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Significant Difference Between the 2010 SEC Students Academic Performance and the 2002 BEC Students Academic

Performance (A Thesis Proposal)

Submitted to: Mario B. Marigmen, Ph.D. Professor

Submitted by: Leonard J. Espaola MADEVED

December 10, 2011

Introduction

Curriculum has varied definitions. Some authors define curriculum as the total effort of the school to bring about desired outcomes in school and out-of-school situations. It is also defined as a sequence of potential experiences set up in school for the purpose of disciplining children and youth in group ways of thinking and acting. It also refers to a structured set of learning outcomes or task that educators usually call goals and objectives. Howell and Evans (1995) define it as the what of teaching. 1 Curriculum is the set of courses, course work, and content offered at a school or university. Curriculum means two things: the range of courses from which students choose what subject matters to study, and a specific learning program. In the latter case, the curriculum collectively describes the teaching, learning, and assessment materials available for a given course of study. 2 A curriculum may be partly or entirely determined by an external, authoritative body. In the Philippines, however, curriculum formulation as well as innovation, specifically on the secondary education is being prepared by the Curriculum Development Division of the Bureau of Secondary Education. Philippine education has undergone curriculum innovations and changes in the past decades. In 1989, the New Secondary Education Curriculum (NSEC) was implemented replacing the 1973 Revised Secondary Education Program. After more than a decade, another curriculum was implemented, the 2002 Basic Education Curriculum. And like the previous curricula, it also undergone series of refinements and modifications.

The curriculum in the Philippines is revised averagely every ten years depending on the needs as deemed necessary by the education officials and those who are in-charge of the curriculum development. Sometimes, revision happens not out of necessity but just for the publicity of those who are in the position. Several years ago, a new curriculum was introduced. After years of pilot testing in different schools in the country, the said curriculum that follows the Understanding by Design (UBD) framework was implemented. Its pioneer recipients are the First Year high school students enrolled during the School Year 2010 - 2011. The gap between the 2002 BEC and 2010 SEC is only more or less eight years if the year of implementation is to be counted. According to some advocates of the new curriculum, the rapid rate of change in education and in technology make the education officials to revisit and update the curriculum to be able to adapt to these changes. 3 Prior to the implementation, education critics were divided. Some were in favor while the others were in contrary. One blogger said: I'm actually quite impressed with the UBD framework primarily because it looks scientific in approach and overarching in scope. Indeed, if we focused on Understanding rather than just drilling on facts and procedures, maybe our kids will learn a lot more from school that is actually useful later on in life. Another remarked: I've been in the service for 17 years and I've been through a lot of curricula (secondary).The love for the profession is more worthy than changing the curriculum. A teacher must have passion on this work. Only then, change can be realized. Another teacher said: I know that teachers need support in upgrading and updating their knowledge of content and pedagogy. I know that teachers teach what they know in the way they know. These are things that cannot be addressed by simply changing the curriculum or changing the way of preparing the lesson plan, much more its format. Furthermore, Stigler & Hiebert (1999) said, Standards [curriculum] set the course,

and assessments provide the benchmarks, but it is teaching that must be improved to push us along the path to success (Stigler & Hiebert (1999), The Teaching Gap, p.92). Some educators stated that the reason why 2010 SEC was hastily implemented was the same as the reason why NSEC was replaced by the 2002 BEC, that is, old curriculum does not allow students to gain mastery of basic skills because it is too 'overcrowded. In the first year of the implementation of the 2010 SEC, The Division of Bataan interviewed its First Year high school teachers concerning the implementation of the new curriculum. Some still prefer the old curriculum and are calling the attention of proponents of the 2010 SEC to make necessary refinements (ibid). In our station, some teachers share the same sentiments as above. Some are still in favor of the 2002 BEC. In fact, few of them make learning plans patterned to the new curriculum for compliance but teach the old ways. Being an educator under the umbrella of the DepEd, teachers have no choice but to follow what is being directed. The only thing that can be done is to make scientific investigation that will give feedbacks to the DepEd itself on the result of the implementation of the new curriculum. This research is germane to what is being discussed. This intends to answer this big question: Is there a significant difference between the 2010 SEC students academic performance and the 2002 BEC students performance?

Objectives of the Study General Objective To verify the difference between the 2010 SEC students performance and 2002 BEC students academic performance of the high school students of Concepcion NHS.

Specific Objectives 1. to identify the students performance under 2010 SEC 2. to identify the factors that affect students performance under 2010 SEC a. study habit b. availability of multi-media at home c. parents socio economic status d. parents educational background e. teachers performance 3. to identify the students performance under 2002 BEC 4. to identify the factors that affect students performance under 2002 BEC a. study habit b. availability of multi-media at home c. parents socio economic status

d. parents educational background e. teachers performance

Significance of the Study The researcher believes that the study will benefit the following stakeholders in Education: The Curriculum Division of the DepEd The study may be an aid to those who are in charge of the Curriculum of the Department of Education specifically for refinements and or revisions. The Division of Occidental Mindoro The result may help the Division personnel identify the factors that affect that success or failure of the implementation of the new curriculum. This may help them revisit the rules and guidelines in implementing the 2010 SEC. The School Administrators in the District of Calintaan The findings of this study may encourage the school heads to strictly monitor/supervise how the new curriculum is being carried out in their respective school, thus, proving timely and relevant feedbacks to the Division and Central Office of the DepEd.

