39 p). ('.) The bird's-heak moulding occurs frequently, especially in the Doric order, and giving a deep shadow is very suitable for the English climate (No. 40 g). (7.) The corona (No. 17 a), the deep vertical face of the upper portion of the cornice. It was frequently painted with a Greek " fret " ornament. G. Ornament (Nos. 41, 42, 43, and 44). The acanthus leaf (Nos. 33 H, 44 j) and scroll play an important part in Greek ornamentation. The leaf from which these were derived grows wild in the south of Europe, in two varieties, viz. (i.) That with pointed and narrow lobes, V-shaped in section, giving a sharp crisp shadow, and known as the " acanthus spinosis " (No. 33 h) (ii.) That with broad blunt tips, flat in section, known as the " acanthus mollis " (No. 33 b). The Greeks usually preferred the former with deeply-drilled eyes, and the Romans the latter of these varieties. The leaf was used principally in the Corinthian capital (^Nos. 33 F, G, H, 43 A, B, c), and is also found in the crowning finial of the Choragic Monument of Lysicrates (No. 44 d). The scroll which accompanies the leaf and acts as a stalk is usually V-shaped in section with sharp edges. The anthemion, palmette or honeysuckle ornament, was a favourite decoration of the Greeks, and was largely used as an ornamentation on Anta Caps (No. 44 a, f), cyma-recta mouldings (No. 39 j), and round the necks of columns, as in the Erechtheion (No. 41 n). It is also frequently employed as an ornamentation to the tops of stele-heads and ante-fixse (Nos. 42 h, 43 f, and 44 f., n). The sculpture employed was of the highest order, and has never {a.) Sculpture appertaining been excelled. It may be divided into to buildings, including friezes (as at the Parthenon, the Temple

GREEK ORNAMENT.

III.

Innnhnnnnnrifif
(A) CPS raPMTHE TEMEE OF

Vyy BME9ENTlHSlHEEBrWIMD.ttmD0l(iYDro)

HAtF ELSfimON OF^TEttHM


WITH loraiE KOKEWCKLE OBKffllHT BHNfiA BEABTirai IM^TMCE ff THI5 50MEWIAT RARI TWJTMENT.

43-

I08
of

COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE.

^gina, the Heraion, Olympia, and the Temple of Apollo Epicurius, Bassse), the tympana of the pediments, the acroteria at the base and summit, the sculptured metopes in the Doric frieze, and the Caryatides, as at the Erechtheion (Nos. 30 0,42 g, 44 m) mention might also be made of the series of magnificent figure sculptures to the Altar of Zeus at Pergamon in Asia Minor, of which the great frieze or " Gigantomachia " is now in the Berlin Museum, (b.) Sculptured reliefs as seen on stele-heads (No. 42 h). (c.) Free-standing statuary, consisting of groups, single figures, bigas (two-horse chariots), or quadrigas (four-horse chariots) (page 94). Color was largely used on buildings, and many traces are left, as already mentioned (page 53). In many instances the stonework, as in the Temples at Paestum and in Sicily, brickwork, and in some instances marble, were covered with carefully-prepared cement to receive wall paintings or color decoration, which appears to have been almost universal, especially in buildings of the Doric order. This cement casing was also capable of a high polish, and Vitnivius mentions that well-polished stucco would reflect like a mirror.
;

REFERENCE BOOKS, Anderson (W.J.) and Spiers (R.Phen^). " The Architecture of Greece
5.

and Rome.

"The

A Sketch of its Historic Development." 8vo. igoa. Unedited Antiquities of Attica" (Dilettanti Society). Folio.

1817. Boetticher(C.). Berlin, 1874. " DieTektonikder Hellenen." Folio. Boetticher. " Die Akropolis von Athen." 8vo. Berlin, 1888. Chipiez (C). " Histoire critique des Ordres Grecs." 8vo. Paris, 1876. Clarke (J. T.) and others. " Investigations at Assos (1881-83)." Folio. Boston, 1902. Cockerell(C. R.). " The Temples at ^gina and Bassa." Folio, i860. D'Espouy (H.). " Fragments de I'Architecture Antique." Paris, 1899. Defrasse (A.) and Lechat (H.). " Epidaure restauration et description des principaux monuments du Sanctuaire d'Ascl^pios." Folio. Paris, 1895. Dorpfeld (W.). " Das Griechische Theater." Sur folio. Athens, 1896. Durm (J.). " Die Baukunst der Griechen." 4to. Darmstadt, 1892. Fergusson (J.). " The Parthenon." 8vo. 1883. Frazer (J. G.). Pausanias's Description of Greece. 5 vols., 8vo. 1898. Gardner (E. A.). " Handbook of Greek Sculpture." 8vo. 1896. Inwood (H. W.). " The Erechtheion at Athens." Folio. 1831. " The Antiquities of Ionia " (Dilettanti Society). 1769-1881. 4 vols. Laloux (v.). " L'Architecture Grecque." 8vo. Paris.

Laloux(V.) et Monceaux
les

(P.).

" La restauration

d'

Olympic, I'histoire,

monuments, le culte et les fetes." Folio. Paris, 1889. Mauch (J. M. von). " Die Architectonischen Ordnungen der Griechen und Roemer." Folio. Berlin, 1875. Michaelis (A.). " Der Parthenon." Folio. Leipzig, 1870-1871.

GREEK ORNAMENT.

IV.

MetyKKlS. ORNSWEMT
fRpn
Ttic

CHJECTHHOr*..

OUTLET?

THE (3W<ICE OF SREBC TEH^lg, i FORftlMG MR j8H< WTE^ fBO/ngOOF

reOMTHE

OPtrT
aTriENj.
BYAIOi*}

THE 4
TrtEIOJ>l

STH

._
smut

,'

STHM5.

cp,bisicKed wird 0NEii5ocKi,Ke jTPWe oCUBf ?8SBT mi BE B WjWIWBlT

vz^^TELE HEBS.
>

Tam.imsm ?^^n. rgmTHEMUjEuwaTSTriEHj

AETOPE
POIITIOM 9F FBIEZE

FBOK

Titt

PSBTMENON

FEOW THE PSiTHENO(*J

FBflft

THI

(G

CONJOLt FBOM ^CSNTHUJ ORWfcHTneR BOOBWfif HT THE

TEOPLE OF mewBo^
44-

EEECTHCION,

joiHTOFTiinJiuDHiMeiormp

no
Middleton
8vo.

COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE.

REFERENCE BOOKS continued.


(J.

H.). " Plans and Drawings of Athenian Buildings."

igo2. Murray (A. S.)." History of Greek Sculpture." a vols., 8 vo. 1890. Murray (A. S.). " The Sculptures of the Parthenon." 8vo. 1903. Newton (C. T.) and PuUan (R. P.).-^"A History of Discoveries at 1862-1863. Halicarnassus, Cnidus, and Branchidas." 3 vols., foho. Pennethorne (Sir J.). " The Geometry and Optics of Ancient Architecture." Folio. 1878. Penrose (F. C). " An Investigation of (he Principles of Athenian Architecture" (Hellenic Society). Folio. 1888. Pontremoli (E.) et Haussouillier (B.). " Didymes: Fouilles de 1895 Paris, 1903. Folio. et 1896."

restauration et Pergame Pontremoli (E.) et CoUignon (M.).. Paris, 1900. description des monuments de FAcropole." Folio. Perrot (G.) and Chipiez (C). "The History of Art in Primitive Greece." 2, vols., 8vo. 1894. " Restaurations des Monuments Antiques, piibliees par TAcadfemiede
:

"

la

France a Rome." Paris, 1877-1890. Ross (L.), Schaubert (E.), and Hansen (C.). "Die Akropolis von Athen Tempel der Nike Apteros." Foho. Berlin, 1836. Smith (Sir William). " Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities.''

3 vols., 8vo. Spiers (R. P.)

Stuart
1832.

(J.)

Verrall

" The Orders of Architecture." Folio, igoi. 1762(N.). " Antiquities of Athens." 5 vols. " Mythology and Monuments of Ancient and Harrison.
and Revett
8vo.
i8go.

Athens."

Waldstein (C.). "The Argive Herasum." 2 vols., 4to. Boston, 1902. Watt (J. C). " Greek and Pompeian Decorative Work." Folio. 1897. Wilkins (W.). " Antiquities of Magna Grsecia." Large folio. 1807. Church (A. J.)." The Fall of Athens " (Historical Novel). 8vo.

The student should visit the Greek Court at the Crystal Palace for the splendid model of the Parthenon fa9ade, and also the British Museum for actual fragments of the sculptures from the Temples.

mnm

THE empire

ROMAN ARCHITECTURE.
'

When
An

Immortal glories in my mind revive Rome's exalted beauties I descry


Magnificent in piles of ruin lie. amphitheatre's amazing height Here fills my eye with terror and delight,
;

its public shows unpeopled Rome, held uncrowded nations in its womb Here pillars rough with sculpture pierce the skies And here the proud triumphal arches rise, Where the old Romans deathless acts displayed."

That on

And

I.

INFLUENCES.

i. Geographical. The map (No. 45) will show that the sea coast of Italy, although the peninsula is long and narrow, is not nearly so much broken up into bays, or natural harbours, as the shore line of Greece, neither are there so many islands studded along its coasts. Again, although many parts of Italy are mountainous the great chain of the Apennines running from one end of the peninsula to the other yet the whole land is not divided up into little valleys in the same way as the greater part of

Greece.

The Greek and

Italian nations

may therefore with

fair

accuracy


112

COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE.
:

be compared as follows {a.) The Romans never became a seafaring people like the Greeks, nor did they send out colonists of the same description to all parts of the then known world. {b.) There were few rival cities in Italy at this period (a condition which was altered in after times, pages 230, 234, 405, 476), and the small towns, being less jealous of their separate independence, the Roman power could be built up by a gradual absorption of small states, a process that was never completed by Athens or Sparta. The position of Italy enabled her to act as the intermediary in spreading over the continent of Europe the arts of civilization. ii. Geological. The geological formation of Italy differs from that of Greece, where the chief and almost the only building material is marble. In Italy marble, terra-cotta, stone, and brick were largely used even for the more important buildings. In Rome the following materials were at hand Travertine, a hard limestone from Tivoli Tufa, a volcanic substance of which the hills of Rome are mainly composed and Peperim, a stone of volcanic origin from Mount Albano. Besides these. Lava and Pozzolana, derived from volcanic eruptions, and excellent sand and gravel were plentiful. The existence of Pozzolana (a clean sandy earth) found in thick strata in the district, gave the Romans a material which contributed largely to the durability of their architecture, for it has extraordinary properties of hardness, strength and durability, when mixed into concrete with lime. The walls were generally formed of concrete and were faced in a decorative way with brick, stone, alabasters, porphyries, or marbles of all kinds, hewn from countless Oriental quarries by whole armies of workmen. Roman architecture, as it spread itself over the whole of the then known world, was influenced naturally by the materials found in the various parts where it planted itself, but concrete, in conjunction with brick and stone casing or banding, was the favourite material although in Syria, notably at Palmyra and Baalbec, and in Egypt thequarries supplied stones of enormous

which were used locally. Climate. The north has the climate of the temperate region of continental Europe central Italy is more genial and sunny while the south is almost tropical. iv. Religion. The heathen religion of ancient Rome being looked upon as part of the constitution of the state, the worship of the gods came eventually to be kept up only as a matter of state policy. The emperor then received divine honours, and may almost be described as the leader of the Pantheon of deities embraced by the tolerant and wide-spreading Roman rule. Officialism therefore naturally stamped its character on the temple architecture. A list of the chief Roman deities is given on page 46. In early times three chief nations V. Social and Political.
size,
ill.

dwelt in the peninsula.

In the central portion (or Etruria) lived

ROMAN ARCHITECTURE.

113

theJEltniscans, probably an Aryan people, who appear to have been settled in Italy before authentic history begins, and who were great builders (page 119). In the south the Greeks had planted many colonies, which were included in the name of " Magna Grsec ia." The remainder of Italy (exclusive of Cisalpine Gaul) was occupied by tribes of the same Aryan race as the Greeks, and the common forefathers of both must have stayed together after they had separated from the forefathers of the Celts, Xgutons and others. But long before history begins the Greeks and^Ttalians had separated into distinct nations, and

the Italians had further split up into separate nations among themselves. The common form of government in ancient Italy resembled that of Greece, consisting of towns or districts joined together in leagues. The government of Rome was effected firstly by chosen kings, aided by a senator and popular assembly,

but about B.C. 500 it became Republican, and under Augustus Csesar in b.c. 27 the Empire originated. The "Building Acts" of Augustus, Nero, and Trajan had considerable influence on the

development in Rome. vi. Historical. The foundation of Rome is of uncertain date, but is generally taken at b.c 750. The Republic engaged in many wars, conquering several Etruscan cities, but was defeated in B.C. 390, at the hands of the Gauls, who continued for some time to hold the northern part of Italy. About b.c. 343 began the Roman conquest of Italy, which was effected in about sixty years, and resulted in the dominion of a city over cities. Then came the wars with peoples outside Italy, Pyrrhus, King of Epirus, being firstsubdued. The first Punic war (B.c.264-24i)againstCarthage; when brought to a conclusion, resulted in Sicily becoming the first

Roman

province.

The second Punic war (b.c. 218-201) was the most severe struggle in which the Romans had engaged, for Hannibal, the great
Carthaginian general, entering Italy from Spain, defeated all the Roman armies, and maintained himself in Italy until recalled by a counter attack of the Romans, under Scipio, upon Carthage itself. The third Punic war (b.c. 149-146) ended in the total destruction of Carthage, which, with its territory, became a Roman province in Africa. At the same time were effected the conquests of Macedonia and Greece, the latter becoming a province in B.C. 146, which induced the importation of Greek artists and works of art. Greece formed a stepping stone to Western Asia, which in turn gradually acknowledged the Roman power, till in B.C. 133 it also became a province. With the conquests of Spain and Syria, the Roman empire extended from the Atlantic ocean to the Euphrates, while Caesar's campaigns in Gaul in e.g. 59, made the Rhine and the English Channel its northern boundaries. In B.C. 55 Caesar crossed into Britain.
F.A.
I


114

COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE.

This tide of conquest swept on in spite of civil war at home, and eventually rendered the empire a political necessity owing to the difficulty of governing so many provinces under the previous system. On Pompey's defeat at Pharsalia, Julius Caesar remained without a rival, but was murdered in B.C. 44. Then followed a
period of great confusion lasting 13 years. The Triumvirate, consisting of Marcus Antonius, Caius Octavius (great nephew to Caesar) and Marcus iEmilius Lepidus, were opposed to Brutus and Cassius, and eventually defeated them. On the defeat of Antony at Aktion, Augustus Caesar (Julius Caesar's nephew) was made emperor b.c. 27, and governed till his death, a.d. 41. The Augustan age was one of those great eras in the world's history like that succeeding the Persian wars in Greece the Elizabethan age in England, and the beginning of the nineteenth century in Europe, in which what seems a new spring in national and individual life calls out an idealizing retrospect of the past. The poets Virgil (b.c. 70-19), Horace (b.c. 65-8), Ovid (b.c 43 A.D. 17), and Livy the historian (b.c 59 a.d. 17), were all contemporaries. Following Augustus came a line of emperors, of whom Nero (a.d. 54-69), Vespasian (69-79), Trajan (98-117) Hadrian under whom the empire expanded to its greatest (11 7-1 38) extent Septimius Severus (193-211), Caracalla (211-217) and Diocletian (284-305) were the most active in architectural matters. Italy went out of cultivation and depended on imported corn. A turbulent populace, and the huge armies required to keep in check the barbarian tribes on every frontier, dominated the

government. Emperors soon chosen were sooner murdered, and the chaos that gradually set in weakened the fabric of the empire. Architecture then fell into complete decay until the vigorous efforts of"Constantine (a.d. 306-337) did something for its revival, which in large measure was also due to a new force, Christianity, which had been growing up and which received official recognition under this emperor (page 176).
2.

ARCHITECTURAL CHARACTER.

The Romans adopted the columnar and trabeated style of the Greeks, and joined to it the Arch, the Vault, and the Dome, which it is presumed they borrowed from the Etruscans, and this union of beam and arch is the keynote of the style in its earliest developments. The Colosseum (Nos. 62 and 63) at Rome is a good example of this union in which the piers between the arches on the different stories are strengthened by the semi-attached columns which act the part of buttresses thus becoming part of the wall, and no longer carrying the entablature unaided. The arch thus used in a tentative manner along with the
;


ROMAN ARCHITECTURE.
classical

II5

column eventually came to be used alone, and through the basilica, was finally utilized in a pointed form in the construction of those magnificent vaulted Gothic cathedrals, which were erected in the Middle Ages. Greek buildings (see page 102) were normally only one story in height, but owing to the varying needs of the Romans, buildings of several stories were erected by them. The orders, usually attached and superimposed, were chiefly decorative features ceasing to have their true constructive significance (No. 62 a). The Thermae or Baths, Temples, Amphitheatres, Aqueducts, Bridges, Tombs, Basilicas, and Fora, are all monuments of Roman greatness, showing great constructive and engineering ability combined with a power to use the materials at hand with the best possible results. The Greek method of building with large blocks of stone, unconnected with mortar, was- employed in the buildings of the Republic. The practical spirit of the Romans, however, urged them to make a more economical use of materials, and instead of composing the walls of their monuments of squared-blocks ^of stone, they inaugurated the use of concrete, a material consisting of small fragments of stone or quarry debris mixed with lime or mortar. These materials, not being special to any country, were used with success in every part of the Empire, and gave a similarity to all Roman buildings. The craftsmanship required, under the direction of the central authority, was perfectly simple for only rough labour, both plentiful and cheap, was required for mixing the materials of which the concrete was made, and spreading it tb form the walls. The structures could be erected by hands quite unused to the art of building thus the Romans employed the slaves of the district, subjects liable to statute labour, or even the Roman armies while the legal punishment of condemnation to work on public buildings was largely enforced. The Romans by their extended use of concrete founded a new constructional system and employed it in the most diverse situations, adapting it with rare sagacity to their new needs, and The various kinds utilizing it in the most important projects. of walling may be divided into two classes opus quadratum, i.e., rectangular blocks of stone with or without mortar joints, frequently secured with dowels or cramps, and concrete unfaced or As stated, this was a building faced, used especially in Italy. mixture formed of lime and lumps of tufa, peperino, broken bricks, marble or pumice stone, and from the first century b.c. was used extensively for various building purposes. {a) Unfaced concrete was usually used for foundations, and The latter was of four varieties (6) faced concrete for walls. i. Concrete faced with " opus incertum " (No. 46 b), which was the oldest kind, the concrete backing being studded
; ;

ROMAN EXAMPLES.

1.

EjWlTTXAnPLE or FlAClMC A DOME OVER fi DECACOI>lkLC0nPAFn\EKT

46.


ROMAN ARCHITECTURE.
I17

with irregular shaped pieces of stone, mainly used in the first and second centuries b.c. ii. Concrete faced with " opus reticulatum " (No. 46 c), so called from its resemblance to the meshes of a net (reticulum) the joints being laid in diagonal lines, iii. Concrete faced with brick (testae), used from the first century B.C. to the end of the Western Empire. The walling was faced with bricks, triangular on plan and usually about i^ inches thick (No. 46 d). iv. Concrete with " opus mixtum" consisting of a wall of concrete having in addition to the ordinary brick facing bands of tufa blocks at intervals. The majestic simplicity of their edifices gives them a severe grandeur expressing the Roman ideals of conquest, wealth and power. Thus from the time that concrete displaced the ashlar masonry of the Greeks, and allowed of unskilled labour, the style of the Romans tended to become everywhere uniform and generally above the influence of local conditions for through the colonies and legionary camps the new methods penetrated to the extremities of the empire, and cities could be improvised, which became in
;

their turn centres

whence radiated the architectural ideas as well manners and customs of Rome. Although, as pointed out, the vault had been Vaulting. previously used by the Assyrians, the early Greeks, and the
as the

Etruscans, yet the

Romans

generalized vaulting as a structural

system dating from the first century of the present era. They made it simple and practical by the employment of concrete, by which they covered the largest areas even now in existence. The effect was far reaching and gave freedom in the planning of complex structures, which were easily roofed, the vaults being of any form, and easily constructed on rough centres or temporary supports till the concrete was set. It will thus be understood that vaults of concrete had a very important effect on the forms of Roman buildings, and they were employed universally, so much so, that every Roman ruin is filled with their debris. The kinds of vault employed were as follows (a.) The semicircular ox waggon-headed vault.
:

{b.)
(c.)

(a.)

The cross vault. The dome (hemispherical and semidomes). The semicircular or waggon-headed vault resting on two

sides of the covered rectangle was used in apartments whose walls- were sufficiently thick. (b.) The cross-vault was utilized for covering a square apartment, the pressure being taken by the four angles. used over corridors and long apartments the pressure being exerted on points of division (Nos. 58 and 60), left the remainder of the

When

Il8
walls free for
hall

COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE.
window openings.
If the

oblong compartment or

side walls had to be pierced by large openings, it was divided into square bays - genera,lly three and covered with groined vaults, that is to say, a in number longitudinal half-cylinder, of the diameter of the hall, intersected by three half-cylinders of similar diameter.

were very wide, and the

Hemispherical domes or cupolas {cupa= cup) (Nos. 54 and were used for covering circular structures as in the Pantheon. Semi-domes were employed for exedrae and other recesses (No. 46 k). The great coherence of concrete formed of " Pozzolana " (see page 112) and lime was important by its use, vaults and domes of enormous size were constructed. Most of these were cast in one solid mass with no lateral thrust on the walls, thus having the form, without the principle, of the arch, which, if formed of radiating voussoirs of brick or stone, would possibly have pushed
(c.)

55),

out the walls.

As

Prof.

concrete for vaults

and had an
architecture.

and

it

would

the vaulting mediaeval times. The Roman concrete vault was quite devoid of external thrust and covered its space with the rigidity of a metal lid, or inverted porcelain cup. The construction of the Pantheon dome appears to be exceptional (page 134).

pointed out, the Roman use of and daring than for walls, important effect on the general forms of Roman The use of buttresses had not been systematized, have been impossible to vault the enormous spans if had been composed of brick or of masonry as in

Middleton

has

was more

striking

In many cases (No. 46), as in the Baths of Caracalla and Basilica of Constantine, brick arches or ribs probably used as temporary centres are embedded in the concrete vaults at various points, especially at the " groins," but these are sometimes superficial, like the brick facing to walls, and only tail a few inches into the mass of concrete vault, which is frequently as much as 6 feet
thick.

The decoration of Roman buildings had little connection with the architecture proper, for a Roman edifice built of concrete could receive a decorative lining of any or every kind of marble, having no necessary connection with the general structure, such decoration being an independent sheathing giving a richness to the Roman architecture had the walls both internal and external. character, therefore, of a body clothed in many instances with rich materials forming a rational and appropriate finish to the
structure,

and

differing essentially

from Greek architecture.

Besides the use of many colored marbles other means of decorating wall surfaces are briefly stated here. Cements and


ROMAN ARCHITECTURE.
Iig

Stuccoes (" Opus albarium ") were frequently used for the coverings of walls both internal and external, and the final coat was polished. Mural paintings were executed on the prepared stucco, and may be classified as follows (a.) Fresco painting, Varnish painting, and (i.) Caustic (b.) Tempera painting, (c.)
:

painting.

Marble, alabaster, porphyry and jasper as linings to the walls have been already referred to. They were usually 'attached by iron or bronze cramps to the walls upon a thick cement backing. Mosaics were also much used for ornamenting walls, vaults and floors. They are divided by Middleton into (a.) " Opus tesselatum," or " vermiculatum," formed of squared tesserae of stone, marble, or glass to form patterns.
:

" or " Opus scutulatum," of tesserae of marble, (6.) " Opus sectile porphyry, or glass cut into shapes to form the pattern of which the " Opus Alexandrinum " was a very rich variety. (c.) " Opus Spicatum," made of paving bricks in herring-bone

fashion. The glass mosaics sometimes forming elaborate figure pictures, were mostly used to decorate the walls and vaults only, and not the floors. Gilded bronze was employed as a roofing material to important buildings, as employed at the Pantheon (page 134). The abundant use of statues, many of them brought from Greece, led to the adoption of niches for their reception within the thickness of the walls. These were either semicircular, crowned with a semi-dome, or rectangular, and they occasionally had

columns supporting a pediment, thus forming a frame.

3.

EXAMPLES.

Etruscan Architecture.

In dealing with Roman Architec-

ture mention must be made of the Etruscans or early inhabitants of central Italy, who were great builders, and whose methods of construction had a marked effect on that of the Romans. The style dates from about b. c. 750, and from their buildings it is known that they were aware of the value of the true or radiating arch for constructive purposes, and used it extensively in their buildings. The architectural remains consist chiefly of tombs, city walls, gateways (as at Perugia), bridges and aqueducts, and their character is similar to the early Pelasgic work at Tiryns and

Mycenae (page

54).

walls are remarkable for their great solidity of construction, and for the cyclopean masonry, where huge masses of stone are piled up without the use of cement, or mortar of any kind. The " Cloaca Maxima " (c. b.c. 578) (No. 47), or great drain of Rome,

The

120

COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE.

constructed to drain the valleys of Rome, has a semicircular arch of II feet span, in three rings of voussoirs, each 2 feet 6 inches
high.

There are no remains of Etruscan temples, but Vitruvius gives a description of them. The Temple of Jupiter CapitoUnus was the most important Etruscan example (dedicated B.C. 509), and is Its cella was divided into three generally taken as being typical. chambers containing statues of Jupiter, Minerva (Livy VII., iii) and Juno, and was nearly square on plan, with widely spaced columns and wooden architraves. It was burnt hi B.C. 83 and rebuilt by Sulla, who brought some of the marble Corinthian columns from the Temple of Zeus Olympius at Athens (page 90). Roman A^l-chitecture followed the Etruscan, and as indicated on page 114, was a composite style derived by the union of the Greek and Etruscan styles. The principal examples of Roman architecture were chiefly erected during 400 years, viz., betweenThe principal remains are found not only B.C. 100 and A.D. 300. in Italy, but throughout Europe to wherever the Roman occupation extended, as at Nimes and Aries in France, Tarragona and Segovia in Spain, Treves in Germany, Constantine in North Africa, Timgad in Algeria, and other places in North Africa, Baalbec and Palmyra in Syria, and many places in England (page 280).

FORA.
was an open space used
corresponded with the Agora in a Greek city, and as a meeting place and market, or a rendezvous for political demonstrators, corresponding to the Place of a French country town, the market place of English country towns, and to the Royal Exchange or probably Trafalgar Square The forurh was usually surrounded by porticos, in the Metropolis. colonnades and public buildings, such as temples, basilicas (halls of justice), senate house, and shops, and was adorned with pillars of
victory and memorial statues of great men. Rome possessed several Fora, and a plan of these is given " was the oldest, and grouped (No. 47). The " Forum around it were some of the most important historical buildings. A

The Forum

Romanum

restoration

is

given (No. 48), which will indicate

its

probable

appearance

in the

heyday of ancient Rome.

and Nerva. The models in the Walker Art Gallery, Liverpool, and the Crystal Palace, give a good idea of the appearance of this
important centre of architectural history.

in early times also used as a for contests, which in after years during the Empire took place in the amphitheatres. This and the of Trajan, which was the largest of all, were the most important. The others include those of Julius Cassar, Augustus Vespasian

The Forum Romanum was

hippodrome and

Forum

ROMAN ARCHITECTURE.
The remarkable colonnaded

121

Pompeii also possessed an important Forum. streets at Palmyra and Damascus, Antioch, Bosra and elsewhere in Syria, and Asia Minor may also be best mentioned here.
1

TRAJ/1N5

COLUMN

2 8AStUai ULPI/l 5 TEMPLE OF VEHUS CENETRIX


4-T.Of HAR5 ULTOR (SCOlS.S-PLASTKJtAHWNC

5 TEHPLf Of MINERW 6 TEMPLE OF PEACE


7
STTE OF THE BA5ILICA itHELIfl
i,

8 TEMPLE OF ANTONINUS 9TEMPUOFROH0L05


10
11

FAUSTINA

64S1UCA OF C0N5TANTINE TEMPLE OF VEHUS i, ROME 12 THE C0L055EUH I3ARCM OF COHSTAtfTINE W-AKCH OF TTTUS
15
16 17

HOUSE or TtiB^VESTAL
TEMPLE OF VESTA ARCH OF AUGUSTUS

VHtCINS

I8TEMPIOFDMJ3JUU03 19 TEMPLE OFCteTOR a POLLUX (JCOLaLeFT) W BASILICA JUUA


21

COLUMN OF PH0CA5

22 ARCH OF 5EPTIM1U3 SEVEfiUS

25 ROSTRA
25T.

2*T.0FSATam {8C0LUHH5 STANWNG) OF VESPA5WH ^COLUMNS STANBHC)


26TEMPLE Of CONCORD.

47-

TEMPLES.
Note. The
orders are described under the Comparative table {page 167).

the result of the amalgamation of the Etruscan and Greek types, for they resembled in many respects Greek examples, but their prostyle arrangement and the use of the podium was derived from Etruscan temples. The plans shown on No. 18 give some of the types used, and others are referred to later on (Nos. 49, 50, 52, 53 and 57). The characteristic temple is known as pseudo-peripteral (page 58), and had no side colonnades as was usual in Greek examples, the order of columns being attached to the flank walls and arranged as a prostyle portico towards the front only. Steps were provided at the principal end, between projecting wing walls, which often supported groups of statuary, and were continued along the flanks and back of the temple as a podium or continuous pedestal (Nos. 18 G, 49, 50) (page 167). Whereas Greek peripteral temples were normally twice as long as their width, the Roman examples were very much shorter. The size of the cella was frequently

The Roman temples were

ROMAN ARCHITECTURE.

123

increased, being usually the whole width of the temple, which was used as a museum for Greek statuary and as a treasure store. As the architraves were supported by the enclosing walls on the flanks, temples could also be built on a larger scale than Nothing definite is known as to the ceilings, in the Greek style. but these may have been of coffering in stone as in the colonnades, of open timber-work as in the basilicas, or vaulted as in the Temple of Venus and Rome at Rome (No. 50), the Temple of Diana at Nimes (No. 50), and the Temples at Spalato. The abolition of the encircling colonnade and the continuous stylobate of steps resulted in a certain loss of unity in comparison with Greek examples, which in most cases were isolated and visible from all sides whereas the Roman temples were specially intended to be seen from the forum or open space upon which they usually faced, the front being therefore made important by the deep portico and flight of steps. No consideration was given to orientation as in Greek examples. Circular and polygonal temples were also used by the Romans,
;

being probably derived from Etruscan examples.

Rectangular Examples.
At Rome. The Temple of
(No. 49,
Fortttna
Virilis
B.C.

Date. ICO

Remarks.

A, B, c).

typical Roman temple plan. Ionic. Pseudo-peripteral tetrastyle.

Now

the church of

Temfle of Mars UUor (the Avenger) (Nos. 52 and 67 g). The Temple of Concord (No. 47^*).

The

B.C.

42-2

Maria Egiziaca. Corinthian. Three-columns and


S.

B.C.

a pilaster remaining (page 125). 27-A.D. Corinthian. Pseudo-peripteral prostyle-hexastyle. Unusual 14 plan, having cella twice as

wide as long.

The Temple of Also known

Castor
as

and Pollux.
Stator

A.D. 6

Corinthian.

Peripteral ocfastyle

(Nos. 471", 67 a The Temple of Vespasian [^o. 47^).

Jupiter and 68).

with front portico. columns remaining.


a.d.

Three

94

Corinthian.

Prostyle-hexastyle.

Three columns remaining.

The

A.D. 141 Corinthian. Pseudo-peripteral Temple of Antoninus and prostyle-hexastyle. Faustina (Nos. $2 I, J, K, L, and Now the church of S. Lorenzo. 68 E). double Peculiar The Temple of Venus and Rome a.d. 123-135 Corinthian temple (page 125). (Nos. 47", and 50 A, B, c, d). a.d. 284 Ionic. Pseudo-peripteral proThe Temple of Saturn (Nos. /^-j"^, style-hexastyle. Eight columns and 49 L, M, n).

At Athens. The Temple


(Nos. 18
J,

of

Jupiter Clympius

c.

174

remaining. (See page 90.)

43 a).
Carree (Nos.
18 G, a.d. 117-138 (See page 125.)
E,

At Nimes. The Maison


50 H,
F, G).
J,

K, 51).

The Temple of Diana (No. 50

(See page 125.)

ROMAN EXAMPLES.
'

II.

ROMAN ARCHITECTURE.
Rectangular Examples
At Spalato. The Temple of
59)-

125

(continued).

Date.

Remarks.
(See page 161.)

jEscidapius (No.

a.d.

300

At Baalbec. The Great Temple (No. 53). The Temple of Jupiter (No. 53). At Palmyra. The Great Temple of the Sun.

a.d, 131-161 (See below.) a.d. 273 (See page 130.) A.D. 273

Peripteral octa.style, probably Corinthian, having attached

bronze leaves.

The Temple of Mars Ultor, Rome (b.c. 42-2) (No. 52), stood in the Forum of Augustus, in a precinct surrounded by an
enclosing wall 100 feet high. It was one of the largest Roman temples, having columns 58 feet in height, but there are only three columns and a pilaster remaining, the capital of the latter being shown in No. 67 g. A short description is given on No. 52. The Temple of Venus and Rome (a.d. 123-135) (No. 50), had a peculiar plan consisting of two cellas, each provided with an apse placed back to back, and a pronaos at each end. It was pseudo-dipteral decastyle (No. 47"), the peristyle having twenty columns on the flanks, and the cella walls were of extra thickness to take the thrust of the vault. Internally there were niches for statues, and the cella was crowned with a hemispherical coffered vault, the apses having semi-domes. The plan on No. 47" gives the usually accepted restoration of this building, and that by Palladio is given on No. 50 a, b, c, d. This temple was raised on a platform and stood in a large enclosure, entered through imposing gateways, surrounded by a colonnade ot nearly 200 columns of red and grey Egyptian granite and red porphyry, occupying in all an area of about 540 by 340 feet. The Maison Carree, Ntmes (a.d. 117-138) (Nos. 18 g, 50 h, J, K, and 51), was erected during the reign of Hadrian, and is It is of the the best preserved Roman temple in existence. typical form, being pseudo-peripteral prostyle hexastyle, with (2orinthian columns supporting a rich entablature, and raised on a podium about 12 feet high provided with a front flight of steps only. The so-called Temple of Diana, NJmes (No. 50 e, f, g), was probably a nymphaeum connected with some thermae. The interior walls have detached Corinthian columns, supporting a cornice from which springs a stone-ribbed barrel vault, the thrust of which is counteracted by smaller continuous vaults over the side passages, probably a prototype of the vaulting of many southern French Romanesque churches. The Great Temple, Baalbec (a.d. 131-161) (No. 53), was It stood in dipteral decastyle, but only six columns now remain. a court 380 feet square with recessed porticos, in front of which was a hexagonal cortile entered by a dodecastyle Corinthian portico

ROMAN EXAMPLES.

III.

.THSTEMPeaiDlIA
lARttmcKKltSHMIS] !BkCoIIN1E?ABW

EWWHSANnE*llQ
WHVRr.THEKWtsiJIl'

ONAVW

PtWrodM

Scale

or

pitN

THGLISHFrfT

VTENafTEt
LlCHTloTllLlNltRloR PBoBABlT

iTEMPlEerDrMAArHIMES
THRUST

INTWOCED
INTBE

Ml'
FRPNT

PECULWR H HAWNG SlONt DIBBf BABRtl VAULT mot 15 CllNTMACTED EST SH4LLER WLI5 OVER AISB
T

ACABOE 5EMIClaiR WINDOW

'

(H)PLAN

(J) FRONT EUSWnON

(K)

PAKT ^IBE ElEVlTrON.

50-

ROMAN EXAMPLES.

IV.

(DP^K^^sier

R^E^

(}4)ELE\fA'nON Cf E^ADE ofTCMPLE SHMHg ENCEQINg VflS

Temple ofkAiD
1

RDME.BC42
J

(AFTER TSrtDRBj CREST) IW KHU in IB MRDUNiyHO tKA DUaCD vniH


MUUcriMMUCtHtlGHI WERCBnUBTUianB

AWiV fflC numz^i DUTHorcmi THE HUnTlOMt MU3 (ILlOt Avmtu r iftt OHC a iKt URcrarcr IK KvuH unra lOOUJHHSniiySimiDIIIDUlHlBClKGJS mr HKH.THC PtBlftOtUS tfHUaWCKDH HHtlCHi MMEDlHrWClHCTKlWllMPLt
IHrulffiHTHTa miiim mtic

KM
w

m^Za

Him

CtClMlHC A UffiC aPAEC

sou II D[OWCD

m (/msm v
nilH

IH

fKW sAT THE

DETAIL?B[l RNICEiOtN-

kpceiho acxic

^m

DETAIL Of MAINWICE ClOSINGWi ToTCMPLt

! J
^

Jl

3
I

Id'

% Ji

(P)plan'

HOCfi H SfHUta

0RllilHW.LT

52-

ROMAN EXAMPLES.

V.

WLBiriMLKSYiJ

Halt Secticm on x.k.

d) Half Ehtrhjce Fa^abe

^'fenY.Y.THISH eKATT[BmMTOfMflH@!Kr
fHCUPSINGmLoFGiaNTK:

THElMPLEof JnPlMssiroffEU
THAK THE GREAT TEMPLE
,

BiaCXfioFSDNEOERMFT
THE

ma

GiarTEMK m wmit
Pins

'

11 IS

OTIKKHEB Sim

wLEHcmjtHrffiHiKiffl;

EffiTERN FUGKT OF giEIB. IT15

A.D I3I-EI. lit HEXJOmSL IW-MI B EmiKD K M[t AM HH OH EACH

ElIKrMailMJS

0HABWfHr23FIA6*E,

AND HA3 15 lyMNS ON EACH


IHIERIOR

OCTA^TYIE SIDE. THE HA?A9FFERED auLriFUOlQ^^llMH?

miWe

Laos H THE WIiiilMt aDEStf WHICH lKm,gOUTHAKDEMr


ABE tXEDBJE.THE ciEKT
IBOVE

WBL

Km

ARAB FORTRESS

IBM BKB

EA^TAHOSMmSMABAMEtraiFtTHEPaiN.6(giUMSiriirn'

ami AHE

HE OHCf (EMAItO.TlIRE ARE AMirr 65 FIK HEIOHUllranQ). THESE MSSIVE C0L0HNSAIIE7W IN BIAMETES ANt fflBIST If 3 PIE(t5,
HElB16CETHERwrmi0N.
IHE AKHITM.VE IS THE ENTA8U1UIIE
'

3
li

BSm HEIGHT.

SECTIONS.

(^TiHHSofJOTnEf[,5M

ImsietJmm.MM.

F.A.

130
in antis.

COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE.

The buildings were constructed with large blocks of stone without cement, and the columns were built up in three A further short description is given on No. 53. pieces.

The Temple of Jupiter, Baalbec (a.d. 273), is peripteral octastyle with a vaulted sanctuary at the west end, approached by a flight of steps. The interior was ornamented with half-Corinthian columns having returned entablature, from which sprung the Between the columns were two tiers of niches. coffered vault. Dawkins and Wood restore this temple as if vaulted, but other authorities do not think this possible.
Circular and Polygonal Examples.
At Rome. The Temple of Mater Matuta, {oxmerly known as the Temple of
Vesta.
B.C. 27- A.D. 14.

(See below.)

The Pantheon (Nos.


56, 57, 67 H).

33, 54, 55,

A.D. 120-124.
A.D. 205.

(See below.) (See below.)


(See page 134.)

The Temple of Vesta (No, 47). At Tivoli (near Rome). The Templeof Vesta (N03. 18 c, 57). At Spalato. The Temple of Jupiter (in Diocletian's Palace) (No. 59).

c.

27-A.D. 14.

a.d. 284.

(Seepages 136, 161.)

At Baalbec. The Circular Temple


E, f).

(No. 60 D,

A.D. 273.

(See page 136.)

the

The Temple of Mater Matuta, Rome, formerly known as Temple of.- Vesta, is situated in the Forum Boarium, and is
twenty Corinthian columns, 34
feet

circular peripteral, having


7 inches in height

3 feet 2 inches in diameter, and therefore nearly eleven diameters high. These surround a cella 28 feet in

and

diameter, and rest on a podium 6 feet high. It is built of Parian marble, with the exception of the podium, which is of tufa, and is approached by a flight of marble steps. The roof was probably of wood covered with bronze tiles. The V-shaped section of the leaves indicates the work of a Greek artist. It is now the Church of S. M. del Sole. The Temple of Vesta, Rome, (in the Forum Romanum) (No. 47), was founded in b.c. 715, but was frequently destroyed by fire and repeatedly rebuilt, finally by Septimius Severius in a d. 205. According to Middleton it was circular peripteral with eighteen columns surrounding a cella, and resting on a podium 10 feet high. Among the remains lately found are some fragments of the columns having fillets for fitting metal screens between the shafts. The Pantheon, Rome (Nos. 33, 37 a, b, c, 54, 55, 56, 57 e) is now, owing to the investigations of M. Chedanne in 1892, known
to belong to two distinct periods. The circular portion, known as the

Rotunda, occupies the

site

ROMAN EXAMPLES.
the: PflHTHEOn ^T
ijUiii oUtjinq

VI.

THE REiqn orHflPRWfi

TUjon
P|C

tdipie:

the

RpHE m poiiTico^^^g^^^^BEinc
PROBflWYflo iZ3
'...,.

ir
Or THE

on

51TE orfl thuee (Hrp

RE-ERCCTEP fl5 THE .^F!,:......

^^

that OrTHEOi TDICOVERED WITH LEAD.

POIJTIfO PIECE

nEV/i)Ui0nc
OKrPtY(pvtl?EPV?fTI^BI?0(1~

cgEEE25Wa)E
JoUBLf PURPOSE

?AWMlNa
Itl5 ITS

"WZZVtp.C
TliXfrlTIJEOPE/Iriq 0(2-

WEIGHT

tt.MincAT
PWfTTjfl
MEMBfRScf EACHCoFfKi.
'

BOTZE-

OBWiaffffa
SFolBHottHlrtS

OoUlEi/tQ ii& 5hev/n at cd. okThisorawng


"rflE

A^5ECKFtioK

V/AUS or

ratal

te

RoFuNDAWlCrt)
soppofcrrnEDoHfi

WiFiCfNTD'
miNQSflWBLES

K5ToAft)DIDM

wBASEMEHTof TWVERTIHE &


ARE ABOUT 20 FT TrilCK.B0HGO6T
IN

* PoRpam

WTHTOfSlAB) sRoUHBas OF
fil!ANlTE,lKl,

FACED
.

56UD SHCKTE BRICK

& ORIGINAILY cevERED EX-

PWHm 6^
rHtPAvrnrriT

TERNALLY
BELOW
wifH

UNDHDoMEis aiisKrcfcwQ)*
FAIlnSHCEhTttTO

MARBLE, ABOYE Wri STUCCO.


THE NARBIE UHING (pNSI5fDofISiKE

im.

IN

BWIENTBfNM
MH5IBCo|1KUHlCA11N&^
WiTriCIQCAS.

5LAB5ofPENTFLK: MARBLE 5^" THICK


"KEoflfHlCH WERE EHG m3fi2"WII)E,

THE DOME

WAS FOUND BY M.CHEDANNE TO BE RJILT

OF BRiaWORK LAID IK HORIZONTAL COURSES


BOTH-NEAR THE CENTRAL OPENING AND UP TO THE FOURTH RANGE OF COFFERS.THt INTERMEDIATE PORTION WAS NOT EXAMIN ED, BUT IT 15 HELD THAT A SERIES OF ARCHES MAY
HAVE BEEN CARRIED IN THIS 'PORTION. THIS METHOD OF CONSTRUCTION MAY HAVE BEEN ADOPTED TOAVOID THE THRUST OF

ExsTirlQ BPorlZE^
noUiBiciQ uoUdo tlIe "ErE"Fi?orir|DO!iTo/i.

THE POME.
'

(oiukHstoMco are OHnoreD woliths or GREY f) RED EGYPTIAN


GMlTE
riFH

15RIKTHIAN

5(?l! r

I'li^'iir

I*'

|3g

|-<

CAPITAL? WHITE PfNTac

.54-

K 2

132

COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE.

of an older uncovered piazza, used as a " nymphseum," or place for plants, flowers, and running water, the level of its floor being 8 feet below the present level. In front of this "nymphaeum," and facing towards the south, was a decastyle portico, forming a frontispiece to a three-cell temple of the Etruscan type, built by Agrippa during the reign of Augustus, B.C. 27-A.D. 14. The present Rotunda was erected by the Emperor Hadrian, in A.D. 120-124, on the site of the more ancient " nymphaeum," the portico to the Etruscan temple being taken down and re-erected at the higher level. As rebuilt this portico was made octastyle instead of decastyle, and was made to face the north instead of the south. The Rotunda (now the Church of S. Maria Rotonda) is a circular structure having an internal diameter of 142 feet 6 inches, which is also its internal height. The walls, of concrete (opus incertum), with a layer of tiles every three feet in height, are 20 feet in thickness, and have eight great recesses, one of which forms the entrance three of the remaining seven are semicircular Two columns exedrse, the other four being rectangular on plan. are placed on the front line of these recesses, above which are relieving arches. The eight piers have niches entered from the exterior of the building, formed in three heights, of which the lower are semicircular on plan, and are 19 feet high to the springing of their hemispherical heads, the second tier have their floor on the same level as the cornice over the inner order, and the third tier are level with and entered from the second cornice of the exterior. In front of the Rotunda is the Corinthian octastyle portico, 1 10 feet wide by 60 feet deep in the centre, the first, third, sixth and eighth columns having two others behind them. At the back of the portico are niches, and staircases by which to ascend to the various parts of the edifice. The columns, 42 feet 6 inches high, in front of the recesses in the interior, are believed to be part of the original design of Hadrian's architect. The lower third of these columns is cabled, and the upper portion is fluted (No. 55). The marble facing to the walls between, and the columns, entablature, and pediments of the projecting altars are later additions. The attic or upper story was originally ornamented with porphyry or marble pilasters, with capitals, six of which are in the British Museum, of white marble and panelling of giallo antico,
;

serpentine,

and pavonazetto, but in 1747 this marble panelling was removed and the present stucco decoration inserted.
is

The dome or cupola coffered in five ranges.

a hemisphere, having

its

inner surface

which the sinkings or mouldings are regulated or foreshortened so as to be seen from below is worthy of notice.
in

The manner

S O

o
u X h <
CM

134

COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE.

The dome, although described by Middleton to be of concrete, was found by Chedanne to be built of brickwork laid in almost horizontal courses up to the fourth range of coffers, and also near the central opening at the summit. The intermediate portion was not examined, but it is held that a series of arches may have been ifornied in this portion, so as to relieve from pressure the recessed
openings below.
effected solely by one circular unglazed opening, formed in the crown of the dome, and still retaining its circular bronze cornice (No. 54 c, d). Tliis method of lighting produces an effect which is solemn

The

lighting

is

27

feet in diameter,

and there may have been a symbolic meaning appearance of the vault of the heavens in the temple of all the gods, the idea being that the worship of " One Jupiter should take place in a building open to the sky. great eye opening upon heaven is by far the noblest conception for lighting a building to be found in Europe." The circular portion was originally faced with marble up to the lower stringcornice, the upper portion being faced with stucco decorated with pilasters, as shown in the drawings made by Palladio in the i6th century. At the present time the walls are faced in brick with " opus reticulatum," divided by the two cornices. The dome, which has its lower portion formed in steps, was originally covered with bronze gilded plates, but these were removed to Constantinople by Constans II. in 655, and replaced

and impressive

in thus imitating the

with sheets of lead.

The Qctastyle portico has monolith Corinthian columns, 46 feet 6 inches high, 5 feet in diameter at the base, and 4 feet 3 inches at the top. These support an entablature 1 1 feet high, and a pediment having an inclination of about 23 degrees. Each of the three divisions of the portico ceiling appears to have been segmental and formed of bronze plates, since removed. The old Roman bronze door frame, doors and fanlight, originally plated in gold, still remain (No. 37 a). The Temple of Vesta, Tivoli (b.c. 27-A.D. 14) (Nos. 18 c, 57 H, J, k), is another circular peripteral example, having a cella 24 feet in diameter, surrounded by a peristyle of eighteen Corinthian columns, 23 feet 6 inches high, resting on a podium. The cella, 23 feet 1 1 inches in diameter internally, had two windows, and a doorway approached by a flight of steps. The columns are nearly gf diameters high, and the capitals, of which the foliage is derived from the acanthus mollis, are one diameter in height. The reason for the difference in design between the Temple of Mater Matuta, Rome, and this example are instructive. The Roman building, placed in a low flat situation, has columns of slender proportions in order to give it the required height whereas the Tivoli example, placed on the edge of a rocky prominence, and
;

136

COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE.

thus provided with a lofty basement, has columns of a sturdier proportion. The Temple of Jupiter, Spalato (in Diocletian's Palace) fA.D. 284) (No. 59), is a further development of the Pantheon. Externally it is octagonal, surrounded by a low peristyle of Corinthian columns, but the interior of the cella is circular, 43 feet 8 inches in diameter, with four circular recesses and three square, the entrance corresponding to a fourth. Between these are placed eight Corinthian columns with Composite ones superimposed, advanced slightly in front of the face of the wall. The whole is raised on a podium, and crowned with a remarkable domical vault constructed in tiers of brick arches, externally presenting a pyramidal form. The Circular Temple, Baalbec (a.d. 273) (No. 60 d, e, f), has a circular cella raised on a podium and approached by a flight of steps. It is surrounded by eight Corinthian columns, six of which are well advanced from the cella wall, and occupy the positions resultiiig from the division of a circle into seven equal parts. The entrance is placed centrally on the seventh division of the circle, and has a column on either side. The cella wall has Corinthian pilasters, between which are semicircular niches for statuary. The line of the entablature is curved inwards towards the cella between the six columns above mentioned. Internally it has superimposed Ionic and Corinthian orders. The Christian baptisteries erected in the following centuries were adapted from such circular temples as these just described, which are therefore extremely interesting with respect to architectural evolution.

BASILICAS.
These, erected as halls of justice and as exchanges for merchants, comprise some of the finest buildings erected by the Romans, and bear witness to the importance of law and justice in their These buildings are also interesting as a link between eyes. Classic" and Christian architecture, as explained later on page 181. The usual plan was a rectangle, whose length was two or three times the width. Two or four rows of columns ran through the
entire length, resulting in three or five aisles, and galleries were usually placed over these. The entrance was at the side or at one end, and the tribunal at the other on a raised dais, generally placed in a semicircular apse, which was sometimes partly cut off from the main body of the building by columns. Ranged round the apse were seats for the assessQjcs, that in the centre, which was

elevated above the rest, being occupied by the Praetor or Questor. In front of the apse was the altar, where sacrifice was performed before commencing any important business. The building was generally covered with a wooden roof, aii4

ROMAN EXAMPLES.
I"!
KKPLAH

VII.
KEYSTONE
OF ARCH

SEramios
E0ME.2O+S.
THBflOBCiKillitKTEDOfWltllL
MAIlJUo-llASJOFEHIIttSCOllNI*

IWTIK

mm.

wm EACH OWES W WTtW.


wmtFiEiiONTiitsm

CA5C WHICH LEADS TO

MW

Mist

wEitramaiYfucciiiffiSBioB 0fDIEB1FK(ll3miHKJ5 5EVa(JS


wiiniiiosEOfiiBivnMitiCAiAat

lAfrUTMNACHAMr
ltOI5E5 Wira

DIAWN.IIT4

umtm

A HOBE FOOT-MLB
SIDE

Ttl SIATIS or THE colohb Of mi5

TEHfliAliEtAOIOrASKlEHOCK
Of CIAimE46'5
IN

HHOiTsS'lllAll.

^
1'

ROMAN EXAMPLES.
^x^nPLc^ OF

VIIL

mma

COLUMNS

m. mm vaults .eciHe an ism exjimhe of col-,


LCTK THE WEISHT ON ISOLXTES POINTS OFSeiWItT.

mmms ts the face of piess semer

ABBIlICAVt?SA

AC6UMHEBSTOCTUREtiamiHRiTi 0nERO?EM-n!E SIBDIHEPLAHIS


e5lEi(ED1offiK-

TEHPlErColr
IMSTlABofTiiECElLA

WMlbmimi:..
skeKter?ie?,i

ROMAN ARCHITECTURE.

139

the exterior seems to have been of small pretensions, in comparison with the interior. Trajan's (the Ulpian) Basilica, Rome (a.d. 98) (Nos. 47% 58 B, e), of which Apollodorus of Damascus was the architect, was a fine example of the wooden roofed type. Entered from Trajan's Forum, it had a central nave 87 feet wide with double aisles, each 23 feet 9 inches wide, and an internal length excluding the apses of 385 feet. The total internal height was about 120 feet. The columns on the ground story separating the nave and aisles were of red granite from Syene, with white marble Corinthian capitals. At each end were semicircular apses, reached by flights of steps, having sacrificial altars in front of Galleries were formed over the side aisles, reached by them. steps as shown on the plan. Adjoining the Basilica were the Greek and Latin libraries, and Trajan's famous Column (page 156) stood in an open court between

them.

The Basilica of Maxentius or Constantine,


(a.d.

Rome

312) (Nos. 46 I, 47', 58 A, c, d), formerly erroneously known as the Temple of Peace, consists of a central" nave 265 feet long by 83 feet wide between the piers, crowned at a height of 120 feet by an immense groined vault in three compartments. To the north and south are aisles roofed with three great semicircular vaults, each 76 feet in span, springing from walls placed These walls had communicating at right angles to the nave. openings formed in them, and aided by the weight of the aisle vaults, supported that of the nave. Monolithic columns were attached to the face of these piers, and supported pieces of entablature from which sprung the groined vaults. There were two apses, one to the north and one to the west of the central nave. Light was introduced in the upper part of the nave over the aisle vaults by means of lunettes, or semicircular windows in the wall formed by the intersecting vaulting. The building is similar as regards plan and design to the Tepidarium of the Thermae (No. 59), and is in many respects a prototype of a Gothic structure, in which the thrust and weight of an intersecting vault are collected and brought down on piers built to receive them. The vaults to the northern aisle still remain, exhibiting the deep coffering executed in brick work, and a portion of the main vault of concrete formed of pozzolana is still in position, although the column which was placed to carry it has been removed, thus showing the extraordinary tenacity of Roman concrete. Other basilicas at Rome were the Basilica Porcia (b.c. 184), believed to be the oldest, the Basilica Julia (No. 47), and the and the basilicas at Pompeii, Farno, Basilica Amelia (No. 47) and Treves, and at Silqbester in England, may be mentioned.
;

ROMAN EXAMPLES.
1HEJ3ATM'3

IX.

(JHtRAL ^LOCKOF^ATMS f 0\RACALL>\ ROJ^E OfQmcm^ (f\0.?t2-25^'^^^^\ CON?TR?JCTEB OH A \^ N^ NATURAL GROUflD LEVEL ^ PLATFORn SO FEET ABOVL TMt/V^ Kl^lQ FORr\ED /S Tf\E V'AULTEJO CM'XnpEP-S
,

^^^,

.n^niNMft'^'^'^^NE'VH

730 FEETFURlJ'\CB

FOR HBailNG TZ-IEv/ATER ^HOTROOm 'VPO/E^ STORAGE ROO^VS FOR FCIELOL StTAEPATH? /VajDmOD/\TED 1600 PATHERS WALLS OFCOHCRETE OF LII-\E S po^^oiaNawItmthiH taciNc of triaNguiar prices k boi^diNg courses of iarce TILES eFEET6'?EVtRY4FnNKQGn^^ 1=1 >-y rTI A

RiilUiDiiUilL

S98^FEETQE^iER^I.PL^^I rR^TOFlED) P^I^CEc< P|Oc[TnN^"6P<\JAT0


59-


ROMAN ARCHITECTURE.

I4I

THERMS.
The Thermae
of

Roman

civilization

or great public baths are quite as characteristic as the amphitheatres, being probably

derived from the Greek gymnasia. The principal existing remains are found at Rome and Pompeii in a ruined state, but much can be learned from the published drawings of the Italian architect, Palladio, made in the sixteenth century, when they were better preserved, and from the restorations of French students sent to Rome as prize winners of the iicole des Beaux-Arts. The Thermee supplied the place of the modern daily papers for the dissemination of news and gossip, and also answered in a measure the purposes of a modern club as a rendezvous of social A small charge of a quadrans (-J- farthing) was sometimes life. made, but in later days they were opened free as a bribe to the populace by Emperors in search of popularity. In general arrangement they usually consisted of three maia| parts (a.) A great central block. This was planned for the baths proper, the processes of bathing resembling the modern Turkish bath. The Tepidarium (warm room for bathers to rest in), Calidarium (hot room, usually containing a warm water bath), Laconium or Sudatorium (the hottest room, usually a circular domed apartment), and a Frigidarium (cool room, usually containing a cold swimming bath " piscina ") were the most important apartments added to which there were the Apodyteria (rooms for undressing), Unctuarium (rooms for oils, pomades or ointments, where the "aliptae " anointed the bathers and performed the rubbing down, shampooing with the " strigillus " or scraper, oiling and sanding the body). The Sphaeristerium (place for the games of ball), libraries, and small theatre occasionally formed part of the central structure. This surrounded the central block and (b.) A large open space. was frequently laid out as a stadium, with raised seats for spectators. It was also used for various athletic exercises (such as wrestling, races, boxing), or for lounging, and portions were planted with trees and ornamented with statues. These consisted of lecture (c.) An outer ring of apartments. rooms for the hearing of discourses, open colonnades, exedrae or recesses for the philosophers, poets and statesmen, and other necessary apartments. A large reservoir frequently occupied one side, being supplied by a special aqueduct from a distance. This reservoir supplied the Frigidarium, Tepidarium and Calidarium in succession. The external apartments were frequently let off as shops or utilized for the accommodation of the numerous slaves who formed part of the establishment. The whole block was frequently raised on a high platform.
;

'

142

COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE.
for

underneath which were the furnaces and other rooms


service of the baths.

the

Rome (a.d. 212-235) (Nos. 46 f, K and 59 a), accommodating 1,600 bathers, are the most important of all the remains, and give a splendid idea of their
The Thermae of Caracalla,
H,
G,

size

and magnificence.

entire site including gardens was raised on an artificial platform 20 feet high, measuring 1,150 feet (over one-fifth of a mile) each way, not including the segmental projection on three of the sides. Under this platform were communicating corridors leading to various parts of the establishment, vaulted chambers used as stores, the hypocaust, and furnaces for heating the water and hot

The

air ducts.

