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100VT003

VisualExaminationinAccordancewithASMEB31.3

Revision

Date

ApprovedBy

QAApproval

Original

07/15/09
PaulHaack,VTLevelIII

DonaldSmith,QualityAssuranceDirector

DocumentID:100VT003

OriginalIssue:07/15/2009

Revision:Original

Revised:

VisualExaminationinAccordancewithASMEB31.3

Contents
1.0

Scope.......................................................................................................................................................................................3

2.0

General...................................................................................................................................................................................3

3.0

References............................................................................................................................................................................3

4.0

Personnel..............................................................................................................................................................................3

5.0

Equipment............................................................................................................................................................................3

6.0

RequiredInspections.......................................................................................................................................................4

7.0

ExtentofInspectionsRequired...................................................................................................................................4

8.0

AcceptanceCriteria..........................................................................................................................................................6

9.0

Reports...................................................................................................................................................................................6

Table1: AcceptanceCriteriaforWeldsandExaminationMethodsforEvaluatingWeld
Imperfections(ASMEB31.3,2008Table341.3.2).............................................................................................7
Table1a: CriterionValueNotesforTable1(ASMEB31.3,2008Table341.3.2)......................................................8

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VisualExaminationinAccordancewithASMEB31.3

1.0

Scope
1.1

2.0

3.0

4.0

5.0

Thisproceduredescribesthemethodsandspecificsforvisualexaminationofweldsandmaterials
pertherequirementsofASMEB31.3.

General
2.1

Visualexaminationconsistsofobservationofexposedportionsofacomponentorweldbefore,
during,oraftermanufacture,fabrication,assembly,ortest.VisualExaminationmayalsoinclude
brazedjoints,bolting,threading,orotherjoiningmethods,andpipingsupports.

2.2

Priortoperformingvisualexaminationofweldsandmaterialstothisprocedure,thefollowing
informationisneeded:
1.

Material/itemstobetested

2.

Component/materialidentificationorserialnumber(s)

3.

Applicableprojectnumber

4.

Thesurfaceareatobetested

5.

Theacceptancestandardstobeused

6.

Whenapplicable,themarkingsystemtobeused

References
3.1

AmericanSocietyofMechanicalEngineers,(ASME)SectionV:NondestructiveExamination,Article
9,2007EditionandLatestAddenda

3.2

AmericanSocietyofMechanicalEngineers(ASME)B31.3:ChemicalPlantandRefineryPiping,2008
Editionandaddenda

3.3

99CNTP005:ConamWrittenPracticeforQualificationandCertificationofNondestructivetesting
personnel

3.4

99CNTP006:ProcedurefortheCertificationofVisualandNondestructiveTestingPersonnelin
AccordancewithANSI/ASNTCP189andSNTTC1A

Personnel
4.1

Personnelperformingvisualexaminationtothisprocedureshallbequalifiedandcertifiedin
accordancewithReferences3.3and/or3.4.

4.2

LevelIpersonnelmayperformexaminationsonlyunderthedirectsupervisionofLevelIIorIII
personnel.

4.3

OnlytestedandcertifiedLevelIIorLevelIIIpersonnelinvisualexaminationshallinterprettest
resultstodetermineacceptability.

Equipment
5.1

Mechanicalmeasuringdevices,suchasfilletweldsgages,vwacgage,Cambridgegage,HiLogage,
rulers,comparators,etc.,maybeusedtoevaluatetheacceptabilityofwelds.

5.2

Opticalaids,suchasmirrors,borescopes,magnifiers,etc.,maybeusedasnecessaryforperforming
athoroughinspection.

5.3

Illuminationoftheitemunderexaminationshallbeatleast100footcandles,fromeithernaturalor
supplementalwhitelight.

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VisualExaminationinAccordancewithASMEB31.3

5.3.1 Thelightsource,techniqueusedandilluminationintensitylevelverificationisrequiredto
bedemonstratedonetime,documentedandmaintainedonfile(therebyqualifyingthelight
source).Thisdocumentshallreferencethemanufacturerandmodelofthelightsource,the
maximumqualifieddistance,theintensityandthetraceabilityinformationofthecalibrated
lightmeter.Itisnotnecessarytomeasureilluminationintensitylevelsoneachexamination
surfacewhenthelightsourcehasbeendemonstratedtoprovidetheminimumintensity
specifiedatthemaximumexaminationdistance.
5.3.2 Onceabatterypoweredartificiallightsourcehasbeenqualified,identifiedanddocumented
inaccordancewith5.3and5.3.1,avisualverificationshallbeperformedbythetechnician
beforeeachusetoconfirmthatthebatteriesappeartobeprovidingadequatepowerto
producethedemonstratedlightlevel.Ifthelightsourcehasdimmedthebatteriesshallbe
replacedpriortoperformingtheexaminationandthevisualverificationofintensityshallbe
repeated.

6.0

5.4

Lightingfortheareabeingexaminedisalsoconsideredadequateundernaturalorartificiallightif
anartificialimperfectionorsimulatedconditionofafineline132in(0.8mm)orlessinwidthis
readilydiscernable.Premanufacturedgraycardswitha132inblacklineareacceptableforuse.

5.5

Ifborescopesareusedforexaminationofweldsandmaterialsadequatelightshallbeverifiedasin
5.4above.

RequiredInspections
6.1

TheASMEB31.3pipingcodespecifiesthevisualinspectionrequirementsforfivecategoriesof
piping,theyare:

6.1.1 CategoryDFluidService:Afluidserviceinwhichallthefollowingapply:
1.

Thefluidisnonflammable,nontoxic,andnotdamagingtohumantissues;

2.

