Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 38


Application Background and Business Market Analysis leading to Project Definition. Project Deliverables and impact on Stakeholders. Establish Overall Project Objectives, critical success factors. Class 1 Surge Protection & Earth Improvement Project Quality Plans and Roadmap. Systematic Approach to Quality Management Strategy. Systematic Approach to Quality Management using Six Sigma Strategy. Conclusion& Recommendations. References Bibliography


Table 1.1 Key concepts of six sigma Table 2.2 Six sigma levels and process Table 3.3 DMAIC steps and tools Usage Table 4.4 Critical success factors for six sigma effectiveness Table 5.5 Six sigma overview.

List of Figures Fig 2.1 Sigma Deviation from perfection, the target location. Fig 3.1 Six sigma statistically defined.


Articulation of products /services and target customers. Clarity of business/market analysis, what are the success factors. What are the project deliverables, project quality statement?

TELECOMMUNICATIONS MANAGED SERVICES PROVIDER Ericsson (2007) defined Managed Concept Services as A Managed Service is provided by a service provider that takes on management responsibility for a function that has traditionally been carried out internally by a telecom operator. Managed Services include establishing, operating and managing day-to-day operations of a telecom operators network, services and business support systems. TheProvider, provide for the telecom operator the required network capacity, hosting of content, applications and enablers when and where needed. They are telecom equipment vendors that leverage their expertise to supply additional services to customers, and other players non-traditional telecom vendors. Generally, Customer Relationship Management (CRM) services is provided in-house by the operator.

REASONS WHY OPERATORS USE MANAGED SERVICES Telecom operators use the managed service providers for the following reasons; With increasing financial pressure due to increasing competition, operators can increase their profits by outsourcing functions to a partner that can provide higher efficiency and economies of scale than an individual operator can achieve. Due to an increasing degree of complexity, operators can reduce their need to build network and servicesrelated competence and outsource this to Managed Services providers whose core competence in managing this complexity brings in higher quality and better network performance thereby meeting customers requirements. Outsourcing thesecomplex functions, allow the operator to focus more on its core business area which is revenue-generation. Through increase in market share and customer base. EATON TOWERS GHANA Eaton Tower is a telecommunications managed services provider that provides network infrastructure and related services to mobile operators in emerging markets. It operates Telecommunication sites and colocation slots .Eaton Towers has about 1,000 Tower sites available for co-location in Ghana and South Africa. "Tower sharing brings benefits to all parties, allowing operators to broaden coverage and quality of service whilst cutting capital investment and operating costs.. Eaton Tower Management model can deliver savings in site operation cost open of up to 40% to the operator. Eaton Tower funds and build new site, thereby reducing and subsidizing cost of site build and operations cost to the operator. Vodafone Ghana Outsources Tower Management to Eaton Towers. On 5th Oct., 2010, Eaton Towers, the African tower company, signed a 10 year contract with Vodafone Ghana to take over the operations and co-location management of 750 telecom towers. Over the life of the contract Eaton is expected to invest up to $80 million on upgrading and improving the existing towers and on improving Vodafones network coverage in Ghana. Eaton will also upgrade and maintain the existing infrastructure and build new sites. The contract also empowers Eaton to sell co-location and shared-infrastructure facilities to other mobile operators, generating future revenues from separate long-term contracts. By outsourcing the management of its towers to Eaton Tower, Vodafone Ghana will benefit from cost savings and significantly reduced capital expenditure. Eaton is responsible for all operational aspects of the passive infrastructure, including health and safety, security and power provision. Upgrades to the existing sites will comprise new power generation equipment and advanced management systems aimed at reducing diesel consumption and other costs. 4