Along the road front was a colonnade having behind it a row chambers in two stories, the lower at the street level, probably used as shops, and the upper on the platform level, for
of small

private " slipper " baths. The entrance to the establishment was in the centre of the north-eastern facade, and led to the large open enclosure laid out for wrestling and other games, around which, in the segmental projections and elsewhere, were grouped in the various halls for dramatic representations and lectures. The central building, used entirely for bathing, measured 750 feet by 380 feet, and therefore

covered an area of 285,000 square feet, i.e., about equal to Westminster Palace (including Westminster Hall), but greater than Only either the British Museum or the London Law Courts. four doorways were formed on the north-east side, which was exposed to cold winds, but large columned openings, giving access to the gardens, were a feature of the south-western front. Although now in ruins, restorations have been made which show the relative positions of the Tepidarium, Calidarium (with sudatio), Frigidarium (with piscina), Sphaeristeria (for gymnastics), Apodyteria (dressing rooms), and other apartments. The planning of this and similar buildings is very instructive to architectural students and. worthy of careful study, being laid out on axial lines, which, while providing for the practical requirements of the bathers, produced vistas through the various halls and saloons. Moreover, by the system of exedrse and screens of columns, loss of scale was prevented, and the vastness of the building was emphasized. Internally the Tepidarium, forming the principal hall, around which the subsidiary apartments were grouped, constituted the controlling feature of the plan to which the other apartments were subordinated. It was 170 feet by 82 feet, roofed with an immense semicircular intersecting concrete vault, 108 feet above the floor, formed in three compartments, and supported on eight portions of entablature resting on granite columns, 38 feet high and 5 feet 4 inches in diameter, placed in front of the massive piers. This

ROMAN EXAMPLES.
iJMMCE
pO'ESr'/IGIimsCNINtTIW Cf rfUGUSrUS B.C.I9. coNsniucTED or 5mu sidnk 6 NO CEMENT USED EXCEPT FOK WrniR CHANNEL ffl" THE TOP.
HEIGHT ABOVE OTEflM

X.
^HWTER IcHmofi

JPl!'
(A)
ELEVOTIOH

/tm Bon

(B) SECTION

BECw sr wmixNie Aa302

HI

HONOUR

'-'iamfmaiMM!
GIUe001OUIiED.SIII!0M)
Cllllil!nilW miai VCur-

SCdLE?

n
'L
,

(/ntR WLWDio)

OfH15llB5EKrBffiJiHEI!laOClTlflN

BATHS

TnEasn6)moiwiED3za)MmiR5 JOO """FtET

FERKUElSCOIlOICVICNEIl

60.

144

COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE.

great apartment was lighted by clerestory windows, high in the walls, admitting light over the roofs of adjoining halls by means of the intersecting vault, which was constructed on a similar system to that described for the Basilica of Maxentius (page 139). S. George's Hall, Liverpool, is of similar dimensions to the Tepidarium of Caracalla's Thermas, but with five bays instead of three. The Calidarium was roofed with a dome similar to that of the

Pantheon. The Frigidarium was probably open to the sky, although as many tons of T iron were found below the surface of the bath, some suppose it to have been covered with a roof of iron joists (probably cased with bronze) and concrete. Viollet-le due has a drawing in his lectures of the Frigidarium restored, giving an excellent idea of its probable original appearance. The general adornment and color treatment of the interior must have been of great richness, and in marked contrast to the exterior, indicating a further secession from Greek principles. Sumptuous internal magnificence was aimed at in all the great Thermse, the pavings were patterned with mosaic cubes of bright colors, either planned in geometrical patterns or with figures of athletes the lower parts of the walls were sheathed with many colored marbles, and the upper parts with enriched and modelled stucco bright with color the great columns on which rested the vault springers were either of granite, porphyry, giallo antico, alabaster or other rare marbles from the ^gean islands. Various colored marble columns were used constructively to support the upper balconies and the peristyle roofs, and decoratively to form with their entablatures and pediments frames for the superimposed
; ;

niches in the walls. The surface of the great vaults was also richly ornamented by means of coffering, or covered with bold figures, decorations in black and white, or colored glass mosaic. In these magnificent halls thus sumptuously decorated some of the finest sculpture of antiquity was displayed. This was brought
largely from Greece or executed in Rome by Greek artists, and at the excavation of the Thermae during the Renaissance period much of it found its way into the Vatican and other museums in Rome, and in the principal European cities. Finally, additional interest was given to the interiors by- the perpetual streams of running water, issuing from the mouths of sculptured lions in marble or brightly polished silver, falling into capacious marble basins and producing a delicious cooling effect
in the hot sultry weather. The exteriors appear to

have been treated very plainly in stucco,

or

more wisely left as impressive masses of plain brickwork, perhaps banded or dressed with bricks of a diiferent color. The unbounded license of the pubUc baths, and their connection

ROMAN ARCHITECTURE.

I45

with amusements generally, caused them to be proscribed by the Early Christians, who held that bathing might be used for cleanliness, but not for pleasure. In the fifth century the large Roman Thermee fell into disuse and decay, caused by the destruction of the aqueducts by the fiuns and the gradual decrease of the Roman population. The Thermae of Agrippa, Rome (b.c. 27) (No. 46 l), were the earliest example. They have completely disappeared, but an idea can be obtained from the measured drawings of Palladio, published in Cameron's " Baths of the Romans," 1772. The Thermae of Titus, Rome (a.d. 80) (No. 6g b), were built on the foundations of Nero's Golden House. The Thermae of Diocletian, Rome (a.d. 302) (No. 46 j), had a plan, shown in a restored condition in No. 60 k, from which it will be seen that the general distribution resembled the Baths of Caracalla. The Tepidarium is 200 feet long by 80 feet wide and 90 feet high, and is covered with quadripartite vaulting of tufa concrete, springing from eight monolithic columns of Egyptian granite, 50 feet high and 5 feet in diameter, having Composite and Corinthian capitals of white marble each supporting a portion of highly ornamental entablature. This Tepidarium was converted by Michael Angelo, in a.d. 1561, into the Church of S. M. degli Angeli, and in 1740 a projecting choir was formed on one side by Vanvitelli, who thus converted the nave of the church into a kind
of transept.

The Balneum or small private bath was much used, and the three examples at Pompeii indicate their general characteristics and manner of use. These baths were heated by means of hot air in flues under the floors, and in the walls from the hypocaust or furnace in the basement (No. 46 f, g, h). Typical Roman baths are shown on No. 6g g, j. The so-called Temple of Minerva Medica, Rome (Nos.46 m A, b), is now generally regarded as a nymphaeum attached The absence of a hypocaust to the Baths of Gallenius (a.d. 266).
and 83
it from being considered as a Calidarium. It is a decagonal on plan, 80 feet in diameter, with semicircular Above niches to nine of the sides, the tenth being the entrance. are ten windows of large size at the base of the dome, in order to give the necessary light and air to the plants. The dome is formed of concrete ribbed with tiles, bearing a remarkable similarity to It is particularly interesting S. Vitale at Ravenna (No. 83 c, d). in that the rudiments of the pendentive (see glossary) system are to be seen in the manner of setting the dome on its decagonal base, a system afterwards carried still further by the Byzantines. Buttresses were placed at points as required, admitting of the use of thinner walls, which is an advance on the construction of the

or of flue tiles in the walls prevent

M U z <

O
o o
PL,

o <

ROMAN ARCHITECTURE.
Pantheon (No.
54),

I47

struction. The pendentives are of the rudest kind, were entirely masked by the original decoration.

and a step towards Gothic principles of conand probably

THEATRES AND AMPHITHEATRES.


The design of Greek theatres was adapted to suit Roman requirements. The auditorium, instead of being rather more than a semicircle as in the Greek theatres, was here restricted to a semicircle, and consisted of tiers of seats one above the other, with wide passages and staircases communicating with the external porticos on each story. At the ground level, separating the auditorium of sloping seats from the stage, was a semicircular area which was occupied by the Senators, and which in its original circular plan in Greek theatres was occupied by the chorus. The stage thus becoming all important, was raised considerably and treated with great richness, and became connected more completely with the auditorium. Theatres were still constructed on the slope of a hill, but where the site did not allow of this they were, by means of the new art of vaulting, constructed tier upon tier of connecting corridors, in which the people might retreat in case of sudden showers. The Theatre at Orange, South France (No. 34 b), held 7,000 spectators, and is an example where the auditorium is constructed and not hollowed out of the side of a hill. In diameter it is 340 feet between the inclosing walls. Staircases for access to the various levels were placed on either side of the stage, which is 203 feet wide by 45 feet deep, and inclosed by return walls at right angles to the back wall. The great wall at the back of this stage, 314 feet long by u6 feet high, is ornamented by blind arcading, and has at the summit two tiers of corbel stones, pierced with holes, through which the velarium poles were placed. It originally had a portico attached to it. The Theatre of Marcellus, Rome (b.c. 23-13), is the only The remains consist existing example of a theatre in that city. of the arcading, two stories high, of the semicircular auditorium, the fafade of which was ornamented with the Tuscan order and the Ionic order superimposed. The Theatre of Herodes Atticus, Athens (No. 17) It is (a.d. 161), is also a fine example, seating 6,000 people. partly hewn out of the Acropolis rock and partly constructed, the seats having a marble casing. It is held to have been roofed with cedar, but this, however, probably only applied to the stage. Pompeii had two important theatres, which in recent years have been excavated. The theatres at Taormina, on the east coast of Sicily, at Fiesole, near Florence, and Aspendus, in Asia Minor, are other examples.
L 2

ROMAN EXAMPLES.

XI.

fmum

F EtpVaTIOM

(B)^ECTIOi TMSOiri WEWINS 1.

BdILT DV VUP?15I?1N f T1TU3 AND COAPltTCD or\*ii2ioo5 nfnaah^ 50 B5-to obtain the-

80 hD. THE CON5TRUaiON 15 NofflBLC TOE THE jKlLrUL UJC eeefnoT BcNmr reonTHCiE jPCciflL ^u/iutc^. THE n?lTEEI?IL3 USED ?IBC (f\) CONCBCTC OP 5 VflBICTIEJ VIZ, COnPOJED OP iJVfl rOE FOUInIDSTIoMJ WHCI2E- emnnj STBCNSTH EEQOIEtD.ii TUEB $ WICK-BfTTJ fOB WflLl.? WHEEE \tV 5TEENQTH KEQUIEED { OWPOJCD or RJniCE'5T0NC rOB VflULT5 WHCEE UAHTNeSJ REqOlEED, (5) 6Eia< P?iClNCr,(C)
i

III

B|0CK5 OE TUifl ? TBflVEETINE, (D) y^flEDlfEOE COLUnH5,COBI^ICt5,5E?lT?, i DENflncNTSL PUBPOJEJ. cxTEENfiL rftcBDC oonpojcD or blocks oe teSvektiNe set without /lOBTflB | c|RnPco to tnat orritu

OF TOr

MNGE^

100

%nit opt
62.

)0

zoo

;oo
reel

ROMAN ARCHITECTURE.

149

The amphitheatres are characteristic Roman buildings, being found in every important settlement, and in addition to their normal purposes were used for naval exhibitions, the water drains The for flooding the arena still existing in many examples. modern Spanish bull rings to some degree give an idea of the arrangement and uses of Roman amphitheatres. These are good exponents of the character and life of the Romans, who had greater love for mortal combats, which were considered to be a good training for a nation of warriors, than for the tame mimicry
of the stage.

The Flavian Amphitheatre,

(The

Colosseum),

Rome

(Nos. 62 and 63), commenced by Vespasian in a.d. 70, and completed (with the exception of the upper story) by Domitian in A.D. 82, is the most important example. The model in the Crystal Palace gives a good idea of the general distribution of its parts. In plan it is a type of all the examples, consisting of a vast ellipse 620 feet by 513 feet, having externally eighty openings on each story, those on the ground floor forming entrances, by means of which the various tiers of seats are reached. The arena proper is an oval 287 feet by 180 feet, surrounded by a wall 15 feet high. The seats, in solid stone, rise up from the arena, having underneath them corridors and staircases. The dens for the wild beasts were immediately imder the lowest tiers of seats, and consequently opened on to the arena, as at Verona (No. 64). The auditorium has four ranges of seats, the two lower forming the grand tiers, the third separated from the second by a wall, and the top range under the peristyle forming the later addition. Access to the various seats is from the eighty entrances by means of staircases placed between the radiating walls and by corridors, placed at intervals as shown. The radiating walls were cleverly constructed, concrete being used where least weight, tufa stone where more weight, and travertine stone where the heaviest pressures had to be supported (No. 62 b). The masonry was laid without mortar, and the construction is strong and solid, being of an engineering character. The system is one of concrete vaults resting on walls of the same material, 2 feet 3 inches thick, faced with travertine stone, 4 feet thick, and having an internal lining of 9 inches of brickwork, making 7 feet in total thickness. The supports have been calculated at one-sixth of the whole area of the building. The constructive principle consists of wedge-shaped piers radiating inwards, the vaults running downwards to the centre from the high inclosing walls consequently no building is more durable or more difficult to destroy a feeling well expressed by the line
;

'When

falls

the Colosseum,

Rome

shall fall."

w
Bi

h o h S
<J

it

<
<;

o
ff


152

COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE.

The external facade is divided into four stories. The three lower ones have their walls pierced with arches, and are ornamented with half columns of the Tuscan, Ionic, and Corinthian The upper story has orders, the two latter being on pedestals. Corinthian pilasters, and the height to the top of this order is 157 feet. Between the pilasters are the corbels used to support the masts of the velarium. In criticizing the general arcliitectural character of this wonderful building (No 63), points worthy of notice are i. The multiplicity of its parts, viz., three tiers of apparently countless arcades encircling the exterior, divided and united
:

ii.

by three tiers of orders. The grand sweeping lines of the unbroken entablatures which entirely surround the building,

The purely decorative use of the Classic orders of arcliitecture which being superimposed are in strong contrast to the Grecian method of single orders, iv. The thick piers behind the orders, connected by eighty arches and supporting the weight of the structure. The proportions of the attached columns on the facade, which all have the same lower diameter are unusual The Tuscan column is about gi diameters high and the Ionic and Corinthian about 8f diameters. The Colosseum was used as a stone quarry by the builders of later times, materials being taken from it for the construction of many Renaissance buildings (page 456). The Amphitheatre, Verona (No. 64), is in splendid preservation, all the stone seats being intact, although only four bays of the external wall are still standing. Other well-known examples are the Amphitheatres at Pompeii, Capua, Pola in Istria, Nimes, Aries, El Djem near Carthage, and remains of a roughly made example at Dorchester, in Dorset.
iii.
:

CIRCI.
plan of a Roman Circus was an adaptation of a Greek stadium, but, however, was used for chariot or horse races, while the Greek stadium was principally used for foot races and athletic sports. At Rome there were several important examples, among which were the Circus Maximus and those of Maxentius, Domitian, Hadrian, Nero, Flaminius, and Sallust. The Circus Maxentius (No. 60 c) near Rome, also known as the Circus of Romulus, was built by Maxentius in a.d. 311. Although only part of it now remains, it is the most perfect example of a Roman Circus existing. It consisted of a long open circular-ended arena with a " spina along its axis. Surrounding this were rows of marble seats supported by raking vaults and an

The

'

ROMAN ARCHITECTURE.

153

external wall of concrete faced with " opus mixtum " (page iiy)At one end were the " carceres " or stalls for horses and chariots, with a central entrance for processions and two side entrances, and at the semicircular end was the " porta triumphalis."

TRIUMPHAL ARCHES AND PILLARS OF


VICTORY.
These were erected
victories.

to

emperors or generals

in

honour of their

consisted either of a single arch or of a central arch with a smaller one on either side. These rest on an impost, and have Corinthian or Composite columns on either side, and were adorned with architectural enrichments, statuary, and basreliefs relating to campaigns. An attic or surmounting mass of stonework was placed above, having a dedicatory inscription. {a.) The single-arched type, of which the central arch at Hyde

They

Park Corner, London, is an example. The Arch- of Titus, Rome (a.d. 8i) (Nos. 47,49, 69 a, c), commemorates the capture of Jerusalem in a.d. 70. On each side of the arch are semi-engaged columns of the Composite order, being the earliest known examples, and three-quarter columns occur at the angles. The archway has its soffit ornamented with deep coffers, in the centre of which is a relief of the apotheosis of Titus. The inner jambs have reliefs of the emperor in a triumphal car, being crowned by victory, on the one side, and the spoils taken from the Temple at Jerusalem on the other. The central keystones project considerably in order to support the main architrave, and are richly carved, as shown in No. 67 b. Other well-known examples of this type are the Arches of

Trajan
(No. 70
(B.C. 7), (a.d. 27),

at
d),

Ancona (a.d.

113),

Trajan at Beneventum

(a.d.

14)

the Sergii at Pola, Augustus at Susa (Piedmont) Augustus at Aosta (Piedmont), Augustus at Rimini

(a.d. 204) (No. 49), is not of arched construction, the opening being spanned by an

and Hadrian at Athens. The Arch of the Goldsmiths, Rome

entablature.
(6.)

The

three-arched type, of

which the Marble Arch, London,

gives a general idea.


57) 65,

The Arch of Septimius Severus, Rome (a.d. 204) (Nos. 47, 66 and 70), built to commemorate Parthian victories, has

detached Composite columns resting on pedestals. A description is given on each of the illustrations Nos. 57 and 65. The Arch of Constantine, Rome (a.d. 312) (No. 47), was built in honour of Constantine's victory over Maxentius, and is one of the best proportioned examples. It has detached Corinthian columns supporting an entablature, which returns round each column, and above the attic were originally a quadriga, horses,

and

statues.

ROMAN EXAMPLES,

XII.

INROWM DWELLING
IM

M0li5E5 THE. ATRian WA5 THE PUBLIC PART rTHE BUILDING WHICH THE CLIENTS WERE ACCGSTOnED TO AWAIT THEIR PATRON, THCB RESE'IBLING A /AODERN HALL. THE PERISTYLE EORnED THE CENTRE F THE RE.5IIDENTIAL PORTION. THE ATRlUn & PERISTYLE WERE OPEN TOJHE S^^CMNC
^^^^^^^^^^

THI5TRiaMPH4-LARGVA'5 DEDICATED '>V ROAWIS


IN

HONOR

"'the

&WEROR

SEPTI^\IU5 5EVERU5 FOR

HBYlCTORIESINTriEEAST
IN

CONJUNCTION Wra HIS

-feSOff 'i-TL^N iX
65-

TOLF PmN

&50N5CARACALLA&CTA

w D H O W

H S
z

< o
0!

156

COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE.

The Arch at Orange is one of the finest examples of this type It has semi-attached Corinthian columns between outside Italy, the arches and three-quarter columns at the angles. Besides these, mention might be made of the Arch of Janus, Rome, in the Forum Boarium, built in the reign of Septimius Severus, a four-way arch built as a shelter at the junction of four roads and also the arches at Palmyra and in North Africa. Arches were also erected to form entrances to towns or bridges, and in such cases might serve the purposes of defence. Of this type of gateway the Porta Nigra, Treves, the Porte S. Andre, Autun, the Porte des Mars, Rheims, and the Porta Aurea, Spalato (Palace of Diocletian), are among the best known. Pillars of victory, or memorial columns, were sometimes erected to record the triumphs of victorious generals. Trajan's Column (No 58 b, 60 j, l), was erected in connection with his Basilica (page 139), and stood in an open court with galleries around at different levels, from which the bas-reliefs on its shaft could be viewed. " The sculptures wind aloft And lead through various toils, up the rough steep
;

The hero

to the skies."

Roman Doric order, stands on a pedestal 16 feet 8 inches square, and 18 feet high, ornamented with sculptured trophies on three sides, and having a doorway on the fourth. The column is 12 feet in diameter at the base and is provided with an internal spiral staircase of marble, lighted by small openings. Its total height is 147 feet. The sculptures, numbering over 2,500 human figures, besides animals, and carved on a spiral band over 800 feet long and about 3 feet 6 inches deep, were probably intended to represent the unwinding of a scroll of parchment illustrating incidents of Trajan's war with the Dacians. There is a full-sized cast in the Victoria and Albert
The column,
of the

erected in a.d. 161 to the memory of Antoninus Pius and that erected to Marcus Aurelius in memory of his victories over the Germans (a.d. 167-179) were founded on the design of Trajan's Column. Rostral Columns, a type of memorial which, in the time of the emperors, was numerous, were erected to celebrate naval victories. Rostra, or prows of ships captured after- a naval victory, were used in their ornamentation (No. 69 h), and a recital of the deeds which led to their erection was carved upon them.

Museum. The column

TOMBS.
In contrast with those of the Greeks, tombs were numerous, and bear considerable similarity to Etruscan examples, in particular that of Regolini Galassi at Cervetri.


ROMAN ARCHITECTURE.
157

The Romans either buried or cremated their dead, both sarcophagi (No. 69 m) and urns being sometimes found in the same tomb chamber. The bodies of the emperors during the first three centuries were usually burnt on magnificent pyres, from which an eagle was set free, symbolizing the escaping soul of the dead emperor. In the second century a.d. the practice of cremation became the richer classes embalmed their dead and placed less usual them in massive and costly sarcophagi instead of the smaller
;

receptacle for ashes. There are five varieties of No. 52


:

Roman

tombs, as indicated on

These were placed in subterranean vaults (a.) Columbaria. or caves, which are now known as catacombs, and have rows of niches in the walls resembling pigeon-holes hence the name. Each niche was reserved for a vase containing the ashes of the deceased, with the name inscribed thereon. Sarcophagi were also placed in these tomb-chambers, some of which in addition had " loculi " or recesses for corpses, as in the Tomb of the Gens

Cornelia,
(b.)

Rome.

Monumental tombs consisted of tower-shaped blocks, square or circular, resting on a quadrangular structure and crowned with a pyramidal roof. These may be survivals of the prehistoric tumulus of earth with its base strengthened by a ring
of stones.

The Tomb of Cacilia Metella, Rome (b.c. 60), (on the Via Appia), has a podium 100 feet square, supporting a circular mass 94 feet in diameter, probably surmounted by a conical roof. The tomb-chamber was in the interior, and the whole was faced with travertine and crowned by an entablature, the frieze of which is carved with ox-skulls and festoons. The Mausoleum of Augustus, Rome (b.c 28), was erected for Little is now left, but it is known, from himself and his heirs. descriptions of Strabo, Tacitus, and others, tp have had a square basement surrounded with a portico of columns and supporting a circular mass, 220 feet in diameter, containing the mortuary chambers, the whole being capped by a mound of earth laid out in terraces and planted with cyprus and evergreen trees, and crowned with a colossal statue of Augustus. In the middle ages it was converted into a fortress, and in the eighteenth century, what remained of it, was used as a theatre. The Mausoleum of Hadrian, Rome (a.d. 135) was one of the most important of these monumental tombs. It is now the Castle of S. Angelo, and consists of a square basement about 300 feet each way and 75 feet high, supporting an immense circular tower 230 feet in diameter and 140 feet high, having a peristyle of marble columns, surmounted by a conical marble dome, as other examples. It was built of concrete, in which,

158

COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE.

towards the centre of the mass, were formed the sepulchral chamber and converging passages, which slope upwards from the ground level. On the whole, the structure has been much altered since its construction, being converted in the middle ages into a fortress by the Popes, and is now used as a military barrack. (c.) Pyramid tombs, probably due to the introduction of Egyptian ideas, were also adopted, as in the Pyramid of Cestius with white (b.c. 62-12), which is formed of concrete faced marble, and has an internal tomb-chamber, the vault and walls being decorated with figure paintings. {d.) Smaller tombs, as isolated monuments, were often erected along the sides of roads leading from cities, as at Rome and in the Street of Tombs, Pompeii
" Those ancient roads With tombs high verged, the solemn paths of Fame Deserve they not regard o'er whose broad flints Such crovifds have roll'd so many storms of war. So many pomps, so many wondering realms." Dyer.
; ! ;

These often have subterranean tomb-chambers for sarcophagi with niches for cinerary urns, and the walls and vaults were ornamented with colored reliefs in stucco, as in the Tomb of the
Pancratii.

Above the ground the tomb resembled a small temple, often with a prostyle portico, and the upper chamber contained portraits or statues of deities and served as mortuary chapels.
(e.) Eastern tombs. The districts of Palmyra, Jerusalem and Petra in Syria Caria in Asia Minor, and Algeria and Cyrene in Africa possess many examples, some rock-cut, and some structural. The Tomb at Mylassa, in Asia Minor, is one of the most interesting examples of the latter. The illustration (No. 52) will show its
;

general characteristics. The Tomb at Dugga, near Tunis (No. 52 g), somewhat resembles that at Mylassa, but with a walled-up colonnade. In addition to the foregoing, memorial structures or cenotaphs were occasionally erected. The Monument of S. Remi, in Provence (b.c first century) (No. 52 h), consists of a high pedestal ornamented with basreliefs and supporting a story of engaged Corinthian angle columns

with arched openings between. Above is a circular story with fluted Corinthian columns, supporting an entablature and conical
stone roof.

The

Ig'el

Monument, near Treves, Germany,

is

of similar design.

AQUEDUCTS.
aqueducts, although more of an engineering than architectural character, fulfilling a utilitarian purpose only, formed by

The

ROMAN ARCHITECTURE.
their size

159

and proportion striking features of the Roman landscape. Throughout the Empire remains are to be seen showing the importance put by the Romans upon an adequate water supply Rome had to be especially well supplied owing to their cities. to the inferiority of the local service and the large quantity required for the reservoirs, great thermae and public fountains,
to say nothing of the domestic supply for its large population.

In any views of the Campagna near Rome, the ruined aqueducts are striking features, and in approaching the Eternal City in the days of its glory, these enormous arched waterways must have impressed the beholder. Vitruvius (Book VIII., chapter vii.) gives interesting information on the subject, which is added to from other sources by Middleton. The Romans were acquainted with the simple hydraulic law that water will rise to its own level in pipes, and the upper rooms of their houses were supplied by " rising mains " in the same way Owing, however, to the fact that pipes had as modern buildings. then to be made of weak and costly lead or bronze (cheap and strong cast-iron pipes not being in use), it was found to be more economical by the use of slave labour to construct aqueducts of stone, or concrete faced with brick, having almost level water channels, above or below ground (Vitruvius recommends a fall of 6 inches to every loo feet), on immense arches above ground, a system which even in modern times has been followed in the Croton

New York City. principle of all the examples is similar. smooth channel (speciis) lined with a hard cement, is carried on arches, often in several tiers and sometimes of immense height (say loo feet), conveying the water from the high ground, across valleys, to the city Many of them follow a circuitous course in order reservoirs. to prevent the slope of the channel being too steep when the source of the water was high above the required level of distribuIn the time of Augustus Caesar there were nine tion in Rome.
Aqueduct which supplies

The

of these aqueducts supplying

Rome

with water.

The Aqua Marcia


still

(b.c. 144)

and the

Aqua Claudia (a. d.

38)

supply water to Rome.

The " Anio Nevus"

(a.d. 38),

sixty-two miles in length, entered the city on arches above those Aqua Claudia. The Pont-du-Gard, near Nlmes, in France (b.c 19; (Nos. 60 It forms part of an A, B and. 61), is the finest existing example. aqueduct twenty-five miles long, bringing water from the neighbourhood of Uzes. It is about 900 feet long, and is formed of three tiers of arches crossing a valley 180 feet above the River Gard. On the two lower tiers the central arch is the widest, and On the uppermost tier there are thirtythe others vary in width. five arches having 14 feet span, supporting the water-channel. The masonry is laid dry without mortar and, as will be seen on
of the

; ;

l6o

COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE.

No. 6i, some of the arch voussoirs of the intermediate tier projected to carry the temporary centering. Other aqueducts exist at Tarragona and Segovia, Spalato and elsewhere.

BRIDGES.
The chief characteristics of Roman bridges were solidity and simplicity, with a view to their withstanding the ravages of
time and the elements. The roadway was generally kept level throughout. The Bridge at Rimini is the best preserved in Italy and has
five arches.

There are examples of two types of Roman bridges in Spain which are equally impressive, (a.) The many-arched type, as exemplified in the extreme length of the bridges at Cordova and Alcantara, (b.) The single-arched type, of which the romantic sweep of the bridge at Toledo, spanning the rocky valley of the Tagus, is the best example.

PALACES.
Of the Roman palaces the ruins only remain, but there is enough to show their enormous extent and imposing character. The Palaces of the Roman Emperors. The principal approach was from the Forum Romanum, by a road which branched off from the Via Sacra, on the west side of the Arch of

Titus (No. 47).

Excavations on the Palatine Hill, commenced by Napoleon III. 1863, and afterwards continued by the Italian Government, have revealed remains of a group of magnificent palaces. These, commenced by Augustus (a.d. 3), and having additions by Tiberius, Caligula, Nero and Dornitian, were remodelled by Septimius Severus, and the giant remains attributed to him will probably impress the student of architecture most when visiting
in

the

site.
:

chief apartments in these palaces were ^The Tablinum or Throne-room the Basilica, or hall for administering justice the Peristylium, a square garden surrounded by a colonnade the Triclinium, or banqueting hall the Lararium, or apartment for statues of the household gods and the Nymphaeum. Besides these there were many minor chambers of service, whose uses cannot now be ascertained. The disposition of the buildings was governed by axial. lines Irregular spaces, caused by producing magnificent vistas. additions being made from time to time, were rendered symmetrical by the use of hemicycles and other devices, disguising the
;
;

The

ROMAN ARCHITECTURE.
different angles of the buildings in relation to each other,

l6l
a method

frequently used
(a.d. 300), is

by modern

architects.

in Dalmatia (No. 59) another famous example, which formed the greater part of the mediaeval town of Spalato, and has thus been called a city in a house. It may be described as a royal country house, or better, perhaps, as a chateau by the sea. The original plan of the palace was approximately a rectangle, occupying an area of gi acres, being thus almost equal in extent to the Escurial in Spain (page 537, No. 238). There was a square tower at each angle, and in the centre of each of the north, east and west sides was a gateway flanked by octagonal towers, between which and those at the angles were subsidiary towers. These gateways formed entrances to porticoed avenues 36 feet wide, which, meeting in the centre, gave the palace the character of a Roman camp. On each of the fa9ades, between the towers, were rich entrance gateways the " golden " on the north, the " iron " on the west, and the " brazen " on the east, ending these main avenues, which divided the inclosed area into four parts, each assigned to a particular purpose. The two northern portions were probably for the guests and principal officers of the household while the whole of the southern portion was devoted to the palace, including two temples, that of Jupiter (see under circular temples, pp. 130, 136) and Jisculapius (page 125) and the baths. A circular vestibule, with a front portico in antis, formed an entrance to a here were placed suite of nine chambers overlooking the sea the private apartments and baths of the emperor, the finest being the portico, 524 feet by 24 feet, on the southern sea front. This served as a connecting gallery, and was probably filled with works The columns to the of art [cf. Elizabethan gallery, page 555). upper portion were detached and rested on carved corbels, a feature also seen in the golden gateway. Lining the inclosing walls of the whole area, on three sides, internally, were the cells that lodged the slaves and soldiers of the imperial retinue. The octagonal temple, and the more lofty halls of the palace proper, being visible above the inclosing walls in distant views by land and sea, were impressive features of the group. The architectural character is somewhat debased in style, broken and curved pediments with decadent detail being employed. The palace has a value, however, as a transitional example, for the entablature of the peristyle is formed as an arch, thus losing its constructive significance, and in the northern gateway arches rest directly on capitals without the intervention of an entablature, being an early example of a principle carried to its logical conclusion in the Romanesque and Gothic styles.
; ;

The Palace of Diocletian, Spalato,

F.A.


l62

COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE.

THE DWELLINGS OF THE ROMANS.


These may be
{b.)

classified

under
;

{a.)

The

villa,

or country house

and

The domus, or private house {c.) The insula, or many-

storied tenement.

The dwellings of the Greeks have already been touched upon (page 92), and there seems every reason to believe that Roman dwellings were evolved from them. They each possessed an atrium, forming the more public portion of the building, and a peristyle beyond, forming the centre of the family apartments. At Rome, the Atrium Vestae, or House of the Vestal Virgins (No. 47), and the House of Livia, are interesting examples. The excavations at Pompeii and Herculaneum have thrown considerable light on this important subject, and as Pompeii was a Grseco- Roman city, the remains which have been excavated are believed to differ but slightly from the later Greek dwellings. These Pompeian houses owe their, preservation to an eruption of Vesuvius, which in a.d. 79 overwhelmed the city, burying it in sahes to a depth of 10 feet. The streets of Pompeii were narrow (many only 8, 1 2, or 1 5 feet), the widest being 23 feet 6 inches, with a roadway 13 feet 6 inches and paths 5 feet wide. The houses had plain fronts to the street, the frontage on either side of the entrance passage being let off as shops. The absence of windows on the fronts is explained by some as being due to a lack of glass, in which case openings towards the street would have rendered privacy impossible. The rooms were lighted by openings giving on to internal courts already mentioned, as are Eastern houses to this day, and the inns
former days. are mostly one story in height, but stairs and traces of upper floors exist. Such upper stories were probably of wood, but as a decree was passed in the time of Augustus limiting the height of houses in Rome to 75 feet, brick or masonry buildings must have been largely erected. The openings were small, the light being strong in the sunny climate of Italy. The House of Pansa (No. 65, a, b) may be taken as a good type of domus or ordinary private house. It was surrounded by streets on three sides, the garden occupying the fourth, and, besides the house proper, consisted of shops, bakeries, and three smaller houses. A prothyrum, or entrance passage, led direct from the street entrance to the atrium, which served as the public waiting-room for retainers and clients, and from which the more private portions of the house were shut off. The atrium was open to the sky in the centre, with a " lean-to" or sloping roof supported by brackets round all four sides. The impluvium, or "water cistern," for receiving the rain-water from these roofs, was sunk in the centre of the pavement, while round were grouped the front rooms, probably used by servants or guests, or as semi-public
of
in

France and England

The Pompeian houses

ROMAN ARCHITECTURE.

163

rooms, e.g., libraries, each receiving sufficient light through the door openings. An open saloon, or tablinum, with " fauces,'' or narrow passages, led to the peristyle, or inner court, often the garden of the house and around were grouped the cubiculae or bedrooms, the triclinium, or dining-room (summer and winter), with different aspects, the oecus, or reception room, and the alse, or recesses, for conversation. The dining-rooms were fitted with three couches, each for three people to recline upon, as nine was the recognized number for a
;

Roman feast. The peristyle was the centre of the private part of the house, corresponding to the hall of Elizabethan times, and it usually had a small shrine or altar (Nos. 68 g, 69 e). The walls and floors were richly decorated with mosaics and paintings. The kitchen and pantry are in the side of the peristyle, furthest from the entrance. The Houses of the Faun, Vettius, Diomede, the Tragic Poet, and Sallust, are other well-known examples of Pompeian houses which have their floors, walls, and vaults decorated in a characteristic style, to which the name " Pompeian " is now applied, and which were furnished with domestic implements such as candelabra (Nos. 68, 69), and fountains. The floors of these houses were of patterned mosaic, either in black and white (No. 69 k) or The walls were either painted to imitate of colored marbles. marble or executed in fresco, the darkest colors of the decorative Pictures were somescheme being placed nearer the ground. times framed with architectural features consisting of slender shafts, suggestive of a metallic origin, with entablatures in perspective. The ceilings, which have to be imagined, had probably painted and gilded timbers, forming an important element The roofs were covered with tiles or in the decorative scheme. bright colored terra- cotta. Lytton's great novel, " The Last Days of Pompeii," will be found of interest to the student as a description of the habits and life of the Romans. The Pompeian House at the Crystal Palace, designed by the late Sir Digby Wyatt, is an exceedingly good reproduction of an ordinary Pompeian house, the decorations being copies of original paintings at Pompeii. Hadrian's Villa, near Tivoli, resembled a palace in its extent, occupying an area of about seven square miles. Besides the imperial apartments it was surrounded by terraces, peristyles, Restorations have palaestra, theatres, a gymnasium, and thermae. been made by many authorities, as Piranesi, Canina, and others. Examples of Roman villas exist in England (see page 280). The insula, or tenement of many stories, seems to have resembled the modern flat.

164

COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE.

FOUNTAINS.
Fountains, both public and private, have always been one of the striking features of both ancient and modern Rome on account of their graceful designs, rich material, and the soothing effect in a hot and low-lying city of the clear water sparkling in the sun. The public fountains were exceedingly numerous, amounting to many hundreds, either as large basins of water (lacus) or as spouting jets (salientes), or the two combined and ornamented with

most

marble columns and statues.

Private fountains existed in great numbers, mainly in the courts and gardens of the houses, and exhibit much variety of design. They were of colored marbles and porphyries, often decorated with bronze statuettes. In some the water issued in jets from fishes, shells, or other objects, sometimes supported by a figure of a nymph. In others, wall niches lined with glass and mosaics were provided with lions' heads, fronj which issued the water, as have been found at Pompeii.

4.

COMPARATIVE.
ROMAN.
a.

GREEK.
A.

Plans. Designs have refinement and beauty, proportion


being of the and there is
first

Plans.

Designs

convey

an

importance,

dignity and grandeur of effect irrespective of the smallness of scale. Unity was attained in the selfcontained temples, while variety of grouping and some picturesqueness was attempted in the PropylseaandErechtheion (Nos.

of vastness and impression magnificence, and are characteristic of a powerful and energetic race.

The Romans were

pre-eminently great constructors. and knew how to use the materials at hand. This constructive skill was acquired by the building, on a large scale, of utilitarian works, such as the

18, z6, 30).

aqueducts and bridges.

Purity

and severity of outline caused by the simple method of post and beam, did not lend itself to such variety and boldness of

The arch, vault, and dome were the


keynotes to the whole system of the style, and constituted a step

planning as resulted froni the arcuated Roman style. No mixture of constructive principles occurs in the buildings of the Greeks, the limits of whose style have not been yet successfully expanded.

toward Gothic architecture. By the use of the arch, wide openings were rendered possible, and by vaults and domes large areas and complicated plans could be
roofed (Nos. 58 and 59), giving boldness and variety and leading to the system of intersecting

ROMAN ARCHITECTURE.
ROMAN.

165

The use of the true arch is avoided. An example of a vaulted building


the Treasury of Atreus, at Mywhere thebedsof the stones are horizontal throughout, each bed overlapping the one below till the crown is reached (page 54). The Greek Temples were usually orientated, i.e., faced the east.
is

vaults, by which the concentration of weights on piers was effected. The use of recesses

cense,

rectangular and semicircular on plan is a special Roman feature (Nos. 50 B, 54 b).

The Roman Temples were placed


without regard to orientation.
B.

Constructed of large B. ^A/'alls. blocks of marble, without mortar, allowing of refinement of treatment, and perfection of finish in
construction. stone was used

Walls.--Constructed of small, mean, and coarse materials, such as brick, rubble, and concrete, with brick or marble facing, bond
courses for strength being introduced Such walls are thus often coarse in character. By the extended use of concrete, it may be said that the Romansinaugurated the employment of large masses
.

Where
it

coarse

was frequently

covered with stucco. Jointing was not reckoned as a means of Stability was achieved effect. solely by the j udicious observance of the laws of gravity, the adherence of the blocks not being necessary, for the weights only acted vertically, and needed but
vertical

of irregular materials, reduced into fragments and bound

resistance.

Even

for

transmitting the pressure between the blocks only metal cramps were used. The employ-

together by mortar. These materials were not special to any country, but consisted of fragments of stone, brick or hard rock and quarry debris, all of which sufficed for the most

ment

of

marble directly shaped

the development of the style. One-sixteenth of an inch was rubbed off the buildings on completion, this polishing being

important projects. Great haste was necessary in the execution to complete sufficiently
use, and doubtless many buildings were never perfectly
for

performed by slaves.

The Anta
and 44
f)

(Nos. 21, 26, 27 l, 30,

The

finished. pilaster

was the Roman deAnfa

was employed at extremities and angles of cella walls.


c.

velopment of the Greek (Nos. 38 F and 67 f).


c.

Openings. Of minor importance, the columnar treatment giving the necessary light and shade. Doorways are squareheaded, and often crowned with a cornice supported by consoles, as in the fine example of the north doorway at the Erechtheion, Athens (No. 37 d h). indows, except on rare occasion s, as shown on plate No. 38, were not used in Temples, illumination being obtained from doorways or hypasthral openings (Nos. 20 c, 23 A, B, and 27 B, d).

Openings. These were important features, being squareheaded or circular, principally the latter (No. 62 a). The semicircle divided vertically by two muUion piers was a favourite type of window. Arches sometimes had centering, supported springing line, afterat the wards filled up with brickwork, thus producing the segmental arch, common in the third and fourth centuries a.d. (No. 46 e), from the Basilica of Constantine.

ROMAN ORNAMENT.

I.

MB plM
FM TUB
i'i

TEWLEOF

MM 4

i ^

J-J--

jpiLUffEE IN f^Mms.

mm

ROMAN ARCHITECTURE.
Roofs. Extreme care was bestowed upon the elaborately constructed, and highly-finished, These roofs of the temples. were of timber framing (Nos. 23 and 25), and were covered with large slabs of marble with coverpieces which at the eaves were finished with richly carved antefixse

167

1).

D.

Roofs. The noble vaults and domes described on page 117


important development, and in many cases
constituted the

The

(Nos. 16, 19 c and 20 H, j). acroteria or blocks of stone resting on the vertex and lower extremities of the pediment, and supporting statuary or ornaments were characteristic features (Nos. 16 A, 20). The ceilings of the peristyles were coffered in stone with square or rectangular panels (No. 21), having carved enrichments, the richest examples being at the Parthenon (No. 23) and the Temple of Apollo Epicurius

were richly coffered, as at the Pantheon(Nos. 54, 55). Timber framing also appears to have been employed, and according to Horace, splendid wooden coffered ceilings were employed Roof in the houses of the rich. coverings were either of terracotta, as amongst the Etruscans, or of bronze in the more important buildings, as for example the Pantheon. According to Vitruvius flat terrace roofs were employed, which it is believed were constructed of T-iron and
concrete, as in some of the larger halls of the Thermse. The ceilings internally were of various geometric patterns, such as octagons and squares in combination, as at Baalbec.

(No. 27). Coffered ceilings in framed timber probably roofed over the large span of the cella.
E.

Columns. The
structural

orders were

E.

necessities

wherever

Columns The orders were usedin connection with the arch,


and gradually lost their structural importance, being used in a decorative manner, as in the Colosseum at Rome, or in the

used. The column and beam are the keynotes of Greek architecture, the fluting being carried out when the columns were in
position.

Triumphal Arches.
Orders often superimposed, as at
the Colosseum (No. 62 a). The Romans introduced pedestals on which they placed the column to secure greater height. canon of proportions, reduced to rules by Vitruvius, was gradually evolved for all the orders.

Orders never superimposed except


to interiors of Temples (Nos. 20, The only 23, 28 B and 31 d). Greek use of pedestals appears to be that of the Temple of Diana at Ephesus (No. 31).

'

The Tuscan

Order, which is merely a simplified form of the Doric, was not employed by the Greeks.

The Tuscan

Order has a plain unfluted column and simple S. entablature (No. 262 b). Paul, Covent Garden, is a good modern example by Inigo Jones
Doric Order (No. 38 b), was used by the Romans, not being suited to their ideas of

The

largely used

Doric Order (No. 38 a) was by the Greeks, their most important buildings being

The

little

ROMAN ORNAMENT.

II.

""scu
68.

'"

WlMOAMMffiSEI

MM AEM CM.

GLMIAIfllS HELMET

ROMAN ARCHITECTURE.
erected of this order. It was used without a base, the capital having a plain square abacus, beneath which is the echinus (No. 40 d), whose outline varies in different examples. The proportions of the columns proceed from extreme sturdiness in the early examples to great refinement in the late ones, and the shaft is usually fluted The architrave overhangs the face of the column (Nos. 16 and 38 a), and the triglyphs are over the central axes of the columns, except at theangles, where the endtriglyph appears at the extremity of the frieze (No. 16 a). The channels in the triglyph are rounded off at the top. The mutules, placed over triglyph and metope are much
.

i6g

splendour and magnificence. The Temple of Hercules at^ Cora is the only temple in th^ style, but engaged columns occur in
the Theatre of Marcellus. The Romans added a base, varied the abacus and echinus, and modified the cornice, adding a dentil course. The columns were less sturdy and the flutes were sometimes omitted. The architrave does not overhang the face of the column, but is in a line vertical with it (No. 38 b). In this order as approved by Palladio an d others the triglyphs in the frieze were over the central axes of the columns, even at the angle. The channels in the triglyph have square angles at the top. The mutules, usually placed over the triglyph only, are but slightly
inclined.

inclined.

The

was used with great refinement by


Ionic Order (No. 38 c)

The

Greeks. The distinctive capital has the scrolls showing on two sides only, although an example of angle volutes is found in a special case at Bassse
the (Nos. 27 and 29). The Corinthian Order (No. 38 e) was little used by the Greeks, and the examples remaining are thought by some to indicate the decline of Greek art, in that sculpture, as such, gave way to mere carving. The order was practically not introduced till the later age, although the earliest known example, viz., that in the cella of the Temple of Apollo Epicarius at Bassse, dates from
B.C.

Ionic Order (No. 38 d) differed from the Greek chiefly as regards the typical capital, which usually had angle volutes, thus showing the face of the scrolls

on each

side.
is

The

entablature

of

richer

description.

The

Corinthian Order (No. 38 f)

was the favourite of the Romans, and was used in the largest temples, as those of Castor and Pollux (Nos. 67 A, 68) and Vespasian at Rome. The capital is
the acanthus leaves surrounding the "bell" often being
rich,

430.

been principally used

buildings choragic Monumentof Ly sicrates (No. 38 e), and the octagonal Tower of the Winds at Athens, or internally in buildings of greater size. The Temple of

appears to have in small only, such as the


It

in character and derived from the leaves known as the " acanthus molhs," which are blunt-ended and flat in section, or from the olive leaf, as in the Temple of Castor and Pollux. The entablature is very much enriched by ornamentation, probably derived from the painted work of the Greeks. The architrave hasnumerous and enriched mouldings, and the frieze is frequently carved with the acanthus

naturalistic

ROMAN ORNAMENT.

III.

i^MSIM^
Di
ra rO

[ud

Ci'-

DECORATED WITH PROWS OF CAP.TOECD

/f^ W5, ERECTED AFTER A NAVAL VIOOH.

Q
ra
BUCK WHITE MARBLE TE55'Ellt ABOUT

UPON

TOamT GROUND.

%TNCH aOUARE

69.

ROMAN ARCHITECTURE.
GREEK.
Jupiter Olympius at Athens

171
ROMAN.

may
(See

scroll or with figure

ornaments.

be considered a Roman building, or rather as a Greek designmainly


carried out

by Romans.

page go.) The Acanthus leaves surrounding the " bell" were of the prickly acanthus (acanthus
type (No. 33 f, h), having pointed leaves of Vshaped section.
spinosus)

The

Shafts of columns were fluted. Composite Order was never used by the Greeks, but a treat-

ment somewhat

similar

is

seen

in the capitals of the Erechtheion

where the necking under the


Ionic scrolls are carved with the

Anthemion ornament (Nos. 29 e and 41).


F.

cornice is also considerably enriched, modillions (consoles, brackets or corbels) being introduced and giving an apparent support to the corona, and have between them sunk and sculptured coffers. The mouldings under the corona are much enriched with carving, as is even the corona itself. Shafts were fluted or plain. The Composite Order was invented by the Romans, being used principally in the Triumphal Arches. The upper portion of the Ionic capital was combined with the lower part of the Corinthian. In other details the orderfollows the Corinthian, but with additional

The

ornamentation

Mouldings. (Nos. 39 and 40). The Greeks relied for effect


on the graceful contour of their mouldings, which approach conic sections in profile, and which, though often covered with delicately carved enrichments, never lose the idea of grace of outline which the decoration seems but Executed in a fineto enhance. grained marble, they were often undercut so as to produce a
fretted effect.

F.

The Romans relied on the rich


carving cut upontheir mouldings, which are usually parts of circles in profile. Ostentation replaces refinement, and in the latest examples, every member being carved, a certain rich picturesqueness of surface is produced in cornices and dres.iings, although the execution of the carving to the mouldings themselves is often of inferior work-

Mouldings

(Nos. 39 and

4.0).

Greek dentils are far apart, and occupy the whole depth of the
moulding.

manship.

Roman

dentils are close together, of less depth, and have a fillet

Greek consoles used only as vertical brackets to doorways as in the Erechtheion doorway (No. 37).
G.

Roman

underneath. consoles used horizontally

in cornices

(No.68)and

vertically

(Nos. 41, 42, 43 and 44). The sculpture of the Greeks has never been surpassed whether executed in isolated groups or in works within the

Ornament

in keystones to arches (No. 67).


G.

Ornament
6g).

The Romans did not excel

(Nos. 67, 68

and

either in sculpture or painting,

boundaries of an architectural framing, as at the Parthenon. The ornamental sculpture used in the tympana of the pediments,
the metopes and the friezes, and the carefuUy prepared cement used as a covering to stone or

but Greek artists were employed, and Greek examples were prized and copied. In later times both vaults and floors of importance were executed in mosaic, but many examples show great vulIn the case garity of sentiment. of marble, for wall facings and

PEIMCIPLES OF PE0F0ET10N

TETHMTYLEIISQ. -HEMS'
h

Meaor
/TBAJANiff
BENEmmjM.

AKHOr
SEPTIMUS
3EVEEUS, SOME.
.

ROMAN ARCHITECTURE.
brick, have already been referred to in the analysis of Greek architecture (page 108). It is generally admitted that the exteriors of the Temples were treated with color, which must have aided in the
floors, rich

173

general effect. Polygnotus and other great artists were employed for decorative painting upon the temples and other buildings, part of the Propylsea being known as the Painted Loggia. The early frescoes were probably in the style of the vase painters of that period, while the later, if judged from the provincial imitations of Pompeii, must have been grand in style and decorative in effect.

and good effects were produced, as the Romans were connoisseurs in marbles, which they sought out and imported from all countries. The ox-heads connected with garlands, so frequently carved on Roman friezes, are supposed to have originated from the actual skulls and garlands hung for decoration on altars at which the beasts themselves had been slain.

finely worked marble cement was frequently used as a covering to walls and stone columns, and

The Anthemion,
(NOS. 39
J,

or honeysuckle 42 H, 43 F, 44 A, E, F, n), was the characteristic motif of much Greek surface ornament,

formed a ground on which paintings could be safely executed, as The arabesques at Pompeii. which adorned the walls of the Baths of Titus (No. 6g a), influenced largely the fresco decoration of the Renaissance period. The Acanthus scroll with con-

and was also employed on cymarecta mouldings.

tinuous stem and spirals adorned with rosettes or grotesques, is specially characteristic (No. 67F).

5,

REFERENCE BOOKS.
of the Palace of Diocletian at Spalatro."

Adam (R.). " Ruins


:

Anderson (W.J.) and Spiers (R.Phend). "The Architecture of Greece and Rome A Sketch of its Historic Development." Large 8vo. 1902.
" Restauration des Thermes Caracalla a Rome." Paris, 1828. Cameron (C.). " Description of the Baths of the Romans." 1772Canina (L.). " Gli Edifizj di Roma Antica." 6 vols. 1848-56. Caristie (A.). " Monuments antiques a Orange, arc de triomphe et theatre." Folio. Paris, 1856. Choisy(A.). "L' Art deBatirchezles Remains." Folio. Paris, 1873. D'Amelio (P.). " Dipinti Murali Scelte di Pompei." Folio. Naples. Dennis (G.). "The Cities and Cemeteries of Etruria." 2 vols. 1878. Durm " Die Baukunst der Etrusker und Roemer " (" Handbuch

1764.

Blouet (G. A.).

Folio.

(J.).

der Architektur "). 4to. Darmstadt, 1885. Dutert (F.) "Le Forum Remain et les Forums de Jules Caesar, d'Auguste, de Vespasian, de Nerva, et de Traja." Folio. Paris, 1876. Gell (SirW.)andGandy(J.P.). "Pompeiana." 3V0IS., 8vo. 1819-32. Gusman. " La Villa Imp^riale de Tibur." 4to. Paris.

Isabelle

(C E.V " Les

Jackson (T. G.) " Dalmatia, the Quarnero, and Istria." 8vo. 1887 Lanciani (R.). " Ancient Rome in the Light of Recent Discoveries.

Edifices Circulaires."

Folio.

Paris, 1855.

8vo.Boston, 1888.

OPTlfflL ttffi
B


ROMAN ARCHITECTURE.
175

REFERENCE BOOKS Continued.


Mau (A.). " Pompeii New York, iSgg.
Middleton
(J.
:

Its Life

and Art," translated by F. W. Kelsey.


8vo.
iSga.
folio.

" Arte Pompeiana Monumenti Scelti." 1827. Niccolini Small Naples, 1887. " Le Case e Monumenti di Pompeii." Several vols, Niccolini large Naples, 1854-189-. Palladio (Andrea). " Quattro Libri dell'architetturadi A. Palladio."
(F.).
:

Nibby

(A.).

Ancient "H.). " The Remains ofAdriana."Rome." Descrizone della Villa Rome,

(F.).

folio.

Venice, 1570, and other editions. The best English translations are those by Leoni (1715) and Ware (1738). See also the author's monograph, with Life and Work of Palladio, published in igoa. Paulin (E.). " Thermes de Diocldtian." Folio. Paris, 1877. Penrose (F. C). "Temple of Jupiter Olympius." Transactions

R.LB.A.,

vol. 4, p. 8.

Piranesi (G. B. and F.). " Antichiti Romane." Forming about 30 or 40 large folio volumes, each containing a magnificent series of engravings of Buildings and Antiquities in Ancient Rome and its Environs. Circ. 1748-1791. Pliny. " Historias Naturalis" (a.d. 23-79). Ponce (N.). " Description des Bains de Titus." Paris, 1786. Tatham (C. H.). " Etchings of Grecian and Roman Architectural

Ornament." Folio. 1826. Taylor (G. L.) and Cresy (E.). " The Architectural Antiquities of Rome, measured and delineated." 2 vols., folio. 1821-1822. Vignola (G. B. da). " Cinque Ordini d'Architettura." Various English and French translations. 4to. Vitruvius (Marcus). " The Architecture of." Translated from the Latin by Joseph Gwilt. Imp. 8vo. 1826. Vulliamy (H). " Examples of Ornamental Sculpture in Architecture."

Folio.

1818.
(R.).

Wood
Novel.)

Church
For

(A.

" The Ruins of Palmyra and Baalbec." 2 " Roman Life in the Days of Cicero."
J.).

vols.

1827. (Historical

Classic Orders, see

Chambers (Sir W.) Folio and 4to.

" The Decorative Part of


:

Civil

Architecture."

Mitchell (C. F.). " Classic Architecture."

M. von). " Die Architektonischen Ordnungen der Griechen und Roemer." Folio. Berlin, 1875. Normand(C). " Parallel of the Orders of Architecture." Folio. i82g. Spiers (R. P.). " The Orders of Architecture: Greek, Roman, and
(J.

Mauch

Folio,

igoi.

Italian."

Folio.

1901.

student should visit the Crystal Palace for the Pompeian House of the Roman Forum, the Colosseum, Pantheon and other, The British and the Victoria and Albert Museums should buildings. be visited for actual fragments.

The

and models

EARLY CHRISTIAN ARCHITECTURE.


" A fuller light illumined all, A breeze through all the garden

swept."

Tennyson.

I.

INFLUENCES.

The position of Rome as the centre of a i. Geographical. world-wide empire was an important factor (see page iii), "All roads lead to Rome," and Christianity, to become universal,
had to grow up at the capital, however eastern its birthplace. Ravenna, subdued by Justinian in a.d. 537, was the connecting link of the early Christian and Byzantine styles (see page 193). The quarry of the ruins of Roman buildings ii. Geological.

influenced the architectural treatment of the style, both in regard to construction and decoration, as columns and other architectural features and marbles from the older buildings were worked into the design of the new basilican churches of the Christians. iii. Climate. See Roman Architecture (page 112). iv. Religion. History presents no phenomenon so striking as the rise of Christianity, which spread so rapidly that in a very short period it was diffused throughout the whole civilized world. In A.D. 313 Constantine issued his celebrated decree from Milan, according to Christianity equal rights with all other religions, and in a.d. 323 he himself professed Christianity, which then became the established religion of the Roman Empire. The Christians, who up to that period were an unpopular dissenting sect, and had worshipped in the Catacombs, which formed their burial-places, were now able to hold their services openly and

freely.

The Council
first of

of Nice, a.d. 325, called by Constantine, was the several Councils of the Church for the settlement of

disputes about heresies. temporary reaction took place in a.d. 360-363, under Julian, known as the "Apostate."


EARLY CHRISTIAN ARCHITECTURE.
at

177

Gregory the Great (590-604), when besieged by the Lombards Rome, employed the imperial army of Constantinople and acted as the defender of Rome, making common cause with the people against the Lombards and others. V. Social and Political. On changing the capital of the empire from Rome to Byzantium in a.d. 324 Constantine practically reigned as an absolute monarch till his death in a.d. 337, the old Roman political system coming to an end.

The division of the Roman Empire first took place in a.d. 364, Valentian being Kavpefofoi the West and his brother Valens of the East. Theodosius the Great, reigning between the years a.d. 379-395, reunited the Eastern and Western portions of the Empire. The series of emperors in the West came to an end in a.d. 476, and the empire was nominally again reunited, Zeno reigning at Constantinople over the Eastern and Western Empires. Theodoric the Goth reigned in Italy, a.d. 493-526, a period of peace and prosperity, in which Byzantine art influenced Early Christian art by way of Ravenna, which, from 493-552, was the capital of the Gothic dynasty. Kings of separate states were then elected in Italy, Spain, Gaul, and Northern Africa, Odoacer, the new king of Italy, recognizing the supremacy of the one Roman Emperor at Constantinople. The emancipation of the West from direct imperial control made possible the development of Romano- German civilization, which facilitated the growth of new states and nationalities,/gave a fresh impulse to the Christian Church, and laid the foundations of the power of the Bishops of Rome. From the Roman or common speech several of the chief languages of modern Europe commenced to arise, and in consequence are called Romance languages. vi. Historical. The Early Christian period is generally taken as lasting from Constantine to Gregory the Great, or from A.D. 300 to 604. The Teutonic invasions of Italy commenced about A.D. 376, and Teutonic settlements took place within the empire about this time, these movements being caused by the

incursions of the
defeat of Attila,

Huns
King

into

Germany.
Huns,
at

Alaric in a.d. 410. The the battle of Chalons, a.d. 451, aided in consolidating Christianity in Europe. During the reign of Gregory the Great (a.d. 590 to 604) the Latin language and Early Christian architecture, the latest phase of Roman art, ceased to exist, and for the next two centuries architecture was practically at a standstill in Europe, when the old Roman traditions were to a great extent thrown aside, and Romanesque architecture was gradually evolved.
of the

The West Goths sacked Rome under

178
2.

COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE.

ARCHITECTURAL CHARACTER.