Thedesigngagepressuredoesnotexceed150psi(1030kPa)and

3.

Thedesigntemperatureisfrom20F(29C)through366F(186C).

6.1.2 CategoryMFluidService:Afluidserviceinwhichthepotentialforpersonnelexposureis
judgedtobesignificantandinwhichasingleexposuretoaverysmallquantityofatoxic
fluidcausedbyleakage,canproduceirreversibleharmtopersonsonbreathingorbodily
contact,evenwhenpromptrestorativemeasuresaretaken.
6.1.3 HighPressureFluidService:AfluidserviceforwhichtheownerspecifiestheuseofChapter
IXforpipingdesignandconstruction.
6.1.4 NormalFluidService:AfluidservicepertainingtomostpipingcoveredbythisCode,ie.,not
subjecttotherulesoftheabovecategoriesofpipingfluidserviceandnotsubjecttocyclic
conditions.
6.1.5 SevereCyclicConditions:Thoseconditionsinwhichthecomputeddisplacementstressrange
SEexceeds0.8SA(internal,external,orlongitudinalstresses)andtheequivalentnumberof
cyclesexceeds7000.
7.0

ExtentofInspectionsRequired
7.1

NormalFluidService
7.1.1 Sufficientmaterialsandcomponents,selectedatrandom,tosatisfytheexaminerthatthey
conformtospecificationsandarefreefromdefects
7.1.2 Atleast5%offabricationshallbeinspected.Forwelds,eachwelder'sandwelding
operator'sworkshallberepresented

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VisualExaminationinAccordancewithASMEB31.3

7.1.3 100%offabricationforlongitudinalwelds,exceptthoseincomponentsmadeinaccordance
withalistedspecification
7.1.4 Randomexaminationoftheassemblyofthreaded,bolted,andotherjointstosatisfythe
examinerthattheyconformtotheapplicablerequirementsforassemblyanderection.
Whenpneumatictestingistobeperformed,allthreaded,bolted,andothermechanical
jointsshallbeexamined
7.1.5 Randomexaminationduringerectionofpiping,includingcheckingofalignment,supports,
andcoldspring
7.1.6 Examinationoferectedpipingforevidenceofdefectsthatwouldrequirerepairor
replacement,andforotherevidentdeviationsfromtheintentofthedesign
7.1.7 AcceptancecriteriaareasstatedinTable1&1a(341.3.2A)forNormalFluidService
7.2

CategoryDFluidService
7.2.1 PipingandpipingelementsforCategoryDFluidServiceasdesignatedintheengineering
designshallbevisuallyexaminedtotheextentnecessarytosatisfytheexaminerthat
components,materials,andworkmanshipconformtotherequirementsoftheB31.3Code
andtheengineeringdesign.
7.2.2 AcceptancecriteriaareasstatedinTable1&1a(341.3.2A)forCategoryDFluidService,
unlessotherwisespecified.

7.3

SevereCyclicConditions
7.3.1 Pipingtobeusedinthisserviceshallbeexaminedasspecifiedhereinortoagreaterextent
specifiedintheengineeringdesigns.
7.3.2 Thefollowingshallbeinspected:
a.

Allfabricationshallbeexamined.

b.

Allthreaded,bolted,andotherjointsshallbeexamined.

c.

Allpipingerectedshallbeexaminedtoverifydimensionsandalignment.Supports,
guidesandpointsofcoldspringshallbecheckedtoensurethatmovementofthe
pipingunderallconditionsofstartup,operation,andshutdownwillbe
accommodatedwithoutbindingorconstraint.

7.3.3 AcceptancecriteriaareasstatedinTable1&1a(341.3.2A)forSevereCyclicConditions.
7.4

CategoryMFluidService
7.4.1 Allfabricationshallbeexamined.
7.4.2 Allthreaded,bolted,andotherjointsshallbeexamined.
7.4.3 AcceptancecriteriaareasstatedinTable1&1a(341.3.2A)forNormalFluidService.

7.5

HighPressurePiping
7.5.1 100%ofmaterialsandcomponentsshallbeexamined.
7.5.2 100%offabricationshallbeinspected.
7.5.3 ForPressurecontainingthreads,100%examinationforfinishandfitisrequired.Itemswith
visibleimperfectionsinthreadfinishand/orthefollowingdefectsshallberejected:
a.

ForTaperedthreads,failuretomeetgaugingrequirementsinAPIStd5B;

b.

ForStraightthreads,excessivelylooseortightfitwhengaugedforlightreferencefit.

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7.5.4 AcceptancecriteriaareasstatedinTable1&1a(341.3.2A)forNormalFluidService.
8.0

9.0

AcceptanceCriteria
8.1

Allexaminationsofwelds,material,andcomponentsshallcomplywiththeacceptancecriteriain
ASMEB31.3.Theacceptancecriteriathatappliestoaspecificcategoryofpipingisasdelineatedin
Table1&1a(341.3.2A).

8.2

Otheracceptancecriteriaasspecifiedbyaclientspecificationorpurchaseordershallbeusedin
additionto6.1.

Reports
9.1

Avisualexaminationreportshallbepreparedwhichshallcontainpertinentinformationaboutthe
examination.

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VisualExaminationinAccordancewithASMEB31.3

Table1: AcceptanceCriteriaforWeldsandExaminationMethodsforEvaluatingWeldImperfections
(ASMEB31.3,2008Table341.3.2)

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VisualExaminationinAccordancewithASMEB31.3

Table1a: CriterionValueNotesforTable1(ASMEB31.3,2008Table341.3.2)

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