EATON TOWER MANAGED SERVICES PROVIDER PROJECT DELIVERABLES The project deliverables are; Increase in network coverage Reduction in costs of owning a site through site sharing Reduction in the cost of site maintenance Reduction in the cost of operations The impact on customers With increased competition in the Telecommunication Industry in Ghana, Vodafone Ghana is determined to make quality customer driven to meet customers requirements. The impact on customers is as follows, Increase in availability of 99.99999% to customers Reduction in the number of drop calls. Better and improved network availability. Impact on other stakeholders are; The Government of Ghana The Government of Ghana having a 30% share of Vodafone are major Stakeholders. The sole aim of the contract with Vodafone is to maximize returns on investments. Improved services will boost the image of the Government as Haven taken a wise decision in the contract with Vodafone Ghana. It will boost confidence and trust of people in the Government. It will increase revenue earnings to the Government which will be used to develop other infrastructures such as roads, education, water, power supply etc. Improved services will add up to increase in customer base which will likely result in increase in network and employment opportunities to Ghanaians. This is the primary responsibility of the Government. Impact to Shareholders (Investors) In September, the company secured a major round of equity funding worth $150 million$150 million from Capital International Private Equity Funds (CIPEF), a private equity investor that focuses on emerging markets. Eaton will be able to meet its financial obligations to the investors and creditors which will improve its ranking with investors 2. In the future, it will be easy for Eaton Tower to request for additional funding from such investors to expand the network.

The employees 1. To the management and staff of Eaton Tower, it will boost their morale 2. It will result in increased salary and incentives 3. The efforts of Eaton Tower and staff of Ghana will be recognized and rewarded by the Eaton head office in U k. 4. Eaton Tower Ghana will serve as a model that will be replicated in other African countries. 5. Operations and Maintenance Partners Operations and Maintenance Partners these are contractors, suppliers, insurance brokers, etc will be happy that as partners that collectively their work have impacted positively on the organization. Local Authorities The local Authorities such as District Assemblies and Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as partners will be happy and encouraged that the laws in their respective districts are respected .This will boost the confidence of the people on the Authorities; workers of these bodies will be encouraged to do more for the state.

Communities and Environment The communities in whose domains sites are located will be happy that development has been brought to their communities which will in turn benefit them and put them on the world map. Environment The environment will be preserved with less degradation by felling of trees, disturbing aquatic lives etc. This is because more operators will buy into site sharing project. Thereby not impacting negatively on means of livelihood of the communities who might depend on the environment for their sustenance. Such as Fishing, timber logging etc. Project Quality Statement The Quality statement of Eaton Tower as endorsed by senior management ,which sets the intended direction of the company is to ensure that the services and technical support provided to the customers are of the highest level quality attainable and shall provide for the customer a safe, cost effective and assured technical advantage. We are committed to meeting the goals as follows; To maintain and deliver on time service of quality in an economical and expeditious manner emphasizing customer satisfaction. To promote a dynamic quality improvement program based on total quality effort by each employee at all levels. To strive for the prevention of defects through continual training with emphasis on quality improvement and DO IT RIGHT THE FIRST TIME approach. To communicate and work with all employees in the organization in all areas of services for performance and integrity. Source-Aeroflex microelectronics solution

The Class 1 Surge Protection and Earth Improvement Project

What is a Project? According to Project Management Body of Knowledge PMBOK Guide (2008) A project is defined as a temporary endeavor undertaken to create a unique product, service or result. It has a beginning and an end. It has a purpose It consists of interrelated activities. The end is reached when the projects objectives have been achieved or when it is terminated because its objectives will not or cannot be met or when the need for the project no longer exists. Project Initiation Project Outline It has been observed that Vodafones passive infrastructure is not adequatelyprotected from commercial power spikes caused by lightning strikes, power surges etc. There is a high turnover rate of ATS and Generator Control Panels; largely due to power spikes received from the commercial mains lines. Existing Class I surge protection has been reportedly installed in the wrong location and some sites have direct lightning strikes and arrestors being physically bypassed. The Class 1 Surge Protection Project will identify sites without protection and correct the site protection. Prior to this project the site earth project would have been completed. The four main areas that this project will address are A. Move or Replace relocate arrestor to correct position and if damaged or under duress, replace with new unit B.Earth Connection This will include installation of 16mm2 earth conductor to earth ring C. New Installation This includes Lightening arrestors, earth down conductors, Transector high breed surge units installed in weather proof meter box enclosure, D.Earth Checks includes Megger tests to determine correct earth readings Further complexities to this project will result due to the heterogeneous equipment installed over the past ten years and lack of information on existing surge arrestors and their condition, this will make it difficult to forward plan materials and timelines.