One style was evolved from another so gradually that it is impossible to say exactly where the one ended and the next began. This gradual growth characterizes progress in other departments Each age feels its way towards the as well as Architecture. expression of its own ideals, modifying the art of the past to meet
fresh conditions. Little money being at the command of the Early Christians, it was necessary for them to adopt places of worship which could be readily constructed. Many of the Roman Temples, which were now rendered useless for their original purpose, were utilized for the new faith, and in addition new churches built on the model of the old Roman basilicas, and formed of columns and other features from Pagan buildings, were erected. These are known as basilican churches, and were often situated over the entrances to their former hiding-places or crypts, and were constructed with columns of different orders and sizes which were made to an uniform height by the addition of new pieces of stone, or double bases, or in some cases by the omission of the

base mouldings (No. 77). On this account, although extremely interesting from an archaeological point of view, the early buildings can hardly have the value for study, in the architect's mind at least, v/hich a new
in architecture, arising from new structural necessities, is certain to possess. The earlier basilican churches had their columns closely spaced, and were crowned with the entablature which supported the main wall, on which rested the wooden roof (No. 75 b), but as the arch came more into general use these columns were spaced further apart, being connected by semicircular arches

manner

(Nos. 72, 73 A and 74).


basilican church with three or five aisles, covered by a roof, is the special type of the style as opposed to the vaulted types of the Byzantine style (Nos. 80, 81, 84 and 85), in which a circular dome was placed over a square space by means of the pendentive (No. 79). The architectural character is impressive and dignified due to the increase in the apparent size of the basilicas by the long perspective of the columns, and the comparative lowness of the interiors ih proportion to their length.

The

wooden

3.

EXAMPLES.

BASILICAN CHURCHES.
The plans of the basilicas, or Roman halls of justice, were copied by the early Christians for their places of worship, and

N 2

l80

COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE.

thus became stepping-stones from the Classic of pre-Christian times to the Gothic architecture of the Middle Ages, which may b^said to commence with these Basilican churches. Some authorities, however, believe the early Christian churches to have been evolved from the Roman dwelling-house, where at first the community were in the habit of assembling, or from the class-room where philosophers taught. How suitable the ^oman basilica type (No. 58) was for Christian worship is seen from the plan of S. Clementje, Rome, A.D. 1084 (Nos. 72, 73 b), which, although rebuilt in the eleventh century, contains the original internal arrangement of the churches of the fifth century. ^ An atrium or forecourt, being an open space surrounded by arcades, formed an imposing approach in most of the Basilican churches. The covered portion next the church called the narthex was the place for penitents. In the centre of the atrium wa^ a fountain or well, the water from which was used for washing before entering the church a custom which still survives in an altered form amongst Catholics, who dip their fingers into a stoop, or holy-water basin, at the entrances of their churches. The nave, lighted by a clerestory of small windows, had an aisle on either side, such aisles being usually half the width of the nave. Occasionally two aisles occur on each side of the ftave, as in the Basilicas o^ S. Peter (No. 75 c), S. Paul (No. 75 e), and S. John Lateran. Galleries for the use of wornen were sometimes placed over the aisles, as at S. Agnese and S. Lorenzo but where none existed the sexes sat apart on opposite sides of the nave.

transept, called the " bema," or " presbytery," which existed in a modified form in the pagan basilicas, was occasionally

introduced, converting the plan into a Latin cross, of which the nave was the long arm. Some consider, however, that this cruciform ground plan wa^s derived from the buildings erected for sepulchral purposes as early as the age of Constantine. choir became necessary, owing to the increase of ritual, and was inclosed by low screen walls, or " cancelli " (from

which the word chancel is derived), and provided with an " ambo " or pulpit on either side, from which the Gospel and Epistle were read (No. 72). The hishop took the place formerly occupied by the " pratory or
" questor " (page 136), until in subsequent ages the seat was moved to the side, becoming the bishop's throne. The presbyters, or members of the council of the early Church, occupied seats on either side of the bishop formerly occupied^
the assessors. The apse became the sanctuary which remained circular-ended in Northern Europe. The altar in front of the apse, formerly used by the Romans

EARLY CHRISTIAN EXAMPLES.

I.

)XLIMEMTE1@IIE
100

aiCTlSBlIf

IflOf

^MdTL, Of OKtW ))jFKl

=jfEtT
IN

WBMm

Mmsm m
fORMlKC

yaitof?

If

5ffll[0ll=J=J=JfEET

i-^MraclllMYEMMi
73-

l82

COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE.

now used

for the pouring out of libations, or sacrifices to their gods, was for the celebration of Christian rites, and a baidachino,

or canopy, supported on marble columns, was erected over it. In later times :the altar was frequently placed against the east wall of the apse (No. 72). The. interiors of these buildings owe their rich effect to the use of glass mosaic ("opus Grecanicurn,") which was placed frequently in a broad band (No. 74) above the nave arcading and to the semi-dome of the apse (No. 78 g, k), which is frequently richly treated with a central figure of Christ seated in glory and set in relief against a golden background.
"

Below was all mosaic choicely planned, With cj'cles of the human tale."

The ceilings of timber were also formed in compartments and were richly gilded (Nos. 74 and 76). The pavements were formed out of the abundant store of old columns and other marbles existing in Rome, slice's of columns being used as centres surrounded by bands of geometric inlay
twisted with intricate designs (No.
7.8 b, l).

Basilican "Church of S. Peter (a.d. 330) was erected near the site of the martyrdom of S. Peter in the circus of Nero. It had a " transept," or " bema," 55 feet wide, and Five arches, the centre called 113 feet high (No. 75 a, b, c). the arch of triumph, gave access from the body of the church,, and at the sanctuary end was a semicircular apse on a raised floor, against the centre of the wall of which was the Pope's seat. The priest stood behind the altar, and thus faced east, as the chancel was at the west end of the church. S. John Lateran (a.d. 330) has been altered so much in modern times as to have lost its early character. There were in all thirty-one Basilican churches in Rome, mostly made up of fragments of earlier pagan buildings. The interiors of these basilicas are impressive and severe, the repetition of the long rows of columns being grand in the extreme, as in the interior view of S. Paolo fuori le mura (Nos. 74, 75 e), built A.D. 380 by Theodosius but re-erected in a.d. 1821, and S. Maria Maggiore (Nos. 75 d and 76). There are also important examples at Ravenna, a city well situated for receiving the influence of Constantinople, and at one time the seat of an Exarch of the Empire. S. Apollinare Nuovo, A.D. 493-525, built by Theodoric the Goth, and S. Apollinare in Classe, a.d. 538-549, are important threeaisled Basilican churches carried out by Byzantine artists on Roman models, and they are interesting for the impost blocks to the capitals supporting the pier arches, and the fine mosaics. At Torcello, near Venice, the foundations of the original
old

The

o w H S u
z

w D h

(a

B O
>

184

COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE.

bishop's throne, surrounded by six rows of seats in the apse, still exist, giving a good idea of the Early Christian arrangements.

BAPTISTERIES
are another description of building met with in Early Christian architecture. They were originally used only for the sacrament of baptism hence the name " Baptistery." The form was
;

derived from the Roman circular temples and tombs, already described (page 136). There was generally one baptistery in each city, as at Ravenna and Florence, and it was as a rule a detached building, usually adjoining the atrium or forecourt. Indeed, until the end of the sixth century of our era the baptistery appears to have been a distinct building but after this period the font came to be placed in the vestibule of the church. In adopting the Roman tombs as models for these buildings, the early Christians modified them to some extent, for the internal columns which in Roman examples were generally used in a decorative way were now used to support the walls carrying the domes. To cover a large area with one roof was difficult, but by the addition of an aisle in one story round a moderate-sized circular tomb, the inner walls could be replaced by columns in the lower half, resulting in such a building as these early baptisteries (No. 75 h, j). The Baptistery of Constantine, Rome (No. 75 j, k, l), is octagonal, and the roof is supported by a screen of eight columns
;

two

stories in height.

Baptistery, Nocera, between Naples and Salerno, is being 80 feet in diameter, with two rings of columns. This building is domed and covered with a wooden roof, and appears to be the first instance of the use of both, as the Roman architects always allowed the stone vault to show externally, as in the Pantheon. In the case of this building, however, the vault is merely an internal ceiling which is covered with an external wooden roof, and is similar to the practice of Gothic architects, who, in the mediaeval period, covered the stone vaults of their churches with timber roofs (No. 109). S. Stefano Rotondo, Rome (a.d. 470), though not a baptistery, is a good example of a circular plan of similar type (Nos. 75 F, G, H, and 77), being 210 feet in diameter, and with roof supported on two circular rings of columns, all taken from older buildings, the outer range supporting arches, and the inner a horizontal architrave. The two central columns are an addition
circular,

The

to support the roof timbers.


at the end of the fourth an octagonal structure with two arcades in the interior, one above the other. The dome, constructed of hollow tiles, has

The Baptistery, Ravenna, founded


is

century,

EARLY CHRISTIAN EXAMPLES.

II.

flMEEN

4''C'lllW)FJ0PP0RTEDBV OF EIGHT COLUMNS TWO STOREYS IN HEISHT,

lEMPnSTRYISNOW

WJC WrtciiQi6#j LiiiEiwiV*!/ If


SMIE FOR ELEVmONS

__JJOFEET

SCALE

fORMNS

"f

'

^"

75-

M S O
Oi
m"

o
o

< 3

o
o

EARLY CHRISTIAN ARCHITECTURE.


fine

187

mosaics representing the Baptism of Christ, and altars with It resembles the Temple at the open books of the Apostles. Spalato (p. 130), but with arcades instead of horizontal architraves.

TOMBS.
S. Constanza, (a.d. 330), was erected by Constantine as a tomb for his daughter, but was converted into a church in It has a dome, 35 feet in diameter, supported on twelve 1256. pairs of coupled granite columns.

Rome

The Tomb of Galla Placidia, Ravenna


J,

(a.d.

420) (No. 73 h,

exceptional, as it is cruciform in plan, instead of the usual circular form. It is 35 feet by 30 feet internally, and has a raised lantern at the crossing, pierced with four windows. It is domed by a portion of a sphere, and is one of the few examples in which the pendentives and dome are portions of one hemisphere (No. 79 h). Each of the arms of the cross contains a sarcophagus, and the interior is remarkable, as it retains all its ancient polyk), is

(No. 73 c, a decagon, 45 feet in diameter externally, and containing a cruciform crypt. Traces remain of an external arcade round the upper portion, standing on the decagonal basement. The roof consists of one slab of stone, hollowed'out in the form of a flat dome, 35 feet in diameter, and round the edge of this block are stone handles, originThe ashes ally used to place this immense covering in position. of the founder were placed in an urn on the top of the covering.
(a.d. 530)
D, E, F, g), is

chromatic decoration in mosaics. The Tomb of Theodoric,

Ravenna

two

Stories in height, the lower story being

Syria has a number of interesting monuments erected between the third and eighth centuries, notably those by Constantine the Church of the Nativity, Bethlehem, the Church of the Ascension, Jerusalem, and the octagonal Church of the Holy Sepulchre' on the site of the Temple of Solomon, also at Jerusalem. The Syrian type appears soon to have broken away from Roman influence, due largely to the abundance of hard stone, the absence of brick, and the distance from Rome. Piers were used instead of columns, and roofs formed of stone slabs were usual. favourite plan was a circle placed in a square, the angles being Such filled with niches, as in the Churches at Bozrah and Ezra. are considered to be prototypes of later Byzantine churches of the type of S. Sergius, Constantinople (No. 79 e, f, g), and S. Vitale, Ravenna (No. 83 c, d). Salonica possesses important examples, notably the domical Church of S. George. In Asia Minor, as at Ancyra, Pergamus, and Hierapolis, and in Egypt and Algiers are many examples of basilican and circular buildings of the Early Christian period.

o
o"

Q z o
H o
<A

o z
<!

h W h
(/)

en

EARLY CHRISTIAN ARCHITECTURE.


4.

189

COMPARATIVE.

A. Plan. The early Christians adopted the Basilican model for their churches (Nos. 73 and 75), but in addition the halls, baths, dwelling-houses, and even the pagan temples were used for places of worship. An isolated circular church , used as a baptistery,' was generally attached to the chief Basilica or cathedral.

These were still constructed according -to the methods, rubble or concrete walling being used, faced with plaster, brick, or stone. Mosaic was used internally, and sometimes externally on the west facades for decorative purposes. c. Openings. Doors, windows, and niches were generally spanned by a semicircular arch, the use of the lintel being dispensed with. The window openings were small (No. 78 d, f) those to the nave being in the clerestory high in the nave wall above the aisle roof, a feature which was developed in Gothic
B.

Walls.

Roman

architecture (Nos. 73
D.

(No. 75 b) covered the central nave, simple forms of construction such as King and Queen post trusses being employed. These roofs were ceiled in some ornamental manner (No. 74), the decoration of a visible framework being of a later date, as at S. Miniato, Florence (No. 93). The side aisles in the churches were occasionally vaulted, and the apse was usually domed and lined with mosaic (Nos. 72 and 78 g, k). E. Columns (Nos. 72, 77 and 78). They are often of different design and size, being mostly from earlier Roman buildings which had fallen into ruins or were purposely destroyed. It was natural that the early Christian builders, not being good craftsmen themselves, should use in their buildings the materials and ornaments which had been left by the pagan Roman. A rich and grandiose effect was often obtained at the expense of fitness in the details of the design. Middleton states that all the fine marble columns
roofs

Roofs.

Wooden

a,

75

b, g).

' In later Romanesque and Gothic periods, these early baptisteries, themselves founded on the Roman circular temples and tombs, were treated as follows in the different European ^countries In Italy, where the churches were not derived from a combination of a circular eastern church with a western rectangular nave, as in France, but were direct copies of the Roman basilica, the baptistery always stands alone. In France, circular churches were built to stand alone, and when it was necessary to enlarge them, the circular building was retained as the sanctuary or choir, and a straight lined nave was added for the use of the people. Thus from the circular church originated the apsidal choir of ihe Gothic period. In Germany, the earlier baptistery was joined to the square church and formed a western apse. The Germans also built circular churches, and then added choirs for the priests, that they might pray apart from the people (No. 83 B). In England, the Gothic builders generally jjreferred a square east end, except where French influence made itself felt, as at Westminster. Circular churches were erected, as the Temple Church, London, but they were few in number, and due to the Knights Templars (page 219), being built as copies of the Rotonda of the Holy Sepulchre at Jerusalem.
:

EARLY CHRISTIAN. ORNAMENT.

mm
AWAY

FUiRILEMURfl.BSME

(T

(^(0PU5
OPEN

flLEX/lINDRINUM)

WlilSeW

SEffii

CflTOEBML

iiSKOWMUS ^BCHSIiyW

FELIX

WraOiW "VENICE
VIIICENTUSY

_ /Mli<!IC iaPSC rmSME^E MME


CEMTML FIGURE mflESt '^ WEj " EITHER
JIDE

MSMcemiK j'msiis iiMOKE,ienE

S'^CLEMEMT,

rV\

MME

MSMIC FLMR S^N


lWNNl-E-MyL,W1E^

514-52?

EARLY CHRISTIAN ARCHITECTURE.


in the

igi

churches of Rome have been taken from ancient Roman buildings, except those in S. Paolo fuori le mura. F. Mouldings. These are coarse variations of Roman types, and the carving is of the rudest kind, though rich in general effect. The technique of the craftsman gradually declined, and was at a low ebb during this period. Enrichments incised upon mouldings were in low relief, and

the acanthus ornamentation, although still copied from the antique, became more conventional in form. The introduction of much color is a feature G. Ornament. of the period, giving much richness to the interiors. The domed apse (No. 72), as has been mentioned, was lined with mosaic, the subject generally being Christ surrounded by angels and saints. The arch of triumph, separating the nave from the bema, was ornamented with appropriate subjects long friezes of figures line the wall above the nave arcades (Nos. 72, 74 and 76), and the wall spaces between the clerestory windows often had mosaics representing subjects taken from Christian history or doctrine. The figures are treated in strong colours on a gold backThe design is bold and simple, both in form and ground. draperies, and an earnest and solemn expression, fitting well the position they occupy, characterizes the groups. The method of execution is coarse and large, and no attempt was made at neatThe interiors are, by the ness of joint or regularity of bedding. aid of these mosaics, rendered exceedingly impressive. In addition to the richness of the wall surfaces formed of colored mosaics the pavements of colored marbles in geometric patterns added much to the rich effect of the interiors. These pavements were formed largely of slices from the old Roman porphyry columns, which were worked into designs by connecting bands of geometrical inlay on a field of white marble (Nos. 72, 78). The glass mosaic used to decorate the ambones, screens, and episcopal chairs, as in the fittings of the church of S. Clemente at Rome (No. 78), was of a finer and more delicate description.

5.

(Prof. Baldwin). " From Schola to Cathedral." 8vo. Bunsen (C. C. J.). " Die Basiliken des Christlichen Roms."

Brown

REFERENCE BOOKS.

1886. Folio.

Munich, 1843.

Butler(A. J.). Butler (H. C.)


1900.

"The Ancient Coptic Churches of Egypt."


American

8vo. 1884. Archasological Expedition to Syria, 1899

de 1' Architecture Chretienne depuis Constantin jusqu'a Charlemagne." Folio. Paris, 1866. Vogue (Marquis de). " Les Eglises de la Terre-Sainte." Paris, i860. Vogue. " Syrie Centrale." 2 vols. Paris, 1865-67.

Hubsch

New York, 1904. Folio. (H.). "Monuments

^(^^^^::^^^;lKla>i

Historical Novels.

BYZANTINE ARCHITECTURE.
"So
a church as this had Venice none walls were of discoloured Jasper stone Wherein was Chiistos carved ; and overhead Chaucer. lively vine of green sea agate spread."
fair
:

The

I.

INFLUENCES.

i. Geographical. Byzantium (renamed Constantinople by Constantino) occupies the finest site in Europe, standing on two promontories at the junction of the Bosphorus and the Sea of Marmora. It was called "New Rome" by the Turks of Asia, and, like the other Rome in Italy, it rests on seven hills. It occupies an important commercial site, standing at the intersection of the two great highways of commerce the water highroad from the Black Sea into the Mediterranean, and the land high-road from Asia into Europe a position which, from early times, gave it power and influence, especially over the corn trade carried on with the western merchants on the northern shores of the Euxine. The absence of tides and the depth of its harbour, an inlet known as the " Golden Horn," four miles in length, rendered its quays accessible to vessels of large burden. Constantinople possessed no good building ii. Geological. stone or even material for making good bricks, but as far as possible the materials upon the spot had to be employed. Most of the marble used in the new capital was brought from different quarries round the Eastern Mediterranean/ for Constantinople was a marble-workin^centre from which sculptured marbles were exported to all parts of the Roman world. Mr. Brindley, a writer on the subject, is of opinion that quite seventy- five per cent, of the colored marble used in Santa Sophia, and the other churches and mosques in Constantinople, is Thessalian green (Verde Antico), and that the architect was influenced by the kind of column likely to be at once obtainable. The quarries were situated in different parts of the empire, the monolith columns being worked by convicts in groups of sizes such as the quarry could produce.

BYZANTINE ARCHITECTURE.
iii.

193

Owing to Constantinople being hotter than to its being further east, the Romans on settling there altered their method of building to suit the novel conditions due to climate and their contact with Oriental arts. iv. Religion. Constantine first made Christianity the state religion (page 176). The political division that came to pass between east and west was followed by a separation of churches also. This was due to the " Filioque controversy " as to whether the Spirit proceeded from the Father and Son or from the Father
Climate.

Rome, and

only the Eastern Church, which still claims to be the orthodox church, maintaining the latter, and the Western the former. The iconoclastic movement during the eighth and ninth centuries was in force and ended in the admission of painted figures in the, decoration of churches, but all sculptured statues w^e excluded.
;

of differepce in ritual have vitally affected Eastern church architecture up to the present day. V. Social and Political. Constantine, whose system of government was an expansion of the despotic methods introduced by Diocletian, removed the capital from Rome to Byzantium in A.D. 324, the position of the latter city being unrivalled as a great commercial centre on the trading highway between east and west. After his death rival emperors troubled the state, and disputes in the church were rife the Council of Nice in a.d. 325 being the first of the general councils called to suppress heresies. The eastern emperors lost all power in Italy by endeavouring to force upon the west their policy of preventing the worship and use of images. By the election of Charlemagne, chosen Emperor of the

These and other points

West
.

in a.d. 800, the

Historical. Byzantium is said to have been founded in the seventh century e.g., and was a Greek colony as early as the fourth century e.g. Byzantine architecture is that which was developed at Byzantium on the removal of the capital from Rome to that city. It includes not only the buildings in Byzantium, but also those which were erected under its influence, as at Ravenna and Venice, also in Greece, Russia, and elsewhere. During the reign of Justinian (a.d. 527-565) Italy was recovered to the Eastern Empire, accounting for the style of some of the buildings. Ravenna became important owing to the Emperor Honorius
vi.

Roman Empire was

finally divided.

transferring his residence there from Rome in a.d. 402, and it was created an archiepiscopal see in a.d. 438. After the fall of the

Western Empire the town was taken by Odoacer, and

in a.d. 493 Theodoric the Great took the city, which, remaining the residence From of the Gothic kings till 539, rivalled Rome in importance. a.d. 539-752 it was the seat of the Exarch of the Eastern Roman or Byzantine Emperors. The Byzantine style was carried on until Constantinople fell into the hands of the Turks in a.d. 1453, when it became the capital of the Ottoman Empire.

194
2.

COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE.

ARCHITECTURAL CHARACTER.

general architectural character depends on the development dome, induced by the adoption of circular and polygonal plans for churches, tombs, and baptisteries. This is in contrast with the Romanesque style, which developed the vault in Western and Northern Europe (page 224). The change from the old Roman forms was of course gradual, but in the course of 200 years the East asserted itself, and under Justinian the Church of S. Sophia (a.d. 532-537) was erected, and remains the greatest achievement in the style the interioir being perhaps the most satisfactory of all domed examples. Although no line can be stated as separating distinctively the Early Christian and Byzantine styles, yet, as already stated, the Basilican type is characteristic of the former and the vaulted, church with pendentives of the latte^^ A Byzantine building consists generally of a brick carcass or' " shell," constructed after the size of the marble shafts had been assured. The walls of this shell were finally sheeted internally with marble, and the vaults with colored mosaics on a golden background. In fact no church was founded during this period in which mosaic was not intended to be employed, and the decoration of S. Sophia and the churches of Niceea and Thessalonica show the perfection to which this was carried out. The core of the wall was generally of concrete, as in the Roman period, but the manner in which the bricks of the casing were arranged contributed greatly to the decoration of the exterior. They were not always laid horizontally, but sometimes obliquely, sometimes in the form of the meander fret, sometimes in the chevron or herring-bone pattern, and in many other forms of similar design, giving great richness and variety to the facades, as may be seen in the churches of Thessalonica. Externally an attempt was made to render the rough brick exteriors of Roman times more pleasing, by the use of bands and relieving arches of

The

of the

an ornamental character. Byzantine art and influences were carried westward by traders, and are found at S. Mark, Venice, S. Vitale, Ravenna, S. Front, Perigueux, and elsewhere, largely directing the architecture of
these districts. The dome, already referred
to, is

the prevailing motif or idea of

Byzantine architecture, and had been a traditional feature in the old architecture of the East, and M. Choisy, in his " Art de Batir chez les Byzantins," traces the influence of this tradition of domical construction on Greek architecture to show how from'
this fusion the later imperial architecture

became

possible.

placed over square apartments, their bases being brought to a circle by means of " pendentives " (Nos. 79,

Domes were now

BYiJANTINE ARCHITECTURE.
;

195

whereas in Roman architecture 80, 82, 83 B, 84, 86, III c) these features were as a rule placed over a circular apartment. Windows were now formed in the lower portion of the dome, which in the later period was hoisted upon a high circular drum, a feature which was still further embellished in the Renaissance Period by the employment of a circular peristyle or colonnade. In vaulting, porous stones, especially pumice, were used sometimes the domes were constructed of pottery, as at S. Vitale,
;

Ravenna (No. 83 d), where it is formed with urns and amphorae placed side by side and grouted with mortar. The architecture of the Byzantines was thus developed by the use of brick in the fullest manner, especially in domical vaulting, and there is an absence of preparatory and auxiliary work, M. Choisy remarking that the " greater number of their vaults rose into space without any kind of support " {i.e., without centering), by the use of large flat bricks, which is quite a distinct system, not derived from a Roman but from an Asiatic source. Byzantine art is the Greek spirit working on Asiatic lines, for the dome on pendentives was invented and perfected entirely in the East. In the Byzantine system of vaulting the vault surfaces gave the conditions of the problem, and the groins or angles of intersections were of secondary importance, presenting a direct contrast to the mediaeval buildings of Europe. The grouping of the smaller domes round the larger central one was very effective externally (No. 79), and one of the most remarkable peculiarities of Byzantine churches was that the tunnel vault and the dome had no additional outer covering, but were visible externally (No. 80 a); thus in no style does the elevation so closely correspond- with the section as in the Byzantine. From the time when the architect permitted the forms of the vaults and arches to appear as architectural features in the facades, the regular entablatures of the "Romans were abandoned, and in the church of S. Sophia is seen the fully-developed Byzantine style for whereas in the older buildings of Rome the columns and entablatures could be and were removed without causing the ruin of the building, in S. Sophia the true Greek expression of truth in construction was reverted to, its columns and capitals being not merely ornamental, but really supporting The Classic orders were dispensed with, and the the galleries. semicircular arches made to rest directly on columns designed The capitals, of which there are seven distinct for the purpose. types, four being in S. Sophia, assume a novel form (Nos. 88 and 89), appropriate to their new purpose of receiving the springers of arches, the voussoirs of which were always square, and not set in receding planes, as in so-called Gothic architecture. As Freeman says " The problem was to bring the arch and column into union in other words, to teach the column to
:

o 2

BYZANTINE EXAMPLES.

I.

grC^NTil^E
RADIAT11{{

fOTEM
B(B

ooME comTBuerioN

[A)
Of

AWGMH^JitEnJOIDMmDtlED gTCmmr Of'COK-

ll-FOST

H H

ffmcnm-mA

m r^EE TO MWEIHAl DIRECTIONS MD


ciHTBHi.poOT.

JWBTOTOWUBIKTHIBBIMNISHlHeTtiRUrST

CWHfflRMMimVI&MME
DIOTNtT$mEEE?. -DWEraraDEHTWE&IDMI

m,nmsmmofmt

KTEKIOK VIEWf^FTiB Cmifl)


79-

BYZANTINE ARCHITECTURE.
support the arch."

197

This was done by shaping the block of marble which formed the capital so that a simple transition from the square block to the circular shaft of the column was formed. Further, as Messrs. Swainson and Lethaby say, the numerous round shafts of S. Sophia exhibit a remarkable and beautiful structural expedient, by which the necking is entirely suppressed, and bronze annulets surround the shafts under the capital and above the base. These prevent the shafts from splitting a likely result, since the monolithic shafts had to be set up contrary to the direction of the quarry bed and also the lead seating from being forced out by the superincumbent weight. The science of construction acquired by the Romans descended to the Byzantines, for the walls were formed with a brick facing and concrete core a method also employed for vaults, bridges, and aqueducts. The building procedure was developed somewhat as follows the general form of the building being

more or

thing necessary was to collect was necessary to have a certain knowledge where such might be quarried or otherwise obtained, before even the foundations were prepared, for the columns decided the height and points of support of the building. These shafts once assured, the body of the structure was proceeded with as a brickwork shell without further dependence on the masons, who were only required to prepare the bases, capitals, and cornices, everything else being completed as a brick carcass.' " The building was thus made of vast masses of thin bricks, with mortar joints of equal thickness and when this had settled down and dried, the walls were sheeted with their marble covering, the vaults overlaid with mosaic, and the pavement laid down. In this way the carcass was completed at once, and, further, the bricklayers not having to wait for the masons by reserving the application of the marble until the structure was dry and solid, it was possible to bring together unyielding marble and brickwork with large mortar joints that must have settled down very considerably This independence of the different parts of the structure was a leading idea in Byzantine construction, and is obviously necessary when the quantity of mortar is so great that the bricks become secondary in height to the joints. Brick, moreover, was the material preferred in the construction of walls, and lent itself to all the caprices of the architect for as interiors were always lined with marble and mosaics, or decorated with frescoes, such walls were the most suitable for the reception of these kinds of ornamentation. Bricks being so much used, it is not surprising that the Byzantines took great pains in their manufacture when it is remembered that they employed them in their military as well as in their ecclesiastical and domestic architecture. The form of these varied a great deal, -but the
less decided, the
first

monolithic marble shafts, and

it

"

'

ig8

COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE.

ordinary shape was like the Roman, an inch and a half in depth, and they were always laid upon a thick l)ed of mortar, as already mentioned. Moulds were used for the pieces forming cornices, and the shafts of columns when of this material were built of circular bricks. The universal use of brickwork made the Byzantines pay great attention to their mortar, composed of lime, sand, and crushed pottery, tiles or bricks, and it remains as hard as that in the best buildings of Rome. The interiors were beautified by richly colored marble pavements in opus sectile or opus Alexandrinum (page 119). The use of natural stones in mosaics and inlaid pavements had been abolished, and the art of enamelling had arrived at perfection, all the mosaics which still adorn the domes and apses being of colored glass enamel rendered opaque by oxide of tin, an invention which was introduced in the Early Christian period. The extensive use of rich marbles and mosaics caused a flat treatment, with an absence of mouldings, cornices and modillions, which were subordinate to the decorative treatment. The simple exteriors of brickwork, with bandings of stone, did not -leave the same scope for mouldings as in other styles. Flat splays enriched by incised or low relief ornamentation were introduced, and mosaic and marbles were used, in a broad way, as a complete lining to a rough carcass, architectural lines being replaced by decorative baiids in the mosaic, which was worked on rounded angles. One surface melts into another as the mosaic is continued from arch and pendentive upwards to the dome, and the gold of the background being carried into the figures, unity of surface was always maintained. Although columns of the richest marbles were taken from old buildings, the importation and sale of newly quarried columns and other decorative materials, such as rare marbles, did not in the least decrease. The Theodosian code in fact encouraged this branch of trade and industry, and the mode of ornamentation by means of colored marbles was carried to a greater extent than ever before. The quarries opened by the Romans continued to be used, and the workmen employed in them were governed by imperial decrees issued specially for their guidance.

3.

EXAMPLES.

Byzantine examples consist mainly of churches and baptisteries. In the former, although a certain number follow the Basilican type, the majority are founded on the circular and polygonal plans of the Roman and Early Christian periods.

SS.
erected

Sergius and Bacchus, Constantinople (a.d. 527), by Justinian, is nearly square in plan, being a rectangle of

BYZANTINE EXAMPLES.
ELE/ATION

II.

200

COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE.

log feet by 92 feet over all, and has an interior arrangement very similar to S. Vitale (No. 83), but it has four niches only, and is The inclosed in a square instead of an octagon (No. 79, e, f, g). dome, 52 feet in diameter and 66 feet high, is visible externally, having no wooden roof, and is of a peculiar melon-like form caused by the formation of ridges and furrows from base to summit. This church, picturesquely situated on the shores of the Bosphorus, is in a ruinous condition, but was being partially restored by the Sultan at the time of the authors' visit in January, 1896. The beautiful frescoes and mosaics are, however, irreparably damaged in consequence of the penetration of rain through the roof.
S. Sophia, Constantinople (HagiaSophia=" Divine Wis(Nos. 79, 80, 81), was built by order of Justinian, in a.d. 532-537, on the site of two successive churches of the same name, {a.) The wooden-roofed basilic^, erected by Constantine, i.e. The A.D. 360. (6.) The church erected by T^heodosius, A.D. 415. architects were Anthemius of Tralles and Isodorus of Miletus. The plan consists of a central space 107 feet square, bounded by four massive piers, 25 feet square, connected above by semicircular arches, and supporting a dome 107 feet in diameter {cf. East and west are great semicircular spaces, S. Paul, London). crowned with semi-domes, and out of these are formed smaller exedrae, in their turn covered with semi-domes. The area thus formed is a great oval-ended nave 265 feet by 107 feet. Outside this central ^rea are aisles over 50 feet wide, in two stories, north and south, the upper story being for women. These aisles bring the main building approximately to a square, which, excluding the apse and narthex, measures 250 feet by

dom")

237
for

feet.

narthex, to the west of the main building, was set apart catechumens and penitents, and forms a grand apartment over 200 feet long by 30 feet wide it is in two stories, the upper forming a gallery to the church. Further west is the outer narthex and atrium, with marble columns and brick pillars. To the north and south, forming continuations of the four great piers already mentioned, are massive buttresses, 25 feet wide by 70 feet long, pierced with double arches on the ground and upper story. These piers take the thrust of the main arches and dome on the two sides where there are no semi-domes. SS. Sergius and Bacchus would resemble S. Sophia in plan if it were cut in two and a dome on pendentives placed over an intervening square, and the whole doubled in size. The domical method of construction governs the plan, which is subservient to it. The square central space is crowned with a dome, 180 feet above the pavement, but in itself only 47 feet in height above its base {i.e., less than a semi-dome).
;

The

o w H S O < w z I N m

o
H
2; <:

O
W p. o
(A

202

COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE.

The two semi-domes, east and west, abut against the great arches which support the central dome and act as buttresses to it on the east and west sides. The smaller exedrae are also covered with semi-domes, as has been stated. The pendentives carrying the central dome have a projection of 25 feet and a height of over 60 feet. The great piers supporting the dome are of stones, the rest of the building being of brickwork. The construction of the dome is explained on No. 80. Internally, the actual effect of the whole is one of extreme intricacy, although the general scheme is very simple, while scale is obtained by the careful gradation of the various parts from the two-storied arcades to the aisles and lofty dome, which rests, with little apparent support, like a canopy over the centre, or, as Procopius, an eye-witness, described it, " as if suspended by a chain from heaven." The impression is that of one great central domed space with semicircular domed ends, the height gradually decreasing from 179 feet at the centre. The walls and piers are lined with beautifully-colored marbles
'

(Phrygian white, Laconian green, Lybian blue, Celtic black, white marble with black veins from the Bosphorus, and Thessalianmarble), in varied patterns, fixed by means of metal cramps the floors are laid with colored mosaics of various patterns, and the vaults and domes are enriched with glass mosaics of the apostles, angels, and saints on a glittering golden ground. Although many of these are now concealed by matting covered with plaster, or are replaced by quotations from the Koran, yet the four pendentives still exhibit the six- winged seraphim, whom Mahometans acknowledge under the names of the four Archangels, Gabriel, Michael, Raphael, and Israfil, and when the light is favourable the figure of Christ can still be seen in the vaults of the apse. The columns of many-colored marbles are used constructively to support" the galleries which rest on a variety of groined vaults. Moulded bronze rings encircle the column shafts at their junction with the capitals and bases, and elsewhere. The lower stories of the aisles (north and south of the ceti'tral space) are supported by four columns of dark green marble from the Temple of Artemis (Diana) at Ephesus, the upper stories having six columns of the same material. -Each of the four small exedrae has two large columns of dark red porphyry below, brought from the Temple of the Sun at Baalbec, and six smaller columns on the upper story. The total number of columns in the church is 107 (the same number as the diameter of the church in feet), of which forty are below and sixty-seven above. The capitals are mostly of the pyramidal or cubiform type, with small Ionic angle volutes and delicately incised carving.
;

w D H O W H S U <

g h <
m

204

COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE.

bear the monogram of Justinian, and on a column to the south exedra on entering is the date 534. A variation of the dosseret block is in general used on the lines of the Classical abacus. The lighting is partly effected by forty small windows piercing the dome at its base. Additional light is introduced through twelve windows in each of the spandrel walls, north and south, under The bases of the domes the great arches which support the dome. Many of of the smaller exedrag are also provided with windows. the windows are small and spanned by semicircular arches others are more elaborate, as in those to the " Gynaeceum," or women's gallery, reached from the exterior by four gently sloping ascents, one at each corner of the building, and from the interior by stone staircases, in which large semicircular headed openings are divided into six by columns in two heights, the lighting area being filled with lattice work of marble 3 inches thick, pierced Externally with openings about 7 inches square, filled with glass. the walls are faced with brick and stone in alternate courses. The vaulting of the domes and semi-domes is visible, being covered with lead J-inch thick, resting on wooden battens placed immediately on the brick vaults. The immense buttresses already referred to make imposing external features, as also the two great spandrel walls between them, deeply recessed from their face, and provided with windows lighting the central area. The plainness of the exterior causes the building to depend for effect entirely on the massiveness of its form and the general

Some

symmetry
S.

of its proportions.

Sophia is the masterpiece of Byzantine architecture as the Parthenon is of Greek, or the Pantheon of Roman but neither in plan nor treatment does it seem to have been largely imitated, especially in respect of the abutting semicircular domes. S. Irene, Constantinople, originally constructed by Constantine and several times destroyed and rebuilt, finally about A.D. 740, is interesting as preserving the Basilican plan of nave and two.aisles with Eastern apse and Western atrium. It has a dome which is believed to be the earliest example, resting on a high drum pierced with windows to light the interior. The Theotokos Church, Constantinople, dating from the ninth to the twelfth century, is a small but perfect example, having a double narthex crowned with three domes, and a central dome over the church itself. The Church of the Chora, Constantinople, is an interesting example, dating originally from the fourth century, but subsequently much altered. It has a central area crowned with a dome resting on a drum 26 feet in diameter, pierced by windows, and has semicircular windows on three sides, and an apse on the fourth. It has an inner and outer narthex, ornamented with
;
.

THE

IS(pMPo5EDH6LW earthen P* FiTlfD INTO EACH CBIER S1I03 BflTS U5HrE55 ENABLING THE BILDtR5 loDMNaE WITH

mi

DESIGNED

BUT

OCTAGONAL m PLW SRESEMBUNC 5 SERGWS

im

115

PSOiaiTlC THE

MINEWA MEBIfAROnE

TEARCHE5fBuT(BEES BUND NEJESiARY IH S5RII)SJ;I.30PH1A. THE CHURCH imr 15 80ILTIN BRICKS WITH THICK MoRTAlf JOINTS.

JiBACCHOS (6NSrAHTlN0PLE

affcKliPoBM INDoHEaEWW

mmMwa.

(kmMEmAmic&miMimm
SVITAIE RAVENNA ITWAS BUILT ASA I1(L"16I1B-H0I)5E AND AFTERWARDS OiED ASHE CIWHINt RUCE Of the WESTERN EHPEloBS. THE CmiiC (H

WTERNAILYTHEmmcmsAN.
OCrACONEtCIIAKttEtf WHICH

D*tE CRdWHED Bf8

DWEUSESToTflo PIERS THUS


FofiMIHQAHEflEPHAL6 5IDED HGTOETk! IHIERHAL PIERS

SlfinVWGDDEN R(Bf OF THE


IT* CENTIJAY

BSAIICDAII 053-1+13

^-

.;

51im)RtABW476"DmEIR.
TE5IIlEAISlE5AREINaiEr5,

mi

Scale oiPi-ANS

'

fAI5ECTlON5

83-

BYZANTINE EXAMPLES.

III.

guporas

ALWER

iqBEOF

wnm^
ICEQ
^.D. 1063-1071)

(NnRTHEX

IIOCHSid)

/i^CBEEKCROSS ON

PmNWrnCENTlM. DONE&ONEOVEK EaCH^^mOFTHE

momm
ISTH

CRO'5'?.

TPWN

derived

FBOMHECHUKH?
DEMOUSHEDIINIK

THEn^POSTLESSlT

CONSWNTINOPLE
CEMTURYd'

SlfiOHT
PEHCUEUX
(Aaiizo)
IS

IMODIFIED.fl

coiPv?siiwsrea

SECTION OM

X^.

w p H O W H

s u < W Z P
<;

208

COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE.
It is

it is now known as the " mosaic supposed by some that the facade of this church served as a model for that of S. Mark, Venice (No. 85). The Church of the Holy Apostles, Constantinople, founded by Constantine the Great, but rebuilt by Justinian, and destroyed in a.d. 1463, to make way for the Mosque of Sultan Mahomet II., was the second type of Byzantine plan, and is interesting as being thp prototype of S. Mark, Venice (Nos. 84,

large mosaic decorations, hence

mosque."

85, 86) (see belo\y).

S. Vitale, Ravenna (a.d. 526-547) (No. 83 c, d), whose prototype was the Temple of Minerva Medica at Rome (No. 83 A, b), is octagonal on plan, an inner octagon of 50 feet being The apsidal chancel opens inclosed by an outer one of no feet. from the inner octagon, by a square bay cutting through the outer aisle. The relation of the chancel to the octagon is successfully designed. It is to be noted that the other seven arches of the inner octagon have columns placed on a half circle, carrying round the gallery usual in Eastern churches. In many particulars ByzanThe dome is composed of earthen pots, tine influences are seen. and protected by a wooden roof, thus differing in construction from

Roman

exariiples.

The church

built

by Charlemagne, and containing


e,
f), is

his tomb, at

Aix-la-Chapelle (No. 83

derived from this church (see

page 261). B. Mark, Venice (Nos. 84, 85 and 86), was erected, for the most part, between a.d. 1063-1071, the columns and marble mosaics to the exterior being added between 1100-1350. Venice was by situation one of the connecting links between the Byzantine and Franconian Empires, and a great depot of the traffic between the East and West, which is evident in Venetian
architecture.

The plan of S. Mark (No. 84 c) is in the form of a Greek cross, of equal arms, covered by a dome in the centre (42 feet in diameter), and one over each arm of the cross, and is derived from the Church of the Holy Apostles at Constantinople. It is worthy of note that the square piers, which carry the dome,
are pierced on the ground floor and gallery levels: the gallery

arcade connects the piers on either side, fhe depth of the gallery being that of the pier. The vestibules fill out the western arm of.the cross to a square on plan. The interior (Nos. 84 a and 86) is richly veneered with colored marbles casing the lower part of the walls above, and extending in one great surfabe over vault and dome, is a lining of richly colored glass mosaic, in which are worked figures of saints mingled with scenes from their lives, set off by a broad background of gold. Mosaic, in fact, is the real and essential decoration of the church,
;

to

which

all

architectural detail

is

subordinated.

a
a;

p h u w h X o < w z <

F.A.


210

COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE.

The external ia.qa.de (No. 85) has five entrances, enriched with shafts of many-colored marbles brought from Alexandria and the ruined cities of the East, forming a rich and beautiful portal. Mosaic panels also serve to enrich with color the spandrels of the arches. It must be remembered that this and the external domes are a later casing upon the original exterior of the usual
Byzantine type (No. 84
a).

described by Ruskin, who says that they depend not only upon the most delicate sculpture in every part, but also on the most subtle, variable, inexpressible color produced by transparent alabaster, polished marble, and

The

effects of S.

Mark have been

lustrous gold.

The Byzantine
parts,

style spread over Greece, Russia, style of the

and has been the accepted

and other Greek church to the

present day. In Greece the buildings are small but exquisitely executed, as may be seen in the little Metropok Cathedral (No. 87), the Church the Church 0/ of the Kapnikarea, and other churches at Athens Daphni, near Athens, and the Monastery of S. Luke of Stiris, on the north of the Gulf of Corinth. At Thessalonica (Salonica), in Macedonia, S. George (a.d. 400) is an early example of a domed church, and 5. Demetrius (a.d. 500550) an example of a five-aisled basilica with transepts (not
;

showing externally), and

galleries.

In Russia among the best known examples are the Cathedrals of Moscow, Kieff, and Novgorod, all of which have a decided Eastern aspect, due to the use of bulbous-shaped domes and unusual
details.

In

Armenia

teristics,

are also interesting examples with local characsuch as the Church of S. Sophia, Trebizond.

4.

COMPARATIVE.

A. Plans. Byzantine churches are^^aJl distinguished by a great central square space- cavered jwith a dome, supported by means "of pendentives, shown in No.~79T^,"kT On each side extend^J)Qrt arms, forming a Greek cross, which with the narthex and side (galleries make the plan nearly square (Nos. 80, 84). The narthex was placed within the main walls. The essential difference in plan between a Byzantine church and an Early Christian basilican church are as follows
:

The leading thought in a Byzautine church is vertical, by the grouping of domes round a principal central one, towards which the eye
is

drawn,

The leading idea in an Early Christian basilica is horizontal, by means of the long perspective of columns, which direct the eye towards the apsidal termination.

BYZANTINE EXAMPLES.

IV.

OTTHmAL
FROM N.E.

Sketch?

CENTURY.

J_

scsusf pyBs

UJLSJSjSJ'm. ^wnitMim

ssenas

87.

p 2

212
B.

COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE.

Walls. These were often constructed of brick. Internally, the oriental love of magnificence was developed, marble hence a flat casing and mosaic being applied to the walls treatment and absence of mouldings prevailed. Externally the buildings were left comparatively plain, although the fafade was sometimes relieved by alternate rows of stone and brick, in
all
;

various colors.

Doors and windows are semicircular headed c. Openings. (No. 89 G, h), but segmental and horse-shoe arched openings are
sometimes seen.
87).

The windows are small and grouped together (Nos. 80 a and The universal employment of mosaic in Byzantine churches,

and the consequent exclusion of painted glass, rendered the use of such large windows as the Gothic architects employed quite inadmissible, and in the bright climate very much smaller openTracery was, in conings sufidced to admit the necessary light. sequence, practically non-existent as a northern architect would understand it. The churches depend largely for light on the ring of windows at the base of the dome, or in the " drum," or circular base on which the dome is sometimes raised (No. 86), and on openings grouped in the gable ends (No. 80 a). Such windows, grouped in tiers within the semicircular arch beneath the dome, are a great feature in the style. Portions of the windows are occasionally filled with thin slabs of translucent marble (No. 89 g).
D. Roofs. The method of roofing these buildings was by a series of domes formed in brick, stone, or concrete, with frequently no further external covering. In S. Sophia the vaults are'covered with sheets of lead, a quarter of an inch thick, fastened to wood laths, resting on the vaults without any wood roofing (No. 80 b). Hollow earthenware was used in order to reduce the thrust on the supporting walls (No. 83 d). The Byzantines introduced the dome placed over a square or octagonal plan by means of pendentives (No. 79 j), a type not

Roman architecture. early examples the pendentives were part of one sphere. good idea of this type is obtained by halving an orange, cutting off four slices, each at right angles to the last, to represent the four arches, and then scooping out the interior the portion above the crown of these semicircles is the dome, and the intervening triangles are the pendentives. Such domes are rare, however, perhaps the only example in Europe being that over the tomb of Galla Placidia (No. 73 h, j, k), already described In the later type the dome is not part of the same (page 187). sphere as the pendentives, but rises independently from their summits (Nos. 80 b, hi c). The early domes were very flat; in later times they were raised on a drum or cylinder.
found in
In

"
;

214

COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE.

E. Columns. In the earlier buildings, these were taken from ancient structures, which not being so numerous in the East as in the neighbourhood of Rome, the supply was sooner exhausted and thus there was an incentive to design fresh ones. Capitals sometimes took a form derived from the Roman Ionic (No. 8g c) or Corinthian types (Nos. 88 and 89 d), or consisted in the lower portion of a cube block with rounded corners, over which was placed a deep abacus block, sometimes called a " dosseret This represented the disused Classic architrave, (No. 89 D, e). and aided in supporting the springing of the arch, which was larger in area than the shaft of the column. Further, an altered shape of capital was required to support the arch, a convex form being best adapted. The surfaces of these capitals were carved with incised foliage of sharp outline, having drilled eyes (No. 88) between the leaves. Several other types are shown in

No.

89.

Columns were used

constructively, but

were always subordinate

features, and often only introduced to support galleries, the massive piers alone supporting the superstructure. F. Mouldings. These were unimportant, their place being

taken by broad flat expanses of wall surfaces. Internally, the decorative lining of marble and mosaic in panels was sometimes framed in billet mouldings, probably derived from the Classic dentils, and flat splays enriched by incised ornamentation were used. Externally, the simple treatment of the elevations in flat expanses of brickwork, with occasional stone banded courses, did not leave the same scope for mouldings as in other styles. G. Ornament. The scheme of ornamentation was elaborate in the extreme, the walls being lined with costly marbles with the veining carefully arranged so as to form patterns, and the vaults and upper part of walls with glass mosaic having symbolic figures, groups of saints and representations of the peacock (the emblem of immortal life), the whole forming a striking contrast to the less permanent painted frescoes usually adopted in the Western Romanesque churches (page 227). Mosaic thus was used in a broad way as a complete lining to a rough structure, and architectural lines were replaced by decorative bands in the mosaic. One surface melts into another as the mosaic sheet creeps from wall, arch, and pendentive up to the dome, and the gold surfaces being continued as a background to the figures, unity of surface is always maintained. Greek rather than Roman technique was followed in the carving, due to the origin of the craftsmen. The carving was mainly executed in low relief, and effect was frequently obtained by sinking portions of the surfaces. A special character of the carving was due to the use of the drill instead of the chisel (No. 88). The acanthus leaf, deeply channelled, and of V-shaped section, is

BYZANTINE ORNAMENT.

i'npo5r CAPiTM FRoniME

porch

OF S.50P1I'\ CONSTANTINOPLE

S^DILnLTRimTMBSMLONia

]JtZ>\NTINECORlNTHnN

eiRDSp^WETWPIT^L
^ lOPHl^ CONTP^NTINOPLE

eiRnCORINTKI*^(?JITtL

? DE\CTRIU1 THESIAIONICA

THEBRE.ASTWMJ.^ LATIICEWSRK ARL OF'WnBLES'THICK THE PIERCED OPENIks ABE


7' HIGH

nuEEJiNwrrH PANES OFCro

THETJ^BLE
DIVISIONS,

I5EING

SPLWEDi!
1'"C1NF\CE

0=EVATION

ItCTION

89.

2l6

COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE.

adopted from the Greek variety, but became more conventional, with acute-pointed leaves, drilled at the several springings of the teeth with deep holes. The great characteristic of Byzantine ornament as compared with Classical, is that the pattern is incised instead of seeming to be applied, for the surface always remained flat, the pattern being cut into it without breaking its outline. Grecian and Asiatic feeling strongly pervades Byzantine ornamentation, and this is accounted for by the fact that Constantinople was a Greek city, and in close contact with the East, and Oriental methods. Note. A good general idea of the exterior of a church in this style is to be gained from the Greek Church in the Moscow Road, Bayswater, erected by Oldrid Scott, as also the new Roman Catholic Cathedral at Westminster by the late John F. Bentley. The mosaics and casts in the Victoria and Albert Museum should also be inspected.

REFERENCE BOOKS. " L'Artde BitirchezlesByzantins.'' Folio. Paris, 1883. Choisy(A.). 8vo. Didron (A. N.). " Christian Iconography." 2 1886. Knight (H. G.). " Ecclesiastical Architecture of Italy." 2
5.
vols.,
I 842 -I 843.

vols., folio.

and Swainson (H.).^" Church of Sancta Sophia, 8vo. 1894. Milligen (A. van). "Byzantine Constantinople." 8vo. 1899. " Saint Mark's, Venice." A large and beautiful monograph in several vols., 4to and folio, published by Signer Ongania. Venice, 1881. Salzenburg (W.). " Alt-Christliche Baudenkmale von Constantinopel." 3 vols., folio and 4to. Berlin, 1854-1855. .Schultz (R. W.) and Barnsley (S. H.). " The Monastery of St. Luke of Stiris in Phocis." Folio. 1901. Texier (C.) and Pullan (R. P.). "Byzantine Architecture." Folio. 1864. Scott (Sir W.). " Count Robert of Paris." (Historical Novel.)

Lethaby

(\y. R.)

Constantinople."

mmE

CftWmJl
90.

'

or

TH[

\fl&MDIDE5

ROMANESQUE ARCHITECTURE
EUROPE.
GENERAL INTRODUCTION.'
I.

IN

INFLUENCES.
style

which grew up on the decay known as Romanesque, was on throughout practically the whole of the Western empire that is, in those countries which had been directly under the rule of Rome. The position of each country will be slightly touched upon under its own heading. The influence of Byzantine art brought through Ravenna and Venice also influenced the Italian Romanesque in Lombardy and Europe generally.
i.

Geographical.

The

of the carried

Roman

empire,

and

is

' Before treating of the development of the style peculiar to each country, a general outline sketch is given.


2l8

COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE.

ii. Geological. In these early times a rough use of the material at hand characterizes the style in each country, and will be referred to under the same. ill. Climate. Local styles were favoured by the variations of climate north and south of the Alps, as referred to in each country. iv. Religion. The Christian Church, which was the civilizing and educating agency of the period, was striving to extend its boundaries in Northern Europe, and the erection of a church was often the foundation of a city. The monastic communities, with the encouragement and aid' of Charlemagne, came into The papacy had been rising to great power and existence. influence, and, directed with skill, it rivalled or controlled such The Pragmatic Sanction (a.d. 554) civil government as existed. had already conferred authority on the Bishops over the provincial and municipal governments, thus increasing the power of the Church, with which now often rested the nomination of public As East and West drifted apart their functionaries and judges. architecture developed on opposite lines, but architecture of Western Europe due to Eastern influence is classed as Byzantine. The different countries looked to Rome until each developed its own style. Religious enthusiasm and zeal prevailed, and was manifested in magnificent edifices, and in creed warfare, so that when the Turks overran Palestine, the loss of the Holy Places resulted in the long warfare known as the Crusades (1096-1270) between the Christians of the West and the Mahometans of the East. Until the middle of the twelfth century science, letters, art and enlightenment generally were the monopoly of religious bodies, and pupils of monks afterwards became the designers of many of the great Gothic Cathedrals. The feudal rank of bishops and abbots made them in some sense military chiefs, occasionally taking the field in person. Schools attached to certain monasteries discharged to some extent the functions of universities, as those at S. Gall, Tours, and Rheims, and the aid thus rendered by monastic institutions to architecture was therefore important. Down to the thirteenth century, architecture was practised largely by the clergy and came to be regarded as a sacred science, as stated by Albert Lenoir in " I'Architecture Monastique." Dr. Jessop's " Daily Life of an English Monastery " is interesting as showing the life led by the monks, and may be studied with advantage. (For a description of the typical plan of a monastery see page 276.) Among the chief monastic orders were the following (i.) The Benedictine order, founded in the South of Italy in the sixth century by S. Benedict, by whose decree architecture, painting, mosaic and all branches of art were taught. All the

ROMANESQUE ARCHITECtURE
older monasteries in

IN

EUROPE.

21^

England belonged to this order, Canterbury (No. ii8 b) and Westminster Abbey (No. 127) being the chief

establishments. The usual arrangement consisted of a square cloister having on one side a church of cruciform plan with aisles, the transept forming a part of one side of the cloisters. The refectory was usually parallel to the nave, on the opposite side of the cloister. The dormitory was generally placed on another side with a staircase in connection with the church for night services. The manuscript plan existing in the Library of the monastery of S. Gall, in Switzerland, is interesting as showing what was considered a typical plan of the buildings of this order (page 261). (2.) The Chmiac order was founded in a.d. 909, the celebrated Abbey at Cluny being the headquarters. The plan was especially notable for double transepts, a feature which was adopted in many English Cathedrals, as at Lincoln (No. 117 f) and

SaHsbury (No. 117


(3.)

e).

was founded in a.d. 1098, at Citeaux, In plan, the typical church was divided into three parts transversely by screens, walls, or steps. There were frequently no aisles. The transepts were short, as also was the eastern arm of the cross, and the choir extended westward of the transepts. There was an absence of towers and painted glass. The influence of the Cistercian foundation extended to various countries of Europe. In England the most important were Furness, Fountains, Roche, and Kirkstall Abbeys. (4.) The Augustinian order differed little from the Benedictine. It was introduced into England in a.d i 105, and Bristol, Carlisle, and Oxford Cathedrals were founded by this order. (5.) The Premonstratensian order was instituted at Premontre, in Picardy, in a.d. 1119, and Castle Acre Priory in England is an example. (6.) The Carthusian order was founded by S. Bruno, about A.D. 1080, the chief French establishment being the Grande Chartreuse, near Grenoble, others being Vauvert, Clermont in Auvergne, Villefranche de Rouergue, and Montrieux. Two churches were preferred, one for the monks and the other for the people. In plan the typical feature was the great rectangular cloister, surrounded by an arcade on which the monks' cells opened, each being self-contained and with its own garden. By the rules of the order, speech was interdicted, and the Carthusian must work, eat and drink in solitude. Such a regime explains the extreme severity of their architecture. In Italy the establishments at Florence and the Certosa near Pavia, and in England, the Charterhouse, London, were the most important. (7.) The military orders included the Knights Templars and Hospitallers. The churches of the Templars were circular
Cistercian order
in

The

Burgundy.

220
in

COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE.

plan, as in the Temple Church, London, and those at Cambridge, Little Maplestead, and Northampton. It is supposed they were erected in imitation of the Rotonda of the Holy Sepulchre at Jerusalem. (8.) The Friars, of which there were several orders, were founded Their churches were large, plain, and without at a later period. aisles, being designed for preaching purposes. (a.) The Dominicans (preaching or black Friars) were founded by S. Dominic about a.d. 1170, and later held a high place in Christian art, Fra Angelico being the best known member of the order. They came to England about
A.D. 1217.
(b.)

by

Franciscans (mendicant or grey Friars) were founded Francis of Assisi, in a.d. 1209, and were distinguished for intellectual capacity, Roger Bacon being one of the
S.

The

most distinguished members.


in A.D. 1216.
(c.)

They first came

to

England

The Carmelites (or white Friars), were driven out from Mount Carmel by the Saracens, in a.d. 1098. They came
England
in a.d. 1229.

to
(d.)

Austin Friars (or Hermits). (.) Friars of the Holy Trinity, instituted in a.d. 1197. (/.) Crutched {or crouched) Friars, instituted in Bologna, in A.D. ii6g. crush the (9.) The Jesuits were established in order to

The

Reformation, and
V.

first

came

Social and Political. The system of feudal tenure, or the holding of land on condition of military service, was growing up, and caused important changes in the social and political organization of states. While through its operation the class of actual slaves died out, still the poorer freemen gradually came to be serfs, bound to the land and passing with it, on a change of
ownership.
of the towns as civilization advanced is noticeand the privileges which they acquired, amounting almost to independence, rapidly gave them importance. Constant warfare rendered the condition of the people unsettled during this period, and skill in craftsmanship was at the lowest ebb. Christianity and civilization gradually extended from southern to western Europe. The clergy the scholars of the
able,

to

England

in a.d. 1538.

The growth

period directed the building of the churches, while the influence of the freemasons produced important results. In the year a.d. 799 the Roman Empire in vi. Historical. the "West practically passed from the hands of the Romans, by the election of the first Frankish King, Charlemagne, whose election is a convenient date to mark the end of the Roman Empire as such. Till the time of Charlemagne very little

a-

ROMANESQUE ARCHITECTURE
building

IN

EUROPE.

221

was done, but he in a great measure restored the arts Western Europe before his death in a.d. 814. Before the year a.d. iooo, when it was popularly supposed that the world would come to an end, little building was carried out, bj^t after the millennium had passed, buildings sprang up in all parts, with many local peculiarities, which will be noticed under each country but the change was slow, traditional forms being firstly transformed in general design and detail, and then new features
and
civilization to
;

created.

the nations of Europe had at this time come into France, Germany, and Spain, were becoming powerful and tending to set aside the rule of the Holy Roman Empire, which now had become only a title. In northern Europe, Denmark, Sweden, and Norway were distinct kingdoms, and England had become welded into one by the Norman kings at the end of the eleventh century.