The teachers The teachers, though they are not the subject of this study, will be the one who will benefit the most in this study being the direct implementors of the curriculum. The study may guide them in reflecting the how and why of both the success and failure in the carrying out of the curriculum as reflected in the students performance. Furthermore, the result of this study may become their bases in providing necessary feedback that may be submitted to the Curriculum Division through channels that may likewise be the bases in refining the said curriculum. The Students Since the main concern of education is the welfare of the students, the result of this study will offer benefits to students whatever the result is. If the research tells that there is no significant difference between the academic performance of the students in both old and new curriculum, the personnel concern will like to revise or refine the existing curriculum to bring about the desired outcome. Furthermore, if it says that the new gives significant difference over the old one, it will encourage the Deped personnel to intensify its campaign on the implementation of the 2010 SEC. The Parents and the Community They will extend their support and cooperation in schools program for the attainment of the goals of education.

Scope and Limitation of the Study The scope of this research is fixated on the first year students for the SY 2011 2012 who are under the 2010 SEC and the Third Year Students who are still under the 2002 BEC of Concepcion National High School. The study will be limited to 58 students proportionally taken at random from First Year and Third Year students. Since the implementation of the new curriculum is on its early stage, the desired goal may not yet be achieved due to teacher related and facility related factors. There are still gray areas on the procedures in implementing the 2010 SEC. Likewise, necessary educational materials such as computer, internet connection, etc. that plays a significant role in the new curriculum is not yet available in some schools. Thus, may affect the generalization of the result of this study. The generalization therefore in this study will only be applicable to the students and the school where the study will be conducted.

http://www.wiziq.com/tutorial/55610-curriculum-development http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Curriculum http://www.orionbataan.com/component/content/article/68-education/356-secondary- education-curriculum-2010-sec.html

Hypothesis There is no significant difference between the 2010 SEC Students Academic Performance and the 2002 BEC Students Academic Performance

Operational Definitions In order to give a clearer view of this study, variables used are defined as follows: 2002 BEC refers to the curriculum implemented by the Department of Education in 2002. This curriculum was adopted and implemented in June 2002 and reduces the number of subjects for elementary and high school students from as many as 10 to just five - Filipino, English, Science, Mathematics and Makabayan. 2010 SEC refers to the new curriculum implemented by the Department of Education. This is the curriculum that replaced the 2002 BEC. This curriculum utilizes the Understanding by Design Framework introduced by Grant Wiggins and Jay McTighe. Study habit refers to the patterned behavior of each student in studying their lessons both in school and home. In this study habit will be categorized as poor, fair, and good. Respondents in this study will answer ten-item YES or NO related questions about study habit. A four or less means poor study habit, five to seven means fair, and eight to ten means good study habit. Socio economic status refers to the level that the family occupies in the society. In this study, socio economic status (of the parents or family) will be categorized based on the monthly family income: A (Upper Class, whose monthly family income is Php 100, 000 and above), B (Upper Middle Class, whose monthly family income is Php 50, 000 Php 100, 000), C (Middle Class, whose monthly family income is Php 15, 000 to Php 50, 0000), D (Lower Middle

Class, whose monthly income is Php 8, 000 to Php 15, 000), E (Poor, whose family monthly income is Php 5, 000 to Php 8, 000), and F (Very Poor, whose monthly income is lower than Php 5, 000). Educational attainment this refers to the highest educational level achieved by the parents of the respondents. It will be classified as to Elementary level, Elementary graduate, High School level, High School Graduate, College level, and College Graduate. Teachers performance this refers to the performance of the teacher based on the perception of the students and the Principal. Teachers will be ranked using the Competency Based Performance Appraisal System for Teachers. Using the CB PAST, teachers will then be ranked as to Below Basic (BB), Basic (B), Proficient (P), and Highly Proficient (HP) Students performance this refers to the over all performance of the students as reflected on their Report Card and Report on Promotion. Specifically in this study, students performance refers to the average of the sample population in all learning areas. An average lower than 80 will be categorized as poor, 80 84 is average, 85 88 is good, and higher than 88 is very good.