ESTABLISH OVERALL PROJECT OBJECTIVES, CRITICAL SUCCESS FACTORS Clear definition of project objectives and its linkage with (1) How measurable goals are articulated and established and its linkages with project objectives .What are the quality plans and roadmap. The followings processes will be identified, 1- Identify Inspections to be carried out to help identify where surge protection has been installed and to try and determine the class of protection. 2- Define requirements and specifications 3- Financial Plan identify resources, training, materials etc, evaluate and define 4- Develop training plan for approved Earth Measurement Techniques 5- Regularize To establish field teams for onsite corrective actions execute plan, manage resources and materials 6- Test and Validate establish a testing program to evaluate effectiveness of the surge protection, plan to include baseline of current earth status and generation of validation reports 7- Risks and Issues Identify project risks and develop a Risk Management Strategy 8- Project Acceptance Criteria Provide photographs of all problems and faults identified before any corrective works are done. Provide photographs after correction of all problems and faults. Provide an earth test certificate indicating type of instrument used, soil condition and earth resistive reading as a minimum. Provide photographs clearly indicating surge protection Class1 installed. Issue a letter of undertaking for the works conducted stating that corrective works has been affected to the minimum industry standards and that installation of Class1 surge protection has been done.

The Project critical success factors are,

Clear statement of requirements This involves definition of scope of works in clear and understandable terms. Proper Planning Proper planning is required throughout the duration of the project. This involves Preparation of Bill of Quantities, Schedule of works, preparation of detailed checklist, selection of project teams User Involvement Project teams through communication and training must see themselves as owners of the process necessary to achieve a set target. Executive Management support Management support is an important critical success factor for any project. Realistic expectations Realizable project targets must be clearly set out .This will serve as bench mark of success for the project. It will help to reduce waste and cost of project implementation. SOW for Surge Protection and Earth Restoration Project

Objectives. Installation Class 1 Surge Protection Unit Clean Up-Grounding Refurbish-Grounding Identify site Grounding that do not conform to specification Project Deliverable Install class 1 surge protection device in weather proof meter box enclosure Replace tower lightening arrestor to correct position and if damaged replace with new unit. Install 16mm2 tower earth down conductor to earth ring where not installed. Ensure thatgrounding of all metallic parts of the electrical panels and equipment are done using insulated copper wire cable yellow green colour and size 70mm2 minimum or copper tape Ensure connections between the power supply system and the earth system are properly installed. Ensure earth systems are connected at equipment room/container earth point as per Industry standard. 9

Ensure that lighting rods are of approved size and thickness. Ensure there areno corrosion or abnormal discoloration of exposed copper installation. Ensure antenna support structure of Rooftops is connected at the base to the grounding through a 70mm2 bare copper cable. Ensure colour of the insulation for all earth cables are green and yellow stripes Ensure grounding at gate and four corner posts of the fencing material Ensure the Electrical earth readings is measured using a suitably calibrated Earth Meg-Ohmmeter, recording site test results make, model, serial number and date of calibration. The Earth resistance value for the entire site must be 5 ohms unless otherwise approved by EATON where this is not achievable. Ensure that bonding is not between more than 2 strips at one node. Connections must be made separately without exception. Ensure that lightning and grounding systems are interconnected only below the ground level. .

Ensure that each equipment have its exclusive ground cable to the Master Grounding Bar (MGB) using 70mm2 Insulated wire copper cable.ie connections are of radial topology Ensure proper bonding between conductors and earthing ring.