Nearly

all

existence

2.

ARCHITECTURAL CHARACTER.

The term Romanesque may be said to include all those phases of Western European architecture which were more or less based on Roman art, and which were being carried out, in a rough and ready way, in various parts of Europe, from the departure of the Romans up to the introduction of the pointed arch in the thirteenth, century. The general architectural character is sober and dignified, while picturesqueness is obtained by the grouping of the towers,
and projection of the transepts and choir. As helping towards the appreciation of the character of Romanesque architecture, imagine an ancient civilization of vast extent, devoid of physical force, and recognisable only by the multitude of its monuments, some intact, others injured or partially destroyed, all unguarded, and most of them disused calamity which happens in due course to every great nation or group of peoples and further suppose that the civihzation is represented by a man, dormant, but who slowly, and with many a contortion, and many a yawn, threw off the sleep of ages and awakened to a sense of the treasure he possessed, of the wants he began to understand, of the means to the ends he would attain. In his midst were ruins of vast edifices, some still standing among heaps of stones hewn and carved, of sculptured capitals and friezes, of monoliths of porphyry and marble, while his own shelter afforded him little protection either from heat or cold. What happened ? As time went on he gathered up the smaller fragments and arranged them perhaps upon the foundations, still intact, of an ancient building, and as he gradually acquired a knowledge of the uses to which he might apply this and that fragment, he insensibly

ROMANESQUE ARCHITECTURE

IN

EUROPE.

223

produced a new art founded on the old. This explains the birth of Romanesque, for on the collapse of the Western Roman Empire, the quarry of the ruins of ancient buildings largely influenced the work done, both in construction and decorative treatment, for the earlier buildings of the period were often built from the remains of ancient Roman buildings in the vicinity. In the course of time, however, a new style was evolved, for, putting aside spasmodic efforts, the period of the tenth to the twelfth centuries is remarkable for the tentative employment of a new constructive principle and a new use of material. The first was the principle of equilibrium which succeeded that of inert stability as used by the Romans, and the second was the employment of dressed stonework in comparatively small pieces, connected with mortar beds of considerable thickness. This was a method not before attempted, because the materials in use up to that time had not demanded it. By this new employment of materials, the whole current of architecture was turned to a constructive system which should answer to its needs, and whichj
after

many tentative experiments, was to lead to the next glorious period of architecture the thirteenth century in which elasticity of structure was joined to the principle of equilibrium. In Italy (page 228) there were various early Christian edifices erected at Ravenna from the fifth to the seventh centuries, for Ravenna was the principal city in Italy during this period, being the seat of the Exarch or representative of the Byzantine Emperor in the western part of his dominions. These buildings partake, naturally, of the elements of the fully developed Byzantine style, in the same way in which S. Mark, Venice, and S. Front, Perigueux, was the result of the close connection of these centres with the trade and commerce of the East (No. 84). In France (page 246), especially in the Western and Northern Provinces, the old traditional basilican plan was preferred and adhered to during the eleventh and twelfth centuries, with certain exceptions, notably S. Front, but the dome raised on pendentives became the common kind of vaulting, in the South, in conjunction with the aisleless nave. It is worthy of note also that the use of the pointed arch occurred in the South of France sooner than in the North, and it is considered by some, but with apparently little foundation, to have been derived from contact with the Saracens, who invaded this portion of France from 719-732. Further, the development of monasteries in the eleventh century gave a great impulse to civilization and agriculture, and exercised considerable influence on architecture. Provence was, moreover, in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries the chief centre of the growing traffic from the East, and the highway by which artistic and other products of the Levant were dispersed through France and the North of Europe. Similarly, the development from Roman to Gothic art was


224

COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE.

accomplished through the ordeal of the destructive, yet purifying dissolution of the Dark Ages, whence the true spirit of Roman construction emerged, cleared to a great extent of the extraneous elements with which it had been so long encrusted. Up to the end of the twelfth century the Provencal architects had led the way, but at this period the lay architects of the North, seizing on the Provengal principle of the Pointed arch, soon developed from it the magnificent Gothic system of the perfected architecture of
the thirteenth century.

Romanesque
The Roman system
of

Vaulting.

plain cross vaulting (No. iii a), ^was used in Europe up to the twelfth century, when it began "'"|e, be superseded by the " groin-rib " type of vaulting, in which a framework of ribs supported vaulting surfaces of thinner stone, kno*n as " severies," or "in-filling." This method introduced a new principle in vaulting, viz., designing the profile of the groin ribs and leaving the form of the vaulting surfaces to adapt themselves to them whereas in Roman architecture the vaulting surface was first settled, and the profile of the groins followed as a matter of course. It was therefore necessary for the Romanesque architects to find the profile of the ribs, and especially that of the diagonal rib, which had previously been settled without design, as mentioned above, by the intersection of the two vaulting surfaces meeting at right angles. If the vaulting surfaces were semi-cylindrical the diagonal groin was of necessity a semi- ellipse, but the use of ordinates, as shown in No. Ill E, does not appear to have been employed by the Romanesque architects, who surmounted the difficulty arising from the difference of span of the diagonal and transverse ribs as follows (a.) On the Continent, especially in Germany and France, the vaultingjibs were usually portions of circular curves of similar curvature starting from the same level, thus the diagonal rib, having the longest_spanjrose to a greater height than the transverse and longifudinal riDsl^Nurri2, d^). The panelling was then filled in on the top of these ribs, and in consequence the structure was highly domical, (b.) In England, however, where the vaults were generally constructed with level ridges, this domical form was not used, the difference in height between the diagonal and the transverse ribs being equalized by stilting the latter (No. 112 b, d*, g) or else by forming the diagonal rib as a segment of a circle, the longitudinal and transverse ribs becoming semicircular (No. 112 d''). In vaulting an oblong compartment the difference between the heights of the diagonal and wall ribs was still greater and produced an awkward waving line of the groins on plan (Nor. iii b and 112 c). In the vaulting of the naves of the Romanesque churches in
;
:

"
;

ROMANESQUE ARCHITECTURE
Germany, as
in

IN

EUROPE.

225

at Worms (No. 105 g), Mayence and Spires France, as at the Abbaye-aux-Hommes (No. 112 e, f), and Abbaye-aux- Dames at Caen, and N6tre Dame, Paris (No. 157); and in England, as at Canterbury the difficulty of spanning oblong
;

compartments was surmounted by including two of them in one square bay of vaulting, each main bay corresponding with two square compartments of the side aisles (Nos. 94 a, b, e and 105). In some instances the intermediate pier was carried up as a vaulting shaft and formed the vaulting compartment into six parts on plan, which was then known as " sexpartite (six part) vaulting (Nos. 100 c, 105 b and 112 f). The weight of the vaulting in this case was therefore supported by alternate piers, which were accordingly strengthened (No. 105 c). During the following centuries this principle of rib design became more complex by the multiplication of the frame-work of ribs described under Gothic vaulting (page 272). It will also be found that all these difficulties of accommodating the heights of ribs of different spans, especially in oblong compartments, were surmounted by the introduction of the pointed arch (Nos. hid and 112 d).

3.

EXAMPLES
4.

(refer to

each country).

COMPARATIVE.

In church architecture further developments from A. Plans. the type of the Early Christian Church took place. Charlemagne gathered around him artists and skilled workmen, and calling architecture out of its sleep, took the Roman basilica as a model Transepts were usually added, and the for the new churches. chancel prolonged further east than in the basilicas, the church partaking more and more of a well-defined cross on plan, as The transepts were the at S. Michele, Pavia (Nos. 94 and 95). same breadth as the nave, which was usually twice the width of the aisles. The choir was raised considerably by means of steps, and underneath, supported on piers, was formed a vaulted crypt as at S. Miniato, Florence (No. 93) and S. Michele, Pavia (No. 94), in which the saints and martyrs were buried. The earlier examples have choirs without aisles, the latter, however, being continued

round

in later

The

cloisters

examples. in connection with the churches are often of

great beauty and have capitals and other features elaborately carved. The towers are special features, and of great prominence in the design, as at the Church of the Apostles at Cologne (Nos. 104
F.A.

226 and 105

COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE.

c). They are either square, octagonal, or circular, with well-marked stories, having windows to each, and are placed at the west and east ends and the crossing of nave and transepts.

Walls. Roman work and precedent, of course, influenced constructive art in Europe, although technical skill was at a very low ebb during this period. Walls were in general coarsely built, having on the exterior, buttresses formed as pilaster strips of slight projection, connected at the top by horizontal mouldings, or by a row of semicircular arches resting on a corbel table Semicircular arches, resting on rudely projecting from the wall. formed capitals, also occur. Other peculiarities are referred to in the comparative table of each country. The door and window openings are very c. Openings. characteristic. The principle upon which the jambs were formed was in receding planes, or rectangular recesses, known as " orders," in which were placed circular columns or shafts. The arches followed the same method, being built in concentric rings (No. 94 f, h, ]). continuous abacus often occurs over these columns, and the profile of the jamb is carried round the semicircular portion of the arch in southern examples. The principal doorways are usually placed in the transepts. The characteristic rose (or wheel) window occurred over the principal door of the church in the west front, as at Iffley Church, Oxon (No. 138) also in Southern Italian examples, as at Palermo. D. Roofs. The general employment of vaulting, especially over the side aisles in the eleventh century, was due to the desire of fire-proofing the building, but the central nave was still often covered with a plain wooden roof. The form of arch universally employed was semicircular (No. 94 a), often raised, i.e., stilted (No. 112 d', g). In early examples rib mouldings were not used in the vaulting, but when introduced, about iioo a.d., were at first plain, and afterwards moulded in a simple manner (No. 94). Intersecting barrel vaults (No., 112 g) were usual, and the difficulty in constructing these in oblong bays led to the use of pointed arches in later times. When the crossing was crowned by an octagonal dome, four of the sides were carried on " squinch " arches (Nos. 94 and 105). The Romanesque architects used " flying buttresses " under the aisle roof, in the case where the thrust of a vaulted roof had to be met (Nos. 94 and 100) but it was left for the Gothic architects of the thirteenth century to place them above the aisle roof and weight them with pinnacles. E. Columns. The shafts of the columns have a variety of treatments, flutings being used (Nos. 98 b, 107 l), of vertical, spiral, or trellis work form, or the whole shaft is sometimes covered with sculptured ornaments. In early examples forms of the Corinthian or Ionic capitals occur as in the third column from
B.

all

ROMANESQUE ARCHITECTURE

IN

EUROPE.

227

the right in S. John's Chapel, Tower of London (No. 135), where Also see Nos. 98 j, k, l, m, and Classic influence is apparent. 103 D, E. The capital in later times was often of a cushion (cubiform) shape, as in S. John's Chapel, Tower of London (No. 135), with lower corners rounded off and no carving, or is sometimes richly carved and scolloped (Nos. 146 and 148 b, c). F. Mouldings. These were often carved elaborately, as will be referred to in English Romanesque (Norman) architecture (No. 139). The abacus over the capital (Nos. 98 j, m, 103, 107 and 146) is always distinctive in form it is higher, but projects less than in the Classical style, and is moulded with alternate fillets and hollows. The base to the column (Nos. 107 d, h, and 146) is generally an adaptation of the old Classical form, or Attic base, resting on a square plinth, at the angles of which flowers or animals were occasionally carved to fill up the triangular part, and the lower circular moulding often overhangs the plinth. The carving and ornaments were derived from G. Ornament. many types of the vegetable and animal kingdom and treated in a conventional way, often but rudely carved (No. 139). In the interiors fresco is more commonly used than mosaic, which required great technical skill. Early stained glass was influenced by Byzantine mosaic.

Note. The above are the principal characteristics of the style as a whole. Local influences of taste, climate, geography, and geological formations were instrumental in producing the different characteristics of each country.

Q 2

ITALIAN ROMANESQUE.
CENTRAL
ITALY.
" In Middle Rome there was in stone working The Church of Mary painted royally The chapels of it were some two or three In each of them her tabernacle was And a wide window of six feet in glass Coloured with all her works in red and gold."

I.
i.

INFLUENCES.
Italy extended

Geographical.

The boundaries of Central

to Florence and Pisa on the north and west, and to- Naples on Pisa was by position a maritime power, while the south. Florence lay on the great route from south to north, commanding the passage of the Arno.

Tuscany possessed greater mineral wealth ii. Geological than .any other part of Italy, and building stone was abundant. The ordinary builditig materials of Rome were bricks, local volcanic stone (tufa or peperino), and Travertine stone from Marble was obtained from Carrara, or Tivoli, a few miles off. Paros and the other Greek isles. iii.. Climate. (See Roman architecture, page 112.) iv. Religion. It was during this period that, although the Popes had only small temporal dominions, they began to make their power felt in civil government, and the disputes with the emperors began. Pippin, king of the Franks, asked by the Pope (Stephen II.), defended the latter from the Lombards and gave him the lands they had seized and also the chief city of the Exarchate (Ravenna), which the Pope accepted in the name Thus in 755 Central Italy severed its connection of S. Peter. with the Empire and became independent, thereby inaugurating the temporal power of the papacy. Charlemagne, invited by Pope Adrian I. (772-779), advanced into Italy in 773, and, after defeating the Lombards, entered Rome for the first time in 774. He gave the

1 The style is divided into three central, north, table of the three together is given on page 242.

and south.

The comparative

230

COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE.

Dukedom
to

of Spoleto and other concessions to Adrian, thus adding temporal power, and from this period ponnection with Byzantium was broken off. Gregory VII. ruled that the clergy should not marry, and that no temporal prince should bestow any
his

which resulted in the struggles between the Guelphs and Ghibellines (page 405). V. Social and Political. In Italy, especially in Tuscany, an artistic movement, in which architecture was most prominent, took place in the eleventh century, the daughter arts of painting and sculpture being in a state of inaction. The growth of an
ecclesiastical benefice, decisions

industrial population, the increase of

commerce and the independent v;ews caused by education, were important factors in the rise of Naples, Pisa and Amalfi and other cities for self-defence, owing to insufficient protection from Constantinople. vi. Historical. Genoa, Pisa, and Amalfi sent merchant fleets to the ports of the Holy Land for the Eastern Fair at Jerusalem, arid thus were brought in contact with Eastern At the commencement of the eleventh century, Pisa, the art. rival of Venice and Genoa, was the great commercial and naval power in the Mediterranean, and took the lead in the wars against the infidels, defeating the Saracens in a.d. 1025, 1030, and 1089 at Tunis, The Pisans were defeated by the Genoese in 1284, which led to their decline. The rise of Florence dates from 1125, when, owing to the destruction of Fiesole, the inhabitants of this latter city moved there, and in the following century its growing commerce caused it to rival Pisa. Lucca was an important city at this period, being also a It republic, and its architecture was influenced by that of Pisa. was lent by the feuds of the two parties, the Guelphs and Ghibellines, the former supporting the power of the Popes and the latter

that of the Emperors.


2.

ARCHITECTURAL CHARACTER.
r-T

ITALIAN (central)

NORTHERN EUROPEAN
ROMANESQUE.
principal aim is perfection in the construction of vaulting, which influenced the whole design as in Normandy and the Rhine provinces, where vaulting was now

ROMANESQUE.
ideas rarely found. Constructive boldness not sought after,
less

New

The

departure being made from the ancient Basilican type. The Italians have always possessed a greater capacity for beauty in
detail,

being developed. Such treatment caused the introduction of many than for developing a bold new constructive ideas, and novel construction into a complete style. The Byzantine influence was strong, especially in several districts, as Venice, Ravenna, and Pisa, which latter city in particular possesses a distinct style of its own.

ITALIAN (central) ROMANESQUE.

23I

3.

EXAMPLES.

Pisa Cathedral (a.d. 1063-1092) is a fine example of the style (Nos. 91 and 92), the interior, with rows of columns and flat ceiling recalling the Early Christian Basilican church, but the transepts with segmental apse at each end were an advance on the Basilican plan. Over the crossing or intersection of nave and transepts is an elliptical dome of later date. Externally, blind arcades built in stripes of red and white marble, ornament the fafades, which also have small open arcades, one above the other, producing a fine impression (No. 91). The building depends for its artistic effect upon the beauty and interest of its ornamental features rather than the promise of logical development into a new style which a northern example possesses. The Campanile (Bell Tower), Pisa (a.d. 1172), is a circular structure 52 feet in diameter, ornamented with eight stories of arcades (No. 91). During its erection the foundations gave way, thus causing the tower to lean about 1 1 feet from the vertical. The Baptistery, Pisa (Nos. 70 g and 91), designed by Dioti Salvi in a.d. 1153, is circular, 129 feet in diameter, with encircling aisle in two stories. Built of marble, it is surrounded externally on the lower story by half columns, connected by semicircular arches, above which is an open arcade in two heights, supported on small detached shafts. It was not completed till a.d. 1278, and has Gothic additions of the fourteenth century, in consequence of which it is not easy to ascertain what the original external design really was. The structure is crowned by an outer hemispherical dome, through which penetrates a conical dome 60 feet in diameter over the central space, and supported on four piers and eight columns. Thus, if there were another internal hemispherical cupola, it would resemble the constructive scheme of S. Paul, London (No. 253 b). This Baptistery bears remarkable similarity to the church of S. Donato (ninth century) at Zara, in Dalmatia, which, however, has a space only 30 feet in diameter. S. Michele, Lucca (a.d. 1188, fafade 1288), and S. Martino, Lucca (a.d. 1060-1070, facade 1204), bear considerable similarity to the architecture of Pisa, the reason being that Lucca belonged to that city when most of its churches were erected. Pistoia Cathedral (twelfth century a.d.), resembles these churches. Rome. In the Romanesque period, i.e., from 600-1200, while the architecture of the rest of Europe was slowly developing towards the Gothic style, that of Rome was still composed of Classic columns and other features taken from ancient buildings. During this period a series of towers were also erected in the imperial city. The origin of these is not clear, as the custom of

232
bell ringing

COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE.

was not then in existence, but they may be regarded as prototypes of the medieeval towers and spires.
S.

The Cloisters of S. John Lateran, Rome (a;d. 1234), and of Paul beyond the walls, Rome (a.d. 1241) (No. 98 b) are of extreme interest. They are formed in square bays, the vault arches inclosing the arcades in groups of five or more openings. The special feature of the cloisters consists of the small twisted
columns inlaid with glass mosaic in patterns of great beauty, and forming an evidence of the patient skill of the craftsman. S. Miniatp, Florence (No. 93), is a leading example of the Central Italian style. The length of the church is divided into three main compartments, and the raised eastern portion, under which is a crypt, is open to the nave. This division of the church by piers seems a prelude to the idea of vaulting in compartments, and is an evident departure from the basilican type of long unbroken ranges of cplumns or arcades. The marble panelling, and banding in black and white marble of the exterior and interior, were carried to a further extent in the Gothic period. Very notable is the open timber roof with its decoration, recently restored, in bright coloring
of gold, green, blue

and red. For the Comparative table

of Italian

Romanesque, see page

242.

NORTH
I.

ITALY.

INFLUENCES.

Geographical. Milan, the capital of Lombardy, always i. had a high degree of prosperity, on account of its favourable situation in the centre of that state, and its proximity to several of the Alpine passes. The city is surrounded by rich plains, and the cultivation of the mulberry (for the silkworm), and the vine, adds
to the general prosperity of the district.

Ravenna and Venice,


Empire,
ii.

reflect

as trade connecting links with the Eastern the culture and architectural forms derived

therefrom.

Geological,

Brick

is.

plains of Lombardy, of this material.

and the

local architecture

the great building material of the shows the influence

iii. Climate. North Italy has a climate resembling that of Central Europe, i.e., a climate of extremes. Milan is near enough to the Alps to experience cold in winter, while in summer the heat is often excessive. iv. Religion. At the end of the fourth century, Theodosius, the great emperor, had been forced to do penance on account of a massacre in Thessalonica, S. Ambrose, Bishop of Milan (374-398), closing the doors of the Church against him. This is an instance

ITALIAN (central) ROMANESQUE.

93-

S.

MiNiATO, Florence.

234
of the great

COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE.

power the Church had acquired. S. Ambrose's fame and influence maintained the Ambrosian rite, which differed in some points of ritual, such as side altars not being used {cf. Milan Cathedral, page-4o8). V. Social and Political. The devastating wars in the North Italian plains led to the, gradual rise of the Venetian state, the first form of government being republican, but an oligarchy in which a Duke, or Doge, was invested with supreme authority gradually grew up. Italy itself consisted of a number of separate cities which were independent commonwealths. vi. Historical. Venice from the first kept up a close alliance with Constantinople, by means of which both the naval importance and commerce of the little state continually increased, especially after the eleventh century, by which time commercial relations had extended to the Black Sea. and the coast of the Mediterranean, including Dalmatia, Croatia, and Istri^,. The barbarians who occupied the valleys of the Rhine and Po pursued a similar development in spite of the intervening Alps, Milan

being as much German as Italian. In Italy, the old Roman population eventually caused barbarian influence to wane, but

had come to pass little building was done. The eleventh and twelfth centuries were the great building epochs in Lombardy.
until this

2.

ARCHITECTURAL CHARACTER.
CENTRAL ITALIAN ROMANESQUE.
Arcades in several stories were employed as an ornament to the fafades (No. 91). Marble facing' was carried to such an extent as to form a style in that material. The Basilican type was closely adhered to, and beauty and delicacy of detail were preferred to the invention of fresh architectural forms produced by a new system of construction. Detail much affected by Classic remains and traditions, which resulted in the production of carving

NORTH ITALIAN ROMANESQUE.


Arcades restricted to top of gables and apses The character is less refined owing to the use of stone and brick rather than marble. Wide, flat, and severe fa9ades are typical, covering the whole church, without marking in any way the difference of nave and
aisles. A rose window (No. g6) and a porch resting on lions are often the chief relief. Details show a breaking away from Classic precedent. In sculpture, hunting and

other scenes reflecting the life of the no.rthern invaders are frequent, and in these a grotesque element is prominent. The churches were of the Basilican type, and were nearly all vaulted and roofed. Side aisles are often in two stories, the clerestory is omitted, the walls between the side chapelsformingbuttresses.

and ornament of great refinement. At Pisa ancient sarcophagi richly


sculptured with figures existed, by

whose study the Pisani were


fluenced.

in-

The churches were mostly roofed with plain open-timbered roofs, the members of which were ornamented with bright coloring.

ITALIAN

ROMANESQUE EXAMPLES.

51

fllStt

m Two STOBIEf..
''

,. y.|i

IJipfCLySTfEEBJEt
5* * ^ * * * *

fi^/
sfellEKI?,giaK
5..p

_
...

_
1^

a^ ifx'

94-

ITALIAN (north) ROMANESQUE.


3.

237

EXAMPLES.
is

S.
(a.d.
1

Antonio, Piacenza (a.d. 1122), S. Ambrogio, Milan 140), and S. Michele, Pavia (a.d. 1188), are good examples.
(Nos. 94 and 95)
stories,

The
S.

latter

vaulted in square bays, with side


section.

aisles in

two

and piers of clustered


(a.d.

1139) (No. 96), is an important example, having, under the slope of the gable, arcaded corbels, which are characteristic of the work in this district also the great western rose (wheel) window, and the projecting porch to the main doorway, with columns supporting arches, and resting on the backs of crouching lions (No. 98 g). The origin of the arcaded galleries in many of the more important churches of the period (Nos. 91 and 95), is interesting, as illustrating how such architectural features have had, originally, a constructive meaning. Thus, when a wooden roof was placed over a circular vault, the external walls did not need to be continued solid above the springing of the vault, as the ends of the rafters exerted little thrust hence this portion was arcaded, the arches being connected with the extrados of the vault, giving a deep shadow in an appropriate position (Nos. 104 and 105 b). This arcading, from being used merely in this position, came to be employed, in every possible part of the building, as a decorative feature, so that it even entirely covered the western fa9ade. Similarly in the later Gothic periods in England, the battlemented parapet, primarily of use for defence at the top of the building, was employed as a decorative feature on window transoms and other
; ;

Zenone, Verona

positions.

The Palazzi Farsetti and Loredan, and the Fondaco dei Turchi, a great warehouse on the Grand Canal, used in the Eastern trade, are well-known examples at Venice, in which are found
the characteristic cubiform capital, carrying semicircular arches which are often stilted. The Campanili, or bell towers, are important features of the period. They were not joined structurally with the church to which they belonged, as in England, France, and Germany, but were placed at some little distance, and sometimes connected with the main building by cloisters (No. 96). These campanili occur in most of the North Italian towns, and in many cases are rather civic monuments than integral portions of the churches near which they are situated, as that of S. Mark, Venice. In these cases they were erected as symbols of power, or commemorative monuments, being similar in purpose to the civic towers of Belgium (page 390J. In plan they are always square, and have no projecting buttresses, as in countries north of the Alps, being treated as plainly as possible, without breaks, and with only sufficient windows to

< O
'4,

Bl

>
o z
z M

(A

;,ijS*,(a(SiS

\\\\\v

ITALIAN (SOUTHERN) ROMANESQUE.


;

239

admit light to the internal staircase, or sloping way the windows increase in number from one in the lowest story to five or more in the uppermost story, which is thus practically an open loggia, and the whole is generally crowned with a pyramidal shaped roof, as is the Campanile of S. Zenone, Verona, which is typical (No. 96). For comparative table of Italian Romanesque, see page 242.

SOUTHERN ITALY AND


" Therein be
Neither red nor white bricks But for cubits five or six. There is most goodly sardonyx.

SICILY.

neither stores nor sticks,

And amber
I.
i.

laid in rows."

INFLUENCES.

Geographical. Being situated centrally in the Mediterranean sea, and being of triangular form, Sicily presents one side to Greece, another to Italy, and the third to North Africa, and its history is a record of the successive influences of the powers
to

whom
ii.

these countries belonged.

Geological. The deposits of sulphur contributed to the wealth and prosperity of the island, while the mountains afforded ail abundant supply of a calcareous and shelly limestone, which
architectural character. The climate of South Italy and Sicily is almost sub-tropical, for palms grow in the open air, and there are celebrated orange and lemon groves near Palermo. On the southeastern coast of Italy the towns have the general characteristics of Oriental cities, the buildings having flat roofs and other Eastern

influenced
iii.

its

Climate.

features.

In Sicily, owing to Mahometan influence, the iv. Religion. facades were ornamented with intricate geometrical patterns, which were invented because the Mahorrietan religion forbade the representation of the human figure (page 654). The Mahometans introduced into V. Social and Political. Sicily valuable commercial products, such as grain and cotton. Their civilization was, however, considerably aided by the previous

Byzantine influences. Southern Italy has always maintained a close connection with Sicily, and has yet to be fully explored for traces of its architectural development.
vi.

Historical.

In

a.d.

827 the Mahometans landed in

Sicily,

and gradually overran the whole island, and the latter part of the tenth century was the most prosperous period of their sway. Sanguinary struggles amongst certain sects led to the insurrection of several cities, and hastened the downfall of the Mahometan From 1061-1090 the Normans, under Robert and dynasty.

ITALIAN (south) ROMANESQUE.

24I

Roger de Hauteville, conquered the island, and a descendant of the latter was crowned at Palermo, 1 1 30. During this period Sicily prospered, and her fleet defeated the Arabs and Greeks, but civil wars as to the right of succession led to the island passing in
1268 to Louis of Anjou.

2.

ARCHITECTURAL CHARACTER.

The change from the Byzantine to the Mahometan dominion, and from the latter to the Norman in the eleventh century is traceable. Byzantine influence is shown in the plans of certain churches, as in the Church of the Martoraiia at Palermo, where a square space is covered by a dome supported on four freestanding columns.

Mahometan influence is evident, particularly in the decorative parts of churches, as mentioned above. Architecture developed considerably under the Norman rule by the erection of cathedrals, and a school of mosaic was maintained in the Royal Palace during this period. The churches have either wooden roofs, or a Byzantiiie dome, but are hardly ever vaulted. Dark and light stone was used in courses externally, and rich mosaics and colored marbles, were employed as a facing internally. The arcfiitectural features of the interiors, of which Monreale Cathedral (No. 97) has typical examples, were subordinate to the mosaic decorations which clothe the walls.
3.

EXAMPLES.

Monreale Cathedral (begun 11 74, No. 97), on the high ground to the south-west of Palermo, illustrates mixed Byzantine and Mahometan influences. In plan it resembles a Roman basilica, with apses at the eastern end of nave and aisles, the choir being The nave columns have well carved raised above the nave. capitals of Byzantine form, supporting pointed arches, which are square in section, and not in recessed planes as in northern
Pointed windows without tracery occur in the aisles. walls are ornamented with mosaics in color, representing scenes from biblical history, surrounded by arabesque borders. A dado, about 12 feet high, of slabs of white marble, is bordered by inlaid patterns in colored porphyries. The open timber roofs, intricate in design, are decorated in color in the Mahometan style. The interior is solemn and grand, the decoration being marked by severity, and by great richness in the material employed. The low, oblong, crowning lantern, the early bronze doors, and rich cloisters, are notable. The Capella Palatina, Palermo (1132) (in the Royal Palace),
work.

The

F.A.

242

COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE.

for Monreale Cathedral, and though of small size, is It has a unrivalled for richness of the effect of thejnosaics. richly treated ceiling of stalactite forms. S. Giovanni degli Eremiti (1132) and the Martorana Church {1113-1143) are other examples .at Palermo which show the blending of Saracenic and Byzantine ideas. S. Nicolo, Bari (1197), is a good and typical example of the churches of Southern Italy which are small in comparison with The entrance front is always their northern contemporaries. distinguished by a projecting porch, with the columns resting on lions' backs, supporting a projecting roof, above which is the The detail of these buildings is characteristic wheel-window. always refined and graceful, which may be due to some extent to The the Greek descent of the inhabitants of this part of Italy. crypts are a special feature, that at Otranto being noteworthy for the numerous points of support employed to carry the choir.

was the model

4.

COMPARATIVE.

Central, North, and South.


Plans. The plans of most of the churches were substantially same as the basilicas, more especially in Central Italy in the North the churches are mostly vaulted, modifications being introduced on the lines of German work in the South, the low lanterns at the crossing, oblong in plan, are marked features, as at Monreale Cathedral (No. 97). The choir was occasionally raised to admit of a crypt beneath, reached by steps from the nave. A number of circular examples were built mainly as baptisteries, that at Novara being connected to the cathedral by an atrium. There is a fine atrium at S. Ambrogio, Milan. In the North
A.

the

the open arcades of the apses seen in conjunction with the usual arcaded octagonal lantern at the crossing, constitute the charm of the style. Projecting porches were preferred to recessed doorways, and are bold open-arched structures, often of two stories, resting on isolated columns, and placed on huge semi-grotesque lions, having a symbolic character. Towers, as at Piacenza and S. Zenone, Verona (No. 96), are detached, being straight shafts without buttresses or spires, which, when occurring, can be traced to German influence. The flat blind arcades of the northern style were B. Walls. developed by the Pisan (Central) architects in their galleried fagades. The west front, including the isles, was carried up to a flat gable, with arcading following the rake, and other arcades The Northern facades are flatter, and carried across in bands. sometimes have a large circular window to light the nave. In the South this feature is highly ela;borated with wheel tracery, as

ITALIAN

ROMANESQUE ORNAMENT.

98.

R 2


244

COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE.

in the churches at Palmero. Flank walls are occasionallydecorated by flat pilaster strips, connected horizontally by small arches, springing from corbels (No. 98 c). c. Openings. In consequence of the bright climate the openings are small (No. 98 a), and opaque decoration was preferred to translucent. Window tracery was not developed. The wheel windows (No. 96) just described are only rudimentary in pattern, attention being chiefly bestowed upon their decoration, as in the rich carving of the Palermo examples. D. Roofs. Where round-arched cross vaulting, or simple barrel vaults, were not employed, the timber roofs of the basilican style often effectively decorated with color were used. In the southern examples, domes rather than vaults were attempted, but timber roofs are the rule in Palermo and Monreale (No. 97), and, owing to Mahometan influence, great richness in timber ceilings

was

attained.
Italian churches continued to be constructed ceilings till the thirteenth century. Plain

The nave roofs of of wood with flat


groined vaults of

small span were common and divided into compartments by flat bands, a practice which was continued in the Gothic period. Piers with half shafts were employed rather than E. Columns. columns, especially in the North, where vaulting was more in use, but coupled and grouped shafts were seldom properly

developed in relation to the vaulting ribs. Buttressing was obtained by means of the division walls between an outer range of chapels, more often than not unmarked on the exterior. In Central Italy, as at Toscanella, rude Corinthian columns carry a round-arched arcade, above which the plain walls are pierced, by the small arched openings of the clerestory, while the roof is of the simple basilican type. No. 98 j m, show typical capitals. F. Mouldings. Flat bands are characteristic of the Northern style. Strings were formed by small arches, connecting one

Rude imitations of old Classical detail are met with. Southern work is far superior in detail, often possessing good outline, grace, and elegance. Richness and elaboration were attempted in the doorways (No. 94 h, j). G. Ornament (No. 98). Roughly carved grotesques of men and animals (No. 98 e, f), vigorous hunting scenes, and incidents of daily life are found in Northern sculpture. In Central Italy greater elegance is displayed, and Classic models were copied. The rows of apostles on the lintels of the doorways, as at Pistoia, are similar in treatment to Byzantine ivories. In Southern examples, bronze doors are a feature, as at Monreale Elaborate decoration in mosaic exists as in the Cathedral. Palermo churches and elsewhere (No. 98 h), and the use of color was the main object in the design of interiors.
pilaster strip to another.

ITALIAN ROMANESQUE.

245

5.

REFERENCE BOOKS.

Centuries."

Cattaneo (R.)- " Architecture in Italy from the Vlth to the Xlth Translated from the Italian. i8g6. Cresy and Taylor. " Pisa." 4to. 1829.
Dartein (F. de).

" Etude sur I'Architecture Lombarde."

2 vols., folio.

Paris, 1865-1882. Delhi (A. J.) and

Chamberlin (G. H.). " Norman Antiquities of Palermo and Environs." Folio. Boston, 1892. Gravina (D. D. B.). " II Duomo di Monreale.'' t vols., large folio.
Palermo, 1859.

Gruner(L.). "Terra-Cotta Architecture of North Italy.'' 4to. 1867. HittorffQ. I.) et Zanth (C. L. W.)." Architecture Antique de la
Sicile."

Knight.

Folio. Paris, 1827. " Normans in Sicily."

Knight (H. G.).

" Saracenic and8vo. 1838. Norman Remains to

Illustrate the

Normans
folio

Age." 2 vols., Paris, i856. " Die Bauwerke in der Lombardei vom 7 bis 14 (F.). Jahrhunderts." Folio. Darmstadt, 1846-1854. Salazaro (D.). " Studi sui Monumentidella Italia meridioni dal IV^ al

Folio. 1830. Rohault de Fleury. " Monuments de Pise au Moyen


4to.

m Sicily."

and Osten

XIIP

Secolo." z vols., folio. Napoli, 1871-1877. Schulz (H. W.) " Denkmaeler der Kunst des Mittelalters in Unter-

italien."

and 4to. Dresden, i860. Street (G. E. ). " Brick and Marble Architecture of North Italy." 1874. " Harrison (F.). "Theophano." (Historical Novel).
3 vols., folio

8 vo.

FRENCH ROMANESQUE.
'

'

How

reverend

is

the face of this

tall pile,

Whose ancient pillars rear their marble heads To bear aloft its arched and ponderous roof, By its own weight made steadfast and immovable
Looking
tranquillity.
It strikes

And

terror

on the aching sight."

CoNGREVE.

an awe

I.

INFLUENCES.

i. Geographical. France is practically on the high road between the south and north of Europe, and the relative position of each district influenced the various prevailing types of architecture. When Rome was a great power it was by way of Provence and the Rhone Valley that civilization spread hence the strong classical element which is there prevalent. The trade with Venice and the East introduced to the district of Perigueux a version of the Byzantine style in stone. ii. Geological. France is exceedingly rich in building materials, especially stone, of which most of the towns are built. The soft, fine-grained stone- of Caen, used throughout Normandy, was also exported to England. In the volcanic district of Auvergne walling was executed in a curious inlay of colored
;

material.
iii. Climate. In France there are three climates (a.) the north resembles that of the south of England (b.) the west on the Atlantic coasts is warmer, owing to the Gulf Stream and warm S.W. winds (c.) the south, on the Mediterranean, with a landscape almost African in its aspect, is sub-tropical. iv. Religion. Christianity, when introduced, took a strong hold in the Rhone Valley, Lyons contributing martyrs to the cause. In this district the most interesting event was the rise of the Cistercians (page 219), the severity of whose rules as to church building, caused a reaction from the decorative character of the later Romanesque, as in the facades of S. Gilles, and Attention was then concentrated upon of S. Trophime, Aries.
;

FRENCH ROMANESQUE.
to

247

the means of producing grand and severe effects, and the change the pointed style was promoted, by the effort to solve the

problems of vaulting. V. Social and Political. Hugh Capet ascended the Prankish throne towards the close of the tenth century, Paris being made the capital of the kingdom. At this period the greater part of the country was held by independent lords, and the authority of the king extended little beyond Paris and Orleans. Lawlessness and bloodshed were rife throughout the century, hence archi-

tectural progress was impossible until a more settled state of society was established. vi. Historical. On the death of Charlemagne, Northern France was invaded by the Northmen, from whom Normandy was named, and their ruler Rollo was the ancestor of the Norman kings of England. The conquest of England in 1066 marked the transference of the most vigorous of the Normans to England, Normandy becoming an English province until the time of King John. The hold, however, which they retained on their possessions in France was the cause of continual invasions and wars in the two countries, until the complete fusion of races in both was marked by the loss of the English possessions in France.

2.

ARCHITECTURAL CHARACTER.
style is

The southern
and graceful

remarkable for
the buildings

its

rich decorative fafades

cloisters,

version of old Roman fresh significance.

Provence being a new features, which seem to have acquired a


of

In Aquitania and Anjou the vast interiors in one span, supported by the massive walls of the recessed chapels, are impressive, and seem to revive the great halls of the Roman Thermae. In the
is the promising commencement of a new epoch, having the first tentative essays of a new system. The interiors were close set with pier and pillar, and heavily roofed with ponderous arching, forming a link to the marvellous structures of the next three centuries, where matter is lost in the emotions

north the style

expressed.

The plain thick walls, usually with flat external buttresses in the north or internal buttresses in the south, emphasized the richness of the west fronts of the churches in both districts. The development of vaulting, which was different in the north and south (page 223), made much progress, especially along the Loire Valley. In the south, naves were covered with barrel vaults, whose thrust was resisted by half barrel vaults, over two-storied aisles (No. 100 b), thus suppressing the clerestory, as to Notre Dame du Port, Clermont-Ferrand. In the north, naves were covered by groined vaults, often in

248

COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE.

square compartments and covered with sexpartite vaulting, the groined ribs being constructed independently and supporting the
infilling

or " severies."
3.

EXAMPLES.

France exhibits several varieties of the Romanesque style, in which different peculiarities are traceable, and for this reason divided into southern and northern provinces, the it may be main dividing line being the Loire. The influence of Roman remains was naturally greatest in the parts where they more particularly occur, as at Nimes, Aries, and Orange, and other places in the Rhone Valley. The South of France may be roughly divided into the provinces of Aquitania, Auvergne, Provence, Anjou and Burgundy. Aquitania has two distinct styles, the first having roundarched tunnel-vaults, and the second having domes spheroidal in shape, elongated upwards and supported on pointed arches, indicating an eastern influence. 5. Sernin, Toulouse, is an example of the first type. S. Front, Perigueux (a.d. 1120) (No. 84), an example of the second type, is due to a large trade with Byzantium. It is a Greek cross on plan, and closely resembles S. Mark, Venice (page 208). The illustration (No. 84 b) shows the arches supporting the domes as pointed, but they have latterly been made semicircular. Attached to the church is a magnificent campanile in stone, consisting of a square shaft, surmounted by a circular ring of columns, carrying a conical dome. S. Front acted as a prototype of churches with cupolas in France. Angouleme Cathedral (No. 100 e, f, g) is of the second type, but has a long aisleless nave with transepts provided with lateral chapels and an apsidal choir with four chapels, forming a Latin cross on plan. The nave is covered with four stone domes, that over the crossing being carried above the roof and having a stone lantern. Both transepts were originally crowned with towers, but the southern one was destroyed in 1568. Cahors Cathedral (a.d. 1050-1100) is an imitation of S. Irene
at Constantinople (page 204).

being a volcanic district, the geological influence is apparent, the buildings having a local character imparted to them by the inlaid decoration formed of different colored lavas, as at Notre Dame du Port, Clermont-Ferrand, and the
frequently

Auvergne

Church at

Issoire.

Provence has numerous remains of the eleventh and twelfth centuries, in many of which pointed tunnel-vaults were used, all showing Classical influence, as at Notre Dame, Avignon. The
portals of 5. Trophime, Aries (No. 102), and the Church at 5. Gilles, exhibit great richness of effect and beauty of detail. The cloisters, consisting of columns, used in couples in the depth

FRENCH ROMANESQUE.

249

of the wall, and carrying semicircular arches, are specially interesting. The columns have deep capitals sculptured with sharp and distinctive foHage (No. 103 d, e) and support semicircular arches, which are left entirely open, no attempt at tracery
filling

being made.
in

Anjou has many examples rich Notre Dame la Grande, Poitiers.

decorative treatment, as

The Abbey of FontevrauU {a.d. 1101-1119) resembled Angoul6me Cathedral in its aisleless nave and general arrangement. Burgundy was specially rich in monastic establishments which influenced the architectural treatment of the churches, many of which have been destroyed. The great Abbey -Church of Cluny (1089-1131) was the most famous in this province and was the longest in France, with double side aisles to the main body of
the church, and a chevet of five apsidal chapels. The pointed arch was employed in the arcade of the nave, which was covered with a great barrel-vault, and the aisles probably had groined vaulting. Autun Cathedral (iogo-1132) is an example of the aisleless churches which are found in various parts of France. The Church at Vezelay (a.d. iioo), and that at Vienne are other interesting examples, the former having a groined vault instead of the longitudinal barrel-vault. Tournus Abbey Church is an interesting example in which arches spanning the nave from pier to pier support transverse vaults, under which windows were formed in the nave walls. The North of France comprises the provinces of Central France, with Paris as the radiating centre, and the provinces of Normandy and Brittany. Normandy possesses many fine examples of this period owing to its prosperity and the power of the Norman dukes. These examples are of the vaulted basilican type, which was being developed towards the complete Gothic of the thirteenth century. The city of Caen possesses a number of examples illustrating the difficulties of vaulting, which ultimately led to the introduction of the pointed arch. The Abbaye-aux-Hommes (S. Etienne), Caen (Nos. loo-ioi), commenced a.d. 1066 by William the Conqueror, in expiation of having married Matilda in spite of their close relationship, is the best known example. The plan seems to have been founded on the Romanesque church of Spires (Germany). It had originally an eastern apse, but this was superseded later by the characteristic chevet (No. loi). The west end is flanked by
spires with angle pinnacles, this fafade being a prototype of the Gothic schemes to follow. The vaulting illustrates the difficulties of spanning oblong compartments without the aid of the pointed arch. Two bays

two square towers crowned by octagonal

250
of the

COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE

nave are comprised under one vaulting compartment, which thus being approximately square, the rise of the transverse, diagonal, and wall ribs is nearly equal. This resulted in a system known as sexpartite vaulting (page 225) (Nos. 100 c, d, 112 E, f), which, however, was superseded immediately on the introduction of the pointed arch, when each compartment, whatits shape, could be vaulted without reference to the neighbouring one, because the difference between the width of the nave and the distance longitudinally between the piers could be easily surmounted by pointed arches of different radius manipulated so as to equalize the height of the ribs. The Ahhaye-aux-Dames (La Trinite), Caen (a.d. 1083) (No. gg), in which the progress of intersecting vaulting is seen, the Church of S. Nicholas, Caen (a.d. 1084), and the Abbey Church of Mont S. Michel (since restored), are notable examples. The Abbey of S. Denis, near Paris, was erected by the great building abbot. Abbe Suger, in-1144, and the choir and west front still remain as left by him, although a fourteenth century nave has been wedged between them.

ever

4.
A.

COMPARATIVE.

Plans. In the south, internal buttresses, inclosing the outer range of chapels, were preferred, as at Vienne cathedral. Round churches are rare in this district. Towers are detached, resembling Italian Campanili. Cloisters were treated with the utmost elaboration and richness, usually having double columns with magnificent capitals which receive the round arches of the narrow bays, and were left entirely open, as glazing or tracery were not required by the climate. In the north, the increasing demand for vaulted interiors modified the planning, and the vaulting ribs were provided with individual shafts, which developed the pier plans. In the setting out of the bays important changes were introduced, thus in early plans the naves were vaulted in square bays comprising two aisle bays longitudinally (No. lob), but on the introduction of the pointed arch each oblong bay of the nave formed a vaulting compartment corresponding in length to each aisle bay. B. Walls. Massiveness is the characteristic of all the early work. Walls were of rubble with facing stones. Elaboration was reserved for doorways in the arcaded lower portion of the facades, which are often models of simplicity and richness. Buttresses are often mere strips of slight projection (No. gg), and the fagades were arranged in stories, with window lights in pairs or groups. Flying buttresses, admitting of high clerestories with windows lighting the nave, were introduced between a.d. 1150-1200. The towers are mostly square with pyramidal roofs (Nos. g8 and loi).

a o

M o z w

FRENCH ROMANESQUE EXAMPLES.

XfllE Of SECTIONS

TiWsmt
lOO.

nmL

100

MMY

FRENCH (north) ROMANESQUE.

loi.

The Abbaye-aux-Hommes
View
of

(S.

Etienne), Caen.

East End.

254

COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE.

The earlier vaulted churches have no clerestory. c. Openings. In the south, narrow openings with wide splays to admit light sufficed, while in the north a commencement in grouping was made, more especially in the direction of filling in the vault spandrels of the clerestory with arrangements of three and five light openings. The ante-chapels at the Church at Vezelay (1130) are generally referred to as having the earliest pointed Irnposing western entrances are characteristic vaults in France.
of this period.
D.

treatment was a tunnel vault half tunnels over the aisles, often in two stories, thus not admitting of a clerestory. The pointed section was sometimes used, doubtless to lessen the thrust upon the walls, and in order that the roofing slabs of stone might be carried direct upon the extrados of the vault. In the north, clerestories of increased height were obtained by means of the intersecting nave vaults (No. 100), with groin ribs (introduced in the twelfth century), whose thrust was taken by buttress arches concealed in the aisle roofs a step towards the later flying buttresses. The vault in the southern examples frequently supports the roofing slabs direct, while in the northern examples above the stone vault were constructed wooden roofs, which supported the covering independent of the vault. In nave arcades, either square piers, recessed E. Columns. in planes, and having upon their faces half round shafts carried., up to the vaulting ribs (No. 103 m-p), were employed, or columns, circular or octagonal, and reminiscent of Roman times, were used, and then the vaulting shafts start awkwardly from the abacus of their huge capitals (No. 103 d, e), imitated from the Corinthian order. The carrying up of the, vaulting shafts emphasizes the division of the nave into bays. F. Mouldings. In the south, the elegance due to classic tradition contrasts with the rough axed decoration cut upon the structural features of the Norman work. In the latter, arched jarnbs are formed in recessed planes (No. 102), with nook shafts plainly fluted, or cut with zigzags. Capitals are cubical blocks, either plain or carved with copies of acanthus leaves from old

Roofs.

In the

south, the early

to the nave, buttressed

by

Roman examples (No. 103). Corbel tables, supported by plain blocks or grotesque heads, form the cornices of the walls (No. 103 B, G, j). G. Ornament.; Painted glass was not favoured in southern examples, small, clear-glazed openings being employed to set off the opaque color decoration of the walls. Stained glass favouring large openings was. gradually developed in the north. The diaper work so common in the spandrels of arches, in"" northern work is supposed to have arisen from the imitation, in carving, of the color pattern work, or draperies that originally occupied the

FRENCH ROMANESQUE-ORNAMENT.

3TR4UL~"TO0I5~CHIATE^UX.

103.

FRENCH ROMANESQUE.
same
positions.
in the

257

Figure sculpture was more frequently employed southern buildings (No. 102). The West Fronts of the churches of the Charente District in Aquitania were elaborately treated with carved ornament representing foliage or figures of men and animals. On the ground story the capitals so treated were often continued as a rich, broad
frieze.

5.

REFERENCE BOOKS.
"

McGibbon
8vo.
4to.

(D.).

The

Architecture of Provence and the Riviera."

1888. 1828.

Pugin (A.W.) and La Keux.

" Architectural Antiquities of Normandy."


vols., 8vo.

Ram^efD.^.
R^voil (H.).
folio.

" Histoire de I'Architecture." a de " Architecture Romane du Midi

la

France."

Paris, 1879. 3 vols.,


et

Paris, 1864-1873. Ruprich- Robert (V.). " L'Architecture Normaiide aux siecles." 2 vols., folio. Paris, 1885-1887.

Xle

Xlle
1882.

Sharpe fEdmund). "The Domed Churches of Charente.'"

4to.

Spiers (R. Phen^). " Saint Front of Perigueux and the Domed Churches of Perigord and La Charente.'' R.I.B.A. Journal, February zo,
i8g6.

ThioUier (N. and

F.).

"

L'architecture religieuse a I'^poque

romane

dans I'ancien diocese du Puy." Folio. Le Puy, igoo. Verneilh (F. de). " L'Architecture Byzantin en France."

4to. Paris,

1851.

de I'Architecture." 10 vols., 8vo. translation of the article " Construction '' has been published under the title of " Rational Building," by G. M. Huss. 8vo, New York, 1895, Yonge (C. M.). " Richard the Fearless " (Historical Novel).
Paris,

VioUet-le-Duc.
1859.

" Dictionnaire

GERMAN ROMANESQUE.
"Both
the Castell and the Toure

And

eke the hall and every boure

Without peeces or joynings, But many subtle compassings As babeuries and pinnacles Imageries and tabernacles I saw, and eke full of windows

As

flakes fallen in great snowes."

Chaucer.

I.

INFLUENCES.

On the banks of the Rhine, and in the i. Geographical. south, cities have been established during the Roman occupation, and it was in these parts that Christianity took root, while, in
the north and east, paganism still existed. ii. Geological. The existence of stone in the Rhine valley facilitated the erection in this material of churches, rendered permanent and fireproof by the early introduction of vaulting. No stone being found on the sandy plains of Northern Germany, brick was there employed, and the style of that district is consequently varied from that of the Rhine valley. The average temperature of Central Germany iii. Clirnate. may be said to be the same as Southern England, but with wider extremes, as the heat in the summer is ten degrees higher, and in the winter correspondingly lower, so that carriages in Berlin are converted into sledges. iv. Religion. In the early period the Germans looked much to Rome, and Charlemagne, being a strong supporter of Christianity, forced the people of Saxony to embrace that religion. The plan of a typical church of this period is peculiar in having eastern and western apses. There are also a number of important circular churches, built as tombs, or more especially as baptisteries, the conversion of the tribes giving great importance to that ceremony. Germany united under CharleV. Social and Political. magne afterwards split up into small principalities, whereas France, originally divided into many distinct nationalities, became fused into an absolute monarchy and has remained, in

GERMAN ROMANESQUE.
spite of all changes, the

259

most united of continental powers. In the later portion of this period, Germany was troubled by the dissensions of the two rival parties, the Guelphs and Ghibellines, the one supporting the Church and municipal rights, and the other representing the Imperial authority, but the conflict between the two took place mainly in North Italy (page 405). vi. Historical. Charlemagne (a.d. 768-814), the first Frankish king who became Roman Emperor, was crowned by the Pope at Rome, and ruled over the Iknd of the Franks, which included all Central Germany and Northern Gaul. In addition he established the Frankish dominion over '"Southern Gaul and Northern Italy (No. go). In a great measure, he restored the arts and civilization to Western Europe, resulting in the erection of many important buildings in his dominions.

On

Charlemagne's death in

a.d.

814

this

empire crumbled to

pieces through internal wars, and in the unsettled state of the country, the German princes pushed themselves into prominence by demanding the right to elect their own sovereign Conrad the First, reigning as King of Germany at the beginning of the tenth century. His successor, Otho, extending the boundary of the German Empire southwards into Lombardy, was crowned Emperor of the West at Rome, an event which shows the leading position of the Frankish emperors at the period, and was not without its influence on the architecture of these regions. The political relations of the Hohenstaufen (or Swabian) Emperors (a.d. 1 138-1273) with Lombardy, is evidenced in the similarity The house of Hapsburg of the architecture of the two countries. succeeded the Hohenstaufen dynasty in 1273, when French Gothic architecture was introduced, and henceforth copied.

2.

ARCHITECTURAL CHARACTER.

The style bears a strong resemblance to North Italian Romanesque, due to certain influences dealt with previously (page 234 and above). The Rhine districts possess the most fully- developed Romanesque architecture, and the style has fewer local varieties than
that of France. The plans of the churches are peculiar in having western and eastern apses, and no great western entrance as in France. The general architectural character is rich in the multiplication of circular and octagonal turrets, in conjunction with polygonal domes, and the use of arcaded galleries under the eaves. The most richly ornamented parts are the doorways and capitals, which are bold and effective in execution. Vaulting appears to have been first adopted in the Rhenish churches some fifty years after its general adoption in France.
s 2

GERMAN ROMANESQUE.

104.

Church of the Apostles, Cologne. View of Apse.

GERMAN ROMANESQUE.
The Germans may claim
or
till

261

North ItaUan Romanesque, and


about 1268.
3.

to be the inventors of the Lombardian their round arched style lasted

EXAMPLES.

Saxony and the Rhine valley are specially rich in Romanesque examples, and few works of importance were erected elsewhere till the Gothic period. Gernrode Abbey Church (958-1050), and S. Godehard, Hildesheim (1133), are of the basilican type with triple eastern apses. The Monastery of S. Gall (circa a.d. 820) in Switzerland (page 276), of which a complete plan was found in the seventeenth
is an interesting and typical example of a German Benedictine monastery of the period. It appears to have been prepared by Eginhard, Charlemagne's architect, and consisted of a double-apse church and cloister, abbot's lodging, school, refectory, dormitory, guest-house, dispensary, infirrriary, orchard, cemetery, granaries, and bakehouses. The Church of the Apostles, Cologne (a.d. 1220-1250) is one of a series in that city which possesses characteristic features (Nos. 104 and 105 a, b, c). In plan it consists of a broad nave, and of aisles half the width of the nave. The eastern portion has three apses, opening from three sides of the central space, crowned by a low octagonal tower, giving richness and importance to this portion of the church. The grouping externally is effective, the face of the wall being divided up by arcading, and crowned with the characteristic row of small arches under the eaves of the roof. The bold dignity of this church may be compared with the confused effect of the French chevet, as S. Etienne, Caen (No. loi). S. Maria im Capitol (ninth century), S. Martin (a.d. 1150II 70), and S. Cunibert, are other examples of triapsal churches for which the city of Cologne is famous. Cathedral (1110-1200) (Nos. 105 and 106) vies with those of Mayence (a.d. 1036), Treves (a.d. 1047), and Spires (a.d. 1030), as the representative cathedral of this period. As usual (Nos. 105 d, e, f, g),^ the vaulting of one bay of the nave corresponds with two of the aisles, both being covered with cross vaults. Twin circular towers flank the eastern and western apses, and the crossing of the nave and transept is covered with a low octagonal tower, having a pointed roof. The entrances were placed at the side, a position which found favour in Germany as well as in England. The facades have semicircular headed windows, framed in with flat pilaster strips as buttresses. Aix-la-Chapelle Cathedrar(No. 83 e, f), built a.d. 768-814 by the Emperor Charlemagne as a royal tomb-house for himself, Ravenna is interesting as resembling S. Vitale,

century,

Worms

GERMAN ROMANESQUE EXAMPLES.

TMMSEPTS ^nn Emf.UH


P0ETIION TBMP3^LI1INI PL19N

THEBS IS ^

%9Um WlliTEM

TO^N^fElSE '5iCiri!H

ia@ ^M,

EflSr^WWBTilNlBS
I

f EJMT!2?S' ?...,

iP

->

-.-

l?n SCALE? PMdS

105.

w
K H S
H

264

COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE.

(No. 83 c, d). short description is given on No. 83. The building has been much altered since the time of Charlemagne, for the Gothic choir was added in 1353 to 1413, and the gables and roof of -the octagon are of the thirteenth and seventeenth centurieg. The chapels surrounding the structure are of the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, and the western tower has been added in recent years. The building is of interest, historically, as the crowning place of the Western Emperors.
(a.d. 1093-1156) is a Benedictine completely in this style. On either side of the western apse, which is used as a tomb-house, are the principal entrances from the western atrium, and there are three eastern apses. The vaulting-bays of the nave and aisles are of similar

Laach Abbey Church


built

example

width.

Lubeck Cathedral
peculiar to

(a.d. 1173), is
;

North Germany
is

a type of brick architecture but the choir and aisles were not

added

till

a.d.

1335 (page 398).

remarkable for a series of double or two-storied churches, generally attached to castles, as at Nuremberg, Landsberg, and Steinfurt. In these it is held that the upper chapel was used by the Prince and his personal retinue, and the lower by his retainers, but in some instances the upper church would appear to have been provided in case of floods.
4.

Germany

COMPARATIVE.

A. Plans. The naves and aisles are vaulted in square bays, one vaulting bay of the nave being equal to two of the aisles, as in the plan of Worms Cathedral (No. 105 g), and the Church of the Apostles, Cologne (No. 105 c). The choir is always apsidal, and often raised, as in Lombardy, to admit of crypts beneath. Western as well as eastern transepts occur, contrasting in this respect with Italian examples, and over the crossing a tower, sometimes octagonal (No. 106), is generally found. Western apses are frequent (No. 105 g), as at Trfeves and the Abbey Church at Laach, and aps'es also occur at the ends of transepts, as in the Church of the Apostles at Cologne

(No. 105

c).

Numerous

towers, either square, circular, or polygonal, pro-

ducing a rich and varied outline, were employed, two being usually at the east end flanking the apse, and two at the west end, connected by a gallery (Nos. 106 and 107 g). The towers rise in successive stories, and a characteristic finish consists of four gables and a steep roof, a hip rafter rising from each gable top (No. 107 g). B. Walls. The blank walls are cut up by flat pilaster strips, connected horizontally by ranges of small arches springing from

GERMAN ROMANESQUE ORNAMENT.

107.

266

COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE.

corbels (Nos. 105 d and 107 e).


this favourite feature

may

Owing to the smallness of scale be considered as a string course or

cornice.