Conceptual Framework To have a clearer view of the flow of the study, the conceptual framework is illustrated below:

Independent Variables

2002 Basic Education Curriculum

2010 Secondary Education Curriculum

Intervening Variable

student' s study habit availability of multi media at home parents socio economic status parental involvement teachers performance

Students Academic Performance

Research Design This study will follow a comparative descriptive research design. It is because most of the instruments to be used will answer the what of the respondents (e.g. what is the study habit, socio-economic status, etc.). These data will then be sorted and will be used in comparing the two curriculums. Furthermore, this study intends to give idea to the readers for them to compare and conclude which of the two is better (De Jesus et al., 1984). Comparative descriptive research design describes of participant. In this study, two groups will be compared. The first group is composed of Third Year students who are still under the 2002 Basic Education Curriculum and the second group is comprised of the First Year students who are now under the 2010 Secondary Education Curriculum. These groups will be compared in terms of the academic performance. Descriptive research per se describes the data and nature of what is being studied. The idea behind this type of research is to study frequencies, averages, and other statistical calculations for the purpose of gaining a better understanding on the existing situation. This is somehow parallel to the aim of this study, that is, to find and manipulate the data in order to come into a conclusion that will answer the question whether there is a significant between the two curriculum previously discussed.

Sampling Technique The study is descriptive in nature. The sampling technique to be used is a scientific sampling.

In order to make sure that the whole population will have a better and equal chance to become a part of the study and in order to avoid bias, (stratified) random sampling will be used. The total number of First Year students from which the proportional sample population will be taken is ninety while total number of Third Year students from which the remaining of the sample size will be taken is sixty. In order to determine scientifically the sample size, Slovins
formula will be used; n= N (1 + Ne2)

n = Number of samples N = Total population e = Error tolerance (0.01)

Since the numbers of First Year and Third Year students who are the subjects of this study are not equal, the number of sample in each year level will be proportionally taken. It means that of 58 samples, 56% will be taken from the First Year and the remaining 44% is from the Third Year. It is because 56% of the total population is comprised of the first group while only 44% is from the second group. The said proportions will be chosen in random.

Chapter II REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE A. Curriculum Education plays a vital role in ones life. It gives knowledge in order to put ones potentials to maximum use. Human mind is considered incomplete without education. Education makes a man a right thinker. It tells man how to think and how to make decisions. Without education, man is like a prisoner contained in a closed room. Education opens up for him to see and communicate with the outside world. In order for an education to be effective, it must be well-designed. The design on what and how to achieve the goal of education is referred to the curriculum. In order to cope with the needs of times, curriculum must be regularly updated and or changed.

Local Foreign B. Study Habit Local A habit is something that is done on a scheduled, regular and planned basis that is not relegated to a second place or optional place in one's life. It is done and must be done on a specific time as long as it will not put the doer at risk. On the other hand, to study is to buy out the time and dedicate self to the application and the task of study which is to become engrossed in a process of learning, practice, enlightenment - education of one's self. Based on the definitions cited above, study habit refers to an act of indulging into learning in a specific and scheduled time.

Forming good study habit and is a great start on a path to success academically. It does not only prepare an individual to the lessons he is about to deal with or go over with what he has missed but hones him to become an achiever. Furthermore, it helps an individual develop positive values not only in his studies but in many aspects of his life. It is believed that good study habits and positive attitude towards learning proven in many studies enhance the processes of learning particular skills, including reasoning skills. Ortinero (2001) believes that good study habits lead to enhancement in learning, as ability improves and sharpens through mastery of principles and by means of training, exercise and constancy of application.
Ortinero, A. 2001. Essential readings in educational foundations. Manila,Philippines: Heartlifters Publishing.

Foreign According to Palm Beach Community College (PBBC, 2008),they recommend that students study should have at least three hours out of class for every hour spent in class. They also said that a student must have a special place to study with plenty of room to work. Frank Pogue (2000) did a research project to determine why students fail. What he founds to be true in that study habits survey was that more than 30 years ago still rings true today--students fail because they do not know how to study .The best advice he can give is to develop sound study skills. He said that a student should make sure that he/she has a good study environment and should be free from all external and internal distractions. Fielden (2004) states that goo d study habits help the student in critical reflection in skills outcomes such as selecting, analyzing,

c r i t i q u i n g , a n d synthesizing. Nneji (2002) states that study habits are learning tendencies that enable students work private.

It is believed that good study habits and positive attitude towards learning proven in many studies enhance the processes of learning particular skills, including reasoning skills. Good study habits lead to enhancement in learning, as ability improves and sharpens through mastery of principles and by means of training, exercise and constancy of application (Ortinero 2000).

C. Multimedia at home The advent of the multi-media makes learning more meaningful. It does not only arouse the interest of the learners but make learning more enjoyable. According to Navarro and Lucido (1988) as cited by Aberte (2000), the invention of the ages has brought new technologies like radio, television, and computer contribute to the array of vast resources for the modern teacher. Raymundo(1995) as cited by Aberte (2000), said that in modern societies, mass media is another socializing agency. Its functions are primarily to inform, entertain, and educate. In her paper Television Viewing Habitsnof Grade VI Pupils in Candelaria District: Implication to Academic Performance, Mertola (December 2009) recommended that students should watch TV programs that would help them improve their academic performance.

Bibliography Multimedia Aberte, R., Determinants of Academic Achievement of the Grade VI Pupils of Natandol Elementary School, Occidental Mindoro, 2000.