Open arcades, the origin of which have already been dealt with (page 237), occur under the eaves of roofs, especially round the apses (Nos. 104 and 106). The churches have sometimes a triforium and always a clerestory. c. Openings. No tendency towards tracery is found. The windows are usually single, being rarely grouped (No. 106). The doorways (Nos. 105 and 107 n) are placed at the side, rarely in the west front or transept ends. D. Roofs. In the Rhine district a central semicircular barrel vault was supported by half-barrel vaults over the aisles, a system which led by degrees to complete Gothic vaulting. Timber roofs

were also employed for large spans. Tower roofs, and spires of curious form, are a special feature of the style. A gable on each tower face, with high pitched intersecting roofs (No. 107 g), is common, the latter being formed by the intersections of the planes between the adjacent sides of adjoining gables forming a pyramid,
being a step in the evolution of spire growth. The nave arcades were generally constructed of E. Columns. square piers, with half columns attached, and the alternation of piers and columns is a favourite German feature. The capitals (No. 107 c, D, F, h), though bold in execution, are well designed, being superior to the later Gothic examples. F. Mouldings (see Walls). These are as a rule of indifferent design, but the capitals and bases take a distinctive form, leading from Roman through Romanesque to Gothic. Internally the flat plain surfaces were occaG. Ornament. sionally decorated in fresco, and the traditions and examples of the early Christian and Byzantine, mosaic decorations, were carried on in color. In the north colored bricks were used, and were unsuitable for rich decoration, thus accounting for the absence of sculptured foliage.

5.

REFERENCE BOOKS.
Folio.

Bpisserde

(S.).

" Denkmale der Baukunst am Nieder-Rhein."


Rose"
(Historical Novel).

Munich, 1844.
Moller(G.).
1852.

" Denkmaeler der Deutschen Baukunst." Folio. Leipzig.

Hardy

(A. S.). " Passe

nmm
D
io8.

CENTURY

GOTHIC ARCHITECTURE IN EUROPE.


GENERAL INTRODUCTION.!
I.
1.

INFLUENCES.

The nations of Western Europe had come Germany was the centre of the Western Empire and the Kingdoms of France, Italy and Spain were also becoming strong united states. Russia, Sweden and Norway had little to
Geographical.
into existence.

do with Western Europe. England had become thoroughly united under the Norman Kings. The map (No. io8) gives the general
distribution of the various countries in the thirteenth century. ii. Geological. Refer to each country. iii. Climate. Refer to each country. It has been pointed out that the sun, in Northern Europe, is more suitable for Gothic than Classic Architecture, for it is a sun wheeling somewhat low on an average round the sky, and shadows are better caught by outstanding buttresses and the flying lateral members of a Gothic

' Before treating of the development of the style peculiar to each country, a general outline sketch is given.

268

COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE.

fa9ade, than by the level lines of the heavy horizontal Classic cornices, which are more effective under the Grecian or Italian sun, which moves higher in the firmament.

Snow and inclement weather were responsible for the high pitched Gothic roof of Northern Europe. iv. Religion. Introductory remarks and a description of the various orders of monks are given on page 218. The immense power of the Popes, which was probably at its height in the thirteenth century, was evidenced in the way they made and unmade Emperors and Kings and disposed of their dominions. The clergy, in consequence of their learning, also took a prominent part in temporal affairs, and by so doing attracted wealth and power to their orders. In Germany, many of the Abbots and Bishops were princes of the Empire, and the Archbishops of Cologne, Treves, and Mayence were among the Electors of the Emperor. The worship of relics, and of local saints (as S. Hugh at Lincoln, S. Thomas at Canterbury, S. Swithun at Winchester), the periodical pilgrimages, the adoration of the Virgin Mary and other forms of ritual, also had their influence on the monuments. Mariolatry was responsible for the addition of lady chapels either laterally, as at Ely (No. 117 a), or at the eastern extremity, as at Salisbury (No. 117 e). The demand for chapels dedicated to particular saints, for an ambulatory to be used for processional purposes, and the foundation of chantry chapels where masses for the dead could be repeated, also affected the general plan of

many
V.

buildings.

Social and Political. Refer to each country. The growth of towns which developed into important cities brought about an increase of riches and the erection of magnificent buildings owing to municipal rivalries. In Italy, the country was
divided into different portions belonging to the larger towns,

which afterwards became principalities, whereas in Germany, towns joined together for mutual defence, amongst the most famous being those forming the Hanseatic league.
vi.

Historical.

Refer to each country.

2.

ARCHITECTURAL CHARACTER.

The principles and character of Gothic architecture we're similar throughout Western Europe,'and are indicated on No. 109. The fully-developed Gothic art of the thirteenth century was the style which had been slowly developing itself throughout Europe as a necessary sequence of Romanesque art, and is mainly recognized because of the introduction and use in door and window openings, arcades, vaulting and ornamentation of the pointed arch

GOTHIC ARCHITECTURE

IN

EUROPE.

269

which, indeed, is so characteristic as to give a suggestion of height coinciding with the aspiring tendency of the style and its connection with the religious enthusiasm of the period. In the thirteenth, fourteenth, and fifteenth centuries the Gothic masons carried to the utmost the use of stone as a building material, heaping it up in towers that rose on open archways through the lofty roofs of the naves and transepts, and tapered away in shell-like spires embroidered in all the fretwork of laceThey hung it aloft in ponderous vaults treated by like tracery. art to seem the gossamer web of nature, scarce capable of bearing the stalactite pendants in which the fancy of the fifteenth century found its expression, and eventually pushing their practice to the furthest boundaries, they cut the granular stone to the thinness of fibrous wood or iron, and revelled in tricks of construction and marvels of workmanship. The Gothic architects, developing still further the principles of Romanesque architecture (page 221), had to employ the materials at hand according to their nature, and to seek for those laws of elasticity and equilibrium which were substituted for those of This inert stability as practised by the Greeks and Romans. elasticity was obtained by the employment of stone laid in narrow courses with tolerably thick mortar joints. / Every vertical support in Gothic architecture depended for its /stability on being stayed by a buttress, which in its turn was weighted by a pinnacle and every arch-thrust met another which counteracted it. In the case of the nave vaults, the collected pressures of the vaulting and roof were counteracted by arches, called flying buttresses, leaning against the nave wall and supported at some distance by massive piers, weighted with tall pinnacles (Nos. 109 a, 141 f, g, h, and 153 a). Walls became mere enclosures, and the entire structure consisted of a framework of piers, buttresses, arches, and ribbed vaulting held in equilibrium by the combination of oblique forces neutralizing each other (No. 141). Even the walls themselves were occupied principally by glazed windows, divided by stone mullions, having their upper parts designed with combinations of curves of great variety. No such system of construction, it is evident, could have been developed without the employment of such a material as stone, laid in tolerably small courses with mortar joints, which gave the necessary elasticity to the various pressures. These principles led to the introduction of much novelty in mouldings, capitals and piers, -for the numerous vaulting ribs being collected at intervals were supported on capitals of a shape formed to fit them, and these were provided with shafts, sometimes carried on corbels and sometimes continued to the ground, influencing very largely the form of the nave piers. Further, the comparative scarcity of materials taught the Gothic
;

'

PRINCIPLE? or (aOT/lIC COn^TBOCTION.


WJIST
If!

Tffi

mnWfflMT fiF MIWB CISO V^JHS

w2 nsHcnsN ciiki
ij

MBpCMTWEm
fffiJpiRJ

TOS)

KIWMte) i,?i)TmL .WlMS

PLAN AMD 5ET

TIMGOOTOFMNCeUFXTES

WEI WE BBS,

M cmJWTBSeTIB

ED Vault with
HSVER5E,DlfiG0N;

log.

GOTHIC ARCHITECTURE

IN

EUROPE.

27I

architects to practise economy in their use, the characteristic mouldings of the Mediaeval period exhibiting much less waste of material than those common in Classic times. In the Middle Ages it was the constructional features themselves to which an attractive form was given, and in this particular, the architecture of this period stands in close relation
to

Greek

art.

The same
changed, and

principle of truth
it

was upheld, but the form had was no longer the self-contained Greek temple,

reposeful in the severity of horizontal lines, but a complex, restless structure whose aspiring tendencies found expression in vertical grouping, unity being obtained by the exact and necessary correlation between all the parts. Although many, if not most, of the architectural features were founded primarily on structural necessity, yet others were the expression of artistic invention and of aesthetic requirements. Form, in the best types of architecture, is not the result of caprice, but is only the expression of the structural necessities. If the column is a real support and has an expanded capital it is if the mouldings for the purpose of supporting a particular load and ornaments have particular developments it is because they are necessary, and if the vaults are divided by ribs it is because they are so many sinews performing a necessary function. The
;

spire was evolved from no utilitarian requirements, but was a sign of the communal spirit and an indication of municipal prosperity, of which it formed an outward and visible expression. The architecture was adapted to a structure of small stones with thick mortar joints, and was a compromise between the concrete walling and the jointed stones (without mortar) of the Romans. The military organization, which had helped to mould the Roman style, was wanting in the Gothic period, stone having to be sought in various quarries from different proprietors and transported by voluntary aid, or by workmen who were forced labourers, doing as little as possible, and taken away, ever and anon, to fight in their owners' battles. As to the material at hand, the Gothic architects of Western Europe possessed stone which was strong and hard, and could be split into thin pieces, but had not at their disposal either the marble of Pentelicus or the blocks of granite which the Romans procured from Corsica, the Alps, and the East thus they were absolutely compelled to erect considerab'e buildings with thin courses of stone, whereas the Greeks erected small buildings with enormous blocks of marble, conditions naturally influencing the forms of each style of architecture. Romanesque architecture consisted of walling formed of a rubble core between two faces of stonework, but at the beginning of the thirteenth century, loftier and

272

COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE.

edifices being built, a new method was gradually In seeking to diminish the size of the piers and thickevolved. ness of the walls, it was necessary for the architects of this period to find a mode of construction more homogeneous and more capable of resistance, and to avoid the expense of labour which the carrying of material of large size involved. The walls, therefore, became of secondary importance, their place being occupied by stained glass windows, and the support of the structure was effected entirely by means of buttresses or short walls placed so as best to resist the thrust of the vaulting. Vaulting. The method was an extension of the Romanesque system, which was evolved from that of the Romans (page 224) and consisted of a framework of indepeiident ribs, which were first constructed and which supported thin panels of stone. The difficulties of vaulting oblong compartments were now overcome by the introduction of the pointed arch, which was used to cover the shorter spans, while the semicircular arch was The ribs became still used for some time for the diagonal ribs. permanent centres on which the panels or " infilling " of thin stone could rest, and enabled the building to be erected all at once or in parts without disadvantage to the solidity of the edifice. As indicated on Nos. 109 and 141, the pressures of the vaults were transmitted to the angles of each compartment by the diagonal ribs. Such pressures are of two kinds outwards by the nature of the arch, and downwards by the weight of the material, the resultant of the two being in an oblique direction. The increase of the number and variety of ribs and the consequent form of the vaults (No. 11 1 d) during the three centuries of Gothic architecture is one of the most fascinating studies of the

more extensive

style.

The invention of painted glass was an important factor in the development of the style, for traceried windows came to be looked upon merely as frames in which to exhibit painted transparent pictures displaying the incidents of Bible History. Neither the painted sculpture and hieroglyphics of the Egyptian temples, the colored and sculptured slabs of the Assyrian palaces, the paintings of the Greek temples, nor the mosaics and frescoes of the Byzantine and Romanesque periods produced color effects that can be compared with the brilliancy and the many-tinted splendours of the transparent walls of a Gothic cathedral. In the north and west of Europe, where painted glass was the principal mode of decoration, the walls were kept internally as flat as possible, so as to allow the windows to be seen internally in every direction, all the mechanical expedients of buttresses and pinnacles being placed externally. Further, when by the grouping of windows and the subsequent formation of mullions and tracery, the entire screen wall between

GOTHIC ARCHITECTURE IN EUROPE.

273

the piers came to be occupied by bright colored windows, these of necessity took the pointed form of the vault, originally adopted for constructive reasons arising from the progress of the art of vaulting, which was further influenced by the desire for lofty windows to act as frames for the glass.

3.

EXAMPLES.

BUILDINGS ERECTED DURING THE

MIDDLE AGES.
CATHEDRALS AND CHURCHES.
The construction of these buildings, many of which were founded in the eleventh and twelfth centuries, was carried on from
generation to generation. The place in the national life which the mediaeval cathedrals ^occupied was an important one, and must be realized in order to understand how they were regarded. Cathedrals were erected and decorated partly as a means of popular education, and they were the history books of the period, taking the place in the social state since occupied, to a large extent, by such modern institutions as the Board School, Free Library, Museum, Picture Gallery and Concert Hall. The sculpture and the painted glass reflected the incidents of Bible History from the creation to the redemption of mankind, the sculptured forms and brilliant coloring being easily understood by the people. The virtues and vices, with their symbols, were there displayed, either in glass or statuary, along with their reward or punishment saints and angels told of the better life, and the various handicrafts, both of peace and war were mirrored in imperishable stone or colored glass. Architecture then as now was also the grand chronicle of secular history, past and present, in which Kings, Nobles and Knights were represented. The plans in all parts of Europe, as may be seen on referring to those of England (Nos. 117, 118, 119, 120 and 127), France (Nos. 155 and 159), Belgium (No. 167), Germany (Nos. 170 and 172), and Italy (Nos. 176 and 179), are'i^nerally in the form of a Latin cross, the short arms, north and south, forming the transepts. The cruciform ground plan is considered by some as a development from the early Christian basilicas, such as Old S. Peter, Rome (page 182), and by others, as evolved from the cruciform buildings erected for sepulchral purposes as early as the period of Constantine. A tower, sometimes crowned with a spire, was generally erected over the crossing or at the west end. As a rule the nave is the portion to the westward, and the choir,
.

F.A.

J <

Q
a X h <

U
< h Z
m

z h z o

>
> <

A < s

GOTHIC ARCHITECTURE
containing the bishop and clergy,

IN

EUROPE.

275

is that to the eastward of the crossing. Each of these divisions is further divided into a central nave and side aisles, separated by columns or piers. The principal entrance, often richly ornamented, is at the west end, or by a porch on the south or north sides. The columns or piers support arches (the nave arcade), which carry the main walls, rising above the aisle roof (Nos. 109 a and 141 g). Above this arcade are a series of small arches, opening into a dark space caused by the height of the sloping roof of the aisle; this is called the triforium, or "blind story." Above the triforium is a range of windows in the main wall, admitting light into the upper part of the nave this division is called the clerestory, or " clear story," probably derived from
;

the French word cluir, light being admitted by the windows in The head of these windows is this portion of the nave wall. generally the level of the ridge of the stone vault of the nave, which is covered by a high pitched wooden roof. The east ends or choirs, usually square-ended in England (Nos. 117, 118, 119 and 120) are generally richer than the remainder of the church, and the floor is raised above the nave
level

by

steps.

d), Gloucester (No. 118 c), (No. 120 j), and Canterbury (No. ii8b), all of Norman origin, were circular, while Westminster Abbey has a ring of chapels or chevet (No. 127). The lady-chapel is placed beyond the choir at the extreme east end, as at Norwich, Peterborough, and Salisbury (No. 117 e), or on one side, as at Ely (No. 117 a). The cloisters attached to so many of the English cathedrals, forming part of the original monastic buildings, were probably derived from the atrium of the Early Christian period (page 180). / They are generally, but not invariably, south and west of the transept, in the warmest and most sheltered position, forming the centre of the secular affairs of the monastery, and a means of

The

east ends of

Norwich (No. 118


d), Lichfield

Peterborough (No. 117

communication between

different parts of the Abbey. the general distribution of the parts of a cathedral or large church, from which, naturally, there are many deviations, such as, for instance, the position and number of transepts (Nos. 117, 118, 119, 120, 155, 159, 167 and 187). Great length, and central towers (see Chichester, Durham, Worcester, Rochester, Oxford, York, Chester, Gloucester and western towers also Wells), are features of English cathedrals occur in many examples, as at Lichfield (with spires), Durham, Canterbury, York, Wells, Lincoln and Ripon. Compared with such long, low, and highly grouped examples. Continental cathedrals seem short, high, and often shapeless, owing to the intricacy and profusion of their buttressing (Nos. 109, 153, 154).

Such

is

T 2


276

COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE.

In churches, a single western tower is an English characteristic (No. 130). The interior of a Gothic Cathedral has been thus described " The tall shafts that mount in massy pride,
:

Their mingling branches shoot from side to side Where elfin sculptors with fantastic clue O'er the long roof their wild embroidery drew When superstition, with capricious hand, In many a maze, the wreathM window planned, With hues romantic tinged the gorgeous pane, To fill with holy light the wondrous fane, To aid the builder's model, richly rude, By no Vitruvian symmetry subdued."
;

The English Cathedrals, as a general rule, owe much of their beauty to the fact that they are generally placed in a large open space called the Close, as at Canterbury, Lincoln (No. 125) and Salisbury (No. 121) " The ranged ramparts bright From level meadow-bases of deep grass
Suddenly sealed the
light "

or are situated picturesquely on the banks of a river, Worcester, or Durham, described by Scott as,
"

as at

Grand and

vast that stands above the


it,

Wear

"
;

or, as

Milton so descriptively has

are

" Bosom'd high 'mid tufted trees."

The French Cathedrals, on the other hand, are often completely surrounded by houses and shops (page 368), which in many cases were actually built against the wall of the church itself (No. 162). For comparison of English and French Cathedrals, t see page 378.

MONASTERIES.
These were amongst the most important structures erected in the middle ages, and were important factors in the development of mediasval architecture. They were erected by the various religious orders already referred to (page 218). The monks according to their several orders favoured different pursuits. The Benedictine was the chronicler and most learned of monks, and his dress was adopted by University students the Augustinian favoured preaching and disputations the Cistercian was the recluse, the friend of the poor, interested in agriculture and industrial pursuits the Cluniac was the student and artist the Carthusian the ascetic and the Friars the missionary preachers of the period. A complete monastery, of which S. Gall (page 261) and Westminster Abbey (No. 127) are good examples, included
;


GOTHIC ARCHITECTURE IN EUROPE.
:

277

beside the church (a.) A Cloister Court, off which were placed the ChapterJHouse, with the Sacristy between it and the church, and the dormitory adjoining the church, approached by a separate staircase. The cellarage for beer, wine and oil, was often placed under the dormitory. On the opposite side to the church were the refectory (dining hall) and kitchens, thus placed to keep away noise and smell. The lavatory was usually placed in the south cloister walk as at Westminster, Wells, Chester, Peterborough and Gloucester, (b.) An Inner Court, with infirmary, guest house, kitchen, servants' hall, library and scriptorium (the writing and illuminating room for making copies of books).
(c.)

A Common

by granaries, bakehouses,
tribunal,

Court, with double gateway for carts, surrounded stables, store rooms, servants' rooms, prison, abbot's lodging, and barn, (d.') The Church,

Court or Close, open to the public. (.) Mills, workshops, gardens, orchards, and fishponds. Monasteries answered the purpose of inns in little frequented places, as is the case to this day on the continent.

SECULAR ARCHITECTURE.
Examples of secular work, such as castles and residences of the nobles, the dwellings of the people, hospitals, and other civil and domestic work are referred to under each country.

4.

COMPARATIVE.

The comparative analysis of each country is given separately, and a comparative table of the underlying differences between the Gothic and Renaissance styles is given on page 442.
5.

REFERENCE BOOKS.

Lists are given with each country.

ENGLISH ARCHITECTURE.
ANGLO-SAXON, ROMANESQUE (NORMAN), AND GOTHIC.
" Diffused in every part,

through forms of human art, Faith had her arch, her arch when winds blew loud, Into the consciousness of safety thrill'd And Love her towers of dread foundation, laid Under the grave of things. Hope had her spire WORDSWORTH. Star high, and pointing still to something higher. "
Spirit divine

I.

INFLUENCES.
position of

i.

Geographical.

The
bound

England may well be

considered unique.
" England,

Whose rocky

*****
;

in with the triumphant sea. shore beats back the envious siege.

This fortress built by nature for herself Against infection and the hand of war This happy breed of men, this little world, This precious stone set in the silver sea, Which serves it in the office of a wall, Or as a moat, defensive to a house. Against the envy of less happier lands."

Shakespeare, Richard II.

England being an island with natural harbours, and lying opposite the rich and populous plains of Europe, owed much of her development to the intercourse effected by her ships. Isolation by the sea has had two alternating influences, for it has assisted in the development of purely national characteristics, and by giving rise to an incurable habit of travelling, has led to the importation of continental ideas in architecture. The geology of the country is, in some way, ii. Geological. responsible for the special character of the buildings in different parts of England, thus the transport of stone by sea was an

ENGLISH ARCHITECTURE.

279

important reason for its use in some districts, but in the Fen districts, in the absence of good roads, material was conveyed on horseback. The granites of Cornwall and Devonshire, the limestones of Portland, and the oolitic formations, such as the Bath stones, have all affected the districts in which they are found, although, of course, as transport became easier, there was a tendency for these Even in the Middle Ages local distinctions to disappear. stone was brought from a distance, Caen stone from Normandy being used in the erection of Canterbury Cathedral and other
churches.
of modern type came into general use in England 1300, after being comparatively unused since the departure of the Romans, Little Wenham Hall (a.d. 1260), in Suffolk, being probably the earliest brick building existing in

Brickwork

about A.D.

England.

During the reigns of William and Mary and Queen Anne, brickwork was largely used in house construction by Sir ChristoHampton Court contains good examples pher Wren and others. of sixteenth and seventeenth century brickwork. In chalk districts the characteristic _;?^ work of Norfolk, Suffolk, and parts of the south coast, gives a special character to the
architecture of these districts. Terra-cotta was also employed, as at Layer Marney Towers, Essex (1500-1525), and in parts of Hampton Court Palace. Where forests afforded abundant material, as in Lancashire, Cheshire and elsewhere, half-timbered houses were erected, chiefly during the fourteenth, fifteenth, and sixteenth centuries (Nos. 132 j,
150,
iii.

and 247). Climate.

The climate

is

cool, temperate, mild,

and moist,

and

adapted for almost continuous work, during every season, but cold, damp, and high winds with much rain necessitate conThe deep stant forethought in building to exclude the weather. porches and small entrances of English cathedrals are in contrast with continental entrances, and are directly influenced by the
is

climate.
iv.

Religion.

The conversion
effected

to Christianity of the Kentish

King ^thelbert was

by

S.

Augustine in a.d. 597.

By the

end of the tenth century the greater part of Europe had embraced The power of the papacy had steadily grown, and Christianity.
at its height from the eleventh to the thirteenth century, during which period several popes succeeded in overruling the civil power. In England, attempts at the assertion of national independence were continuous, but not pushed to extremes until a later date. The distinction between the regular and secular clergy was fully established, and the different orders of monks had come into

was


28o

COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE.

existence, their buildings exhibiting characteristic points of differThe Crusades, indicating the religious zeal of the period, are referred to on pages 218, 283, 363. John WyclifFe (d. 1384) asserted the freedom of religious

ence (page 218).

thought, and protested against the dogmas of the papacy. Many of the cathedrals formed part of monastic foundations (page 294), which accounts for peculiarities of plan differentiating

them from French Examples.

The dissolution of the monasteries in the reign of Henry VIII. provided funds for the erection of new mansions. Britain, as a Roman colony, was V. Social and Political. divided into five provinces, and progress was made in agriculture, building, and mining, the Roman dress and language being adopted by the British higher classes. The Roman settlements in this country were, many of them, provided with basilicas or halls of justice, baths, markets, temples, and villas as at Bath, Bignor in Sussex, Darenth in Kent, and Fifehead-Neville in Dorset. The remains of this epoch consist chiefly of castles, such as those at Colchester, York, Lincoln, Richborough, and Burgh

Castle (near Yarmouth).


" Chester," as an affix, is derived from the Latin castra camp, and signifies a Roman settlement in this country, as at Winchester, Leicester, Silchester, and Chester. The excavations at Silchester revealed the remains of a very

The word

word

fine basilica.
civilizing power of the Roman roads was of importance opening out the country. The four great roads in England were (a.) Watling Street, London to Wroxeter, near Shrewsbury. (&.) Ermine Street, London to Lincoln via Colchester and Cambridge. (c.) Fosse Way, Cornwall to Lincoln.

The
:

in

\i.) Ichnield

Street,

Bury

St.

Edmunds

to

Salisbury and

Southampton.
Agricola built his forts from the Clyde to the Forth. Hadrian's wall built from the Tyne to the Solway. A.D. 210. The Emperor Severus strengthened Agricola's forts. After the departure of the Romans in a.d. 420, the remains of Roman work were largely destroyed by the barbarians who succeeded them, but the influence of their architecture continued for a considerable period. A.D. 449-547. The arrival of the Angles and Saxons did not improve matters, as they were especially ignorant in all matters of art. are indebted to the Venerable Bede (a.d. 731) for most of the information regarding this period, and from him is learnt that a stone church was a rarity, a.d. 650 seems to be
A.D. 81.
A.D. 120.

We

ENGLISH ARCHITECTURE.

281

about the date at which stone churches were first built, and in some of these it has been suggested that the timber forms of the earlier ones were executed in stone (No. 134). A.D. 603. See of London revived. A.D. 604. See of Rochester founded. A.D. 656. Monastery of Peterborough founded. A.D. 681. Benedict Biscop flourished as a church-builder. A.D. 871-901. King Alfred erected, or rebuilt, many of the ruined cities or monasteries, but most of these appear to have been built of wood, and covered with thatch. A.D. 1017-1035. King Cnut founded Bury St. Edmunds monastery.
A.D.

1061.

Harold's Collegiate Church

at

Waltham

conse-

crated.

the Confessor's religious enthusiasm, Abbey (consecrated 1065). England by the Normans, and the building operations of Bishop Gundulf, at Rochester Castle, the Tower of London, and elsewhere, influenced the construction of strongholds, by which the invaders secured their position in the newly-conquered country. A.D. 1 174. William of Sens built the choir of Canterbury Cathedral. The boroughs led the way in self-government, free speech, and justice and the formation of towns, around the abbeys or castles, took place, though the process was slow and difficult. A.D. 1154-1216. During this period the fusion of the native English and Norman settlers was effected, in order to withstand the strangers whom the Angevin kings were constantly bringing
A.D.

1042-1066.

Edward

and

his work at Westminster A.D. io65. The conquest of

into England.

The Association of Freemasons, founded early in the thirteenth century, assisted materially in forwarding the technical progress of the new buildings. A.D. 1215. The Magna Charta freed the Church, and remedied abuses. A.D. 1265. Leicester's Parliament, to which burgesses were first
cities and boroughs, was called. 1265-1284. The conquest of Wales led to further development in the planning and design of castles. Edward L abandoned his foreign dominions, A.D. 1272-1307. and attempted to consolidate Great Britain. The framework of modern political institutions began to develop, and peace and prosperity in commerce gave importance to a middle class. A.D. 1362. The English language was ordered to be used in the law courts. A.D. 1349-1381. The rise of the farmer class and free labourer,

summoned from
A.D.

282

COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE.

owing to the Black Death, which swept away half the population of England. The poet Chaucer (1340- 1400) fought in the army of Edward III. against France, his employment on diplomatic services, in Italy and Flanders, exercising a marked influence on
his writings.

William of Wykeham (d. 1404), one of the greatest Gothic builders, carried out a large number of building operations at Winchester, including the college and refacing of the cathedral,

and many other buildings.


.

The Wars of the Roses, between the rival York and Lancaster, distracted England at this period. A.D. 1476. The introduction of printing by Caxton, a press being established by him in the Almonry at Westminster. A.D. 1485. Accession of Henry VII. united the Houses of York and Lancaster, when a great impulse was given to the
A.D.

1455-1471.
of

Houses

The Lady Margaret, development of political institutions. Countess of Richmond, as the foundress of colleges, developed education, and influenced art. The condition of the English people, which can hardly be considered apart from the architecture which they produced, is well treated in " A Short History of the English People," by J. R. Green, LL.D.; and should be referred to by the student.
vi.

Historical.

B.C. 55. Julius Caesar's first expedition into Britain. A.D. 43. Expedition of the Emperor Claudius into Britain. A.D. 84. Final conquest of Britain by Agricola, the General of

Domitian.
A.D. 420. The A.D. 449-547.

Roman

troops withdrawn from Britain.


(the

The English

Low Dutch

tribes

known

as

Angles, Saxons and Jutes) conquest of Britain. A.D. 450-550. Destruction of British churches
invaders.
A.D. 597-681.

by heathen

Augustine landed in England and the conversion

to Christianity commenced. A.D. 802-837. Egbert (a friend of

West Saxons,
the

Charlemagne), King of the gradually brought the other English kingdoms and

Welsh

into subjection.

King Edward received the homage of all Britain. The conquest of England by the Normans caused a social and political revolution, the manners and government of the English being transformed, and the military organization of feudalism introduced. French traders at the same time came to reside in London and the large towns, thus bringing over
A.D. 924.

A.D. 1066.

Continental ideas.

ENGLISH GOTHIC.
A.D.

283

1095-1254.

of East and universities, which


tact

The Crusades, which brought about the conWest, aided in the formation of the great had a direct influence on feudalism and the

Church. A.D. 1338-1453. The wars with France,


Years'
A.D.

known as the "Hundred


at

War."
1360.
1431.

Edward

the

Black Prince ruled


of

Bordeaux, as
of

Prince of Aquitaine.
A.D.

Henry VI.

England crowned King

France

at

Paris.

The introduction of gunpowder ruined feudalism, which were impregnable against the bow of the yeoman and retainer, crumbling before the new artillery which lay at the entire disposal of King Henry VH. Houses were
c.

A.D.

1500.

fortresses

henceforward constructed, not as castles or places of defence, but as residences, and from this period modern ideas of domestic economy gradually transformed house planning. Sutton Place (a.d. 1521-1527), near Guildford, is one of the earliest examples of a non-castellated domestic residence (page 322). A.D. 1520. Henry VHI. visited the French King, Francis I., on the Field of the Cloth of Gold the King and the many knights who followed in his train returning imbued with the newly introduced Renaissance style as practised in France. Girolamo da Trevigi, an Italian, was appointed Court Architect, and Henry VIII. encouraged other foreign artists, amongst whom was Hans Holbein, an accomplished painter of portraits and designer of
;

goldsmiths'

work and woodwork. These and various other causes led to the great Renaissance movement, which is referred to on page 547.
2.

ARCHITECTURAL CHARACTER.

The architectural character of Gothic architecture in Europe has already been referred to on page 268. The development of mediaeval architecture in England from the departure of the Romans till the sixteenth century, has a more complete sequence of style than in other countries. It is usually
divided into periods having special characteristics and

known

as

Anglo-Saxon (page 327), Norman (page 328), Early English (page 335), Decorated (page 341), Perpendicular (page 349), and Tudor (page 356), and a comparative table showing the approximate period covered by each is given on page 327.

Gothic Vaulting in England.


of vaulting during the Romanesque period have been already explained on page 224, where the essential differences between Roman and Mediaeval vaulting are compared. The first

The problems

^SKETCH- 3&+To1WCETHE501Lffi3ai4i

15

WflKIMS THE

OF CQW CQOflL ^ SQMRE- WD Smi-CRCOUR. WmLIS ON fLSM HEIGHT' -TRSl UME Of ORPIN 5Te?llSHT

TMECQMWRWEnT
OBlONOCtyWIiTrtCKT RSffM-QKUUR VAULTS Op ONEQIfflLSPW THE LESSER VSOIT SHLTED MaiOH6 LIHEoFOeoiHVflVIMS'

KlffllSfflMCE aPS% VLToL=MG

w.

lYaHTIMl aejaiSHMCE lOHES'

PflRIMENKINTCKECTING VflUUS oT OHEQOa SPAN BOTEqOflL HEI6flTo6iaWtOY03EofOIU)IWrE5-aINUIC5Tm5HToHPlflN-

ENGLISH GOTHIC EXAMPLES.

I.

JtPlWlifKLIfFE.

.-J'

raw WULTIWi.SUUCIJTER C^HEBSfiL.(g)

112.

286

COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE.

consisted entirely in the design of the vaulting planes or surfaces without reference to their meeting lines or groins, whereas mediaeval vaulting consisted in profiling the groins which were erected first and supporting the vaulting surfaces which were made
to

adapt themselves to them. for the mediasval architects was to vault, in stone, the nave of a church of the basilican type, and at the same time to provide for the lighting of the building by means of clerestory windows in the nave walls above the aisle roofs. The church wa5 thus crowned with a fire-resisting covering over which a wooden roof was placed in order to protect it from the weather. The evolution of vaulting in England, as on the Continent, involved the solution of a group of constructive problems which have been already hinted at on page 272. Thus it was in "connection with the necessity for counteracting the thrust of the nave vaults brought down on piers that the greater part of the evolution of the constructive side of the style took place. The following may be taken as the main features of vaulting in each period, and are indicated in Nos. iii and 112. Norman. The Roman system was in vogue up to the twelfth century, but the introduction of transverse and diagonal ribs in this period rendered temporary centering necessary for these. In England the raising of the diagonal rib, which produced the domical vault employed on the Continent, seems to have been but little used, and the method was either (a) to make diagonal ribs segmental, as in the aisles at Peterborough Cathedral (No. 112 D, g) or (h) to make the diagonal ribs semicircular and A stilt the springing of the transverse and longitudinal ribs. great advance was made by the introduction of the pointed arch, which was used firstly for the transverse and wall ribs only, the diagonal ribs [i.e., those with the longest span) remaining semi-

The problem

circular.

Norman

vaulting

was

either (a) cylindrical


;

or barrel

vaultmg, as at the Tower of London (No. 135) (6) groined cross vaulting in square bays (No. H2 a) {c) other shapes in which the narrower vaulting arches were stilted (No. 112 b, c), or, in {d) Sexpartite (six part) vaulting the later period, were pointed as in the choir at Canterbury Cathedral, rebuilt by William of Sens in a.d. 1174. Two views of this type of vaulting at the
;
;

Abbaye^aux-Hommesat Caen are shown in No. 112 e, f. Early English (Thirteenth Century). The pointed arch became permanently established, surmounting all the difficulties of

difference in span, and enabling vaults of varying sizes to intersect without stilting or other contrivances, as shown in Nos. in d

and 112

J, L.

The

cells, also

known

as " severies

''

or " infilling " were quite

subordinate to the ribs and were of clunch or light stone in thin beds, These severies were of arched resting upon the back of the ribs.

ENGLISH GOTHIC.
their pressure

287

orm, but often had winding surfaces, and were constructed so that was directed towards the piers and not the wall rib. The "ploughshare twist," so called from its resemblance to a ploughshare, was produced by stilting or raising the springing of the wall rib, when forming the window arch bordering on a vaulting compartment, above that of the diagonal and transverse ribs (No. 109 a). This was a common arrangement, and was necessary in order to obtain greater height for the clerestory windows. The geometry of the Gothic system was a rough use of mathematical truths in which beauty was sought for, and not a strict regard for the exactitude of scientific demonstration. The curvature of the ribs was obtained from arcs struck from one or more centres, and designed without reference to the curvature of adjoining ones, as is seen in the setting out of Gothic vaulting compartment (No. in d). In this lies the whole difference between the Roman and mediaeval systems, for in the former the vaulting surface is everywhere level in a direction parallel to the axis of the vault, and any horizontal section of a spandrel or meeting of two cross vaults would be a rectangle. In the ribbed Gothic vault, however, the plan thus formed would have as many angles as ribs, varying according to the curve of the latter. The plain four-part (quadripartite) ribbed vault, primarily constructed as a skeleton framework of diagonal and transverse ribs, was chiefly used in this period, as in the naves of Durham, Salisbury (No. 112 j, l), and Gloucester, and the aisles of Peterborough. Later in the century intermediate ribs, known as tiercerons, were introduced between the transverse and diagonal ribs as in the vaulting of the nave of Westminster Abbey (No. 112 k, m), and were especially needed to strengthen the vaulting surfaces by decreasing the space between the ribs. In such cases ridge ribs were introduced in order to take the thrust of the tierceronse which abut at their summit at an angle, and would have a tendency to fall towards the centre of the compartment unless resisted by the ridge rib. In Continental examples the ridge rib is often not continuous, but only extends to the last pair of arches which abut
against it obliquely. Ridge ribs are generally horizontal in England and arched on the Continent, the " infilling " or " severy " having its courses meeting at the ridge in zigzag lines as in the nave of Westminster Abbey (No. 127 c), and the naves and choirs of Lincoln, Exeter and Lichfield Cathedrals, and as found in the churches of South-

West

France.

a "formeret," because forming a boundary for each compartment, was also introduced.
wall-rib, called

Decorated (Fourteenth
there

was

an

increase

Century). During this period and elaboration of intermediate ribs

288

COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE.

(tiercerons), ridge ribs, and a new set of ribs known as Lierne ribs, from the French lien to bind or hold. The name " lierne " is applied to any rib, except a ridge rib, not springing from an abacus. In the early plain-ribbed vaulting each rib marked a groin, i.e., a change in the direction of the vaulting surface, but lierne ribs were merely ribs lying in a vaulting surface, their form being determined independently of such surface, which, however,

regulated their curvature. These Hemes, by their number and disposition, often give an elaborate or intricate appearance to a really simple vault (No. 112 N, o, P, q), and in consequence of the star-shaped pattern produced by the plan of such vaults, it is often called " Stellar " vaulting (No. Examples of this type exists in the choirs of Gloucester 112 q). (a.d. 1337-1377), Wells, Ely (No. 137 f), Tewkesbury Abbey nave, Bristol (No. 112 n, o), and the vaulting of Winchester Cathedral (No. 124 e, f), as carried out (a.d. 1390) by William
of of this period therefore consisted of transverse, diagonal, intermediate, ridge and lierne ribs in fact, a vault of numerous ribs, and of panels which became smaller and smaller until a single stone frequently spanned the space from rib to rib, known as " rib and panel " vaulting,

Wykeham. The vaulting

y*'stellar "

Century). The complicated vaulting of the late fourteenth and early fifteenth centuries (No. 112 p, q) led, by a succession of trials and phases, to a peculiarly English type of vaulting in this century known as fan, palm or conoidal vaulting, in which the main ribs, forming equal angles with each other and being all the same curvature, are formed on the surface of an inverted concave cone, and connected at different heights by horizontal lierne ribs. The development was somewhat as follows In the thirteenth century the form of an inverted four-sided hollow rectangular pyramid was the shape given to the vault. In the fourteenth century the masons converted this shape, by the introduction of more ribs, into a polygonal (hexagonal) pyramid, as in S. Sepulchre, Holborn, and elsewhere. In the fifteenth century the setting out of the vault was much simplified by the introduction of what is generally known as " Fan " vaulting, described above (No. 112 R, s). Owing to the reduction of the size of panels, due to the increase in the number of the ribs, a return was made to the Roman method of vault construction, for in fan vaulting the whole vault was often constructed in jointed masonry, the panels being sunk in the soffit of the stone forming the vault instead of .being separate stones resting on the backs of the ribs. The solid method seems to have been adopted first in the crown of the vaults where the ribs were In some "perpendicular" vaults the two most numerous.
:

/ Perpendicular (Fifteenth

ENGLISH GOTHIC.

289

systems are found, as at King's College Chapel, Cambridge in others, as Henry VII. 's Chapel, Westminster, the whole vault is of jointed masonry. The difSculty of supporting the flat lozenge-shaped space in the top portion of the vault surrounded by the upper boundaries of the hollow cones was comparatively easy in the cloisters, where this type of vaulting was first introduced, because the vaulting spaces to be roofed were square or nearly so, but when it was attempted to apply it to the bays of the nave, which were generally twice as long transversely as longitudinally, difficultiesoccurred. In King's College Chapel (a.d. 1513) the conoid was continued to the centre, but the sides were cut off, thus forming an awkward junction transversely. In the nave of Henry VII. 's Chapel pendants supported by internal arches were placed away from the walls and the conoids supported on these, thus reducing the size of the flat central space, and changing it from an oblong to a square on plan. At Oxford Cathedral a somewhat similar method was adopted, the pendants also placed some distance from the wall, being supported on an upper arch, and a polygonal form of ribs adhered to. Fan vaulting is confined to England, and other examples beyond those already mentioned are in the Divinity Schools, Oxford; Trinity Church, Ely; Gloucester Cathedral (No. 112 R, s) the retro-choir, PeterS. George's Chapel, Windsor borough, and elsewhere. The depressed fouv-oentyed arch (No. 299 m) is typical of the architecture of the Tudor period, although it seems to have been used in the vaulting of earlier churches (No. in d). It is not found out of England, and appears to have been first used largely in fan vaulting, to which the reason for its adoption is held to be due. For example, if the diagonal rib is to be a pointed twocentred arch, each portion must obviously be less than a quadrant, and the transverse and wall ribs, being shorter, must be considerably less than quadrants, especially if the compartment is oblong, and this would make the window arch in the nave wall of acute lancet form but the window arch was made equilateral or even less in height compared to its span in this period, and so the segments of a diagonal arch of two centres preserving the same curvature would not meet at their summit without becoming horizontal or possibly bending downwards to each other. To obviate this the transverse and diagonal ribs in an oblong compartment were sometimes made as four-centred arches, all the ribs starting with the same curvature; but at a certain height the portions above this level were drawn with a longer radius in order that they might meet the ribs from the opposite side of the vault at the required height. These four-centred arches were afterwards applied to other parts of the buildings in England, as in arches to
; ; ;

7.h.


2g0

COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE.

doors and windows, and tracery work in panelling, possibly with a desire to harmonize with the important superstructure of vaulting. The special forms of vault used in Chapter Houses are referred

on page 299. "Pendant" vaulting is a later form often used in connection with fan vaulting, in which pendants as elongated voussoirs are dropped from a constructive pointed arch, concealed above the vaulting, and form abutments to support the pendant conoids. Henry Vn.'s Chapel and Oxford Cathedral are examples of this method:
to of vaulting.
in

Examples of " pendant " but not of " fan " vaulting are frequent the Flamboyant period (fifteenth century) in France, as at Caudebec, and other places. Bosses. The bosses, or ornamental keystones, which form such

decorative features in Gothic vaulting, were a constructive necessity, primarily used to cover the awkward junction of the various ribs meeting at all angles, in order that the awkward mitres of the rib mouldings might be hidden behind the ornament of the boss.

Open Timber Roofs

of the

Middle Ages.

The open timber roofs of the Middle Ages are a special English feature and may be classed in the following five divisions, being illustrated on No. 113:
(i.)
(2.)

(3.)

Tie-beam Roofs. Trussed rafter or single-framed Roofs. Hammer-beam Roofs of various forms.

Collar-braced Roofs, including arch-braced roofs. Aisle Roofs of several forms, The "Tie-beam Roof" is the earliest form of which there is any record, and the simplest in construction, being merely two rafters pitching one against another with the tiebeam inserted, holding their lower portions to counteract the outward thrust on the walls. This was probably the only, form known at the Norman period, and it was never entirely discarded
(4.)
(5.) (i.)

builders, being used in every succeeding style (No. 113 A, b). In the early examples, the beam is merely pinned to the wall-plate at either end and unconnected with the rafters. Various methods were afterwards adopted in order to make the truss harmonize well with other features. The tie beam was rarely straight, being cambered or curved in the later examples this camber governed the pitch of the roof, the purlins resting immediately on it, as at Wellingborough Church. Curved braces were often inserted, connecting the tie-beam with wall-pieces (No. 113 b), the whole being framed together and
;

by mediaeval

ENGLISH GOTHIC.

29I

In giving the favourite form of the arch, as at Outwell Church. roofs of steeper pitch the open space above the tie-beam was filled in with perpendicular strutting or carved open work, as at Outwell Church, Norfolk. A pillar or king-post and struts were often supported on the tie-beam to strengthen the rafters, which gave a pleasing effect, as at Swardstone Church and also as shown in No. 131 a, b. This is an inversion of the use of king-post and tie-beam as adopted in modern roofs, in which the former acts A timber arch was sometimes introduced, as a suspending piece. springing from a wall-piece below the tie-beam, but as the tie-beam always intersected this the result, as seen at Morton Church, Lincolnshire, and elsewhere, was not satisfactory. " Trussed Rafter or Single-framed Roof," of (2.) The which there are many examples, was probably chosen in order to form a space for the pointed vaults, and having once been used the superiority of its construction and appearance led to In roofs of its being largely substituted for the tie-beam form.
rafter had a collar stiffened by braces, which were sometimes passed through the collar, as at Lympenhoe Church, Norfolk, and sometimes stopped on the underside, This type of as at Stowe Bardolph Church (No. 113 a). roof was often boarded on its underside, forming a pentagonal ceiling ornamented with ribs and bosses, as at S. Mary, The timbers are halved and held Wimbotsham, Norfolk. As the rafters pitched on the together with wooden pins. outside of the wall a ledge was left on the inside, and to remove this hollow and unsightly appearance an upright strut was introduced, forming a triangular foot (No. 113 a). This greatly added to the stability of the roof, and is held to be the The arched form origin of the hammer-beam roof (No. 113 j). was obtained by the use of curved braces fixed to the rafters and collar, as g,t Solihull Church.

large span each

(3.)

The

"Hammer-beam Roof"

is,

as

stated, considered

to be a natural evolution of the triangular framing adopted at the foot of the trussed rafter roof (No. 113 a), and consists

generally of

hammer-beam, struts, collars and curved braces, as No. 113 d, e. h, j. The hammer-beam is merely the lengthening and thickening of the "sole-piece" at the foot of the trussed rafter (No. 113 j), the principal rafter being strutted, and the weight of the roof carried lower down the wall by means of a curved brace tenoned into the hammer-beam and wall-piece. Being thus strengthened, it forms a truss which, repeated at intervals of 10 feet or more, supports the intermediate rafters of

shown

in

the bay.
It has been supposed by some that the hammer-beam arose from the cutting away of the tie-beam in the centre when a curved brace is used beneath the tie-beam. It is improbable

ENGLISH GOTHIC EXAMPLES.


.a'flCE

11.

BETWEEN
I

WFTEK)

9 THEflmnjE-lt /nroDTc vnf

^ THE WTERS WERE OFTEN BOWED


.

lairaMLOPEM
1

CWTHEUItPt
DE
Fcfi 1 ^ PQIT1j"lfflL

TCP foj LY bL60E5 ED THE

BLIIu

BEW1

iBdlTED LINEb 5H0WOafl51ONflL Kflfl 5llP[bRTlMGPlLinRg,5TtuT5-

5T0WE
EflRlT

BflffiOLPH

CHURCH NRFoLK

TTJIIITTCHflPaaRENCESTER'
Tfflb

fWI UiED

To 06T/1IN HEflOWY

FoRW UStO

mR=0QHO0TnitlDlfi(iES THIS

5TMflRrMflQ[VlLENPULHANQR.F0LK ROOPIS^ aMPLFICflTOMoTHflWlKBE*!

VflLL

BY.CUSVED BRncc

113.


ENGLISH GOTHIC.
2g3

however, that this was the origin, and there is little more resemblance between a hammer-beam roof and a tie-beam roof than consists in their both being double framed, i.e., both having principals or trusses placed at regular intervals, as opposed to the Moreover, the tietrussed rafter type, which has no principal. beam was used in all types of roof, even in conjunction with the hammer-beam itself, as at Outwell, where the intermediate this is a late principals are supplied with hammer-beams example, and was probably constructed after the hammer-beam Hammer-beams were not contype had attained perfection. structed until the end of the fourteenth century, and were not in general use until the fifteenth century. Westminster Hall is the earliest recorded example, a.d. 1399 (No. 113 h). There are many varieties of this form of roof (a.) Those with hammer-beams, struts, collars and curved (i.) Those in braces, as Little Welnetham Church, Suffolk, which the collar-beam is omitted and curved braces carried to the ridge, the apex being framed into a wedge-shaped strut, as at Trunch Church, Norfolk (No. 113 d). (c.) Those with collarbeams arid no struts but curved braces, in which a shorter hammerbeam is used, as at Capel S. Mary, Suffolk, {d.) Those with no collars and no struts, curved braces only being used from ridge to hammer-beam, as at Palgrave Church, Suffolk. The archbraced roof is the outcome of this latter form, [e.) Those with a main arched fib springing from wall-piece and reaching to a collar, forming a rigid chief support, as at Westminster (No. 113 h) and Eltham. Double hammer-beam roofs have two ranges of hammerbeams, as at S. Margaret, Ipswich, and Middle Temple Hall (No. 113 e), the object of the second range being to further stiffen the principals and convey the weight on to the first range and thence to the wall. They usually occur when the pitch is flatter, but the effect is more complicated and less pleasing. These are the main divisions, but there are various minor
;
:

modifications of the type.

" Collar-braced Roofs " are a simplification of the (4.) hammer-beam form, and include arch-braced roofs, so called when the collar is omitted and the arched brace carried up to the This form is very like that constructed nearly a century Tunstead Church, but with the important difference that at Tunstead the braces are of the same thickness as and appear to form part of the principal rafters, whereas the collarbraced kind are not more than 4 inches thick, while the principals may be about 10 inches. Pulham Church, Norfolk (No. 113 c), is an example of this collar-braced form. Brinton Church is another example of the arch-braced type. The curved braces answer the double purpose of strengthening the principals
ridge.
earlier, as at


294

COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE.

and carrying the weight lower down the wall, which they also help
to steady.
(5.) 'Aisle Roofs in the early period were merely a continuation of the rafters of the nave. At North Walsham, Norfolk (a tie-beam roof), the tie-beam of the aisle is carried through the wall, forming a corbel for the wall-piece of the nave roof, thus biiiding the whole together. Aisle roofs were usually simple, intermediate trusses being introduced to strengthen the purlins. they were gabled they were usually of low pitch, and the hammer-beam was rarely introduced for these. Walsingham

When

New

Church (No. 113

g)

and Ixworth Church (No. 113

f) are

good

types of aisle roofs.


3.

EXAMPLES.

The student is referred to Gothic Architecture in Europe (page 273) for the different types of buildings erected during the Middle Ages which are here further enlarged upon. As mentioned in architectural character (page 283), these buildings were mostly erected in the styles known as Norman, Early English, Decorated, and Perpendicular.
.

CATHEDRALS.
Introduction to

Refer to the (page 273).

General

Gothic Architecture

The constitution and foundation of English Cathedrals is important and is largely responsible for their monastic character and general arrangement. They rtiay be divided into three classes (a.) Cathedrals of the Old Foundation. (6.) Cathedrals of the Monastic Foundation. (c.) Cathedrals of the New Foundation. (a.) The Cathedrals of the old foundation are those which, being served by secular clergy, were not affected by the reforms of Henry VHI. The following is a list :The Cathedrals of York, Lichfield, Wells, Exeter, Salisbury, Chichester, Lincoln, Hereford, S. Paul, London, and the Welsh Cathedrals of Llandaff, Bangor, S. David's, and S. Asaph. (b.) The Cathedrals of the monastic foundation are those which were originally served by regular clergy or monks, and which were reconstituted at the dissolution of the monasteries as chapters of secular canons. The following is a list The Cathedrals of Canterbury, Durham, Rochester, Winchester, Worcester, Norwich, Ely, Carlisle, Peterborough, Gloucester, Chester, Oxford, and Bristol. Westminster Abbey was a Cathedral Church from A.D. 1540-1545. When the change in these monastic establishments was
:
,

ENGLISH GOTHIC.

^^^^^^H]>^IH

ENGLISH GOTHIC.

York.

B.

Chester.

Peterborough.

D.

Exeter.

E.

Winchester.

F.

Hereford.

G.

Wells.

h.

Gloucester.

Comparative Views of Models of English Cathedrals.


115-

ENGLISH GOTHIC.

Salisbury.

Lincoln.

Canterbury.

D.

Norwich.

RiPON.

F.

Lichfield.

Comparative Views of Models of English Cathedrals.


ii6.


298

COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE.
bishop, the prior the dean, and the choristers the personnel generally
;

made the abbot became the monks became canons and

remaining the same. (c.) The Cathedrals of the new foundation are those to which bishops have been appointed, viz., Ripon and Southwell, which are old Collegiate Churches, and the following Parochial Churches S. Albans, Newcastle, Wakefield, Manchester, and Truro'. Diversity of style in each building was caused by the fact that with the single exception of Salisbury (page 309) many were erected in all periods, thus presenting a complete history of the evolution of Gothic Architecture. Most of the English Cathedrals were founded or remodelled after the Conquest, including many which formerly served as churches of the great monastic institutions of the period. The character which each Cathedral possesses generally indi:

cates

its

original purpose.

Monastic Cathedrals are almost

peculiar

to

England

and

In these countries a large proportion of the Cathedral Churches formed part of monastic establishments in which are found cloisters, refectories, dormitories, chapter houses, scriptorium, library, guest hall, infirmary, prison, wine cellars, mills, workshops, and gardens {of. Monastery of S. Gall, page 261). Cloisters were required in monastic establishments from necessity, as they formed a covered way for the use of monks, round which the various buildings enumerated above were grouped. They were also frequently planned as an ornamental adjunct to cathedrals of the old foundation which were not part of monastic establishments, but were served by secular clergy, as at Salisbury and Wells. The Collegiate Churches of Lichfield, Ripon, Southwell, York and Manchester, and the Irish, Scotch and Welsh Cathedrals (S. Davids excepted) have no cloisters. The French Cathedrals were mostly erected in the thirteenth century by funds provided by the laity, and therefore do not form part of monastic establishments, differing in not being provided with the buildings enumerated above. The English Cathedrals are thus peculiar in retaining many of the conventual features. The plans are long and narrow, and the choir is often of nearly the same length as the nave. The extreme length is often as much as six times, whereas in France it is seldom more than four times the width. The absence of double side aisles (Chichester and Manchester excepted) and side chapels tends to show that worship was more congregational in form than on the Continent, especially in France, where they are frequently found. The buildings founded by the Norman prelates, as Norwich, Canterbury, and others, were provided with the apsidal eastern

Germany.

ENGLISH GOTHIC.

299

termination, sometimes developed into a chevH, but the English type evolved through Durham to Lincoln had square eastern terminations from the Saxon prototype (page 327), which produced a very different external effect. The transepts project considerably, and there are occasionally secondary transepts, as at Salisbury, Canterbury, Lincoln, Wells and Worcester. The Chapel of the Nine Altars at Durham (a.d. 1242-1290) is in reality an eastern transept. The main entrance was frequently by a south-western porch, acting as a screen against the cold winds, and in contrast to the large western porches of the French Cathedrals. The English Cathedrals, in striking contrast with the French examples, owe their internal effect to their enormous length, which is further emphasized by the comparative lowness of the nave vault. The exteriors are in direct contrast to Continental examples, for the buildings, being mostly situated in a quiet " close " " far from
the madding crowd," and seen in conjunction with cloisters, refectory and outbuildings, form a part only of the entire

composition (page 276). The characteristic high central tower, as at Lincoln, York, Ely, Gloucester, Canterbury and Durham, is rendered very effective in contrast with the low nave. The central tower is generally accompanied by two western towers, and is sometimes crowned with a high tapering spire, as at Salisbury and Norwich, while at Lichfield (No. 116) all three towers are crowned with spires. Flying buttresses are not nearly so common as in France, owing to the comparative lowness of the nave vault. In France the flying buttresses to the chevet end of the building produce a confused, restless effect {cf. No. loi) absent in the English
buildings. Chapter houses were required for the transaction of business by the chapter or bishop's council. They were originally square in plan, as at Bristol (a.d. 1142-1170), but the example at Durham (a.d. 1093-1140) is apsidal, and that at Worcester (a.d. 1084II 60) is circular internally. The normal type is octagonal with a central pillar to support the vaulting, as at Lincoln (1225), Westminster (1250), Salisbury (1250), and Wells (1292) (No. 70 k), all of which have vaults supported by a central pillar and the surrounding walls. York (1280-1330) is also octagonal, but has no central pillar, being covered with a sham wooden vault 57 feet in diameter.
Note. See Nos. 114, 115 and 116 for comparative views of of the Cathedrals, and Nos-. 1 17-120 for the plans.

models

The

characteristics peculiar to the leading cathedrals are here indicated, the

and for the sake of brevity

Early English, Decorated, and Perpendicular

ENGLISH GOTHIC EXAMPLES.

Ill

f:

SALISWIY
117.

0LIMC@LN

ENGLISH GOTHIC EXAMPLES.


[MPArariYE PL1N3 f EMQLffl
TiiE

IV.

mmw5

CHOIR of emiRBUItr RtsEHBLts Sens with

CouriCD ROUKD PIERS. 6EXIMTITE VAULTIdO urn pmms akches.

ENGLISH GOTHIC EXAMPLES.

mPAMTIYE

PLfflS f

EMM

119.

ENGLISH GOTHIC EXAMPLES.

VI.

ifamTK PHM3 f^NCLisH

Gmm

304
styles are denoted

COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE.
E.E., Dec, and Perp.
Those which were respectively. {page 218) are distinguished by

the churches of Benedictine monasteries an asterisk *.

1.

Bangor

(No. 119 d).

Repeatedly destroyed.
wars.

Perp., but suffered


Scott.
2.

much in the civil

Present church is Dec. and In 1866 thoroughly restored by Sir G.

Norman

Bristol (Nos. 114 H, 120 K). An Augustinian monastery. Rectangular vaulted chapter -house. "Elder Lady Chapel." Dec. choir, E.E. AD. 1306-1332, and modern nave in imitation thereof, by Street. Peculiar in having nave and aisles of nearly equal height, with lofty aisle windows, as in some German churches {rf. No. 172). There is thus an absence of the usual triforium and clerestory. Remarkable canopied wall recesses for monuments. A" choir of singular interest, erected by 3. 'Canterbury (Nos. 116 c, 118 B). William of Sens, in a style after French models, on the destruction of Anselm's Norman choir in 11 70. On his death the work proceeded under William the Englishman. The singular contraction of the width of the choir, in order to preserve two ancient Norman chapels, is worthy of notice. In plan this choir resembled that of the Cathedral at Sens. At the extreme east is the curious chapel called " Becket's Crown.'' Extensive There are double transepts, the original crypts are under all the eastern portion. Norman work being of singular interest. The splendid central tower, 229 feet The nave, also late, is of lesser interest, and high, is in the Late Perp. style. the west front and towers are unimportant, except in the general picturesqueness The chapter house is oblong, with fine wooden ceiling. The of the group. Perp. clwsters, on the north side, are of great beauty. A large number of side chapels resembling Continental Cathedrals. An Augustinian Abbey. The east end a fine 4. Carlisle (No;'.ll4 G, 120 b). composition, containing the most perfect of tracery windows. Oiiginally the church of the Benedictine 5. 'Chester (Nos. 115 B, 120 f). Built of red snndstone. Perp. central and lower portion order of S. Werburgh. Cloisters on the north. Lady chapel at the east end. of south-western towers. 6. Chichester (No. The chief example of double aisles, 114 a, 119 g). really caused by the formation of lateral chagfels. Fine central spire. Norman The Bell Tower is the only example of its kind belonging to an English nave.

Cathedral.

Norman work (1096-1133). An eastern 7. 'Durham (No. 114 B, 118 e). transept called the "Chapel of the Nine Altars," in massive E. E. (12421290), and a central Perp. tower, 216 feet in height, help to form a group which for strength of outline and dignity have few, if any, rivals. Internally, the special point is the massive arcade of the Norman nave, A.D. 1099-1128, the finest in England, the pillars about the same width as the openings, and quaintly The nave was vaulted in channelled with characteristic spirals and ilutes. A.D. 1 133 and is said to be the earliest eximple of a Norman vault in England. Norman nave and transepts, 8. 'Ely (Nos. 114 c, 117 A, 136 A, D and 137 f). with timber roof and modern paintings. Choir remarkable for splendid carving. Most noted feature is the unique octagon, 70- feet in diameter, by Alan of Walsingham, in 1322, replacing a fallen central tower. It has a rich vault of wood The sides of the octagon are unequal, only, reaching to a central octagonal Unt^rn. The plan influenced that of S. Paul, being alternately 20 feet and 35 feet. London (No. 253), which it inspired. Exceptional lady chapel, 100 feet by 46 feet, by 60 feet high c inipare chapter house, Canterbury. The west front is an imposing composition {180 feet wide), owing to the bold tower, the same width as the nave and 215 feet high, flanked originally with bold north and south transeptal projections, ended by big octagonal turrets. In front of the tower projects the E.E. (1198-1215) Galilee porch, two square bays in plan, vaulted and elaborately arcaded.

ENGLISH GOTHIC.

305

Unique in having twin towers placed over the g. Exeter (Nos. 1 15 D, 119 e). north and south transepts {cf. S. Stephen, Vienna, page 396). It is the best style, and is exceptionally rich in varied tracery and carved specimen of the Dec. wood and stonework. 10. 'Gloucester (Nos. 115 H, 118 c). Very rich in Early Perp. vaulting (No. 1.12 R, s). Norman choir cased with Perp. work, as at Winchester. Perp. Central tower, cloisters of singular completeness, on the north side of Cathedral. 225 feet high. 11. Hereford (Nos. 115 F, 120 h). Norman nave and choir, E.E. lady chapel and Dec. central tower. 12. Lichfield (Nos. 116 f, 120 j, 124 a, b, c, 137 e). Situated on slightly sloping ground and built of reddish stone. The nave, transepts, chapter house and W. front are in the E. E. style. The Dec. central and two western spires of rich and graceful character form the only example of the triple combination in England. The clerestory windows of spherical triangular form. No cloisters. 13. Lincoln (Nos. 116 B, 117 F, 125, 126). Rebuilt 1185-1200. Situated on the ridge of a steep hill dominating the town, in general outline resembling Canterbury, and having also double transepts and central and western towers, the former (271 feet high) being the highest in England, excluding spires. " National

Lincoln " sums up


choir will see

how the French

and
side.

choir,

and

greatest glory, and the student acquainted with Canterbury feeling is here departed from. E. E. nave, transepts Dec. "Angel choir," 1256-1314. The cloisters are on the north
its

house, vaulted to central pillar, is surrounded by a ring of flying buttresses. The west iront is unusual, consisting of a screen wall behind which rise the two western towers, whose lower parts are therefore invisible. long low building, without transepts or side 14. Llandaif (No. 120 c). chapels, situated at the foot of a hillTwo western towers. The nave is much restored. No trifor^nm. Square chapter house with central pillar. No cloisters. Remarkable for Perp. (a.d. 1422-1520). 15. Mancheitej (No. 119 b). having double aisllsi obtained ^s at Chichester by the inclusion of side chapel-.

The E.E. decagonal chapter

Fine
16.

stalls.

Newcastle. Late Dec. in style. Perp. tower (a.d. 1474), with spire on Crown of arches, similar to .S. Giles, Edinburgh, King's College, Aberdeen,-||pld S. DunstSn in the East, London. Fine modern stalls.
resting

The long, narrow nave, aisleless transepts 17. Nof^ch (Nos. 116 D, 118 d). and choir wfJEh apsidal chapels, are Norman (a.d. 1096-1 145). The choir clerestory, the windows beneath clerestory on south side of nave, and the vaulting throughout are Perp. The easternmost apsidal chapel, removed in the thirteenth century for an oblong lady chapel, since destroyed. Bold central Perp. spire. Chapter House,
resembling that of Durham, destroyed. 18. Oxford (No. 114 F, 119 c). Originally the church of a priory of Augustinian monks. The nave and choir are Norman (1 158-1 180), and the chapter house and lady chapel are E.E. Pillars of nave, alternately circular and polygonal, supporting Norman arches, beneath which is the triforium gallery, forming quite an unusual arrangement in order to gain height. Norman central tower having E.E. upper part and short spire. Nave shortened by Card. Wolsey when building his college of Christchurch, forms, as it were, a vestibule to choir, which has splendid fan vaulting with pendants. A Norman 19. *Peterborough (Nos. 115 c, 117 D, 122 A, B, c, D, 136 b). Cathedral built between A.D. 1117 and 1190. The interior is considered to be the finest in the Norman style next to Durham. The nave is covered with a painted wooden ceiling of lozenge-shaped compartments, ornamenting what is probably the oldest wooden roof in England. The nave aisles only are vaulted {cf. Ely). The apsidal choir is inclosed in a square chapel of Late Perp., fan vaulted, as at King's College, Cambridge. The grand western fa9ade, 158 feet wide constructed in a.d. 1233, consists of

F.A.

ENGLISH GOTHIC EXAMPLES.


1F1IIEI^I^
wicig /i.Bi.\ss3 .

VII.

mmfiH now td mk,


go

mmmifumjfs.
SoitE
IP

50

rEET

50

iM<?.&K9il5)
122.

X 2

ENGLISH GOTHIC.

123.

Salisbury Cathedral.
Nave, looking East.

ENGLISH GOTHIC.

3O9

A gable a portico of three gigantic arches, the full height of the Cathedral. crowns each arch, and the end abutments are carried up as small towers crowned with spires. Other towers rise from behind over the end bays of the aisles, though some uncertainty exists as to the intended grouping. A two-storied porch of the Perp. period has been built in the central archway. Central and two western towers. Rich 20. Ripon (Nos. 116 e, 120 G, 136 c). Perfect western fa9ade in E. E, style (restored by choir stalls and tabernacle work.

Scott). 21. 'Rochester (Nos. 114 E, 119 h). and transepts. The clerestory to nave and

Norman

wooden roof

nave. E.E. walled-in choir are Perp, Fine western

Much destroyed and altered in recent years. 119 f). Norman' nave, the longest in England (284 feet), transepts and choir. Western Dec. marble shrine of S. Alban, recovered and reportion of nave is E.E. erected by Sir Gilbert Scott. Rebuilt in the Dec. style. Roof and choir stalls 23. S. Asaph (No. 119 a). are Perp. Restored by Sir G. Scott. Situated in a valley, beside the river Alan, and 24. S. Davids (No. 120 e). Two-storied south porch. The nave arches close by the sea. Central tower. support a carved oak roof of late (1508) design. Dec. rood-screen at entrance

Norman doorways. 22. *S. Albans (No.

to choir.
25.

A, 117 e, 121, 122 e, f, g, 123 and 140 d). Erected surrounded by the green sward of a wide close, broken only by a few elm trees. Constructed almost entirely a.d. 1220-1258 in the E.E. style, forming the type of English, as Amiens is of French Gothic. See Nos. 154 A, The plan has double transepts, central tower, and splendid Dec. 159 B, 160. The west fa9ade is weak, but spire, 404 feet high, being the loftiest in England. The cloister there is a fine north porch, boldly projecting and vaulted internally. is Dec. nave, transepts and towers. E. E. 26. Southwell (No. 119 k). Norman choir. Dec. octagonal chapter house, the chief glory of the Cathedral, has no central pillar, and is believed to have been the model for that at York. Carving very rich and well preserved. No cloisters. The nave, transepts and western 27. Wells (Nos. 115 G, 119 j) (1214-1465). The E. E. west front, i So feet wide, including buttresses, bays of choir are E. E. the highest development of a type of is arcaded and enriched with sculpture fa9ade found in English Gothic. Double transepts, eastern lady chapel, and three towers. The triforium, of close set openings with capitals, is unique. As illustrating the comparative height to width of the naves of English and French Cathedrals it has been shown that whereas Wells is 32 feet wide and 67 feet high (two to one), Amiens is 46 feet wide and 140 feet high (three to one). 28. 'Westminster (Nos. 127, 128, 129). A Benedictine monastery founded by Dunstan ; betrays French influence in its polygonal chevet and chapels, internal loftiness (having the highest nave in England), and strongly marked flying buttresses. The plan consists of a nave and aisles, transepts with aisles, and eastern chevet, surrounded originally by five apsidal chapels, the only complete example of this feature in England. Of the present structure the eastern portion was erected by Henry III. in a.d. 1220- 1260. During 1260-1269 the four bays west of the transept were constructed. The nave was completed in the fifteenth century in imitation of the older work, but with Perp. mouldings. The western towers were completed in A.D. 1722-1740, hy Wren and Hawksmoor, and Henry VII. 's Chapel was added by Henry VII. in place of the former lady chapel, and is remarkable for its elaborate fan vault. The shrines, chantry chapels, tombs, and monuments are exceptionally fine. The cloisters, in the usual position to the south of nave, have open tracery and elaborate vaulting of the E. E., Dec and Perp. periods. , 29. 'Winchester (Nos. 115 E, 117 c, 124 D, E, F, 137 g). It has the greatest total length (560 feet) of any mediaeval Cathedral in Europe. Norman transepts and tower, 1070-1 107. The Norman nave and choir (1079-1093) were transformed

Salisbury (Nos. 116

on a

level site,

ENGLISH GOTHIC EXAMPLES.

VIII.

(Di@i^TED)

^^

*ff f.VVS^

<

^
8

o O o

ENGLISH GOTHIC EXAMPLES.

IX.

SflKONN0BMN

1055-1150

Um ENGUai
mi
r, "-^
EflBLY

1220-1260
1260-1269

ENGLISH

DtCOMTED

1330-1350

IPEBPENOICULflli

BUT_
650-I4-20
1500-1512

ICENTOBY 5IYLE

C3

UTE PEBPttmUl)

WE5TEBN TOWEffi

BTSIRCIISBTOPIIEB

WKNjiSWK3M006,I72M74
NORTH TBSN5EPT WflCED BY SIR GILBERT SCOTT, 1880-1852
2cq

127

ENGLISH GOTHIC.

128.

Henry

VII. 's Chapel,

Westminster Abbey.

w m
ca

P.

<

w
i-r-i


3l6
by William of
the

COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE.

'

Wykeham and his successors (1394-1486) with a veneer of Perp. on core and crowned with a vaulted roof, E.E. rectro choir, Ihe largest in England, and Dec. stalls. Compare Gloucester. Tombs and chantries. Wood vaulting to choir. level situation on the banks of 30. 'Worcester (Nos. 114 D, 118 a). Norman crypt, north and south transepts and circular chapter the River Severn. Dec. and Perp. nave, cloisters and house, the only one in England. E.E. choir. The Royal chantries of Interesting monuments. central tower (196 feet high). King John and Prince Arthur (No. 145) are fine specimens The E.E. transepts are remarkable for the 31. York (Nos. 115 A, 117 b). " (Street). The five sisters a name given to the ' classic beauty of their mouldings lancet windows of the north transept are each 50 feet high and feet wide. The nave and the octagonal chapter house, without central column and covered with a wooden roof, of Edwardian Gothic (Dec, 1261-1324). Perp. tower. No cloisters. It is notable as the largest in area and width (being no less than 106 feet within the walls) of any English cathedral. The height of the nave is second only to that of Westminster Abbey. The nave and choir are covered with a wooden imitation of a stone vault. The west front is of the French type. In spite of the size of the cathedral it compares unfavourably with Durham for grandeur, strength of outline, and grouping. (For a description of S. Paul's Cathedral, London, see page 571.) Note. For a comparison between English and French cathedrals, which will enable their various characteristics to be understood, see page 378.
Norman

MONASTERIES.
(See page 276.)

PARISH CHURCHES.
portals of the sacred pile entered. On my frame At such transition from the fervid air, grateful coolness fell, that served to strike The heart, in concert with the temperate awe And natural reverence that the place inspired Not raised in nice proportions was the pile. But large and raassy,'for duration built With pillars crowded, and the roof upheld By naked rafters, intricately cross'd Like leafless underboughs, 'mid some thick grove. All withered by the depth of shade above.

" The

Stood open, and

we

=it

*
floor

The Of nave and

Was

aisle in unpretending guise, occupied by oaken benches, ranged In seemly rows


;

And marble monuments were


Thronging the walls
;

here display'd

floor beneath Sepulchral stones appeared, with emblems graven, And footworn epitaphs and some with small And shining effigies of brass inlaid." Wordsworth.
;

and on the

The typical Parish Church, such as S. Andrew, Heckington (No. 130), was not of the cruciform plan, but consisted of a nave

ENGLISH GOTHIC EXAMPLES.

X.

n MISH CHOICH"
THEMSHCHUIO.
UaHiYC9N5ISTtO

offlWVEWITHN-&5fllSLE5-fl DEEP ChflNCEL-

W-TcWER- THE TRANSEPTS ARE


I

NOTflTfPICflLFEfflURE- THEMflJORlTYor EX-

MMPLESIWIBLY BEK WITHOUT IIP

130.

3l8

COMPARATIVE AKCHii m^i u jvji.

with aisles, clerestory with windows, and a long and narrow There was generally a single western chancel without aisles. tower, finished with crenellated battlements, but in some of the larger Parish Churches, which are cruciform on plan, the tower Where a spire occurs it is usually is over the " crossing." octagonal on plan, and the change from the square to the octagon was effected in the thirteenth century by means of a " broach" (No. 140 a) resting on angle squinch arches (No. 130 b), while in the following centuries, parapets with elaborate corner pinnacles (No. 140 c, e) and flying buttresses were employed to connect the tower and base of the spire (No. 140 g, h). The principal entrance was by a porch, sometimes of two stories, on the south side, near the west end, although occasionally the western tower emphasized the main entrance. A large number were erected during the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries. The typical English Church differs from the French in not being vaulted, arid there is, therefore, an absence of flying The English developed the " open-timbered " roof, buttresses. and elaborate specimens of coiistructive art were indulged in, various types being shown on No. 113, culminating in the " hammer-beam " variety of the fifteenth century. These were often painted with rich colors, and the counties of Norfolk and
Suffolk have examples specially

famous

in this respect.

THE CASTLES OF THE NOBLES.


These form an important part of the architecture of the Middle Ages, and were fortified up to the end of the fourteenth century. They were generally residences as well as military posts thus, while complying with the ideas of defence, the planning also illustrates the relation of the vassal to his lord, who, while exacting the former's service, was theoretically bound to maintain him. In the twelfth century, military structures were all-important,
;

over 1,100 castles being constructed during the reign of Stephen These consisted of (a.) an outer " bailey" or court, (&.) an alone. inner bailey, and (c.) the donjon or keep, several stories in height all being surrounded by a lofty wall with ramparts and parapet and a deep moat, as in the Tower of London (a.d. 1081-1090) (No. 131 a), and Kenilworth Castle (No. 131 c).
" The

The

battled towers, the donjon keep, luophole grates where captives weep.'

ScoTT.

In the thirteenth century these castles were further enlarged by additional buildings, clustering round the keep, the hall still remaining the principal feature. Large hooded fireplaces and

The castles were less strongly chimneys became general. the growth of the royal power suppressed petty wars between rival nobles, while the invention of gunpowder (a.d. 1500)
fortified, as

ENGLISH GOTHIC EXAMPLES.


5CAIE rKENILWOIiTH
''^"
-

XI.

CMMMIWFEPStiSBI-i)0MEJTiC"iyiL^J ^ T f "'"^ f^-f f


.

'

3CALE

h OTHER PLAN5

y....f

f f f

'^P

ANCIENT nOAT

'::

f ^'~

L@NE)I

ll

HALL

t~'

COORT

,f5ju^"

.
fflWISIIIllBlRIHl

yAll

IliSn'iPMT

,..,..,N5 TOWER, D-WHlTEHALLE-PliEiENCECHAMBER 1312 r-HENRYr'BmEDIHt5l520, G-EEICE5Ttl!5 60IEDING3 1571

,UmE

PABlOlffl

HALl

mm
PLAN

ISTERftODITIONJ
INTO AN

COWNNADE
-

romiNc the
imEGUUl!

PENTAGON

iKii(!)j)K!iEi

mm''

k+
WKIK WNt

131.

320

COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE.

made

the moat comparatively useless, and soon rendered quite obsolete the older systems of defence (page 549). In the fourteenth century an increased desire for privacy arose, and the highest development of the Hall was attained, as in Westminster Hall, a royal palace Ightkam Mote and Hever Hall, Kent, moated manor houses Cranhoume Manor, Dorset, and Crosby Hall, London, an example of a merchant's home, referred to in Shakespeare's Richard HI. as Crosby Place. Penshurst Place, Kent (No. 132 a, b, c, d, e, f) (a.d. 1335), is a The plan (No. 133 f) good example of a nobleman's house. indicates that, as in all domestic buildings of the fourteenth In this century, the Hall was the feature of primary importance. case it is 68 feet by 38 feet 8 inches and 48 feet high, with a raised dais at one end and a screen at the other. An external elevation is given in No. 132 a. The roof (No. 132 b, e) is a fine example of a typical open timbered type, and the original " louvre" or opening for the escape of smoke from the central fire still exists. characteristic house of the period consisted of a quadrangular plan with central courtyard. On the side away from the entrance was the Hall, the whole height of the house, the kitchen being adjacent. The fire was in the centre of the Hall on " dogs," the smoke being carried away by the " louvre " in the roof, as at Penshurst, or by a wall fireplace with a hooded canopy. The porch or doorway led to the entry which, by a panelled partition or screen, was separated as a vestibule from the Hall itself. Over this entry was the minstrels' gallery, while at the further end of the Hall was the raised " dais," for the seats of the master and his principal guests, and sometimes, a large bay window gave external and internal importance to that end. The main body of the Hall was occupied by the servants and retainers. The walls were hung with tapestry and with trophies of the chase, and the floor was often only strewn with rushes and still formed, as in the earlier periods, the sleeping- room for the retainers, though they were sometimes lodged in dormitories in the wings. The " solar," or withdrawing-room, was often at right angles to the Hall. The great banqueting-hall gradually ceased to be used as the common sleeping-room on the introduction of the withdrawingroom, and the fourteenth century house may be taken as the prototype of the modern country house, which in its highest development is an expression of the wants, inclinations, and habits of the country gentleman of to-day, as was the mediaeval castle of the feudal baron. In the fifteenth century the central fireplace was moved to the side wall, becoming a distinctive feature, and the sleeping accommodation was much improved, as at Oxburgh Hall (No. 131 b).
; ;

ENGLISH GOTHIC EXAMPLES.

XII,

imim
iff
JiiTl

ewiHiic

b@tic

mmm

v^

^^^

SIKm
SCALE PPum.'!L?
. . ,
.

1500-16.

"P

mr

^SEGTSUMll

IttlBJCWft pOMBmSiOllM.

132.
F.A.

322

COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE.

In the sixteenth century the typical Tudor house consisted grouped around a quadrangular court, as at Layer Marney (a.d. 1520), Compton Wynyates (a.d. 1520) (No. 150), and Sutton Place (a.d. 1521-1527). The entrance was in the centre of one side under a gatehouse, which gave it proniinence on the opposite side were the hall and offices, the living and sleeping-rooms being ranged along the other two sides, and such rooms were usually "thoroughfare" rooms or, in some cases, only entered from the courtyard. In the latter part of the century the common dining-hall began to decline in importance, owing to modern ideas of privacy being introduced but the salient characteristics of the Elizabethan house are dealt with in English Renaissance, page 553.
of buildings
;

THE DWELLINGS OF THE PEOPLE.


formation of towns was often due to considerations of when traders and others grouped themselves around the castles of the great nobles, or formed a dependency to a monastery. and thus afterwards arose in many towns two rival authorities, viz., ecclesiastical and secular. In the absence of effective police, and in the consequent insecurity against lawless vagabonds, every city was more or less fortified. The undeveloped state of the towns is accountable for the absence of town halls, in contrast with France, Belgium, Italy, and Germany, where many such buildings exist. In towns the dwellings often consisted of a shop on the ground floor, in which the trade of the owner was carried on, light being obtained by a wide opening fronting the street. Behind the shop were the kitchen and living-room, and an external door led to a staircase, which gave access to the sleeping-rooms on the first floor. The " Butcher Row " at Shrewsbury, of the fifteenth century, has ground floor shops, " solar " above, and dormitories in the upper story. The architecture was more or less developed, in proportion to the condition of the owner, the materials at hand, and other local causes. In this respect the passage way on the first floor to the houses at Chester is a notable example. Houses of half timber and brick with overhanging upper stories abounded, while the Jew's house at Lincoln is a fine specimen of an early stone residence.
safety, as
;

The

CHAPELS.
There were different varieties of these, viz., those forming apartments in palaces or other dwellings, or attached to convents and
monasteries, those forming portions of larger churches, sepulchral

I/)

o P 2

U
o o
a w

Y 2


324

COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE.

chapels, those attached to colleges and other educational instituthe germ of all these being a tions and those erected on bridges large apartment to which aisles came to be added. The following are a few examples of different types Lambeth S. John's Chapel, Tower of London (No. 135) Palace Chapel (No. 132) (a.d. 1250), with the later addition of Merton College Chapel, the Lollard's tower (1424-1445) Oxford (1274-1277), with later additions; the Chantry Chapel at Wakefield ; S. (fourteenth century), on the Bridge Stephen's Chapel, Westminster (1349-1364), since destroyed

to

make way for Westminster Palace King's College Chapel, Cambridge (a d. 1440), of which there is a model in the Guild;

hall

Museum,
133)

London

S.

George's

Chapel,

W^indsor

(1480-1508); and Henry VII. 's Chapel, minster (Nos. 127, 128, 129) (1500-1512).
(No.

West-

COLLEGES AND SCHOOLS.


the time of Alfred onward there existed a number of schools connected with churches, monasteries, and cathedrals. Colleges resembled the monastic establishments of

From

grammar

and were modelled on them in many ways. The and this and the other rooms were grouped around a quadrangle, as in the mediaeval house. Winchester College (1387-1393) was built by William of Wykeham, and Eton College (1442) was founded by Henry VL (1422-1461). The rise of Oxford dates from about 1167, and that of Cambridge from about 1209, and many of the principal colleges At Oxford the at these Universities were erected as follows
earlier tirnes

hall

was the

principal apartment,

colleges of Merton, 1263-1264; Worcester, 1289; Exeter, 1314; College, 1379 Lincoln, 1427 Oriel, 1326 Queen's, 1340 All Souls, 1437; Magdalen, 1458; Brasenose, 1509; Corpus Christi, 1516; Christ Church, 1524; Trinity, 1554 and St. John's, 1555. At Cambridge the colleges of Peterhouse, 1284: Clare, 1326; Pembroke, 1347; Gonville, 1348; Trinity Hall, 1350; Corpus Christi, 1352 King's, 1441 ;Queen's, 1448 Jesus, 1497 Christ's, Magdalen, 1542 and Trinity, 1546. 1505 S. John's, 1511
; ;

New

BRIDGES.
communication, and in many A few representative examples may be mentioned. Old London Bridge, commenced in 1 1 76, was built by the religious confraternity known as The "Triangular" Bridge at Croyland, the " F rates Pontis." /Lincolnshire, still exists, having three pointed arches with abut/' ments at the angles of an equilateral triangle and having three

These formed important means

of

instances possessed a semi-religious character.

ENGLISH GOTHIC.
roadways and three waterways. The Bridge Northumberland, is in good preservation.
at

3^5

Warkworth,

HOSPITALS, ALMSHOUSES

AND BEDE HOUSES.

Many of these, principally dating from the fifteenth century, were founded by charitable people, and form interesting examples S. Mary's Hospital, Chichester, (No. of semi-domestic character. 132 L, M, n) is mainly of the fourteenth century, although belonging to a very early foundation, and has bedrooms and sitting-rooms for the inmates opening on to the central hall, at Other examples are S. Cross, the end of which is the chapel. S. John's Hospital, Winchester Ford's Hospital, Coventry Northampton the Bede House, Stamford, and almshouses at Cobham, Kent, and elsewhere.
; ; ;

ANCIENT TIMBER HOUSES.


still numerous, and the example from Chiddingstone dating about 1637, will give an idea of the appearance of these old timber houses, of which many towns, such as Chester, and numerous villages throughout the country, can still boast a number.

These are
j),

(No. 132

MINOR MONUMENTS.
tablets,

In the cathedrals and churches, the choir screens, tombs, wall and chantries are specially notable. Many of these are
careful study.

worthy of

COMPARATIVE. PREFATORY NOTE.


4.

The architecture of England during the Middle Ages can be divided into centuries corresponding to the principal developments, which have their specially defined characteristics, and each period is now treated in a comparative way in a somewhat different manner to the method adopted in other styles, the architectural character and examples in each period being given. There have been various systems of classification adopted by different writers, but those by Rickman and Sharpe are the best known. Rickman's divisions are made to include periods corresponding to the reigns of English sovereigns, which are given under each style later, whereas Sharpe's divisions are governed by the character of the window tracery in each period.

SPJ
134-

pijpA

3I?TIM

"

'

PS'-

f|

c^mi^iBss


ENGLISH ARCHITECTURE (ANGLO-SAXON STYLE).

"

327

A comparative table
each
is

showing the approximate period covered by


Rii^man.
Saxon.
Sharpe.

given

Dates.
A.D. 449 (arrival of Anglo-Saxons) to the Con... ... ... ... quest in 1066 ...

Saxon.
j

1066-I189

(j'.f.

to the

end of I2th

cent.)

...

Norman.

Transition

Geometrical
Rectilinear.

1 Curvilinear.'
... 1377-1485 {i.e. the 15th cent.) ... I485-I558(2.e. the first half 16th cent.)
...

Perpendicular.

Tudor.

Tudor.

Although the period of each


slow

style is thus defined,

remembered that the transition from one style arid gradual, and can often hardly be traced,
It is

must be to the next was so minute are the


it

differences.

stages that the division is made, for it the mediaeval architecture of England

only for convenience in alluding to the different must not be forgotten that is one continuous style.
(a.d.

ANGLO-SAXON STYLE
The

449 to 1066).

buildings are sometimes composed of the fragments of architecture in Britain, or of rude copies, but the scanty remains of this period render it difficult to estimate the character of the buildings. It is probable that timber was the material mostly employed in all classes of buildings, and that the great development in timber work of the later Gothic styles was due to this early use. The masonry work is considered to show signs of the influence of wood architecture, as in the " long and short work, the triangular-headed openings, the pilaster strips, and the baluster mullions (No. 134), but these features are more likely rude attempts to copy the contemporary Romanesque work of Ravenna and other Italian towns. The following are a few of the examples of this period Worth Church, Barnack Church, Brixworth (Northants), Dover Castle and Church, Earl's Barton (No. 134, a, b, d), Sompting (Sussex) (No. 134 H), Wickham (No. 134 f), Deerhurst (Gloucestershire) (No. 134 c), Greensted Church (Essex), and the crypt at Ripon Cathedral.

Roman

A. Plans. Churches seem to have been planned as two simple oblongs, joined by a small chancel arch, the chancel being squareended (borrowed from the Keltic type), lower and smaller than the nave, and distinctly marked as such externally and internally. There was often a descent of a few steps from the nave into the chancel. Another type of plan is that of the Roman basilican form, as S. Martin, Canterbury, and Brixworth. Towers, of which Earl's Barton, Northants (No. 134), is an example, are without buttresses.

328

COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE.

B. Walls. These were mostly formed of rough rubble work " with ashlar masonry at the angles formed in " long and short The pilaster strips courses, as at Earl's Barton (No. 134 a).

mentioned above are also features. These are round or triangular-headed, and c. Openings. have square jambs, as at Deerhurst Church (No. 134 c), and are sometimes divided by a baluster, as at Wickham (No. 134 f). b. Roofs. There are no means of knowing exactly how these were treated, as none exist, but they were probably either of

timber or composed of loose stones in horizontal layers approaching each other till they met at the apex, as in early Irish examples. Manuscripts represent buildings as covered by slates
or shingles.
E.

The roughly formed balusters, that occur in windows, have been mentioned above, and appear to have been worked by a lathe. Piers in churches are short, stumpy cylinders crowned with square blocks of stone in the place of
belfry

Columns.

moulded capitals (No. 134 e, g). F. Mouldings. These were few in number and consisted of simple ovolos and hollows coarsely axed. Tools were few, hence

the use of the axe in roughly finishing the contours. G. Ornament. This was probably scanty, in the absence of technical ability, hangings being probably in use.

NORMAN ARCHITECTURE,
also

known as the English Romanesque or Twelfth Century style, comprises the reigns of William I., 1066-1087, William II., 1087iioo, Henry I., 1100-1135, Stephen, 1135-1154, Henry II., 11541189.
.

general appearance is bold and massive, and presents with the airchitecture of Normandy, from whence it was introduced during the reign of William I. It is well described by Sir Walter Scott
similarities

The many

" In Norman strength, that abbey frown'd With massive arches broad and round, That rose alternate row on row On ponderous columns, short and low Built ere the art was inown, By pointed aisle and shafted stalk The arcades of an alley'd walk
;

To emulate

in stone

"...
:

In London, the principal examples are S. John's Chapel in the Tower of London (Nos. 131 A and 135). The round portion of the Temple Church (Transitional). S. Bartholomew's the Great, Smithfield.

The keep and

ENGLISH GOTHIC EXAMPLES.

XIII.

fMUB: WALLS IHICK


PLAIN

m mmmn hmeb
Wffi

iUm

fLAT, PAeAPETj 4&B(AI)[5,61I1KSD BWM) BATIimtNTCD WITHCOKLi UNDawiNWJfiNAe


(,

GttATffi PfOJKTION Or BUT-

imHWiS

ABOUT

[Q.UAL IN

TffiSEU'lNCOBS [L0N(jAT[5,
INTJODUCIION Of

ffflJtOIOIHT" WIDTH {

HAVt

sboupld with

akadina

in

acBtsioeiD,

POINTKWWtATHKtD
NJUNt
Of

iTAGtS, WINDOWS

mSIVC

WITH iHAflJ PLACLD IN etOAKfiULAH KCDiEi, OBNA-

USL6 AT

ItNTAL nOULWN6S^ZIfiZA6,BILL[r,(ONK, ? NAIL HtAB5.

f IKT IN

LMCET fOm,

MS Of mu.-

WITH 5EnKiBCUtA8.-

ppfllfeWltDATlNIBKlS.

136.

ENGLISH GOTHIC EXAMPLES.

XIV.

WlNDOWi
ffiY

LAMt.Wim

BY

HULllONi INTO TWO OE flOEt UaHTi.TBAt

WiU.OVEKEO WITH

PANElllftt.SyiTBEjiE)

Of

mtim

WPIDLY, flKT Of QCOnETElCAL 0E5I(3N

Of riowiNfi

rom. KyfTRKCi
|

\mmt in inwerANa, mm

AND

lATIK.

dm
LY

KPTH.UfflWNEDt.tnfllAL'b RICH-

OWIAntNTD

0rf5tT5

IN STAfif^,

IN LATte,

D(AnPL5 OENWICNTED WITH

iiNUED

TKHY rgNMSTS Of nUllMNi (01 miaiLY iitt mit i\mi it windoiks

NICHB i (UXKETTtD CANOPItS <t nNiAL5: PltB MIJEO Of EN6A6ED 5HHfT5 iOriEN DimOND 5HAPEI) ON PLiN:BALLrLOWEB,CmAaEBISrit.

STRtHfiTHENED

aNTED

mK

0!lZONTALTBTOnD:rOU

TYPI(Ai;THtelUn OiSSAPEAe.

iciii(fmsB^imi(ii
137-

IfflilWllCIIUWfi)


332

COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE.
:

In the Provinces, the principal examples are greater portion of the Cathedrals of Norwich, Durham, Oxford, Gloucester, Exeter, Ely, Hereford, Peterborough, Winchester, S. Albans, Chichester, Waltham, and Tewkesbury Abbey. Barfreston Church, Kent, and Iffley Church, Oxon (No. 138), are good examples of small Norman churches.

The

A. Plans. The nave was considerably lengthened ""from the Saxon period, and transepts were employed, with usually a tower Most of the cathedrals date from this period, at the crossing. and the general type of plan laid down was developed rather than changed, great length being aimed at, as at Norwich, Durham, Ely, S. Albans, and Winchester. The chapel of the Tower of

London (No. 135) is a type of a small chapel in. the style. The towers are square and massive, as at S. Alban's Abbey
Iffley Church (No. 138). In Norfolk and Suffolk are some fifty churches, having at their west end round towers supposed to be due to Scandinavian influence, but probably owing to these being more readily constructed, in the absence of suitable stone to form square angles. Castles, owing to the recent conquest, were numerous and important, comrnanding fords on the rivers, high roads, and other strategic points. The Tower of London gives a good idea of the system of defence adopted (No. 131 a). B. Walls. These are very thick, and frequently arcaded in later work, but are often constructed with defective masonry, the core being imperfectly bonded with the facing. The interiors have nearly an equal height assigned to nave arcade, triforium, and clerestory, and a passage was often formed between the clerestory window and the triple arch carrying the inside of the wall, a method also adopted in the churches at Caen. Buttresses are broad and flat, with little projection (No. 141 a), and often flush with the corbel table, which supports a plain parapet (No. 136 a, b). c. Openings. These were frequently formed with square recesses, known as "orders," to their jambs. The windows are usually small, narrow and deeply splayed, with semicircular heads. They are in single lights, but double windows divided by a shaft frequently occur in towers. Three openings, of which the centre

and

sometimes grouped together. are deeply recessed and richly ornamented with the zigzag ornament and beak-head, as at Iffley Church, Oxon (No. 138), or elaborately carved with sculptural subjects, as at Barfreston, Kent. D. Roofs. The vaulting was waggon- headed, or intersecting with plain groins (No. 112 g). The roof-trusses were of open timber, chiefly of king-post form,
is

one

largest, are

Doorways
_

ENGLISH ARCHITECTURE (THE NORMAN STYLE).

138.

Iffley Church, near Oxford.

West

Front.

ENGLISH ARCHITECTURE (THE NORMAN STYLE).

(AjZICZAS, UNCOLSHIRE

112.0

(Uj

((2)BIL1_ET,

WIMCHESTER. I90

(0)

SJLLET, CAMTERBURY

(E^) CHEE0li1,,WEST8niliSTEaiO97

(|^)CHEVK@M,MRTH HlflKSEY

G^y^BSLLETjABiSAYE-AUX-DAMES vH

P mt
j")MIE!JLE

/"M

.r%

STiSETCKS-ZT-GOWTS

(L) BEAKS

HEAftH.WKKSEY (f^ EMBATTLED, UMCOLN !!40j

139.

ENGLISH ARCHITECTURE (THE NORMAN STYLE).


and having an inclination of

335

forty-five degrees, the covering being of lead or shingles. The simple framing is either left exposed, or has a flat ceiling boarded and decorated. In fact, all the existing cathedrals or abbeys of this period had originally wooden ceilings, but were vaulted later, as at Gloucester, Exeter,

and Durham.

E. Columns, These are low, massive, and either polygonal or circular (No. 135), as at Gloucester, Bristol, and Exeter, while at Durham fluting and zigzag channellings were worked on the columns, without regard to the courses. Clustered piers, as at Peterborough (No. 122), with rectangular recesses, were also used, often in conjunction with round piers, as at Durham and Waltham. The small shafts occurring in the recessed orders of doorways and windows were sometimes richly ornamented. Capitals (Nos. 146 and 148), are usually of the cushion form, being sometimes carved and scolloped, but occasionally forms reminiscent of Roman architecture occur, as the Ionic example, in the White Tower, London (No. 135). The Corinthian type frequently met with in France is rare. F. Mouldings. The ornamented mouldings, as the chevron or zigzag, billet, beak-head, nail-head, bowtel, or roll moulding, are shown on Nos. 139 and 146, and form a most important decorative element in the style. Corbel tables, supported by corbels or grotesques, constitute crowning features on walls and towers. G. Ornament. The plain treatment of the earlier period was succeeded by the highly decorated work of the late period, which was richly carved with nail-head, corbel, billet, and other orna-

mented mouldings (No.

139).

of intersecting arches (No. 136 b), along the lower part of the aisle walls, constituted an effective dado decoration. It is probable that hangings were employed in interiors. Rudimentary decoration, consisting of black and white, or simple colours in stripes, forming lozenge -shaped and other figures roughly executed in distemper, produced a bold and not unpleasmg effect, as in the roof at Peterborough. Late in the period stained glass began to be employed, the glass, in small pieces, being chiefly white, leaded together to form patterns, with the addition of brown lines. Norman font, piscina and sedilia are shown on No. 144.

Wall arcades

THE EARLY ENGLISH STYLE.


Also known as Lancet, First Pointed, Early Plantagenet, or Thirteen Century Style, comprises the reigns of Richard I., ii8g1199; John, 1199-1216; Henry III., 1216-1272; Edward I., 1272-1307. The style of this period, shaldng itself free from the massive


336

COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE.
is

its dependence upon and simplicity in decoration. The long trails of dog-tooth ornament lurking in the dark furrow of the channelled recesses, the foliaged capitals and bosses intruding their luxuriance upon the mouldings and hollows, and the knots of pierced and hanging leaves, extending like some petrified garland or bower of filigree work round the arch, almost impart life and vegetation to the very stones of these door and window openings. The tall and narrow lancet openings give an upward tendency to the design, and the boldly projecting buttresses and pinnacles, and steeply pitched roofs, mark the exteriors. Inter-

Norman,

magnificent and rich, strong in


well-defined outline,

proportion,

massive Norman pillar, slender groups of shafts occur connected by bands to the piers. The pointed arch vaults are bolder, more elegant, and used more frequently (page 286). In London the principle examples are The round portion of the Temple Church, which may be called Transitional, between Norman and Early English. The Eastern portion of the Temple Church. The choir, transepts, and first four bays of the nave of Westminster Abbey (1220-1269), ^
nally, in place of the
;

portion

of

the

Cloisters,

and the Chapter House,

restored

(No. 127).

Choir, Saviour), Southwark. In the Provinces the principal examples are Sahsbury Cathedral (Nos. 121, 122, and 140 d), York (transepts) (No. 117 b), Lincoln (nave) (No. 117 f), Rochester (choir and transepts), Wells (nave and west front), Lichfield, Ely (choir transepts and Gallilee Porch, 1198-1218) (No. 136 d), Worcester (choir), Bristol (the Elder Lady Chapel).
:

The Chapel of Lambeth Palace (No. 132 g, h, k). The Lady Chapel, and nave (restored) of S. Mary Overie (S.

A. Plans (No. 117 e). These varied but little from the Norman. The vaulting as it advanced modified the planning,

when pointed arches were finally adopted, nave compartments were made oblong in place of the former square divisions. Flying buttresses were introduced. The " broach " spire (No. 140 a, b), in which the upper portion rises from the square tower without a parapet, is characteristic. These retain the massiveness characteristic of B. Walls Norman work, but more cut stonework was employed, and less rubble filling, the concentration of the weight of the roof and vaulting on the buttresses leading to the gradual treatment of the walling between as a mere screen. The proportion of openas,

ing to the piers adjoining is often excellent, as in the transept of Salisbury Cathedral. Buttresses more pronounced than in the Norman period, being generally equal in projection to their width, in order to resist the lateral outward pressure of the pointed vaults and

ENGLISH GOTHIC (eARLY ENGLISH STYLe).

337

were formed into stages by weathered set-offs (Nos. 127 a, b, and Their arrises were often chamfered, and the different 141 b). stages were frequently gabled. F"lying or arched buttresses (No. 141 e) were first utilized in this period, but were not of common
occurrence till a later period. In the interiors the nave arcade usually occupies the lower half of the height, the upper half being divided equally between triforium and clerestory, as at the choir of Ely, the naves of Lichfield (No. 124 c), and Lincoln but sometimes, the triforium was diminished in order to provide a larger display of glass, as at Westminster (No. 127 c) and Salisbury (No. 122 g). c. Openings. Proportions, generally, are more slender than in Norman work, and pointed arches came into general use for constructive reasons, at first in connection with vaulting, then gradually throughout the whole building. The doorways are often richly treated, and ornamented with carved foliage (No. 143 a). Windows (Nos. 122, 136 d, and 142 a, b, c, e, f, g) are of lancet form, and tracery was developed, especially the early form known as " plate " tracery (No. 142 a, b), so-called because the openings were cut through a flat plate of stone. Cusps or projecting points of Gothic tracery were introduced in the latter part of the Early English style, being let into the soffit of the arches in separate small pieces and entirely independent of the mouldings. This form of detached cusping is found generally in the circular lights, the heads of windows having cusps forming The spaces between the cusps are part of the tracery itself. known as foils (Lat. folium = a leaf) being trefoil, quatrefoil or cinquefoil when having three, four or five openings. Narrow lancet windows are grouped in two, three, or even five lights, as in the " Five Sisters " in the north transept, York (page 316), the glass being usually kept near the exterior of the wall, making the inside jamb very deep. D. Roofs. These are steeper than in the last period, approaching the shape of an equilateral triangle, i.e., sixty degrees. The framing was exposed where there was no vaulted ceiling. The braces were used to form a waggon shape, or semicircular ribs were employed, when the close setting of the flat rafters produces the effect of barrel vaulting. (Vaulting, see page 286, and Nos. iii and 112.) E. Columns. Piers consist of a central circular, or octagonal shaft, surrounded by smaller detached columns (No. 146), often of polished Purbeck marble, held in place by bands at intervals, as at Sahsbury (No. 123) and Westminster Abbey. Capitals were frequently moulded, so as to produce fine bold shadows (No. 146), or carved with conventional foliage (No. 148), placed on the bell or lower portion of the capital. The normal
;

abacus
F.A.

is

circular on plan.

ENGLISH GOTHIC EXAMPLES. XV


\P!iIf"^ m\ r.iycii 71

StPitee
BfSTOME,,
Broach Spue

(glIMTilM,LCS. CATHES'^SWIIS.
Pabapet

nm ToRRnstftocKtB
r

Parapet

DouBLiAKLt Turrets*

;st Petem
STOIONOnASOHTMR'DMOHUmTTRa
aSTEliATEDAfltllTuRRETSiPARAPEl

(@St James
AHOI tetlS sfLYIKt BonR[5SE5

St

140.

ENGLISH GOTHIC EXAMPLES.


0FIH1

XVI.

fmNsroi'mES'5. CHAPTER HOBSE.


LlHraLKAD.1220.

VCVreBNffilKS

5SOTHWEIL

AMHiADiro

mmtmim. mm^iss

IMmHASME

S!iEllMS(AKE)

A DOUBLE AIM EXAMPLE


INI(03T(StY3WllCHTtD
WITH

PINNACLE'565riTUARY

SHMKPOIKIEDCBOSS
INC OF

bibbed

SJilllM PtMl 6 mOlECTEB

ASINCLE AISLE EXAMPLE

mil EXERTED OBlpE THIDSIS WLL BMIER mt KSE SlSENCTrtENEIUlBinliESES l,M MUSIS ofkNAVE MULT
E lEKEEoBE

WLTHB above aiaiN[l"^l!IKC AnLO-f AtAINSTMWUTm Bt JWSMEH tODE THIS Wa KK OmsEO irBHTIKESEilSE aERESToRr
BE AI5EEo/ll5LE5
t,

INORDER TO couhrrtRAcr

THE OBUOUE THRU3T or NAVE VAULT.

INWOTICRS.WEICHTID

WfiHITIEB KR0S3

ELYINC

BIJEIRE53t3

Wim

PINNACLE.

SPRWas PIERS ftLEAHINC AUMSrMWVEMB.fiUCH PIERS AREKEKHTED i BY PINNACLES INORDER To RESIST Trtl3 OUTlVARn PRESSURE.

fm

141.

ENGLISH GOTHIC EXAMPLES.

XVII.

iommitiimmmrn'mw^j-mmi-mmimmmmi

iMAnmt,'$mibi.
PLqTE IgqCCgr-

weeefwK.oxFss.
PLf|TC_JCf|CtKY-

^mrMfrmM^mn. nmimuliiMmD.
iffi

TBgceUY-

Bf|R

TI?f]C6BY

Pl
142.

WTiiiflffip

;;pY(fhCffireL,CSflBIiE'. CJ50.

5T.

OflBTJ WMHMC.H; nmMnrtr eXfWPif

ENGLISH GOTHIC (EARLY ENGLISH STYLE).

34I

These are bold, deeply undercut, and often of F. Mouldings. pear-shaped section, following the outline of the rectangular The chiselled dog-tooth succeeded the axed recesses (No. 146). nailhead decoration of the Norman period. G. Ornament. The most characteristic ornament is the dogtooth, which was generally placed in hollow mouldings, and was used in great profusion (Nos. 143 and 147). The chisel was generally used, taking the place of the axe in the Early Norman

period.

Carved foliage is conventional, and crisp and fine in treatment (No. 147), typical examples consisting of convex curling masses,

known

as "

stiff leaf foliage."

Flat surfaces are often richly diapered (see Glossary, page 6gi), as in Westminster Abbey (No. 127). Sculptured figures of large size were used, and placed in niches with canopies over them. The west front of Wells (1206-1242) has 300 statues, being a grand composition where sculpture is fully combined with architecture. In regard to color work, it has been suggested that the carved diapers of this and the next period are copies in stone of the hangings or painted decorations of the previous period. There is ground for believing that such carved diapers were colored, as was the case with Greek and Roman ornament. Stained glass rapidly increased in importance, the pieces being small and leaded up in patterns so as almost to suggest the cubic formation of mosaic. A general tone of color pervades the windows, and an unrivalled deep and violet-like blue was a favourite tint, as in the fine thirteenth century glass at Canterbury Cathedral.

Examples of an Early English font, piscina, sedilia, and tabernacle are shown on No. i<:|4, and a gable cross, finial, sculptured vaulting bosses, and carved bracket on No. 149. In the Early English and following periods, exquisite decorative art was produced in such works as the Psalters, Missals, Books of Hours and Chronicles, in which the huntsman, fisherman, shepherd, labourer, scribe, saint, king, knight - and monk were represented, forming a valuable record of contemporary life. The Mediasval Room at the British Museum contains examples of armour metalwork, ivory and woodcarving, caskets, rings and utensils, illustrative of the ornamental art of the
periods.

THE DECORATED
also

STYLE,

known as the Geometrical and Curvilinear, Middle Pointed, Edwardian, Later Plantagenet, or Fourteenth Century Style,
comprises the reigns of 1327-1377-

Edward

II.,

1307-1327,

Edward

III.

ENGLISH GOTHIC EXAMPLES.

XVIII.

H3-


ENGLISH GOTHIC (THE DECORATED STYLE).
343

The general appearance, although there is an increasing richness of ornamentation, is simple, from the small number of parts, and magnificent, from the size of the windows filled in with geometrical and flowing tracery. Clerestories were enlarged at the expense of the triforium. Vaulting ribs were more numerous and complex than in the previous style, the vault becoming a main feature in the effect of the interiors. In London the principal examples are Westminster Abbey (three bays of the eastern cloister walk and the polygonal chapter house) the Chapel of S. Etheldreda, Ely Place, Holborn, and the Dutch Church, Austin Friars.' In the Provinces the principal examples are Lincoln Cathedral (nave and east end, including angel choir, York Ely Cathedral (the eastern portion), 1260-1280), Cathedral (the choir, west front and chapter house), Exeter and Lichfield Cathedrals (naves) S. Albans (choir), Salisbury Wells, and Southwell (the prolonged chapter houses). Stone Church, Kent, and the Eleanor Crosses.
: ; : , ,

plans were set out with a wider spacing in parish churches than in cathedrals already started in earlier periods. The progress of vaulting regulated the planning of the piers, and was in itself strongly influenced by the increased size of the openings required to In domestic architecture the " Hall " was exhibit stained glass.
A.

Plans.

The new

in the bays,

more noticeable

highly developed, as at Westminster and Penshurst (No. 132). Several of the great central towers were now carried up, a.i Salisbury (Nos. 116 a, 121 and 140 d), Lincoln (Nos, ii6Bandi25), and Lichfield (No. 116 f). Spires, usually octagonal, are lofty, and the "broach" form, characteristic of the thirteenth century, gradually gave way to parapets with angle pinnacles (No. 140 c, d, e). Spire-lights are ornamented with crockets (No. 147 k), and ribs occur on the angles of the tapering spires. The increased size of the traceried windows, and B. Walls. the importance of the buttresses are characteiistic of the style, and the extension of tracery to the walls in the shape of panelling was now introduced. Buttresses occur with offsets in stages, and in later periods are ornamented with niches (No. 141 c) and crocketed canopies, as of Lincoln (No. 125). Angle buttresses, set in the exterior diagonally, were introduced in this period. Parapets were often pierced with flowing tracery (No. 147 n), but this was especially a French feature, the English generally keeping to the battlemented form (^No. 147 m). The proportions of height to width are less c. Openings. lofty than in the Early English period.

ENGLISH GOTHIC EXAMPLES.

XIX.

T^ EiP (B,., n . n .L.3ElBllLllA.RusHDEN,Noi!ThAHTi


'

'

[WMimnimirociyBim

nmmm. mm dmiwis?
!Sedilia:stmai!vs.oxon

144.

ENGLISH GOTHIC EXAMPLES. XX

'

stemAston.oxon,

Pulpit
HAGDALCNt

([xtdwl)
OxfOSD

Pulpit, woLVEKoiom.

Ea@le Lktorh,
UMLL S^
PtTERS.NOffOLK

Coll

,HM0R0UGH, OxrORDSHIRL
AROOMfTWASAGALLERY
OVER THE
Ttit CHOIR

M, GCDDINGTON

CH.,NORTAmS.
ENCLOS-

A PARCLOSE VS AN

XKa SEPARATING
OR CHABCEL FROM THE WAS CONVENIENT FOR
IN

URE SCREEN. OR RAILINtTt? PROTEa A TOMB, TO SEPARATE

NAVE.

IT

A CHAPEL fRO THE

MAIN BOB*.

UGHTING. CANDLES, ETC,

CON

Of A CHURCH, OR TO FORM THE

NECTION WITH THE IMAGES .S3

FRONT Of A GALLERY. ETC

WHICHBEUXEIITOIT.NOrHgai

WUSEBEfORtTBEMl'CEN"

Chanth(continuec5

ACMMTW was a
chapel or separate part of a chorch endowed fdr the purpose of the daily ors
frequent saying of mass on behalf of the foonderab THOSE man he might name 4T WAS OFTEN ONE OR MORE BAYS OF AN AISLE ENCLOSED
BY A screen: ABOOT THEM
DIE OF
-

where interment was

hot easb

OSTAKtt EXCEPT BV SOME BENE OAL OFFERING. W MOST ENGL


SH CATHEDRALS MANY
CHAPELS WERE

CHANTB
EXTER-

AOTAaV

lALADDITKJNSTOTHEOSIGWALi

WLDIIG; OTHERS WERE INDEPENOT STRUCTURES WITHIN*


HE EDIFICE.

THE CHANTRY
HRAL

CHAPaiSEPUL

THE 12'' CENf IT WAS CUSTOMARY TO ENDOW .>


CHANTRIES AT PARTICULAR ALTARS. THE fOONOING AND ENDOWING Of PRIVAIECIIANIRY CHAPELS WAS A COMMON JZ3
PRACTICE AMONG THE WEALTH*

MONUMENT TO ARTHUR

TUDOR, PRINCE Of WALES.SON

OF HENRY

VII (B.W86, P. 1502) 5 AN EXAMPLE Of THE LAST HENTONED. ITWA'iEREaEJIN

504 THE WHOLE SURfACE.S


tXIERNALLY
OVERED
I,

INTERNALLY, 15

CUSSES PREVIOUS TO THE


REFORMATION'. THEY

Wm TJACERY iSCOUi
!r

WERE*
,^55,
[HAlIEf

TURED ORNAMENTS,

THE ROOf

MOST NUMEROUS

IN

BAFKESPECrjIOfFAKVAIUBG

ABBEYS iCATHED- ([2) RAL5, WHERE IT WAS ^iri'

a
CATHEBfflL

PRIVILEGE ID BE BURIED;

If

WORCESTER

145-

ENGLISH GOTHIC ORNAMENT.

I.

ENGLISH GOTHIC (THE DECORATED STYLE).

347

(Nos. 137 and 142) are large, and divided by mullions lights. Tracery at first consisted of geometric forms, as in the cloisters of Salisbury, the choir clerestories of Ely, Lincoln, and Lichfield, and the nave of York. In the latter part of the period it was "flowing " in character as in the choirs of Ely (No. 137 f) and Wells. The cusps, which in the Early English style were often planted on, in this period were cut out of the stone forming the tracery. Doorways (No. 143) are ornamented with engaged shafts, and have jambs of less depth than in the Early English style. Arches were formed by being struck from the points of equilateral triangles, or even of lower proportion (No. 299 i). The ogee arch (No. 299 V) was also used. The enlargement of clerestory windows proceeded pari passu with the diminution in height of the triforium (No. 137 f). D. Roofs. ^These are of moderate pitch, and sometimes have open framing, of which Eltham Palace and S. Etheldreda, Ely Place, Holborn, are good examples. (Vaulting, see page 287 and
into

Windows

two or more

No. 112.)
E.

Columns.

Piers

are sometimes diamond-shaped on plan,

with engaged shafts (No. 146). Small shafts, surrounding and attached to a central column, were a development from the Early English. The capitals, when moulded, are similar to those in the Early English style, but not so deeply undercut (No. 146). When carved, the foliage is more naturalistic, and resembles the leaves of the oak, ivy, maple, or vine (No. 148 g). Hollow mouldings are ornamented with the F. Mouldings. ball-flower (No. 147 c), which is specially characteristic of the style, other mouldings being shown on Nos. 143 and 146. Cornices and dripstones often have their deep hollows filled with foliage and carving, and are ornamented with crocket (No. 147 k). Dripstones are finished with carved heads or grotesques, as at Cley Church, Norfolk (No. 143).

"The

carved angels, ever eager eyed


hair

Stared, where

With

upon their heads the cornice rests, blown back, and wings put crosswise on

their breasts."

Keats.

Base mouldings to walls are strongly marked, as seen in the exterior of Lincoln (No. 125). Carved foliage in this period is generally G. Ornament. naturalistic, and consists of seaweed, ivy, oak, and vine leaves, and the well-known tablet flower (Nos. 147 and 148). Stained glass led to a great extension of window openings, and In itself it lost the mosaic character the development of tracery.

ENGLISH GOTHIC ORNAMENT.

II.

5.

TOBLIT FLiWEK

F.

VIMC LE^F #

i^iSlFl^

fSw

RTUBl|-FI!JWEI^C?E3>TIIKli.riie;n rfCN^O'VIl Q^^PEL

CWCKET
fHpr\

CWSCET

"jnu^bvfii (JTHEDBSl

147.

ENGLISH GOTHIC (THE PERPENDICULAR STYLE).


and became more translucent, the pieces being
in tone.
larger,

349

and lighter

subjects portrayed became of more importance, and there was a loss in the general decorative effect of the interior, but the glass in itself gained in value and expression.
'

The

"

The deep-set windows, stained and traced, Would seem slow-flaming crimson fires."

more especially in wood, as screens, choir stalls, pews, began to acquire character and importance. Shrines and tombs in masonry are elaborate and beautiful adjuncts to the interiors of the cathedrals and large ^churches, and the crockets and finials to pinnacles and canopies increased
Fittings,

and

pulpits,

in irnportance

and gave additional richness to buildings of


d,

this

period (Nos. 143

147 k). Examples of a decorated font, piscina, tabernacle and sedilia, are shown on No. 144, a brass eagle lectern on No. 145, and a gable cross, finial and boss on No. 149.

THE PERPENDICULAR STYLE,


also

known as the Rectilinear, Late Pointed, Lancastrian or Fifteenth Century Style, comprises the reigns of Richard IL, Henry IV., 1399-1413, Henry V., 1413-1422, 1377-1399. Henry VL, 1422-1461, Edward IV., 1461-1483, Edward V., Richard III., 1483-1485, Henry VII., 1485-1509, 1483, Henry VIII., 1509-1547, Edward VI. 1547-1553, Mary, 1553,

1558.

The general appearance varies much in earlier and later work, the latter being overladen with panelling, the main lines in a perpendicular direction predominating.

The windows, owing to their immense size, were strengthened by transoms in tiers (Nos. 137 g and 142), by primary and secondary mullions, and, in some great east end windows, by an inner structure forming a gallery across the window, as at York. The triforium practically disappeared owing to height of nave arcade and flatness of aisle roofs, the clerestory and aisle windows being of
great size. The architecture of the last four reigns is frequently known as " Tudor " architecture (page 356). In London the principal examples are: Henry VII. 's Chapel (Nos. 127, 128 and 129) (a most perfect example), the southern and western portion of the cloisters of Westminster Abbey, S. Margaret, Westminster, Porch (with vaulting) S. Sepulchre's Church, Holborn, the Savoy Chapel in the Strand, Westminster Hall, and Crosby Hall, London.

ENGLISH GOTHIC ORNAMENT. III. COMPARATIVE EXAMPLES OF ENGLISH. GOTHIC CARVED FOLIAGE.
WHiTE TOWei^ laWBOlM

MSS&

mCQUkTEB~

^*5^^ *^^^= f*^*^I

ENGLISH GOTHIC (THE PERPENDICULAR STYLE).


:

35I

The west fronts In the Provinces the principal examples are of Winchester, Gloucester and Beverley S. George's Chapel,
;

Windsor (Nos. 70 l and 133), Sherborne Minster and King's College Chapeli Cambridge (No. 70 m).
" This immense and glorious work of
fine intelligence."

Wordsworth.
in the Cathedrals of Canterbury (nave), Gloucester (transept, choir, and cloisters), Winchester (nave remodelled) (Nos. 124, 137 g), and the Beauchamp Chapel at Warwick towers at Gloucester and Canterbury, and many of the colleges of Oxford and Cambridge (page 324), and numerous mansions throughout the country.

Other examples are


(choir),

York

A.

Plans^

Owing to the great building era that had preceded

work consisted mostly of restorations or additions. In church planning there was a decrease in the size of the piers, and a tendency to throw all pressures upon the
this period, ecclesiastical

which have often great depth. are numerous and important, and were generally erected without a spire, as the Bell Tower, Evesham (1533).
buttresses,

Towers

When

a spire occurs, it rises behind a parapet, as at S. Peter, Kettering, Northants (No. 140 f). (The plans of' castles and houses have been referred to on
B.

pages 318 and 322.)

were profusely ornamented with panelling 137 g), resembling tracery of windows, as at Henry VII. 's Chape), which may be taken as the most elaborate specimen of the style. The use of flint as a wall facing, for panels in conjunction with stone tracery, in the counties of Norfolk and Suffolk, was
(Nos.
128,

Walls.

These

common.
Parapets are embattled or panelled (No. 147), and often very Merton College, Oxford. Buttresses project boldly, being sometimes deep enough in projection to allow of a chapel being placed between, as at King's College, Cambridge. They are also panelled with tracery, as at Henry VII.'s Chapel (No. 128), and are crowned with finials (Nos. 124 D, E, and 128), which are often richly ornamented with
rich, as at

crockets.

Flying buttresses are

common and

are often pierced, as at

early period inclose an equi(No. 299) j they were afterwards obtusely pointed, or struck from four centres (Nos. 133 and 299), sometimes inclosed in a square hood-moulding above the head (No. 143),
lateral triangle

Henry VII.'s Chapel (No. 128). c. Openings. Arches in the

ENGLISH GOTHIC ORNAMENT

IV.

149.

ENGLISH GOTHIC (tHE PERPENDICULAR STYLE).

353

the spandrels thus formed being filled with tracery or carving (No. 148 M, n). Windows consist mainly of mullions producing a perpendicular effect, hence the name of the period. The earliest are probably those at Winchester Cathedral (No. 124), e'xecuted under William of Wykeham, and having mullions continued vertically their whole height (Nos. 137 g and 142), stopping against the main arch, and strengthened by horizontal transoms. In many cases they are of enormous size, converting the west end into a wall of glass, as at S. George's Chapel, Windsor (No. 133), the east window at Gloucester (38 feet wide by 72 feet high), and King's College Chapel (No. 142 o). Doorways were generally finished with a square label over the arch, and the spandrel filled with ornament, as shown in the doorway of Merton College, Oxford (No. 143 j). Lofty clerestories are general, and the space of the triforium (Nos. 124 F and 137 g) is occupied by panels, as at S. George's Chapel, Windsor, or by niches for statuary, as at Henry VII. 's Chapel. D. Roofs. Open timber roofs of low pitch and of the hammerbeam construction abound they were often richly ornamented with carved figures of angels, and with pierced tracery (No. 113), many examples existing in Norfolk. The roof of Westminster Hall (No. 113 h), erected 1399, covers an area of nearly half an acre, being one of the largest roofs unsupported by pillars in the world. The later roofs in the style became nearly flat (Nos. 70 J and 133). Fan vaulting (N-o. 112) is characteristic of' the later periods (page 288), Henry VI I. 's Chapel (No. 129), King's College Chapel, Cambridge, and S. George's Chapel, Windsor, as well as the vaults of the central towers of Canterbury and Gloucester Cathedrals, are well-known examples. E. Columns. Piers (No. 146) are generally oblong on plan, and placed diagonally with their greater dimension north and south, caused by the vaulting shaft being taken up from the ground, on the front of the pier and not between the arches. The characteristic pier consists of four circular shafts connected by hollows, and with two fillets, these mouldings being carried round the arch. Capitals are sometimes polygonal on plan, and few have the abacus and bell perfectly defined, the mouldings being weaker and less effective (No. 146). Carved capitals have foliage of conventional character, shallow and square in outline (No. 148 l). Bases to piers are often polygonal on plan and a typical moulding is the " bracket " mould (No. 146*^). F. Mouldings. These were arranged on diagonal planes (No. 146), being wide and shallow, and often large and coarse.

F.A.

A A

354

COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE.

Pier mouldings are often continued up from the base, and round the arch without the intervention of capitals. Crestings occur along the top of cornice mouldings (No. 147), and diminutive battlements along the transoms of windows, Canopies are often of ogee character, enriched G. Ornament.

with crockets (No. 128). Ornaments and sculptured foliage, usually conventional in character, are shown in Nos. 147 and 148. The special orna-

ments of the period are the Tudor rose, the portcullis, and the which were used unsparingly (see Henry VII. 's Chapel) (No. 128), especially as ornaments in square panels. Wooden chancel screens are very numerous, the upper part being divided by mullions, supporting tracery, and the whole was elaborately treated with panelling, niches, statues, and pinnacles also with the Tudor flower cresting (No. 147 g). The misereres under the choir-stalls of the period were carved with delicate foliage, grotesques, and flowers, and the bench ends with poppy-heads (No. 149 o, p). The tendency was to obtain ornamental motifs in decoration, by the application of features on a small scale, the tracery of windows being repeated on the walls as blank panelling (Nos. 128, 133, and 137 g), and battlements being carved along the cornices. The golden tinge produced by silver stain, used along with white glass, gave contrast to the painted canopies of architectural character
fleur-de-lis, all of
;

In very late examples, as at usually inclosing single figures. King's College, Cambridge, gorgeousness of coloring exists with great confusion of form and subject, the general design becoming more pictorial, and perspective being introduced, thus breaking away from the conditions imposed by the material. This return to color, however, prevented any such completeness of one tone effect, as in the early work. Color decoration was freely employed on roofs, screens, pulpits, and other fittings, as in the churches of Norfolk, Suffolk and elsewhere. Examples of a Perpendicular font, piscina and sedilia are shown on No. 144 a pew-end, pulpits, a rood-loft, parclose-screen and chantry on No. 145 and a gable cross, sanctus bell, finial,
; ;

penda.it, boss,

and poppy-heads on No. 149.

CONCLUSION.
The various phases of English architecture from the time of the Romans to the reign of Henry VII. have been dealt with. In the fifteenth century the Renaissance of literature in Italy was taking place, and it became the fashion to read the Latin authors. Architecture, painting, and sculpture followed in the train of literature, and the generation that wrote and spoke the Latin tongue desired to build in the style of ancient

A A 2

356

COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE.
The
Revived
style

Rome.

naturally
,

oiginated

in

Italy,

because there the Gothic style had never, at any time, taken a very firm hold, and because of the precedent afforded by the numerous Romaii ruins. From Italy it spread to France and England and the special forms it took, in these countries, will be considered under the head of Renaissance architecture. It is exemplified in the more or less debased but picturesque styles of each country, effected by Renaissance details being Tudor architecture grafted on to the native Gothic style. (page 349) is the style prevalent during the reigns of Henry VII.,
;

Henry VIII., Edward VI., and Mary, in which the influence of the Renaissance movement is noticeable, for it is the work of those trained in Gothic art, but probably under the direction of a designer familiar with the new features of the Renaissance, and
some examples the designs for the details and mouldings would seem to have been made by a foreign artist. The Tudor style was followed bv the Elizabethan and Jacobean styles, described under English Renaissance (page 551), in which may
in

be traced the increased influence of the old Roman architecture, until the Early Renaissance architecture, finally shaking itself clear of incongruities, developed into the Anglo-Classic or Later Renaissance of Inigo Jones, and Sir Christopher Wren. The process, however, was slow, and Gothic structures, more or less debased, were erected late into the sixteenth century.

Addy

(S.

Bloxam

REFERENCE BOOKS. "The Evolution of the English House." 8vo. 1899. O.). (M. H.). " Principles of Gothic Ecclesiastical Architecture."
5.

3 vols., Svo.

1882.

Bowman
Brandon. Brandon.

(H.) and Crowther (T. S.). " Churches of the Middle Ages."

2 vols., folio. 1857. Brandon (R. and J. A.).

Analysis of 1847. " Open Timber" Roofs of the Gothic Architecture." i860. Middle Ages." 4to. " Parish Churches." 2 4to. " Cathedral Antiquities." 13 vols, 1858. 4to. 1814-1835. Britton "Architectural Antiquities." 5 in 4to. 1807-1826. Britton Brown (Prof. G. Baldwin). "The Arts in Early England." 2
vols.,
(J.).

6,

(J.).

vols.,

vols.,

Svo. Vol. 2 deals with Ecclesiastical Architecture from the 1903. Conversion of the Saxons to the Norman Conquest. Collings (J. K.). " Details of Gothic Architecture." 2vols.,4to. 1846. Collings. " Gothic Ornaments." 2 vols., 4to. 1848-1850. Collings. "English Mediaeval Foliage and Colour Decoration." 4to.

1875.

Cottingham (L.
of

N.). " Plans, Elevations, and Details of the Interior Henry VII.'s Chapel, Westminster." 2 vols., folio. 1822. Dollman (F. T.). " Analysis of Ancient Domestic Architecture."

2 vols., 4to.

1863.

Johnson

(J.),

Sharpe (E.) and Kersey (A. H.).


1880.

"Churches of

Nene

Valley, Northants."

ENGLISH GOTHIC (THE PERPENDICULAR STYLE).


Neale
(J.

357

St. Peter,

P.). "History and Antiquities of the Abbey Churcti of Westminster." 2 vols., 4to. 1818. Neale (J.)." The Abbey Church of St. Alban, Hertfordshire." 1877. Paley (E. G.)." Gothic Mouldings." 8vo. 1891. Parker (J. H.). " Glossary of Terms used in Gothic Architecture.''

3 vols., 8vo.

" Introduction to the Study of Gothic Architecture." 1900. Parker. " A History of Gothic Art in England." 8vo. 1900. Prior (E. S.). Pugin (A. and A. W.). " Examples of Gothic Architecture." 1838. Pugin (A.). " Specimens of Gothic Architecture." a vols., 4to. i8zi. Rickman (T.). " Gothic Architecture." 8vo. 1881. Scott (Sir G. Gilbert). " Lectures on Mediaeval Architecture." 1879. Scott (g. G.). "An Essay on the History of English Church Architecture." 4t'o. 1881. Sharpe (E.). " Seven Periods of English Architecture." 8vo. 1870. Sharpe. " Architectural Parallels." Large folio. 1848. Sharpe. "Mouldings of the Six Periods of British Architecture." 1871-74. Sharpe. "A Treatise on the Rise and Progress of Window Tracery

1830.

in

England." 2 vols., 8vo. 1849. Statham (H. H.), Editor." Cathedrals of England and Wales." (The "Builder" Series.) Folio. This work is specially valuable on 1898.

account of its splendid series of plans to a large scale. Turner (T. H.) and Parker (J. H.). " Some Account of the Domestic Architecture in England during the Middle Ages." 3 vols., 8vo. 1859-1877. Walcott (M. E. C). " Church and Conventual Arrangement." i860. Wickes (C). " Spires and Towers of the Mediseval Churches of England." 3 vols., folio. 1853-1859. Willis (R.)." Vaults of the Middle Ages." (Trans. R.LB.A.) 1842.

Historical Novels

Cutts (E. L.). "The Villa of Claudius." " Under the Black Raven." Creswick Norman{iith Blake (M. M.). " The Siege of Norwich Castle." " Ivanhoe." Norman Cent.). Scott (Sir W.). Early English (j^th Cent.). Green (E. E.). "A Clerk of Oxford." Decorated {14th Fairless (M.). "The Gathering of Brother Hilarius." " The Last of the Barons." Perpendicular (i^th Cent.) Lytton. Perpendicular (idth Cent., Ainsworth (H.). "Windsor
Roman
Occupation.

Anglo-Saxon.

(P.).

Cent.).

[i-zth

Cent.).

1st

half).

Castle."

Note. careful study of the buildings themselves is necessary to appreciate thoroughly the progress of the style,, and many being within the reach of the student, measured drawings and sketches should be made of these, which will impress the different features on the mind more thoroughly than study solely from books. In London, besides the examples already mentioned after each period, an important collection of architectural casts of each period can be seen at the Royal Architectural Museum, Tufton Street, Westminster, the Victoria and Albert Museum,

and the Crystal Palace.

EXAMPLES OF SCOTTISH ARCHITECTURE.

Castle Fuzer,
AKRCtmSHIRE.
FIRST

fL.M.

e@WAME's Hospital,
STIRLING. GROUND aOOR PUN.

Glamis Castle,

view from the south-we5t.(Q)

H!,j|

6E0R6E HEMOT'S
TH[ 5ERC Of CASa[S i

i@SPITaL,EJ)iNBDM.
ces

,Bo'ness
a wins added at one angle. forhing l-plan. l this modified w hseil kg n the re-entering ancle a tower containwg a staircase in lake CASTLES THE BUILDINGS WERE ARRANGED ffiOND WALL Of ENCEINTE FOfflING

NAKSIOIIS SCOTUHB, TOM THE 15"? TOTAL 17'? chaptei! in tbl geblijal msTORv of *. MHITtCTUIiL W. STIVl HAS A NATIONAL CHARACTER OF ITS OWN a NAItV CHARKILBSTIC ftATURES. IT B DIVIIO (V MACGIBBON k ROSS BIO I- ffRIODS.FIBST IPEB10(l3"CEm) CASTLES WtRL ERECTED ON T* NORMAN

auTT,

mm m wmDLNi
tflfTv

ma wmi
lY

wALii of EncEiuTt boilt of stone t wtak s OF tbl puinest lESCRimH wrm tomrs to ttrtND the curtains.

wh
!r

S Fourth Peiioi>(i542-i7oo) ancient forms of construction m am m. PURPOSES HODinED sTJANSFORMED WTO ORNAMENTAL EEATORES BCIUD
INS ELAtOliATE

caKTrai n centre

more ornament than

in

prevbos

period.

SEWMBPESIOBM'^CENTI).
norbab
ED

to'

the castles tWE a TOWEJ sulk TOTNE-ii wii A 'mml (couRr^ARH) surrounkd win a mil atiacii ENCLOSING WALL SMALLER

TMRflO. THE L-PLAN nRST WTROOWID.

If 55 EXTENSIVE THAN

13"

aim. OKNAHEHAL
'KEEP'-

FEATURES RAKE

THIBrcilKIB(l400-l542) THE

PLAN STiaUSED.

INMANYHSW-

CORBaUNGS, ANGLE TdRRETS Wmi.CONICAL TOPS, LOFTY ROOfS t, auSTERCt CHIMNEYS. RENAISSANCE FEATURES AND ORNAHEMI GRAHWiY SUPERSEDED TKOSl OF THE NATIVE SIVLE, KIT THE TRIf mONAl PLANS WERE ADHERED TO. TNECWnYARD FLAN MORE EREOUENTLY USED: II Sfflim WlMS.lllE IEEE LZ.T t E PIANS JIU iWE
WITH tORBERS, FINWi

151-

SCOTTISH ARCHITECTURE.
in

Architecture in Scotland followed on much the same lines as England, until the middle of the fifteenth century, when it took a more national turn. Inspiration was largely drawn from abroad, especially from France, with which country there \vas a close political connection, causing a picturesque and interesting

development
(a.d.

on French

lines,

especially

after

Robert Bruce

1306-1329) finally secured the independence of Scotland. In Melrose Abbey is to be seen the influence of French and Spanish Art, while in Rosslyn Chapel Portuguese influence is apparent, for it is very similar in detail to the Church of Belem near Lisbon. The most important Cathedrals are those of Edinburgh (S. Giles), Glasgow (No. 120 d) (having no transepts but a famous crypt), S. Andrew, Kirkwall, Dunblane, Aberdeen and Elgin, and the Abbeys of Kelso, Melrose, Dunfermline, Holyrood and Dryburgh are the best known. In these the lancet window, either singly or in groups, was used long after it had been discontinued in England, while in the later period the Flamboyant tracery of French Gothic was followed in preference to the Perpendicular style of English Gothic. The Pele or bastle houses were of the tower class, with projecting turrets at angles, and consisted of single rooms one over the other, accessible by " turnpike " or winding stairs. The " corbie " or " crow -stepped " gable was used in preference to the straight-sided gable of England. In vaulted roofs a continuous barrel vault with surface ribs was occasionally employed. Scotland is specially rich in castles and mansions of the Gothic period, which possess distinctive character, and in which stone was almost universally employed. In these a picturesque use of circular towers, vast height of walls, treated in a simple, and almost bare, manner, and the planning of the buildings at different
angles, are characteristic.

On No. 151 is given a series of plans and sketches of different types of buildings showing the national character of Scottish Architecture.

REFERENCE BOOKS.
Billings

(R.

W.).
(D.) (D).

" Baronial
1848.
(T.).
5 vols.,

and

Ecclesiastical

Antiquities

of

Scotland."

vols., 4to.

MaoGibbon MacGibbon

and Ross

Architecture of Scotland."

and Ross

(T.).

"The Castellated and Domestic Svo. 1887. " Ecclesiastical Architecture of

Scotland." 3 vols., Svo. 1896. " Edinburgh Architectural Association, Sketch Book." 1878-1894. " Glasgow Architectural Association, Sketch Book." 3 vols. 1885. Pinches (F.). " The Abbey Church of Melrose." FoUo. 1879.

IRISH ARCHITECTURE.
Celtic Architecture. The chief interest lies in the remains of the Celtic Architecture erected from the sixth century to the English Conquest in 1169. The early Churches were extremely small, and appear to have been used principally as oratories, where the priest could officiate,

and to which a small square chancel was attached. The naves were covered with barrel vaults, over which was a hollow chamber called an " overcroft," covered by a steep pitched roof, generally of stone, as at Cormac's Chapel, Cashel (a.d. 1127-1134) (No. 152), probably the finest example in Ireland, S. Kevin's Kitchen, Glendalough, and other places. Windows appear to have been
unglazed.

The Monasteries form another class of building, and the Rev. Prof. Stokes refers to a group of seven small churches found at Inchleraun, similar to some in Asia Minor and elsewhere. The monastic cells at the Skellings are peculiar, being of beehive form, with domed stone roofs in horizontal courses, as in the early work in Greece at Mycenae (No. 15) and elsewhere. The Round Towers generally detached and placed near the Church, have been a subject of much controversy, but the generally accepted view, originated by Mr. George Petrie, is that they were used as treasure houses, refuges, bell towers, and for displaying lamps at night time, or were probably erected as symbols of power. They taper slightly towards the summit and are crowned with either a conical (No. 152 g) or battlemented covering (No. 152 j;. The entrance doorway was several feet from the ground. Mediaeval Architecture. Within the English domain the influence of Continental art was felt during the Middle Ages, but few monuments of importance were erected. The Cathedrals of Dublin (No. 120 a), Kildare and Cashel, were the most important, but the absence of parish churches is remarkable. The Monasteries and Friaries (principally Franciscan) are small, usually having a nave and choir, probably some time divided by a wooden screen, a transept and southern aisle, cloisters, and a tower, which

in the fifteenth century. The best known are those at Cashel, Kilconnel, and Muckross. Owing to the disturbances in Elizabethan times there is no domestic architecture of note, but the earlier castles built by the Chieftains are interesting.

was added

REFERENCE BOOKS.
Dunraven (Earl of). "Notes on Irish Architecture.'' 1875-1877. Hill (A.). " Monographs on Ardfert Cathedral, Co. Kerry."

Petrie (G.).

Stokes(M.).

" Ecclesiastical Architecture of Ireland." 8vo. 1845. " Early Christian Architecture in Ireland." Svo. 1878.

EXAMPLES OF
HALT PLAN

IRISH ARCHITECTURE.

LEVEL OF

BASt

__-*^

CA)

"^^;

"

C@EMACS CHAFElA teHEL.


1050
H)+Wl

Plan of Crofts.

5CALL or feit for Flans u Sections. 20 30 40


1
1

50
1

Q)

Section

t-t.

(^^

longitudinal Section.

(pj

Section

y-v.

'^^M
^"ftWER, Devenish.
152.

SOKMAC'S OHWEL,View of

North

TeWER.KiLREE,

Kilkenny.

FRENCH GOTHIC.
(See page 246 for French

Romanesque)

"

Graceful, grotesque, with ever new surprise Of hazardous caprices sure to please, Heavy as nightmare, airy, light as fern, Lowell. Imagination's very self in stone."

I.

INFLUENCES.

Geographical. France may be divided architecturally, North and South, by the River Loire, to the north of which were settled the Franks, while to the south were settled the Romance race. (See page 248.) The excellent building stone found near Caen ii. Geological. aided in the development of the Northern Gothic style, and in the mountainous districts of Auvergne the use of coloured volcanic material gave a decorative character to the buildings of that
i.

into

district.
iii.

(See pages 246, 248.) Climate. (See page 246

Religion. Religious zeal, which resulted in the erection of so many grand cathedrals, was manifested also in the Crusades, Louis IX. leading the fourth (1248-1254). The clergy as a corporate body reached the summit of their power and influence, such being largely due to their championship of justice and their adhesion to the royal cause. The Abb6 Suger, the minister of Louis VII. (i 137-1 180), who maybe styled the Cardinal Wolsey of the period, exercised much influence on church buildRome remained the controlling spirit, though local liberties ing. were not all swallowed up in centralisation. The introduction of various special cults gave fame to certain chapels and shrines, which as pilgrimage centres acquirisd both wealth and importance, which are expressed in the richness of their architectural treatment. The zeal with which the urban populations set about building cathedrals has been compared by VioUet-le-Ducto the commercial movement which has covered Europe with railways.
iv.

in

French Romanesque.)

FRENCH

GUlHli^.

363

The crusade against the Albigenses (see below) was a movement against Christians who had been declared by the Pope to be heretics, and the next stage was to carry on a religious war
all who were considered to be enemies of the Papacy. Social and Political. Previous to the commencement of this period (a.d. 987), France was inhabited by races of people who, widely differing from each other, and governed by different rulers, were at constant war. In continuation of the Romanesque style, the Gothic architecture of France varies considerably in different parts of the country, such being due to political environment, to the separation of the various parts by different languages and customs, and to the Roman remains, which naturally gave a classical tone to any new architectural development in the southern districts where they were principally found.

against
V.

Historical. The real beginning of the modern kingdom may be said to commence with Hugh Capet, who was chosen king in 987, with the title " King of the French." Philip Augustus (i 180-1223) after declaring John, King of England, to have forfeited all the fiefs he held of the French crown, proceeded to conquer Normandy, and all John's possessions in Northern Gaul, with the exception of Aquitaine. Philip next
vi.

of

France

defeated the combined forces of English, Germans, and Flemings at the Battle of Bovines in 1214. Owing to the power of France at this time, the English barons offered the crown of England to Philip's eldest son Louis, to whom, as Louis VIII. the French crown afterwards passed. Louis IX., called S. Louis on account of his goodness, largely increased the power of the crown, but died at Tunis in 1270, when setting out on his last crusade. As a consequence of the crusade preached against the Albigenses by Pope Innocent, the dominions of the Counts of Toulouse were conquered by S. Louis in 1229, France thus obtaining a sea-board on three seas, viz. the Mediterranean, Atlantic, and the English Channel. The development and consolidation of the French kingdom thus corresponds with the great cathedral-building epoch of the thirteenth century.
,
:

2.

ARCHITECTURAL CHARACTER.

idea or prevailing principle of Gothic architecture France was the same as in other parts of Europe (page 268), the vertical and aspiring tendency being accentuated by great
in

The main

internal height, high-pitched roofs, numerous spires (with crockets), pinnacles, flying buttresses, and the long lines of the tall traceried windows (Nos. 154, 158, i5o, i5i and 162).

FRENCH GOTHIC EXAMPLES.

I.

^^^

153-

FRENCH GOTHIC.
Comparative Views
OF

Models of

Continental Cathedrals.

B.

Rouen.

c.

Antwerp.

Amiens.

D.

Notre Dame,
Paris.

F.

Beauvais.

FRENCH GOTHIC EXAMPLES.

II.

%m& m mm o
155-

so

loo

tso

gpo

si?

nm pig^f-s&Tsgp

FRENCH GOTHIC.

156.

N6tre Dame, Paris. West Front.


368

COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE.
style is divided
:

by M. de Caumont into Primary (Gothique) or thirteenth century. (2.) Secondary (Rayonriant, from the characteristic wheel tracery of the rose windows) or fourteenth century. (3.) Tertiary (Flamboyant) or fifteenth century. It is proposed, however, on account of space, to consider the subject as one continuous development as, in fact, it really was and to compare it where necessary with English Gothic.

The

(i.)

3.

EXAMPLES.

ECCLESIASTICAL ARCHITECTURE. CATHEDRALS.


All the great cathedrals, numbering about 150, were erected in the first half of the thirteenth century, principally by funds provided by the laity, and not as parts of monastic establishments, and in consequence vary considerably in plan and arrangement from English cathedrals. The French cathedrals, in situation and surroundings, are also in marked contrast (page 299) with English examples (Nos. 121 and 162), and are referred to by Browning, who talks of that
" Grim town,

'

Whose cramp'd, ill-featured streets huddled about The minster for protection, never out Of its black belfry's shade and its bells' roar.''

Notre Dame, Paris, 1163-1214 (Nos.


and
158), is

153

b,

154

d, 156, 157,

one of the oldest of French Gothic cathedrals. The plan is typical in having a wide central nave with double aisles, transepts of small projection (being practically in a line with the side aisles), and the chevet arrangement with its double aisles and exterior chapels. The west front (No. 156) is the grandest composition in France, the western gable to the nave being hidden by a pierced screen, connecting the two western towers. The three deeply recessed western portals, the range of statues in niches, and the circular wheel window, are all characteristic
features. The lateral facades are spoilt between the buttresses.

by chapels having been placed

Bourges Cathedral (commenced a.d. 1190) is chiefly remarkable as possessing no transepts, for its shortness in comparison with its width, and its general resemblance in plan to N6tre Dame, Paris. It has five aisles, in three different heights, the central being 117 feet, resembling Milan Cathedral (No. 176), The vast nave of extreme though in a different gradation. height and with length unbroken by projecting transepts, The view westwards from presents an imposing appearance.

FRENCH GOTHIC EXAMPLES


11.10)[llilto

III.

mmm

IkTiKiiR

Bm

(q) mil Cr3s Setiim

^ yijiaEfgia-g&siyi ^
157F.A.

40

X fr

FRENCH GOTHIC.

158.

N6tre Dame,

Paris.

Interior, looking East.

'^'^(^s^^

FRENCH GOTHIC.

l5o.

Amiens Cathedral.

FRENCH GOTHIC.
the east end
is

373

striking,

owing

to the picturesque confusion of

innumerable flying buttresses, pinnacles, and other features. Chartres Cathedral (1194-1260) (Nos. iioe and 155 K)hasa plan peculiar in having strongly marked transepts, each crowned with two towers, which with the two western and two contemThe cathedral is plated eastern towers would have made eight. remarkable for the fine statuary to the north and south porches (No. 165 a), the rose window to the northern transept, and the flying buttresses of three arches one above the other, the two lower being connected by radiating balusters resembling the spokes
of a wheel.

Rheims Cathedral (1212-1241) (Nos. 155 and 161) has a fine plan, the west front having three deeply recessed portals richly ornamented with sculpture, and enclosed with richly ornamented gables. The upper portion has a row of statues in tabernacles carried between the two towers instead of the open tracery arrangement seen in N6tre Dame. The flying buttresses (No. 141 h) show the arrangement adopted over a double aisle, in which the thrust of the nave vault is transmitted by arches to piers weighted
by pinnacles and statuary. Amiens Cathedral (1220-1288) (Nos. 154, 159 and 160) is generally referred to as having the typical French Cathedral plan, but the side chapels to the nave placed between the buttresses are a later addition. The interior is 140 feet high to the stone vaulting, and the roof of the nave is over 200 feet in height. The western fa9ade somewhat resembles N&tre Dame and Rheims. The great central fleche of timber and lead is shown on No. 165. Bayeux Cathedral (twelfth century) is remarkable for its twenty-two chapels and immense crypt under the sanctuary, dating
from the eight to the eleventh century. Coutances Cathedral (No. 162) was erected
a.d.

1254-1274,

and

is

specially

famous

for the excellent design of the

two western

towers and spires, and, the octagonal lantern over the crossing of nave and transepts. Noyon Cathedral (1157-1228) with a peculiar plan resembling a combination of the German triapsal plan and the French chevet ; Troyes Cathedral (1214-fifteenth century), a fine fiveaisled example with eastern chevet and rich western facade Soissons Cathedral (1160-1212) Laon Cathedral (11501200), exceptional in having an English type of plan and group of six towers; and Rouen Cathedral (1202-1220), with rich western towers of a later period and iron central spire, are other well-known early examples. The Sainte Chapelle, Paris (1244-1247), built by S. Louis, in which the space between the buttresses is occupied by windows 15 feet wide and 50 feet high, is often quoted as a typical Gothic structure. The plan (No. 155 h) was in size similar to that of
;

I'RENCH GOTHIC.

I6l.

Rheims Cathedral. West Front.

FRENCH GOTHIC.

162.

CouTANcEs Cathedral.

West

Front.


376

COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE.

S. Stephen, Westminster (No. 119 l), since destroyed for the rebuilding of Westminster Palace. It has a richly vaulted crypt, and such characteristic French features as the apsidal

termination and the high stone-vaulted roof. Among later examples in the north of France, mostly in the Flamboyant style, are S. Ouen, Rouen (1318-1515), the choir (1318-1339) being contemporary with that of Cologne, S. Maclou, Rouen. (14321500), probably the richest Flamboyant example in France, S. Jacques, Dieppe (1350-1440), and S. Wulfrand, Abbe:

ville (.1488-1534). In the south of France

many buildings were erected during the Middle Ages, differing from these northern cathedrals in plan and design owing to the proximity of Roman buildings.
Albi Cathedral (1282-1512), a fortress church, consists of a large impressive vaulted hall with an apsidal end, and having a series of flanking chapels separated by internal buttresses. It possesses an unrivalled fifteenth century rood screen. Beauvais Cathedral was originally built 1225-1272, but was partly reconstructed 1337-1347, the transepts being added in the This building was never comfifteenth and sixteenth centuries. It has the pleted beyond the choir and chevet and the transepts. highest nave vault in France, being 160 feet, and has a nave width of 47 feet from centre to centre of piers. The Church of the Cordeliers, Toulouse (fourteenth century), which was partially destroyed in 1871, was another example of this type, and has some similarity in plan with that of King's College Chapel, Cambridge. S. Sernin, Toulouse, commenced in 1096 (referred to on page 248), is a five-aisled example, the western portion and manystoried octagonal tower belonging to this period,

SECULAR ARCHITECTURE.
France is especially rich in domestic architecture, and throughout the country are to be found castles, town halls, hospitals, houses, barns, farmhouses, granaries, and other buildings, in which the principles of the Gothic style can be studied.

The House of Jacques Coeur, Bourges (1443), is a fine example of the house of a great merchant prince of the period. It is partly built on the town ramparts and has a central courtyard
(No. 163), possessing a fine staircase tower. The Palais de Justice, Rouen (1449-1508) (No. 164), is an exceedingly rich specimen of French municipal architecture. The Chateau de Pierrefonds, restored by VioUet-le-Duc, Mont S.Michel (Normandy), and the Chateau de Blois (east wing)
(1498-1515), are examples of military architecture.

FRENCH GOTHIC.

163.

House of Jacques

Cceur, Bourges.

378

COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE.

The south of France has many examples of stone houses, and throughout the country half-timbered houses with plaster filling are still to be seen, as at Rouen, although fire and decay have naturally reduced their number. Students are often inclined to think that Gothic architecture was confined to ecclesiatical work, but it should be remembered that the style was employed in every building of the period.
4.

COMPARATIVE.
ENGLISH GOTHIC.

FRENCH GOTHIC.
A.

Plans

(No.

159).

Short,

wide, and high. Length about four times the width. Cloisters rare, except in the south,

(No. 159). Long, narrow, and low. Length about six times the width.
A.

Plans

where richly designed examples are met with. Transepts have slight projection, as may be seen in the sheet
of comparative plans (No. 155).

Cloisters frequent, owing to monastic foundation, and characteristic of English Cathedrals. Transepts have bold projection, and a second eastern transept is

Side chapels numerous, due to the popular character of the Cathedral for the worship of saints and saying of masses. The apsidal east end developed into the chevH by addition of processional aisle and chapels, but Laon, -Dol, and Poitiers are exceptions.

found, as at Salisbury and Lincoln. Side chapels seldom met with, due to the fact that the principal cathedrals were churches belonging to monastic foundations. The square east end characteristic. The " Nine Altars " at Durham as an east end transept is remarkable.
are nearly always Chichester (No. 119 g) and Manchester (No. 119 b), being the only exceptions (page 305). The central tower the most sucaisles
single,

as

The aisles are sometimes double, at N6tre Dame, Paris (No.


Amiens, Bourges, Rheims and
western towers (Nos. 154,
162)

The

157),

Chartres.

Two
161

and

probable reason

characteristic, the being that the

cessful

and predominant

feature,

great height of nave prevented a central tower being effective.

A wooden/^c/ieoften constructed over the crossing, as at Amiens (422 feet high) No. 165 b). Central spires are common in
Normandy. Towers sometimes attempted in groups by placing four at the angles/formed by the junction of the nave and transepts, and two at
the west end, with central flSche only, as at Laon.

as at Gloucester (No. 115 h). Hereford (No. 115 f), Rochester (No. 114 e), Salisbury (with spire) (No. 116 a), and Norwich (with spire) (No. 116 d) or combined with one western tower, asatEJy(No. 114c). A single western tower is characteristic of parish churches. Towers frequently arranged as a group of three, viz., two western and one central, as at Lincoln (No. ii6b), Canterbury (No. 116 c), Durham (No. 114 b) and York (No. 115 a).
;

Arcading widely spaced and general largeness of parts. Chapter houses never polygonal.

Arcading

closely

spaced

and

general smallness of parts. Chapter houses are often polygonal.

38o

COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE.
FRENCH GOTHIC.
ENGLISH GOTHIC.
^A^alls. Early buttresses are flat projections. Later ones are much pronounced, and strongly marked with offsets and pinnacles, and were highly ornamented with niches and panelling. Transitional buttresses may be seen at Salisbury with curious weathering. The weatherings to offsets of buttresses are steeper the higher they occur. Buttresses usually formed with offsets (No. 141). Flying buttresses are not so prominent a feature because the clerestory is comparatively low, and there are seldom double aisles or
B.

B.

Walls.

Early buttresses

were a development from the slight


projections of the Romanesque period, or were sometimes semicircular, especially in the apses of churches. Later buttresses of deep projection have chapels between them (No. 157).

The weatherings

to

offsets

of

buttresses are flatter the higher they occur. Buttresses often nearly vertical, without offsets (No. 153). Flying buttresses largely employed, being necessary on account of height and width of aisles and naves. They were used with special effect at the east end. Interiors owe their effect largely to their great height, otherwise they are considerably less ornate than the English examples. Open tracery parapets are typical (Nos. 164 and 165 c, d). The characteristic west front is Ndtre Dame, Paris (No. 156).
c.

chevet.

Interiors owe much to the elaboration of triforium, complex piers, variety of clerestories and richness of vaulting. Battlemented parapets are typical (No. 147 m). The characteristic west front is Wells Cathedral (No. 115 g).
c.

Openings.

Doorways

Openings.

Doorways

elaborate and rich, larger and finer than in England, and deeply set in west fronts, as at N6tre Dame,
Paris,

Rheims,

(Nos. 156, 161

and Coutances and 163).


"

often placed laterally, and provided with a projecting porch, as at Gloucester, Canterbury, and Salisbury (Nos. 115 H, 116 c, 121).

Windows have much " plate tracery, the final development in the later period being " flamboyant " tracery. There is an absence of cusps in late French tracery. Circular windows in west fronts (Nos. 156 and 161) and transept ends (No. 153 b), with intricate tracery, are special features.
D. Roofs. These are always steep and ornamented with metal ridges and finials (Nos. 154 and

lines,

develop on the same but "plate" tracery was seldom used, the final development, specially characteristic of

Windows

English work, being " Perpendicular " tracery.

Circular windows are not

much

used

England, although found at Chichester, Westminster Abbey,


in

Durham, and elsewhere.


moderate

164).

These are of pitch, approaching to flatness in later periods (Nos. 113, 122, 133).
D.

Roofs.

They are constructed with double timbers of special type to surmount high vaults. Wooden roofs, treated ornament-

Carpentry was more advanced, and single-framed timbers were


used.

Wooden

roofs of

an ornamental

FRENCH GOTHIC.
FRENCH GOTHIC.
ally,

381
ENGLISH GOTHIC.

not much developed as part of design of interiors. Coverings of slates were often

character,

as

part of design of

interiors, highly developed.

employed. Vaults were specially characteristic

of the style.

These vaults are usually domical and ridge ribs were rarely employed, very slight development taking place, and intermediate and lierne ribs seldom used (page 288) (Nos. 109 and 112), great height
being a characteristic.

Coverings of lead were generally employed. Vaults were used more in the cathedrals than in parish churches. The vaults have level ridges and have longitudinal and transverse
ridge ribs, which, being of large section, probably due to the influence of carpentry, gave a strong backbone to the vaulting (No. in). Vaults, sometimes of wood, as at York and the Cloisters of Lincoln. Fan tracery vaulting (Nos. iiz and lag) was peculiar to England. The joints of the severies are parallel to the wall rib, or placed diagonally (No. in d).
E.

Pendants are frequently used in the " flamboyant " period. The joints of the severies are at right angles or parallel to the wall
ribs (No. 158).
E.

Columns. Plain

circular

Columns

nave columns are characteristic, as in Ndtre Dame, Paris (No. 165 h). and are due to Roman tradition. There was a difficulty in bringing

shaft is a

The clustered special feature, as in


to circular

Salisbury Cathedral (No. 122), and

was preferred

columns.

The early adoption of attenuated


shafts as a continuation of the vaulting ribs being taken as the basis of the pier formation avoided any such difficulty as was met with
in France.

down

the lines of the vaulting with this type, and clumsy expedients were in use, as when the shafts
started j ust above the square abacus of the arcade columns (No. 158).

In the south is found the square pier with attached three-quarter columns (No. 165, j, K, l). The mouldings of the pier arches sometimes die into the pillars without capitals. Capitals with foliage of the Corinthian type lasted well into the style, besides an early apphcation of stiff leaf foliage, and the crocket capital (No. 165 p, q,) was characteristic.

The development of moulded piers was characteristic, and their evolution in each period is shown
on No.
146.

Capitals of a classic type were only occasionally employed, as in the S. John's Chapel, Tower of London (No. 135), early carved " capitals usually having " stiff leaf
foliage.

" bell " capitals without foliage rarely met with, except in

Moulded

Moulded "bell"

capitals

were

Normandy.

The square abacus (No. 165 G, h) derived from the classical feature
was preferred.
F.

often employed in all periods, and have bold projection, especially in the Early English period (No. 146). Theroundabacus(No. I48d,f,k) was much used, and also the octagonal or polygonal (No. 148 g).
F.

Mouldings

larger in size, of less variety,

These are and not

Mouldings
and

bold, rich,

of great variety,

These were and

382

COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE.
FRENCH GOTHIC.
ENGLISH GOTHIC.
applied to capitals and pier arches as well as to door and window openings. Features and details are of great refinement, much attention being given owing to the smallness of scale.
G.

SO rich as in England, and often were kept some distance from

window openings. Features and details are coarser,


on account of the largeness
less attention being given to these of scale.

Decorative G. Ornament. figure sculpture of the highest type was attained, and is particularly seen in the great doorways of the west fronts of N6tre Dame (No.

Ornament.

Decorative

figure sculpture was not carried out so extensively as in France, but the Cathedrals of Wells and Lichfield,

and Westminister Abbey,arerichin


this respect, the west front of the former being the most complete. The " dog-tooth " ornament

Amiens, Rheims (No. i5i), and in the north and south porticos of Chartres, where they are inclosed in niches or tabernacles surrounding the arch in successive tiers. The carving of such features as
156),

(No.

147 a)

is

common
style.

in early

examples of the

The carving
in

varies considerably

gargoyles, finials, crockets and corbels was either of floral forms or of animals and birds, and was of great refinement (No. 165), especially in the South of France. Stained glass was much developed, and Chartres possesses examples which, in a prevailing tone of blue tending to violet, give an idea of the general effect of an interior, according to the intent of the artists of the epoch. Much of the best stained glass has, however, been destroyed. Color decoration in frescoes and as applied to sculpture seems to

each of the periods, being conventional in the Early English, naturalesque in the Decorated and again conventional in the Perpendicular.

Stained glass was developed on similar lines as in France, the earlier examples, as at Canterbury, beingin small pieces heavily leaded, whereas the later examples consist of largff figures surrounded with representations of the niches and

have been fully developed, and it would appear that hangings were
imitated in painted wall decorations.

crocketed canopies as executed by the sculptors. Color decoration to wall surfaces and sculpture was much employed The painted roofs and screens of the Perpendicular period are notable.

5.

REFERENCE BOOKS.

folio.

" Archives de la Commission des Monuments Historiques.'' 4 vols., Paris, 1850-1872. Baudot (A. de): " La Sculpture Fran9aise." Large folio. Paris, 1884. Burges (W.). " Architectural Drawings." Folio. 1870. " Cathedrales de la France." 150 collotypes, folio. Paris, 1899. Caumont (A. de). " Abdc^daire, ou Rudiment d'Archdologie." 3 vols., 8vo. Caen, 1869-70 Corroyer (E.)." Gothic Architecture." 8vo. 1893. Enlart (C). " Manuel d'Archeologie Fran9aise." 2 vols., 8vo. Paris, 190Z.

FRENCH GOTHIC ORNAMENT.

165.

384

COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE.

Gailhabaud (J.)." L' Architecture du V. au royal folio, and 4 vols., 4to. Paris, i86g 1872.

Gonse
folio.

(L.).

" L'Art Gothique."


J.).

XVI.

Siecle."

vol.

Johnson(R.

" Specimensof Early French Architecture."

4to.

Paris.

Large

Newcastle, 1864. Lassus (J. B. A.). " Monographie de la Cathedrale de Chartres." Paris 1867-1881. Folio, and 4to text. Lassus (J. B. A.) et VioUet-le-Duo (E. E.). " Monographie de Notre Dame de Paris." Folio. Paris, 186-?. Lenoir (A. A.). "Architecture Monastique.'' ^ vols. Paris, 1852-6. MacGibbon (D.). "The Architecture of Provence and the Riviera." 8vo. Edinburgh, 1888. M41e(E.). " L'Art Religieux du XIP Siecle en France." 4to. Paris,

1902.

Moore (C. H.). ture." New York. Nesfield (E.). "

and Character of Gothic Architec1899. Specimens of Mediaeval Architecture." Folio. i86z. Pugin (A.). '= Architectural Antiquities of Normandy." 4to. 1828. Ruprich-Robert (V. M. C.). " L' Architecture Normande aux et Paris, 1889. Siecles." 2 vols., foUo. Shaw (R. Norman). "Architectural Sketches on the Continent." Folio. 1858. Verdier (A.) et Cattois (F. P.). "Architecture Civile et Domestique au Moyen Age, et de la Renaissance." 2 vols., 4to. Paris, 1858. " Dictionnaire Raisonn^ de 1' Architecture Viollet-le-Duc (E. E.). translation of the article Fran9aise." 10 vols., 8vo. Paris, 1859. " Construction " has been issued under the title of " Rational Building." By G. M. Huss. 8vo. New York, 1895. Lang (A.)." Monk of Fife." ) Historical Novels. > James (G. P. R.). " Philip Augustus." "The most famous Loba." ) Blisset (N. K.).

"Development
8vo.

XP

XIP

BELGIAN AND DUTCH GOTHIC.


"

The darkened

On

pillars lofty

roof rose high aloof, and light and small

The keystone

that locked each ribbed aisle Was a fleur-de-lis or a quatre-feuille ; The corbels were carved, grotesque and grim, And the pillars with clustered shafts so trim, With base and with capital flourished around Seemed bundles of lances which garlands had bound."

ScOTT.

I.
i.

INFLUENCES.

Geographical. The country of the Netherlands lies wedged it were, between the Germanic and Romanic races of the European peoples, thus accounting for the dual influences found in its architectural development, Belgium being under French, and Holland under German influence. ii. Geological. The district abounds with clay suitable for the making of bricks, and the consequent effect upon the architecture was considerable, being specially noticeable in domestic
in,

as

work, as in the small house fafades in the towns. Stone was used in Brussels Cathedral and other examples, and granite was also available, the cathedral at Tournai being wholly
of that material.
iii.

greater extremes of heat


iv.

was greatly influenced by the religions France, Germany, and Spain, under whose dominion the Netherlands were at different times. V. Social and Political. The mediaeval architecture of these countries developed with the social progress of the people, the towns with independent municipalities rivalling each other in the arts of war and peace. Many buildings, notably Guildhalls and Town Halls, large in conception and rich in detail, were erected, reflecting the wealth and prosperity of the merchants and weavers of Antwerp, Louvain, Ghent, and other cities. vi. Historical. Flanders, as a fief of France, became united to Burgundy by the marriage of the first Duke of Valois to Margaret, the heiress of Flanders. The whole of the Netherlands
of

This Religion. This


Climate.

is

similar to that

of England, but has

and

cold.

386

COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE.

were brought together under the rule of the Dukes of Valois, descendants of the French kings. Early in the sixteenth century Duringthe the Netherlands belonged to Charles V. (1519-1555). Middle Ages the cities of the "Low Countries were the richest and most powerful in Europe, and were constantly at war with one another.
2.

ARCHITECTURAL CHARACTER.
A

The architecture of Belgium during this period was of two main types, that of the hilly part partaking of German, and that of the level part (Flanders) partaking of French character. mixture of Spanish features is observable in many of the domestic buildings, but in the Town Halls a national style of architecture was evolved, which for this class oi buildings is unequalled in other countries. Dutch architecture, although somewhat resembling German, has a natural character of its own. Much of the ornament in many of the fine, large, and lofty churches of the fifteenth century has, however, been destroyed, owing to iconoclastic zeal. The Dutch character of simplicity is translated into the barn-like churches, and for this reason the architecture of Holland is of less interest than that of Belgium.
3.

EXAMPLES.

ECCLESIASTICAL ARCHITECTURE.
The cathedrals show a general inclination to French ideas in the general disposition of their plans. Tournai Cathedral (a.d. 1146^133-8) is a good example, illustrating the styles of three successive periods. The nave is Romanesque the circular-ended transepts with four towers and a lantern are of the Transition period, a-ndthe choir, with complete chevet, fully developed Gothic, very light, and elegant in character. Brussels Cathedral (a.d. 1226-1280) (No. 167) is one of the finest examples, the choir (1226) being generally considered the earliest Gothic work in Belgium. The eastern termination has a half-developed chevet, and the choir has large side chapels. The vaulting and nave windows date from 1350-1450. Antwerp Cathedral (a.d. 1352-1411) (Nos. 154 c, 167) is the finest church in Belgium, and is remarkable for nave and treble aisles, the latter of equal heights, and narrow aisleless transepts. The west front (1422-1518), with its single western tower and spire, is rich and elegant but over- decorated, displaying the florid taste of the period.
;

Bruges, Haarlem, Utrecht, Dordrecht, Ypres, and Ghent Cathedrals are other well-known examples.

BELGIAN AND DUTCH GOTHIC.

l66.

Antwerp Cathedral.

BELGIAN GOTHIC EXAMPLES.

Mb
''>

(AISLES
i'"*>T; '"!
'

f~A

'

''

;* I ^-4

limflN5,&lf4K

10

25
,I00

iMlE WE PMNS
167.

"JO

50

goo

30

rcET

BELGIAN AND DUTCH GOTHIC.

i68

The Halles, Bruges.


390

COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE.

SECULAR ARCHITECTURE.
This reflects the independent and prosperous condition of the mediaeval towns. * The possession of a " befFroi " (belfry) attached to the town hall was an important privilege granted by charter, and the lower' portion, which was of massive construction, was frequently used as a record ofifice. The beffroi at Bruges, 352 feet high (No. 168), is one of the most picturesque of these towers, and forms a landmark for many miles round, its chequered history being referred to by Longfellow
:

" In the market-place of Bruges Stands the belfry old and brown Thrice consumed and thrice rebuilded. Still it watches o'er the town."
;

The ToTvn Halls are exceptionally fine those at Brussels (1401-1455), Bruges (1377) (No. ,168), Louvain (1448-1463), and Ghent (1481) (No. 169) being the more important. Many were designed on the same lines, and are several stories in height, surmounted by a high roof with dormer windows in tiers, the central portion being carried up as a tower, the upper octagonal portion of which is richly ornamented (No. 1S8). The Town Hall at Ghent (No. 169), built in two distinct styles, is a somewhat striking example of comparative architecture, the Gothic fa9ade (1518-1533) contrasting with the Renaissance facade (1595-1622).
;

cloth, for

The Trade Halls for buying and selling merchandize, especially which the country was renowned at this period, are also

very characteristic, the Cloth Hall at Ypres (1200- 1304) being


exceptionally fine.

The Guildhalls were also built as meeting-places for the separate trades or guilds, which were very powerful, and there are several examples in the market-place of Brussels.
4.

Comparative.

A. Plans. Short and wide plans after French models were adopted in the cathedrals, that at Antwerp having seven aisles (No. 167 f). The French chev&t was also adopted. B. Walls. In domestic work the long, unbroken fa9ades and

regularity of the scheme are characteristic, being regarded in other countries as non-Gothic in design. These, along with the trade halls and guildhalls of which Ypres is probably the finest example, form a class of building suited to the needs of the community, and their free and open appearance may be compared with the halls of Florence and Siena. c. Openings.-The windows are richly ornamented with

greater

symmetry and

H Z w

392

COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE.

sculpture, tracery, and panelling, and bear a similarity and regularity in position which are marked features in these large buildings. D. Roofs. In domestic work roofs have steep pitches, and are ither hipped (No. 169) or ended by crow-stepped and traceried gables of picturesque outline. Numerous turrets, and bold chimney stacks, combine with the tiers of dormers to complete the rich profusion of the walls below. E. Columns.-VThe use of round pillars in the nave, instead of clustered pier's, is' well exemplified at S. Gudule, Brussels (No. 167 B, c, d), A-peculiar feature is noticeable in some town hall arcades, where a column is omitted by hanging up any two arches by means of a long keystone from a concealed arqh, as at Lifege. F. Mouldings. Coarse profusion is characteristic of Belgian Gothic, possessing neither. the vigour of French, nor the grace of

at Mons, blue stone is comof the vault, in a scheme of permanent decoration, and S. Jacques at Li6ge is fully decorated with paintings of a rather later date.
filling-in

English, mouldings. G. Ornament. In S. bined with a red brick

Waudru,

5.

Goetghebuer Ghent, 1827.

(P. J.).

REFERENCE BOOKS. " Choix des Monumens des Pays-Bas."


in

Folio.

Haghe

(L.).

" Sketches

Belgium and Germany."

3 vols., folio.

King (T. H.). "Study Book of Mediaeval Architecture and Art." 1858-1868. 4 " Monuments Architecture de Sculpture en Stroobant Belgique." Folio. Brussels, 1878. Verschelde (C). The Ancient Domestic Edificesof Bruges." Bruges, 1875. Ysendyck Van). " Documents Classes de I'Art dans PaysBas." Antwerp, 1880-1889. " Mary of Burgundy." (Historical Novel.) James (G. P.
1840-1S50.
vols., 4to.

(F.).

d'

et

"

(J. J.

les

5 vols., folio.
R.).

GERMAN
(See page 258 for
"

GOTHIC.

German Romanesque.)

Some roods away, a lordly house there was, Cool wilh broad courts, and latticed passage wet From rush flowers and lilies ripe to set. Sown close among the strewings of the And either wall of the slow corridor
floor
;

Was dim with deep device of gracious things Some angels' steady mouth and weight of wings
Shut to the side or Peter with straight stole beard cut black against the aureole That spanned his head from nape to crown ; these Mary's gold hair, thick to the girdle tie Wherein was bound a child with tender feet Or the broad cross with blood nigh brown on it."
;

And

I.

INFLUENCES.

Geographical. Germany was flanked on the east, west i. and south by large and warlike empires having strong racial differences. Owing to this situation it had direct communication with all the great European States. The River Rhine was an important factor in the rise of cities founded in the earlier period. ii. Geological. The plains of Northern and North Eastern Germany produce no building material but brick, which has a great influence on the architecture in these regions. Stone was found in the centre and south, and timber in Hanover and the

north-west.
iii.

iv.
life

Climate. (See page 258 in German Romanesque.) Religion. The most interesting feature in the religious of Gerniany, prior to the Reformation, was the civil, as well as

ecclesiastical, rule of

many of

the bishops.

Some of these episcopal

principalities

were not

finally abolished until the period of the

Trade guilds acquired great importance during this period, that of the Freemasons (cf. page 281) having been credited with much influence in the design and working out of the Gothic style. In the absence of records, the truth as to the individuality of the architects will not easily be made out.

French Revolution. V. Social and Political.

394
vi.

COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE.
Historical.

In the twelfth and thirteenth centuries the heart and centre of the Western Empire. Under the Swabian Emperors long wars occurred with the Lombard league of the north Italian towns (cf. page 234). The years 1254-1274, known as the " great interregnum," because no king was universally acknowledged by all Germany, were times of great confusion and lawlessness, until the house of Hapsburg

Germany was

came

an alliance of the great commercial towns of North Germany, exercised considerable influence on the
peaceful arts.
2.

The

into power in 1273. " Hanseatic league,"

ARCHITECTURAL CHARACTER.

The Gothic architecture of Germany was borrowed directly from France, and was not a pure development of the Romanesque, as in the latter country. This may be ascribed to the monumental character of buildings in the Romanesque style, which had been developed to a greater extent than in other countries, no
Gothic building being erected in Germany before the thirteenth century. Gothic was, therefore, reluctantly adopted at the time when it was attaining its great perfection in France, but the Romanesque precedents were long adhered to. In Northern Germany, in the valley of the Elbe, a brick architecture was developed, as at Lubeck and the neighbouring cities, which, although not equalling that in the valley of the Po, has that special character belonging properly to the material, although expressed in a somewhat meagre manner.
3.

EXAMPLES.
regarded

ECCLESIASTICAL ARCHITECTURE. Cologne Cathedral (Nos. no c and 170) may be

as the great cathedral in this style. It resembles Amiens (No. 159 b), the eastern portion being a direct copy in plan and

dimensions. It is the largest cathedral of North Europe, having an extreme length of 468 feet and a width of 275 feet, giving a superficial area of 91,464 square feet. It was commenced in 1270, and the choir was completed in 1322, the remainder of the building being completed according to the original design in the nineteenth century. The clear width of nave between piers is 41 feet 6 inches, and the nave vault is 155 feet in height, being nearly as great as that of Beauvais (page 376).

GERMAN GOTHIC EXAMPLES.

I.

m.o

ip

y y w

^ft

y y

fo

Uf

JCBLEffpEEi:

170.

3g6

COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE,
spires, characteristic of

The western towers have open-work German Gothic, 512 feet in height.
the

Strasburg Cathedral has the choir niches and transepts in Romanesque style (1179), the Gothic nave dating from 1263. The western fafade has two towers, one of which is continued into an open work spire, 466 feet high, dating from 1439, a large rose window, 42 feet in diameter, and windows with double traicery, i.e., having mullions on the inner and outer faces of the wall. The cathedral was built by
" A great master of his craft, Erwin von Steinbach but not he alone, For many generations labour'd with him. Children that came to see these saints in stone, As day by day out of the blocks they rose. Grew old and died, and still the work went on, And on and on and is not yet completed.
;

The architect Built his great heart into these sculptured stones, And with him toiled his children, and their lives Were builded with his own into the walls As
offerings to

God." Longfellow.

S. Lambert, Hildesheim, has aisles and nave of the same height, being therefore a" Hall Church," as are also S. Stephen, Vienna, and S. Quintin, Mayence. Freiburg Cathedral (1283-1330) has a spire similar to that of Cologne, but with a total height of 385 feet. Ratisbon Cathedral (1275-1534) (No.' 171), has a regular plan, octagonal apse without ambulatory, and western towers, with open-work spires added in 1859-1869. The small triangular

a peculiar feature. Cathedral (a.d. 1377-1477) is spacious and lofty, being notable for the small ratio of support in regard to its floor space, The western and a polygonal eastern apse without ambulatory. tower is 529 feet in height. It has an arcaded gallery to the eaves, a remnant from Romanesque traditions, and fine choir
porch
is

Ulm

stalls.

S. Elizabeth, Marburg (1235-1283) (No. 172), is the The result of typical form, known as the " Hall Church." raising the side aisles to the same height as the nave, was to abolish the triforium and clerestory, to reduce the importance of the nave, and to do away with the necessity for flying buttresses while rendering the interior more spacious.

Munich Cathedral, S. Barbara, Kuttenberg, and S. Martin, Landshut (1404), are other examples of this type. S. Stephen, Vienna (1300-1510) (Nos. no d, 172 and 173), is characteristic in having no clerestory or triforium, the three aisles nearly equal in width and height, and one great roof

GERMAN GOTHIC.

171.

Ratisbon Cathedral.

West

Front.

398

COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE.

covering the church in one span. Tower porches occupy the positions of transepts only one of which is completed and has The a splendid spire, less open than usual in German work. vaults are traceried, and the original stained glass exists. Lubeck Cathedral (choir and aisles) and the Marien Kirche, Lubeck, are types of the brick architecture of North Germany, and express the possibilities of design in that material.
;

SECULAR ARCHITECTURE.
Castles were erected in goodly numbers, as at Marienburg (1280), Heilberg (1350), and Meissen in Saxony (1471-1483). Halls (Rathhaus) at Brunswick, Hildesheim, Halberstadt, Mtinster and Ratisbon are the best known. The Rathhaus at Lubeck and other cities, and the town gates of the Baltic provinces, are evidences of the prosperity of the inhabitants of these times. In the domestic architecture the roof was a large and important feature, and frequently contained more stories than the walls supporting it, being used as a "drying ground " for the large monthly wash, and planned with windows to get a through current of air. The planning of the roof-ridge parallel, or at right angles, to

Town

in towns influenced the design considerably (see page 536 in German Renaissance), thus in Nuremberg the ridge is generally parallel to the street, and dormer windows are plentiful, the party walls being apparent, and artistically treated, while at Landshut and elsewhere, the ridge being generally at right Angles to the street, gables are the result, and these exhibit great variety of design in scrolls and other features.

the street

The dwelling-houses of early date in Cologne, with their stepped gables, are notable.
4.
A.

COMPARATIVE.
based

Plans.

These
and

were
(6.)

upon

(a.)

the

round-arched

German

style

the French plan.

octagonal, found at end of transepts, and at of churches, as at Naumburg.

Apses often semieast and west ends


1 70),

The clievet is uncommon, although it occurs at Cologne (No. Magdeburg (1208-12 11), Lubeck, Freiburg, and Prague.
to the general plan is not

Triapsal plans are frequent (No. 172 d), and a square outline

uncommon. Twin towers occur at west end of Ratisbon Cathedral (No.

171).

In later work, sometimes only one central tower occurs, as in some English cathedrals. Entrances are often on north or south, instead of being at the

GERMAN GOTHIC EXAMPLES.


mmv! Mi^M
F BlSif*l

II.

nmrnr
KP-

sm

wistm,

^W6 Mi
ills

^VBISMa
THII

WPY

ma mm &m^iwfiB.4&
muMmmmK

172.

GERMAN GOTHIC.

173.

S.

Stephen, Vienna.

GERMAN GOTHIC.
west end.
the place of transepts (No. 173).

4OI

They sometimes have towers over them, and take

spires were much used, but the junction of the insufficiently marked, the outline, though ornamented, being weak. Open-work tracery spires indicate the same liking for this feature which is seen in the Rhenish Romanesque churches. The typical examples are Strasburg (1429) (No. 154 e), spire

Towers with was often

Freiburg (1300), Ratisbon (No. 171), Cologne (No. no c), and Vienna (No. 173) Cathedrals. B. \Valls. The apsidal galleries of the Romanesque style were simply copied, without reference to their origin and meaning. Tracery was employed on the outer and inner wall surfaces, the mullions being often cut across the openings behind. Lubeck in the north is the centre of a brick district, and churches of this material abound, as also in Bavaria and at Munich. Tracery was elaborated, double 0. Openings (No. 174 e, f). tracery windows being used in later examples. Excessive height is a characteristic, and the use of two tiers of windows was due to the lofty aisles (No. 172). In the north the clerestories are excessive in size, starting as low down as possible, to provide a great expanse of stained glass. Churches were nearly always vaulted, but were D. Roofs. sometimes covered only with a wooden roof. Great attention was paid to the vaulting, both as regards its

and excellence of construction. Square vaulting bays to the nave were often adhered to, corresponding with two aisle bays, but vaulting in oblong bays
size

afterwards became general, as at Freiburg, Ratisbon, Cologne, Oppenheim, and elsewhere. The special German feature is the immense roof, covering nave and aisle in one span (No. 172), which was due to the side aisle being made nearly as high as the nave, and when the aisles are equal in height to the nave it is the recognized German type known as the " Hall Church " (No. 172 f). Tower roofs of the

Romanesque form were still used. Piers usual in naves (Nos. 170 and E. Columns.

172)

and

not the columns found in early French Gothic, the tendency being to make them lofty posts carrying the roof, owing to the height of the aisles. Complexity rather than simplicity was F. Mouldings. striven after thus interpenetration of mouldings (fifteenth century) was a very characteristic treatment, consisting of two different sets of mouldings, appearing and disappearing in and out of the same stone, each being provided with its own base and capital. The resulting complicated intersections required great skill in the geometrical setting out and execution.

F.A.

D D

402

COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE.
in

Features such as pinnacles are larger the higher they occur,

and therefore scale is destroyed, as at Cologne, whereas English and French work the features do not increase in size.

Foliage was treated in a naturalesque G. Ornament (No. 174). manner, and the interlacing of boughs and branches is a common feature (No. 174 a, c, j). In general, the carving was superior to the design, the tracery of later windows sometimes representing the branches of trees (" branch tracery "), in which technical display was more considered than grace of outline. The Tabernacles or Sacrament Houses were developed in this period, being placed at one side and forming a lofty and towerThey form an like structure, tapering upwards in many stages. important feature of German decorative art, dating from the time They that the consecrated Host above the altar went out of use. are of stone or wood, and either placed against a wall or isolated and were used to keep the " pyx" with the eucharist, the shrine itself being closed by a pierced iron grating. They usually represented a Gothic spire with its traceried windows, pinnacjes, statuary decoration, and canopies, all erected in miniature. Examples are found throughout Germany, and they are sometimes of great height, as at Ratisbon (52 feet), Ulm (90 feet), and the Lorenz Kirche, Nuremburg (64 feet). Stained glass and ironwork were well treated, and in many cases were most elaborate.
;

enforced use of brick in the north was unsuitable for the of sculptured work, and in its place moulded and colored brickwork was used as a means of decoration, and the interiors are plain and bare in character.

The

employment

5.

REFERENCE BOOKS.
folio.

Boisser^e
4to

(S.).

and

folio.

Munich, 1843.

Foerster (E. J.). Leipzig, 1855-1869.

" Histoireet description de la Cathedrale de Cologne." " Denkmaeler Deutscher Baukunst." 12 vols.7

Hartel(A.).^" ArchitektonischeDetaile und Ornamente der Kirchlichen Baukunst." z vols., folio. Berlin, 1891. King (T. H.). " Study-Book of Mediaeval Architecture and Art." 1858-1868. 4 vols., 4to. Liibke (W.). " Ecclesiastical Art in Germany." 8vo. 1873.

Leipzig, 1852. Puttrich (L.).

" Denkmaeler der Deutschen Baukunst." Folio. " Denkmaeler der Baukunst der Mittelalters in Sachsen." 4 Leipzig, 1836-1850. Whewell (W.). " Architectural Notes on German Churches.'' 1842.
MoUer
(G.).
vols., folio.

Scott (Sir Walter).

" Anne of Gierstein."

(Historical Novel.)

GERMAN GOTHIC ORNAMENT.


i@TIHlI<aa

174.

D D 2

ITALIAN GOTHIC.
(See page 228 for Italian Romanesque.)

" I will give thee twelve royal images Cut in glad gold, with marvels of wrought stone For thy sweet priests to lean and pray upon Jasper and hyacinth and chrysopas, And the strange Asian thalamite that was Hidden twelve ages under the heavy sea, Among the little sleepy pearls to be shrine lit over with soft candle flame."

I.
1.

INFLUENCES.

German influence in Lombardy was the connection of this part of Italy and Germany geographically by the Brenner Pass. The work at Venice was similarly influenced by an oversea trade connection with the East. The influence of materials in the developii. Geological. ment of this style was important. The colored marbles of Northern and Central Italy supplied abundant and beautiful material for the elaboration of plain wall treatment, as in Florence (No. 181), Siena (No. 182), Genoa, Orvieto, Lucca, and Red, black, and white marbles were used in stripes, other places. and also in panels, the architect relying much for effect upon
Geographical.
through
effected

their color

and

disposition.

brick and terra-cotta of Northern Italy has left a decided impress on the architecture of that district, many large buildings, such as the Hospital at Milan and the Certosa at Pavia, having been erected in these materials. The influence of the climate and brilliant iii. Climate. atmosphere is apparent in the small windows, which, with thick walls, were necessary to keep out the glare and heat of the Italian sun, factors which also hindered the development of tracery. The preference for opaque treatment, such as mosaic work and fresco decoration, was inherited from the Romans, while the climate counteracted effectually any desire the Italians might have had for the suppression of the walls by the employment of large windows of stained glass, for the reasons mentioned above.

The

ITALIAN GOTHIC.
iv.

405

The real power of the Pope as head of the Church died with Gregory X. (1271-1276). The succeeding Popes were under the influence of the King of France, and for nearly seventy years (1309-1376) resided at Avignon, losing authority and influence during their absence from Rome. Rival Popes existed until a settlement was arrived at by the Council The factions of the Guelphs and Ghibelof Constance, in 1415.
Religion.

Western

ject dealt with

from 1250 to 1409, a subby Mr. Oscar Browning in his " Mediaeval Italy." Italy at this period was cut up V. Social and Political. into small principalities and commonwealths, in which political life was full of rivalry and activity, and small wars were of
lines (pages 230, 259) distracted Italy

constant occurrence. The erection of the Cathedrals of Siena, Orvieto, Florence, Milan and Lucca was largely due to the civic pride of the various rival cities, while the numerous Town Halls attest the growth of municipal institutions. Tasso has a line to the effect that each holiday they blew trumpets, and proceeded Yet other countries looked to Italy to sack the adjoining town. as the head in arts, learning and commerce. The poet Dante (1265-1321) has in his great poem presented a summarized picture of the age. The revival of learning took place in Italy nearly a century in advance of northern Europe. vi. Historical. To the Latin conquest of Constantinople, in 1203, is mainly attributed the sudden development of the formative arts in the thirteenth century in Europe, for the citizens being dispersed during the sixty years of Latin occupation, all commerce was transferred to the cities of Italy, and many Greek artists were In the thirteenth established at Venice, Pisa, Siena and Florence. century successive members of the Visconti family ruled as Dukes of Milan, and were very powerful in consequence of the wealth and industry of the cities over which they held sway. The maritime commonwealth of Genoa considerably reduced the power of Pisa in 1284, and the latter was conquered by Florence in Florence became one of the chief states of Italy under 1406. the powerful family of the Medici (page 447).

2.

ARCHITECTURAL CHARACTER.

Roman tradition, as shown in the Classic forms and decoration, was so great that the verticality which marks the Gothic architecture in the north of Europe does not pervade the Italian examples to the same extent.
The
influence of
of construction

The churches are especially noticeable externally for (a.) the flatness of the roofs (Nos. 181, 182) (6.) the tendency to mask the aisle roofs by a mere screen wall forming the west fa9ade, without
;

ITALIAN (north) GOTHIC.

175-

Milan Cathedral.
East End.

ITALIA^f GOTHIC.
;

407

reference to the slope- of the roofs behind (No. 182) (c.) the great central circular window in the west front lighting the nave (d.) the flatness and comparative unimportance of the mouldings, their place being more than taken by the beautiful colored marbles with which the facades were faced, and the broad surfaces covered with fresco decorations. There is an absence of pinnacles due to the unimportance of the buttresses, but the crowning cornice (No. 181), and the employment of elaborately carved projecting porches at the west end, the columns of which often rest on the backs of lions and other animals, are characteristic features.
" Stern and sad
(so rare the smiles

Of sunlight) looked

the

Lombard

piles

Porch pillars on the lion resting, And sombre, old, colonnaded aisles."

Tennyson.

Sculpture partakes of classical purity, and is in this respect superior to that exhibited in northern examples, but it enters far less into the general composition and meaning of the architecture. Corinthian capitals of modified form and the Roman acanthus were constantly used in Gothic buildings (No. 184). Mosaic was used externally in panels, in continuation of early ideas and practice. Terra-cotta and brickwork, in their plastic state rendered much ornament easy of application, and a smallness in detail followed, which was eminently suited to the material, as, for example, at the Frari Church at Venice and elsewhere. The treatment of moulded brickwork has never been carried to greater perfection than in North Italy during the Gothic and Early Renaissance period, especially in civic buildings, although the effect of sublimity is perhaps not to be obtained in so small a material unless used in the broad massive manner of the Romans. On the other hand, there is no beauty of detail or of design on a small scale that may not be obtained by the use of moulded bricks, which, if carefully burnt, are as durable as most kinds
,

of stone. The Italian use of brickwork was essentially the right one the details were small and designed with taste, and the effect of variegated color was relied on instead of depth of shadow perfectly legitimate and expressive use of material where small and colored units are used. Stone of different color was also carried systematically in patterns through the design, giving' a flatness and want of shadow special character, as at Verona. is necessarily characteristic of brick buildings, sufficient projection not being obtainable for cornices, and this was always tolerated by the Italians, who allowed the material to express its own capabilities without trying to disturb its architectural function.
;

408

COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE.
3.

EXAMPLES.
ITALY.

NORTH

Milan Cathedral (a.d. 1385-1418) (Nos. 175, 176 a, b. c, 177), erected by the first Duke of Milan, is the most important work of this period, and there is a marked German influence, both in
character and details. It is the largest mediaeval cathedral, with the exception of Seville, and is built entirely of white marble. The roof is very flat in pitch, being constructed of massive marble slabs, laid upon the upper surface of the vaulting. In plan it consists of a nave with a very small clerestory, and double aisles of extreme height, the nave terminating with a circlet of columns in the French manner, but inclosed in a German polygonal apse. To the Ambrosian ritual is due the absence of side-chapels in the original scheme. At the crossing of the nave and aisles is a vault crowned with a marble spire, designed by Brunelleschi in a.d. 1440. The feature of the interior is the range of immense shafts to the nave (No. 177), whose summits are treated with canopied niches, filled with statues, in the place of the ordinary capitals. Externally, the character of the whole design is expressive of richness and lacelike intricacy, which is aided in effect by the numerous pinnacles of glittering marble (No. 175).
"

Milan, O, the chanting quires

The giant windows' blazn'd fires The height, the space, the gloom, the glory A mount of marble, a hundred spires." Tennyson.
I

S. Petronio, Bologna, commenced in 1390, in emulation of Florence Cathedral, would, if completed, have been one of the largest churches of this period. It was to have consisted of a nave and aisles and outer chapels on either side, and resembled in section the Cathedral of Milan (No. 176 B, c). Many architects, including Palladio, have produced designs for the unfinished west front. The Certosa, Pavia, commenced in 1396, having a central
in stages, crowning an internal dome, and the great Hospital, Milan, where terra-cotta was largely used, exemplify the influence of brick and ierra-cotta on the architecture of the
district.

lantern

The churches and palaces at Bologna, Vicenza, Padua, Verona, Cremona, and Genoa contain specimens of brick architecture with pleasing moulded details. S. Antonio, Padua (1237-1307) is a remarkable design,
domes instead
were added
closely resembling S. of five,
in 1475.

Mark

in plan (page 208),

but with seven

and the front porch omitted.

The domes

ITALIAN GOTHIC EXAMPLES.

I.

ITALIAN (north) GOTHIC.

177.

Milan Cathedral.
Interior, looking East.

ITALIAN GOTHIC.

4II

for the civic and domestic architecture and it must be remembered that the Venetian state occupied a prominent position as a great trading centre in the Middle Ages, her power and richness being due to the supremacy of her navy.
is

Venice

remarkable

of this period,

" Where Venice

sate in state, throned

on her hundred

isles.''

S. Giovanni e Paolo (i 260-1400), a Dominican church, and S. Maria Gloriosa dei Frari (1250-1280), a Franciscan church, are magnificent examples, showing the influence of the Monastic The latter by Niccolo Pisano, is of the Basilican type, orders. with six eastern chapels, and has a fine campanile adjoining the church {cf. Siena, I>Jo. 182). S. Anastasia, Verona (1261), and S. Andrea, Vercelli (i2ig), are notable examples, the latter being peculiar in having two western towers, and an English type of plan. The Doges' Palace, Venice (Nos. 178 and 179 b) (facade A.D. 1424-1442, by G. and B. Buon) is the grandest effort in civic architecture of the period. Each fa9ade consisted of an open arcade of two stories, one originally advanced in front and surrounding the main building. The latter was partly destroyed by fire in the sixteenth century, but was rebuilt and extended over the double arcade in the Venetian style, with rose-colored and white marble, in imitation of bricks, arranged in patterns, the otherwise blank walls being broken by a few large and richly ornamented windows. The lowei: columns seem to rise out of the ground, having no bases, and the solid and connected character of the tracery gives some stability to the design, so heavily loaded above. The delicate and light carving in low relief which occurs in the capitals of the arcades is justly celebrated, the excellence of marble as a material for carving being largely responsible for the refinement of execution in this example. The Ca d' Oro Palace, Venice (Nos. 179 a and 180), also by the Brothers Buon, is another fine specimen of the domestic work with which Venice abounds. The tracery especially is Venetian in character, as is also the grouping of the windows towards the centre of the facade, the extremities of the design being left comparatively solid, thus producing the effect of a central feature inclosed by wings. The Ponte alle Grazie (1237) and the Ponte Vecchio (1362), both at Florence the Bridge over the Adda at Trezzo, constructed in the fourteenth century and afterwards destroyed and the Bridge over the Ticino, Pavia, are other examples of the secular architecture of the period.
;
;

The Palazzi Foscari, Contarini-Fasan, Pisani (No. 179 c), and Cavalli are other well-known examples. A general idea of

ITALIAN GOTHIC EXAMPLES.


MmX^kH
-^i

II.

'fei<t

PLIES'

P&^cEi^
ip Hfl
3f!

o^MiMmmmi
Y
|0

msMM m Sbwlmime mm mm
(J)
179.
JCflLE'ri p,..^...!}!

|0

jorEET

GO

H J s < o H H O

6
Q Z < < Q a X

U
U Z H O
J

h <

SI

O o < Z w o
z
<! pJ

<! PS

O W K <
<

<

00

ITALIAN GOTHIC.
Venetian Gothic
Hall,
is

417

Bank

Piccadilly, and of England.

obtained from the old front of S. James's the building in Lothbury, opposite the

CENTRAL
Florence
Cathedral
(No. 176),
is

ITALY.

(Sta. Maria dei Fiori) (1294-1462) remarkable for the wide spacing (55 feet) of the nave arcades, the nave itself, the absence of a trif orium, buttresses and pinnacles (No. 181), and for the marble facades in colored panelling. The cathedral was erected from the designs of Arnolfo di Cambio, and the octagonal dome, 138 feet 6 inches in diameter, was added in 1420 by Brunelleschi, while the facade was completed in 1887. Internally the fine effect promised by the plan is not realized, vast masses of grey pietra serena stone, in piers and arches, being contrasted by blank white-washed

chiefly

spandrels. The Baptistery (originally the Cathedral), erected in the tenth century, but remodelled by Arnolfo in a.d. 1294, is an octagonal structure faced with pilasters and richly colored ornamentation, being further remarkable for the fifteenth century bronze doors by Ghiberti. The Campanile (Nos. 176 d and 181), adjoining, by Giotto (a.d. 1324), is square on plan, 292 feet high, in four stories of increasing height, and is built in red and white marble. Tracery of an elementary character is introduced into the windows in this example, as in the adjoining cathedral, and inserted in the solidly designed lower story are sculptured panels of great interest and beauty. Below the present tile roof the start of the intended spire can be traced. S. Maria Novella, Florence (a.d. 1278), is an imposing example erected by the Dominicans, and S. Croce, Florence (1294), is a well-known example of the same type.

The Palazzo Vecchio, Florence

(1298),

by Arnolfo di Cambio

(with its remarkable tower), the Palazzo Publico, Siena, and the Loggia dei Lanzi, Florence (1376), are examples of the vigorous secular architecture of the period. Siena Cathedral (a.d. 1243-1284) (No. 182) is remarkable in having a dome, 58 feet in diameter, covering an irregular hexagonal space at the crossing (No. 179 d), and for its fajade in black and white stripes, with three portals of equal size, and characThe ground falling towards the east end, teristic rose window. allowed of a crypt being formed under the sanctuary, which is used as a baptistery. The unfinished elevation of this east end is a grand design. The Campo Santo, Pisa (1278-1283) (No. 91), is a wellknown example, having an unusual development of open tracery in the arches (No. 184 c). Orvieto Cathedral (a.d. 1290) resembles that of Siena, but is
F.A.

E E

< Q

W W
<

in J)
tfi

U
d
2

'3

-i

00

ITALIAN GOTHIC.

419

imbued more considerably with Northern Gothic feeling. It is mainly of one period, the fa9ade dating from 1310, and is more harmonious in design than the Siena example. The nave is now restored with an open timber roof of the Basilican type. S. Francis, Assisi (a.d. 1228-1253), is an example which was from the designs of a German, Jacobus of Meruan. It consists of an upper and lower church, and is very northern in detail, depending much more on its frescoed interior than upon the Both architecture proper for its magnificence and character. churches are vaulted, built of brick and plastered, and received a complete treatment in painted decoration by Cima:bue and Giotto. In Rome, churches of the Basilican type were erected throughout the Middle Ages, S. Maria sopra Minerva (1280) being quoted as the only Gothic church in Rome.

SOUTHERN ITALY AND

SICILY.

The influences at work in these districts have already been The style has been referred to in Romanesque (page 239). described as " Greek in essence, Roman in form, and Saracenic
in decoration."

Messina and Palermo Cathedrals have plans founded on the Roman basilican type, the naves having timber roofs of great elaboration and intricate construction, resembling in their effect the honeycomb work of Saracenic art. The pointed arch was used, but without mouldings or even receding planes (No. 183). The main idea striven after in these churches was the unfettered display of mosaic decoration, in which the principal personages of the Bible are rendered in a stiff archaic style, with borders of arabesques in gold and color, while the lower parts of the walls have a high dado of white marble, with a border introducing green and purple porphyry in patterns. Palermo Cathedral is a remarkable example of external architectural decoration in stones of two colors, the apses in particular being very fine. At the west end is a group consisting of a central and two lower towers, with detail of an arbitrary style, but suggesting Northern Gothic in its vigour of skyline.

4.

COMPARATIVE.

North, Central, and South.

The endeavour to create a great central space in A. Plans. the churches, as at Florence (No. 176) and Siena Cathedrals (No. 179 d), shows the influence of Etruscan and Roman models.

420

COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE.

The widely-Spaced nave arcades are characteristic, the triforium being usually omitted, as at Florence and Milan (No. 176), and the clerestory reduced to the unimportance of a vault spandrel, pierced by a small, and generally circular, window. These lofty arcades practically include the aisles and nave in one composition and give the effect of a single hall. The nave vaulting is frequently set out in square compartments, as at Florence Cathedral (No. 176 d) and the Certosa, Pavia, the side aisles having oblong ones, thus reversing the Northern Gothic practice. Towers, usually isolated, have square shafts without buttresses, sometimes beautifully decorated, continuing the Romanesque tradition, and developing no spire growth, like northern examples. The best known are at Florence (No. 181), Siena (No. 182), Lucca, Verona (No. 184 k), Mantua and Pistoja. The most imposing external feature was frequently a dome, as at Siena (No. 182) and Florence (No. 181). The central lantern tower, in diminishing stages, as at Chiaravalle, the Certosa at Pavia, and Milan Cathedral (No. 176), are
an advance on the Romanesque lanterns at the crossing, and may be compared with English work. B. Walls.The absence of large windows obviated the necessity for projecting buttresses, the high and flat walls being usually comparatively solid throughout their length, and able themselves to withstand the pressure of a vault (Nos. 181 and 182). From the absence of vertical features and shadows in the fagade, flatness is the predominant characteristic of the style. Facades are treated independently as decorative compositions, and often have no relation to the structure or roofs behind (No. 182). These fagades are often incomplete, being compositions in marble facing, in many cases not finished on the score of expense. The marble was used in bands of two colors at Siena (No. 182) and Orvieto, each having three high gables, and in panelling at Florence (No. 181). This surface treatment was borrowed from the Saracens, and may be compared vvith northern methods, in which effect is obtained by deeplymoulded string courses, projecting buttresses, and lofty pinnacles.

The windows are often semicircular headed, c. Openings. and have shafts with square capitals of Corinthian type, instead of the moulded muilions of northern Gothic examples (No. 184 c). These slender shafts are often twisted, and even inlaid with glass mosaic known as " cosmato " work, from the family of that name,
while the capitals are richly sculptured. Venetian tracery is a special form of geometrical combinations

(No. 178).

moulded keystone is often provided to pointed arches, which are frequently inclosed by square lines as a frame.

ITALIAN GOTHIC.
D. Roofs. These are of low pitch, in the design, being scarcely visible from

421

and of small importance below (Nos. 179 and 180).

They

are often in contradiction to the steep gables of the fafades,

borrowed from northern Europe, and treated solely as. a field for mosaic and other elaborate decoration. Iron tie-rods were often used to prevent the spread of roof timbers owing to insufficient
buttressing.
E.

piers of the arcades in the churches are pilasters combined back to back being a common section. Round piers, with capitals and bases, recalling Roman work, were also used, but the continuous sequence in the design of such features, as may be traced north of the Alps, is not observable. In Milan Cathedral the circular moulded piers, by their height and size, and peculiar treatment of tabernacle capitals, produce the effect of a columnar interior (No. 177). F. Mouldings. These have a flatness and squareness often little changed from Roman work, and the section of an arch mould is often identical with that of the jamb, although there may be capitals at the impost. Mouldings are throughout subordinate to surface decoration, the most interesting being those due to the use of brickwork in the fagades.
at times surprisingly

Columns.

The

clumsy in plan, four

(No. 184). Opaque decoration was preferred the art of fresco, by constant exercise upon the noblest subjects in the grandest buildings, leading up to the golden age of Michael Angelo and Raphael. Some buildings, such as Giotto's chapel at Padua, and the Sistine chapel at Rome, are shells for painted decoration, almost devoid of architectural features. In carving (Nos. 184 a, b, e, f, g, h, l) and sculpture Classic tradition led to a refinement and an elegance which contrasts with the grotesque element found in northern work, but on the other hand, the general design is often neglected in the attention bestowed upon accessories. It is in the carving and mosaics to the sumptuous altars and canopy tombs, the pulpits (No. 184 b), pavements and choir stalls, and in the veneering of the facades with colored marbles, that the decorative character of the style is best seen. The Tomb of the Scaligers, Verona (1329-1380), is an example of rich decoration, and many of the churches at Rome have elaborate inlay mosaic work of " cosmato" design on their arches and twisted columns.
G.

Ornament
;

to translucent

5.

REFERENCE BOOKS.
ot

Anderson

(R.). " Examples

the

Municipal, Commercial and

Street Architecture of France

Cummings

(C. A.).

Folio. and "A History of Architecture in 1877. from the Time Italy
Italy.''

ITALIAN GOTHIC ORNAMENT.

r84.

ITALIAN GOTHIC.

423

REFERENCE BOOKS Continued.


Boston, of Constantine to the Dawn of the Renaissance." 2 vols., 8vo, 1 901. " Terra-Cotta Architecture of North Ital)'," 4to. 1867. Griiner (L.). Hittorff (J. I.) et Zanth (C. L. W.)." Architecture Moderne de la Sicile." Folio. Paris, 1835. Knight (H. G.). "Ecclesiastical Architecture of Italy." 2 vols.

184Z-1844. Nesfleld (E.).


folio.

" Specimens of Mediaeval Architecture." Folio. 1862. "La Toscane au Moyen Age." 2 vols., Paris, 1874. " Stones of Venice." 3 8vo. 1886. Ruskin Schulz (H. W.). "Denkmaeler der Kunst des Mittelalters in
Rohault-de-Fleury (G.).
(J.).

vols.,

Unter-Italien."
i860.

Folio atlas of plates,

and

text in 2 vols., 4to.

Dresden,

in Italien."

" Ziegelbauwerke des Mittelalters undder Renaissance Berlin, 1889. Folio. Street (G. E.). " Brick and Marble in the Middle Ages;". 8vo. 1874. Waring (J. B.) and Macquoid (T. R.). "Examples of Architectural Art in Italy and Spain." Folio. 1850. Henty (G. H.). " The Lion of S. Mark." (Historical Novel.)

Strack (H.).

SPANISH GOTHIC.
" Oft

gloomy aisles alone mind unknown) Along the walls where speaking marbles show What worthies form the hallowed mould below Proud names, who'once the reins of Empire held In arms who triumphed, or in arts excelled Chiefs, graced with scars, and prodigal of blood
let

me range
I

the

(Sad luxury

to vulgar

Stern patriots,
Just men, by

who

whom

And

saints,

who

freedom stood impartial laws were given taught, and led the way to heaven."
for sacred
; ;

TiCKELL.

I.

INFLUENCES.

i. Geographical. Spanish architecture cannot be understood without a knowledge of the geography of the country. The existence of rival races and kingdoms within the peninsula was rendered possible by the mountainous character of some parts, and the subdivision of the country by sierras, or chains of low rocky hills. The kingdom of Granada, where the Moors held out until the close of the Gothic period, was surrounded by mountains which inclosed a fertile plain, the finest in the country. Stone was the material generally employed, ii. Geological. but granite and some of the semi- marbles, which the country throughout possesses, were used in places. Rubble-work, with brick bonding courses and quoins, was used under Moorish influence with much taste and success, as in the towers and gates of the city of Toledo. This varies with the structure of the country, iii. Climate. which is that of a series of table-lands of varying elevations, divided by sierras. Burgos, in the north, 3,000 feet above the sea, is cold, and exposed to keen winds even in the summer, while in the south the climate is sub-tropical. Constant warfare with the Moors gave a certain iv. Religion. unity to Spain, the struggle being a war of religions as well as of Allegiance to the Papacy has been a characteristic of races. Spain, and Santiago was a pilgrimage centre of more than national importance. The arrangement of the choirs and the size and


SPANISH GOTHIC.
425

importance of the chapels attached to the cathedrals were due


to the ritual.
V. Social and Political. In the Spanish peninsula, the Christian states of Castile, Leon, Navarre, Aragon, and Portugal were all growing up and gradually driving the Mahometans into the southern part called Andalusia. After many intermittent successes, as the capture of Toledo (1084) by Alfonso VI., the battle of Tolosa (1212), gained by the Christians, was the turning point, after which Mahometan influence gradually declined. It was during the reign of S. Ferdinand (1217-1252), who united Castile and Leon, and won back Seville and Cordova, that Gothic art took root, sown by the spirit of conquest and aided by the wealth of the conquered Moors. James, called the Conqueror (1213-1276), King of Aragon, pressed into the east of Spain until the kingdom of Granada was the only portion left to the

Mahometans.

vi. Historical. The study of the history of a country, always necessary in order to properly understand the development of its architecture, is specially required in the case of Spain, which has been occupied at different times by peoples of various races. After the Romans left Spain the Vandals and Visigoths took possession, after which, a.d. 710-713 (page 655), the country was invaded by the Moors from North Africa, and for 800 years their influence was continuous. The evidence of this is to be seen in the stronghold of their power the south of Spain where the curious construction, the richness of the architecture, and the exuberance of intricate, and lace-like, detail are everywhere apparent. This influence occasionally reached far into the north, owing to the superior education and ability of Moorish workmen, for although Toledo was captured by the Christians in 1085, the Spanish conquests were gradual, and the final expulsion of the Moors did not take place till 1492.

2.

ARCHITECTURAL CHARACTER.

In the south, as already mentioned, there was always more or Moorish influence, and from Toledo, the Moorish capital, this influence made itself felt in Saracenic features, such as the horseshoe arch, and, in later times, the pierced stonework tracery of Moorish design. These fretwork screens occupy the whole window, and are rich in detail. Elsewhere buildings, under Moorish influence, were covered with intricate geometrical and flowing patterns and rich surface decorations, for which the Saracenic art is everywhere remarkable, as in the Jews' synagogue at Toledo. The curious early churches of the Spanish conquerors seem to have been executed by the aid of Moorish workmen.
less of

426

COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE.

The Gothic style was best developed in Catalonia, where, though on French lines, as in most parts of Spain, it has a special character, owing to the grand scale of the single-span vaulted interiors. Leon Cathedral goes beyond its French original at Amiens, in the expanse of window opening and tenuity of its supports. The exteriors usually are flat in appearance, owing to the space between buttresses being utilized internally for chapels, and generally, it may be said that a liking for excessive ornamentation without ariy regard to its constructive character is apparent. Contrary to' Northern Gothic, broad wall surfaces and horizontal lines are special features of the style.
The
cloisters of

many

of the cathedrals, as Barcelona, Toledo,

and Lerida, are

on to Gothic forms produced some of the most picturesque features imaginable.

characteristic. In the later period, the grafting of classical details

3.

EXAMPLES.

ECCLESIASTICAL ARCHITECTURE.
S. Isidord, Leon (completed 1149), and old Salamanca Cathedral (a.d. 1120-1178), which has a dome over the crossing of nave and transepts, were both influenced by the Southern French Romanesque models' of Aquitaine and Anjou. Santiago de Compbstela -Cathedral (a.d. 1078), on the other hand', is an example of a building with nave, transepts and

complete

'chevet,

Romanesque.

due to the influence of Northern French In this church the nave is- covered with a barrel

vault aiid the side aisles with cross vaults. Burgos Cathedral (a.d. 1230) is irregular in plan (No: 190 l). It has two towers to the western fa9ade, which, with their openwork spires (No. 185), recall Cologne, and a richly-treated lantern over .the crossing which was completed in 1567. The lantern (known as the " cimborio "), and the peculiar treatment of -the interior is shown in No. 186. The " coro " or choir is in the usual position to the westward of the crossing, the nave being reduced to a mfere vestibule, while the extraordinary size and importance of the side chapels are striking, as that of the Capilla del Condestable (a.d. 1487), which is octagonal, over 50 feet in diameter, and specially remarkable for the beauty and richness of its late
detail.

Toledo Cathedral (a.d. 1227) (No. 187 d), is a five-aisled church and resembles Bourges (page 368) in general idea. It is about the same length, but nearly 50 feet wider, and has the choir inclosure west of the crossing, with a singularly shallow

SPANISH GOTHIC.

185.

Burgos Cathedral. View from N.W.

SPANISH GOTHIC.

86.

BORGOS Cathedral, View of Choir.

SPANISH GOTHIC EXAMPLES.

Lts

fli

WLSICKN LNU.
OMPCL DUOS'
RtYE5NUE.V05-

gf infEniti 6UTll?Eg5ES

fflCLOani;

mmL CM?ll%

flNDDCTREME WIDTH or

WYE.

OCfflCONflL

WNTERN.

^WPEL.
ENTKLT PL^ Sra CfflllliMLAlilEZT:SOPWIDER. THE ROOF BUT JESEMBUNC
FREIICH IN

lamtmmmk
PENDElfTIVES. EXTERIMLROOFS Of

Rl

BOOKESCfTlHEDRflL
IS

VERY LOW

18

AD.IZ03-E78. PEORO-DE-PEmEyTd gCflOINrtL LBNTEKN MR'cROSSINC^ON

mt.

THE CASE

WITH

THE

MflJOKITY

Of SB1NI8H. CHURCHES
100

.STONL

SCALE ,

gP"

30 FEET

187.

430

COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE.

apsidal sanctuary, in which is placed an immense retablo or reredos of wood, flanked by tiers of arcaded statuary upon the sanctuary
piers.
-

..

'-

S. Gregorio, yalladolid (No. 189), shows character of detair derived from Moorish influence.
,

the
is.

lace-like

Barcelona Cathedral

(a.d.

1298) (No. 187

b),

remarkable

in that the thrust of the vaults is taken by buttiresses, which are internal features,, as at Albi in the south, of France, the space

between being used as chapels. Gerona Cathedral is a further development (No. 187 c), but there are no aisleS, the nave being one vaulted hall, 73 feet in The Central Hall of- the Law width, in four compartments. Courts, although only 48 feet in width, will give an idea of this
,

interior.

is

Maria del Mar, Barcelona (a.d. 1328-1-583) (No. 187 a), a splendid example of a town church. The vaults rest upon octagonal piers of granite about 4 feet in diameter, the spacing being wide, and the aisles and nave of great height. There is no triforium, and only small clerestory windows in the spandrels of the vault.';. Severe simplicity is the characteristic of the church both inside and out there are no features but a few well-studied mouldings. Seville Cathedral (1401-1520), erected on the site of a mosque of the same size, is the largest mediaeval cathedral in any country. It bears a considerable resemblance to Milan CatheS.
.

dral, but is less fanciful in detail, or, as some would prefer to say, of a purer Gothic style. The vaulting is rich, loaded with bosses in places, but confused and weak in its lines. Externally there is a certain shapelessness and absence of sky-line. The parwquia (parish) church is separate, but included within the cathedral area. The peculiarity of plan, having a nave, double aisles, and side chapels, was no doubt caused by the structure being made to fill up the space occupied previously by a mosque. It is typically Spanish in having a rectangular outline, but it differs from most of the great Continental churches in having a square east end, and small apse. As showing the extraordinary size of this cathedral it may be pointed out that each of the four side aisles of Seville is practically equal both in height and width to the nave of Westminster Abbey (page 309), while the nave arcades

have twice the span, although. the total length of Seville is little more than that oi the Abbey. Thus one aisle of Seville represents the size of tlie nave and choir of the abbey, and is repeated four times in addition to which there is the great nave, 55 feet wide from centre to centre of piers, and 130 feet high. Surrounding the church, and of the same depth as the aisles, are the chapels. From these comparisons an idea can be obtained of the immense size of this Spanish cathedral.
;

SPANISH GOTHIC.

S.

Interior,

Juan de los Reyes, Toledo. showing Octagonal Dome.

SPANISH GOTHIC.

189.

S.

Gregorio, Valladolid.

SPANISH GOTHIC.

433

S. Juan de los Reyes, Toledo, a.d. 1476 (No. 188), is a rich example of a sepulchral chapel, erected by Ferdinand and Isabella, comparing in its intended purpose with Henry ^'II.'s Chapel at Westminster. Valencia (a.d. 1262), Leon (a.d. 1260), and Barcelona (a.d. 1298) Cathedrals, all showing French influence, and

Lerida Cathedral (No. 187


other examples of early date.

e),

externally roofed with stone, are

lonia, as seen in

In domestic work the best examples are to be found in CataBarcelona municipal buildings, and Valencia
hall.

town

4.

COMPARATIVE.

a. Plans. In regard to the plan of the cathedrals, the great width and comparative shortness (No. ,187) of many of the naves is a prominent characteristic. .The position of the choir is generally to the west of the crossing of nave and transepts, as at Burgos (No. igo l), an arrangement probably derived from the Early Christian basilicas, as S. Clemente, Rome (No. 73 b); and also seen at Westminster Abbey- (No. 127), and Norwich Cathedral (No. ii8). Chapels are numerous and large, and the parish church is often included in the area of the cathedral, as

at Seville.

The

cimhorio, or

dome (Nos. 186 and


is

nave and transepts,

188), at the crossing of the similar in treatment to examples in the

south of France. S. Sernin, Toulouse, and Burgos Cathedrals resemble each other in plan, and Valencia and S. Ouen, Rouen, in design. Internally octagonal vaults, which are intricate in design and ingenious in construction, are characteristic, and were probably inspired by Moorish work. B. Walls. In design French models were favoured, the later work being characterized by extreme, and even wild, ornamentation.- There is much flatness a,nd absence of skyline in the exteriors, Burgos having in place of gables effective horizontal arcades, on the -lines of the fa<;ade of N&tre Dame Traceried open-work spires, as in Germany, were at Paris. favoured, those at Burgos being worthy of attention (No. 185). c. Openings. These were carried to excess in Leon Cathedral, which has not only a glazed triforium, but also a large, part of Even in the the wall surface of the clerestory glazed as well. south, as at Seville, openings are of large size, stained glass being much used. Vaulting was used freely, but developed in decorad. Roofs. tion, rather than in construction, such features as tracery, bosses, and ribs producing a rich effect, although the lines are not always

F.A.

F F

434

COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE.
to

good, and nothing was accomplished.

compare

in interest with

English vaulting

In the south, wide interiors, in one span, were successfully vaulted in a simple style, that at Gerona (No. 187 c) being no less than 73 feet span, and having a total length of 270 feet, including chevet. The boldest and most original vaults are the great flat arches, that forrn galleries across the western ends of the churches, extending through nave and aisles in three spans. Their rich soffits attract, attention on entering, and their curves frame the view of, and give scale to, the interior of the church beyond. E. Columns. The favourite feature of a lantern at the crossing' gives importance to the central piers, which at Burgos (No. 186) are circular in plan (rebuilt 1567), and contrast with the great octagonal piers at S. Sernin, Toulouse. In Seville Cathedral great column-like piers are employed for all the arcades, similar in effect to those of Milan, but without the tabernacle capitals. Carved capitals of characteristic form are indicated in No. 190 e, j. F. Mouldings. Refinement is not the usual characteristic of Spanish art. Original and arbitrary forms were mingled with features borrowed from France. In Catalonia the best and most artistic work was produced in a restrained manner. In S. Maria del Mar, Barcelona (page 430), every moulding has its purpose and expression, but this is far from being the character of other more numerous examples in Spain. G. Ornament (No. 190). The most decorative feature in Spanish churches is the vast retablo (reredos), which is often as wide as the nave, and reaches up to the vaulting. This feature is usually constructed of wood, stone, or alabaster, and is crowded with niches, figures, canopies and panelling (No. 190 c, f, k).Those at Toledo and Seville, resembling the great English altar screens, notably that at Christchurch, Hants, are probably the richest specimens of mediaeval woodwork in existence. Painting and gilding were used to heighten the effect, the former naturalistic, and the latter of such solidity that the effect of metal is obtained. Sculpture in stone or marble is often life-size, naturalistic, and expressive (No. 190 h, m, n), and however deficient in other qualities, it combines in producing the notoriously impressive, if sensational, interiors of Spanish churches. Stained glass was used, as at Seville, Oviedo, and elsewhere, being usually Flemish in style, heavy in outline, and strong to gaudiness in coloring. Rejas,' or rich and lofty grilles (Nos. 186 and 190 h), in hammered and chiselled -iron, are also characteristic, the formality of the long and vertical bars being relieved by figures beaten in repousse, or in duplicates attached back to back, and by freely

'

'

SPANISH GOTHIC ORNAMENT.

F F 2

436

COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE.

employed crestings and traceries adapted to the material. Few things in Spain are more original and artistic than these Rejas. Magnificent stalls, each provided with a separate canopy and crowned with a tall spire, are common, Barcelona Cathedral having some resembling those at Chester, while bishops' thrones, pulpits, lecterns and choir desks were also elaborately treated.

5.

REFERENCE BOOKS.

" Monumentos Arquitectonicos de Espana" (a magnificent work issued under the auspices of the Spanish Government). 8g parts, atlas Madrid, 1859-1879. folio (not completed). " Aocountof Gothic Architecture in Spain." 8vo. 1874. Street (G. E.). "Espana Artistica y Monumental." 3 vols., Villa-Amil (G. P. de). Paris, 1842-1850. folio. Waring (J. B.). " Architectural Studies in Burgos.'' Folio. 1853. Waring (J. B.) and Macquoid (T, R.). "Examples of Architectural Art in Italy and Spain." Folio. 1850. Koulet (M. F. N.). " God the King, My Brother." (Historical Novel.)

RENAISSANCE ARCHITECTURE IN
EUROPE.
'

New

structures, that inordinately glow,

Subdued, brought back to harmony, made ripe


a relic of the archetype wonder every upstart church. That hoped to leave old temples in the lurch, Corrected by the theatre forlorn That as a mundane shell, its world late born, Lay, and o'ershadowed it." Browning.

By many

Extant

for

GENERAL INTRODUCTION.
The causes which led to the re-introduction, or re-birth (Renaissance), of Classic Architecture in Europe at the beginning of the fifteenth century, are instructive, and must be grasped in order fully to understand so great a change. In this section the Renaissance movement as affecting the whole of Europe will be dealt with.
I.

INFLUENCES.

Renaissance xnovement, arising in from thence to France, Germany, and England, and over the whole of Western Europe over what had been the Roman empire in the West. The Eastern empire did not come under its influence, for the Greeks in the East, who had been the most civilized people in Europe, were now falling before the Turks. ii. Geological. j^^^^^ ^^ ^^^^ ^^ ' 111. Climate. iv. Religion. The invention of printing, which aided the spread of knowledge, the spirit of inquiry, and the diffusion of freedom of thought, led, among the Teutonic races, to a desire to break away from Romish influence. This desire was originally fogtered by Wycliffe in England ^a.d. 1377), and by Martiti
i.

Geographical.

The

Italy in the fifteenth century, spread

438
Luther
in

COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE.

Germany (a.d. 1517), in which countries Reformation proceeded side by side with Renaissance in architecture. This renewed vigour in thoughtand liter ature was accompanied by a freslLbuildi ng era in^^rtBemJETuropel In England, civil and domestic architecture T^ceived a special impulse from the diffusion among laymen of the wealth and lands of the monasteries dissolved by Henry VIII. In Italy, on the other hand, where the Reformation took no hold, and where comparatively few churches had been built in the Gothic manner during the Middle Ages, a revival of ecclesiastical architecture took place, and in every important town Renaissance churches were carried out on a grand scale and in a most complete manner. The Jesuits who headed the counterreformation carried the style into all parts, at the same time giving it a special character (page 496).
in religion V. Social and Political. A new intellectual movement manifests itself sooner in literature than in architecture, and thus Dante (1265-1321), the former influences the public taste. Petrarch- (1304-1374), and Boccaccio (1313-1375) aided in the spread of the newly-discovered classic liter ature, whic h caused a revolt against inedTsevarartrarrd-theTtibsequent fall of Constantinople in A.D. 1453 caused an influx of Greek scholars into Italy, whose learning was an important influence an age which was\ipe Thus a revival of classic literatjire for a great intellectual change. produced a desire for the revival orRoman arcHitectTire. Again, among the MSS. of Greek and Latin authors brought to light about this time, was Vitruvius' book of Architecture, written in B.C. 50, which was translated into Italian in a.d.

1521.

Erasmus (1467-1536), one of the few Greek scholars of the period, worked hard to direct the public attention to the original Testament, and to the Greek classics, as a set-off text of the to the wrtings of the mediagval philosophers, whose authority had for so long borne an exclusive sway. Italian architecture was naturally the first to be affected, because the Gothic style had never taken a firm hold on the

New

Italians, who had at hand the ancient Roman remains, such as the Pantheon, the Basilica of Maxentius, the Colosseum, the remains of the great baths, and the Roman fora. In Italy, therefore, where feudalism had never fully established itself, and where the municipaHties had developed a spirit of municipal enterprise, practically a direct return was made to Roman forms. vi. Historical. At the beginning of the sixteenth century there was a general grouping together of the smaller states into independent kingdoms, under powerful rulers, who governed with authority, and kept large standing armies. Three great inventions

^.^^-"^sr^^
.-m-

RENAISSANCE jll|faHTECTURE IN EUROPE.

439

had an important influence-^(gunpo w3e)' which h ad changed the whole nethod of warfare thetaariner's compasSjiwhich led to the discovery of the West Indies^(i492) and "Smerica, foundation of colonies by European states and, lastly< '_ which favoured that stirring of men's minds which caused the reformation in religion, and the revival of learning. Copper; ;

was discovered in the third quarter of the fifteenth century. Galileo (1564-1642) proved that the earth was not the centre of the universe, but merely a minute planet in the solar system,
plate engraving

2.

ARCHITECTURAL CHARACTER.

The Renaissance of the fifteenth century in Italy, and of the sixteenth century in other parts of Western Europe, was a break in that orderly evolution of architecture which is based on the nature and necessities of materials. In place of such evolution there was the worship of style, that is, of the past results of the nature of materials as formulated into systems. Such results were worshipped for their own sake, and often to a great extent applied regardless of the materials of their execution. The main features in the style were the Classic orders (Nos. 38, 262), viz., the Doric, Ionic, and Corinthian, which were often used decoratively, as by the Romans, and at other times with their true constructive significance. Buildings designed for more modern wants were clothed in the classic garb of ancient Rome, but it must not be supposed that in this development no advance was made. It is true that Roman precedent was the basis, but columns and pilasters, whether plain, fluted or panelled, with entablature and details, were applied in many novel and pleasing forms, a system in their application being gradually evolved, and a style built up which has become the basis of all modern
styles.

Italy, the headquarters of the new movement, in the fifteenth century possessed skilful jewellers and excellent medallists, and it was lay their help that the Renaissance commenced and expanded. From their well-known good taste, architects consulted them, and often, indeed, were their pupils, as Ghiberti, Donatello, and Brunelleschi. Men, therefore, who were at once

painters, sculptors, architects, silversmiths, jewellers, and goldsmiths somewhat naturally only looked at the finished results

as the goal to be aimed at, and were not troubled about the means to such an end. The development of the schools of painting also had their influence on architecture, and aided the tendency which caused structures to be looked upon as works of

44
art,

^~Ct>MPARATIVE ARCHITECTT-HE.

instead of being dependent mainly for their form and effect on structural necessities. For the same reasons, the period may be looked upon as the age of accessories, in which iron, gold and silver work, and tombs, monuments, altars, fonts, and fountains, were designed in great numbers, and, by the whim and fancifulness of the designer, were special features of the style. Architecture ceased to a certain exteiit to be subject to the considerations of use, becoming largely independent of constructive exigencies, and to a greater extent an art of free expression in which beauty of design was sought for. Speaking generally, there was an endeavour to reconcile the Gothic and the Roman methods of construction, i.e., the body and facing were one and the same thing constructively, because the architects of the period, attracted by the mere external appearance of ancient Roman art, but perceiving that this form was merely an envelope, continued in the matter of construction to a large extent to follow the traditions of the Middle Ages, which did not separate the structure from the decoration. Owing, therefore, to ignorance of Roman methods, the Roman manner of forming the main walling of concrete and casing it with marble, stone, or brick was not followed. In the Gothic period each stone was finished, moulded, and sculptured in the workshops before being laid a method which produced skilful and intelligent masons and stone dressers, and obliged the sculptor to make the decoration suit each piece of stone. In the Renaissance period the new mouldings and carvings could be executed with more exactitude and less expense in situ, and thenceforward the necessity of making the jointing accord with the various architectural features being no longer imperiously felt,' a want of harmony between the jointing and the

architectural features often resulted. building, it will be observed, was regarded rather as a picture with pleasing combinations of lines and masses than as a structure of utility, being often designed by men trained as painters, sculptors, or goldsmiths. Such structures often have a princely dignity, as in many of the Roman palaces (No. 197), where the column, pilaster, frieze, and cornice were employed as elements of composition with special regard to the artistic result and with considerable originality. The wide and narrow spacing of the pilasters in the Palazzo Giraud is a novel form (No. 195). It would be a great mistake, therefore, to state that Renaissance architecture was solely imitative, for new and delightful combinations of features were introduced, and architecture became to a great extent a personal art due to the fancy of individuaLa^chitects, many of whom founded schools of design, in which their principles were followed by their pupils and followers. In the decorative detail, also, an advance wp.s made. In

'-.

RENAISSANCE ARCHITECTURE IN EUROPE.


in competition

44I

metal work the bronze baptistery gates at Florence were won by the sculptor Ghiberti, in 1404, and are the finest examples of a class of work for which these craftsmenThese accessories of architecture were architects were famous. erected, or added to many old buildings, both in Italy and
elsewhere.

followed the Byzantine treatment in importance by lifting it boldly from its substructure and placing it on a "drum," in which windows were formed, thus making it a great external dominating feature (Nos. 202, 212, 254). Likewise, they were the first to introduce as an architectural "motif" the wall of massive rusticated masonry with arched openings, as in the Palazzo Riccardi, Florence (Nos. 191 and 192), the Palazzo Pesaro, Venice (No. 209), and elsewhere, in which buildings the wall was frankly treated as architecture, and was in no way imitative of ancient Roman buildings. Renaissance Vaulting. In the beginning of the fifteenth century the Gothic principles of ribbed vaulting were abandoned, giving place to the revival of the Classic method of solid semicircular vaulting (page 117). This type of vaulting was much used in the halls, passages, and staircases of Renaissance palaces and churches, and was besides frequently built of wooden framing, plastered and painted with colored decoration, often of remarkable richness and beauty, as at the Vatican palace by Raphael. In cases of cross-vaulting with narrow and wide spans, it appears that the groins were now formed by means of " ordinates" (No. iii e), with elliptical soffits, groins forming a straight line on plan instead of the wavy line produced by the intersection of a semicircular vault with one stilted above its springing. Note. Having now taken a rapid survey of the causes which led to the revival of Classic architecture throughout Europe, and before proceeding to consider the development in each country, a comparison of a few of the more prominent characteristics of the style with the treatment which^obtained in Gothic architecture is given.
of the

The Renaissance architects Dome, but increased it

'

3.

EXAMPLES

(refer to

each country).

Although important types of church design were evolved, yet the main the most characteristic monuments were the municipal buildings, palaces, country houses and elaborate facades to town buildings. In addition, chapels, tombs, gates, oratories and public fountains were special creation.
in

442

COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE.

4.

COMPARATIVE.
GOTHIC.

RENAISSANCE.
A.

Plans.

Symmetry
gained

and pro-

A.

portion of part to part carefully studied (Nos. 198, 203, 313, 223,
253).

and beauty of individual features more particularly sought after

Plans.

Picturesqueness

Grandeur

by simplicity (Nos. 200,201,254). Fewnessand

largeness of parts have a tendency to malce the building ap-

(Nos. 117, 155, 159 and 187). Grandeur gained by multiplicity (Nos. 162, 175 and 189). In consequence of the large number
of parts, the building appears larger than it really is. Towers are a general feature, and are often crowned with a spire

pear less in size than

it

really

is.

Towers are sparingly used, and

when they occur


Church (No.
ingly fine.

are symmetri-

In England those cally placed. at S. Paul (No. 254), and Bow


255), are
is

The dome

exceeda pre-

(Nos. 110, 114, 115, 116, 121, 140 Small towers, turrets, 154). finials help to emphasize the vertical tendency (Nos. 125, 128,

and and and

dominant feature (Nos. 181, 205, 212, 223 and 254). Interiors of churches were planned on Roman principles (Nos. 193,
igg and 203), and covered with domes and pendentives. The
parts are few, the nave being divided into three or four compartments (No. 253), by which a general effect of grandeur is

173).

The tower and

spire

are predominant features. Interiors are more irregular, and are covered with stone vaulting (Nos. 112, 123), or open-timbered roofs (No. 113). The parts are many, a nave of the same length as a Renaissance church probably divided into twice as many compartments.

produced.

Compare
213)B.

S.

Paul,

London (No.
were conmasonry of

Compare Cologne Cathedral


313)B.

(No.

^A^alls. These structed in ashlar

smooth-faced walling, which, in


the lower stories, was occasionally heavily rusticated (No. 192). Materials are large, and carry out the Classic idea of fewness of parts. Stucco or plaster were often used as a facing material where stone was unobtainable. The use of the material according to its nature was lost, the design being paramount. Angles of buildings often rusticated, i.e., built in blocks of unsmoothed stone, as in Florence, or carefully indented with patterns (No. 197).

^A^alls. These were often constructed of uncoursed rubble or small stones (No. 136), not built in horizontal layers also of brick and rough flint work. Materials are small in size, and carry out the Gothic idea of multiplicity.
;

Masonry was worked according


to the nature of the material to a new and significant extent. It is not too much to say that, as in a mosaic, each piece in a wall has its value in this style. Angles of buildings often of ashlar masonry or smooth-faced stone, the rest of the walling being of rough materials, as rubble or
flint.

RENAISSANCE ARCHITECTURE IN EUROPE.


RENAISSANCE.
Gable ends of churches and buildings generally were formed as pediments, with a low pitch (Nos. 193 ^^^ 211 k) or of semicircular form (No. an a). Simplicity of treatment and breadth of mass are prominent characteristics (Nos. 193, 197 of the style.

443

GOTHIC.

Gable ends are steep, occupied by windows, and crowned either


with
sloping parapet or orna-

mented

timber barge

boards

^^^ 200)

(Nos. 125, 132 J, 138 and 150); Boldness and richness of sky-line and intricacy of mass are prominent characteristics (Nos. 121, 125, 161, 162, 164 and 173).
c.

c.

Openings

Door

and win-

Openings

Door and window

are semicircular (Nos. 206 D and 214c), or squareheaded (Nos. 194 E and 206 a). The influence of climate on these was important. In Italy, with a bright atmosphere, the windows In northern Europe, are small. with a dull climate, windows of the earlier period are large, and often have stone muUions or uprights dividing the solid window space vertically (No. Openings generally come 246). over one another, and are symmetrically disposed with reference to fafade. The Classic system of moulded architrave (No. 94 k) projecting from the wall face was revived. Doorways and other openings are surrounded by such architraves, often richly carved.

dow openings

openings usually pointed (Nos.


142, 143, 156 and 161), and of considerable size, are divided by muUions, though not necessarily so. This treatment was for the introduction of painted glass, the use or non-use of which means of decoration influenced the size and number of the openings. Often little attention was paid to the centre lines, i.e., the placing of openings over one Windows and doors another. were placed where wanted, without much regard to symmetry of composition. Openings formed in receding planes (Nos. 94 f j and 143), with mouldings of great richness, were often provided with small circular shafts and carved

capitals.

D.

Roofs Vaults are of simple Roman form without ribs. Domes have usually an internal
plaster soffit or ceiling,

D.

Roofs.

Vaulting was develop-

and are

ed by means of the pointed arch, and depends for effect on the richness of the carved bosses,

painted in colored fresco, upon which they depend for their beauty. The dome over a large space was generally constructed with an inner and outer covering, as S. Paul, London (No. 253).

on the setting out of the ribs on which the severy of the vaulting on the grace and rests, and
beauty of these curves (Nos. log and 112). Open-timbered roofs are a beautiful feature of the style, the most perfect specimen in England being Westminster Hall (No. 113 h). Externally roofing is an important element

Open-timbered roofs occur, as Jacobean halls, but the tendency was gradually to plaster them up (Nos. 242 and 243). All roofs other than domes were hidden in Italy, but were made much of in France and Germany.
in the

and in conjunction with chimneys, must be reckoned as a means of effect.


in the design,

444

COMPARATIVE ARCHITECTURE.
RENAISSANCE.

E.

Classic columns and orders were revived and used decoratively in fa9ades, as in the Roman manner (Nos. 195, 196, 197, zoo, 365, 219 and 248), and structurally as for porticos (Nos. 193 , k, 198 g, h

Columns.

The

E.

Columns. 'Where used, they


were entirely structural, or expressive of pressures upon the
piers to which, sometimes, they were attached (Nos. 123, 158, 160 and 177). The relative proportion of height to diameter does not exist, and the capitals and bases were either heavily moulded or carved with conventional foliage.

GOTHIC.

and

254).

The

shafts were often rusticated, fluted spirally, or wreathed with bands of foliage and fruit.
I,

"

Can

from no building, gay or solemn, spare the shapely Grecian column."


F.

F.

Mouldings.The principal cornice plays an important part in the style, and in the Florentine palaces is bold and impressive (Nos. 191, 192 and 198). Cornices, however, often mark each story (Nos. 207, 209, 210
and
215).

Mouldings The parapet, often battlemented, or pierced with open tracery (Nos. 128, 133 and 147), took the place of a cornice, and was less strongly marked than the boldly projecting Classic cornice.

contours of mouldings follow on Roman lines, as may be seen in the architrave (Nos. 194, 206, 214 and 218), but many new combinations of mouldings were designed. Cornices and other features of Classic origin (Nos. 191, 192, 197, 198, 207, 209, 210 and 212) occur in every building, and are beautifully carved, refinement being an essential quality. Cornices, balconies, string bands, and horizontal features generally (Nos. 197 and 209) are strongly pronounced, and by their fre-

The

are portions of circles joined by fillets, inclosed in rectangular recesses in the early periods, or in later times based on a diagonal splay (No. 146). Tablets and string courses of carved ornament occur (No. 147), varying in outline and treatment
different centuries. Moulddepend chiefly for effect upon light and shadow. Vertical features, such as b uttresses
in

The contours and mouldings

ings

casting a deep shadow, numerous pinnacles, turrets (No.=:. 153, 154, 162 and 185), high roofs, with

quency and importance produce an effect of horizontality


G.

towers and spires, produce an


effect of vertkality.
G.

Ornament
figure

The

human
scale,

Ornament. The
figure

human
scale,

abandoned as a

statuary being often much larger than life-size (Nos. 200, 204, 205

and

254).

Stained glass was little used, all the best efforts at color being obtained by means of opaque decoration as fresco or mosaic, which W^s lavishly applied to interiors,

thus helping in giving relative value to parts (Nos. 145 g, 156, 161, 164, 165 A, and 177). Stained glass was extensively used, being the chief glory of internal decoration, and partly the raison d'etre of the immense traceried windows, which apted as 3, franje

adhered to as a

RENAISSANCE ARCHITECTURE IN EUROPE.


RENAISSANCE.
as in the Sistine Chapel,

445

GOTHIC.

Rome,
i.e.,

by Michael Angelo.
" Sgraffito "

decoration,

scratched and colored plaster, was sometimes applied to exteriors, as in the Palazzo del
Consiglio

for its reception (Nos. 134 e, 133, 153 b and 175). Color for exteriors was dependent on the actual material, as in the colored marbles of central Italy (see No. 181, Florence

by

Fra

Giocondo

Cathedral),

(page 490) at Verona. Great efficiency in the crafts is noticeable in the work of the early Renaissance architects (Nos. 194, 2o6, 214 and 218), who were often painters and sculptors, e.f;., Donatello, Ghiberti, and Delia Robbia,examples of their work being in the Victoria and Albert Museum.

Carving was often grotesque and rudely executed (Nos. 165, 174 and 190), butinthebestexamples, possesses a decorative character
in harmony with the architecture,

Thiswaseffectedbytheconstrucsuch as pinnacles, buttresses, and arches, them