QUALITY PLANS AND ROADMAP. Quality is defined as the totality of features and characteristics of a product or service that bear upon its ability to satisfy stated or implied needs. Project Quality Management Processes QUALITY PLANNING This involves identifying which standards are relevant to the project and determining how to satisfy them. It is the use of quality tools such as benchmarking, cost/benefit analysis, design of experiments, cost of quality etc. This is executed concurrently with all knowledge areas and processes. PERFORM QUALITY ASSURANCE This is the application or execution of planned systemic quality activities to ensure that the project will employ all processes needed to meet requirements. It is the structured review of quality activities or lessons learned. PERFORM QUALITY CONTROL. This involves monitoring specific project reports to determine whether they comply with relevant standards and identifying ways to eliminate sources of unsatisfactory results. It is executed during project controlling phase. The seven quality tools used are Marginal Analysis, Kaizen, JIT, ISO 9000, 14,000 etc.


SYSTEMATIC APPROACH TO QUALITY MANAGEMENT STRATEGY PLAN QUALITY; INPUTS SCOPE BASELINE Scope statement-This contains the project description, major project deliverables and acceptance criteria. A clear definition of acceptance criteria will increase or decrease project costs and quality costs. Satisfying all acceptance criteria means that customers requirements has been met. Work Breakdown Structure-This identifies deliverables, work packages and control accounts used in the measurement of project performance. Work Breakdown Dictionary-This defines technical information for WBS elements. Stakeholder Register This is the register of stakeholders with particular interest in, or impact on quality. Cost Performance Baseline This is the documentation of agreed time schedule to measure cost performance Schedule Baseline This is the accepted schedule performance measures including start and finish dates. Risk Register This is the documentation of information on threats and opportunities that may impact quality requirements. Enterprise Environmental Factors The factors that affect plan quality process are; Government agency regulations Rules, standards and guidelines applicable to specific area Working/operating conditions that may affect quality Organizational Process Assets This include organizational quality products, procedures and guidelines, Historical database Lessons learned from previous projects Quality policy 11

Fig 4.Process Flow chart PLAN QUALITY; TOOLS AND TECHNIQUES Cost Benefit Analysis This is the comparison of cost to benefit of quality. The benefits of quality include less rework, higher productivity, less defects and meeting customers expectation. Cost of Quality (COC) This is the costs incurred in preventing nonconformance to requirements, evaluation of product or service for conformance to requirements and failing to meet customers requirements (rework). Fig 3. Control Charts This is used to determine if a process is stable or if its performance is predictable. Upper and lower specifications are the boundaries acceptable to the customer in meeting his requirements. The customer rejects any thing is falls out from the limits. Upper and lower control limits are set by the project manager and stakeholders to represent the point corrective measures will be taken to prevent exceeding specification limits. A process is out of control when a data point exceeds a control limit or if seven consecutive points are above or below the mean. Control charts can be used to monitor repetitive activities, cost and schedule variance, volume and frequency of scope changes etc. Fig 3 Control chart. Benchmarking This involves comparing actual or planned project practice to other comparable projects to determine best practices, improvement and basis for measuring performances. Design of Experiments PMI (2008) defines Design of Experiments as a statistical method for identifying which factors may influence specific variables of a product or process under development or in production. It provides the statistical template for systematically changing all of the important factors, rather than changing the factors one at a time. Statistical Sampling This involves choosing part of a population of interest for inspection. An example is selecting sixty-eight sites from a list of four hundred. Flowcharting A flow chart is a graphical representation of a process showing relationships in process steps.


Quality Management Methodologies.

This include six sigma, lean six sigma, Quality function deployment and others. Additional Quality Planning Tools Brainstorming. This is a method used in the collection of the list of comprehensive risks. Affinity diagrams. This is used for visual identification of logical groups based on natural relationships. Force field analysis. This is a diagram of forces for and against change. Nominal group techniques. This is a method which allows ideas to be brainstormed in small groups and then reviewed by a large group. PLAN QUALITY; OUTPUTS 1. Quality Management Plan The quality management plan defines how the project management team will execute the performing organizations quality policy. It contributes to the overall project management plan which includes quality control, quality assurance and continuous process improvement methods for the project. 2. Quality Metrics This defines in clear terms a project or product attribute and how the quality control process will measure it. 3. Quality checklist This is a structured tool used to verify that required steps have been taken to achieve specified quality standards. 4. Process Improvement Plan. This includes process improvement steps for analyzing processes to identify activities improve the value. It consists of process boundaries, process configuration, process metrics and targets for improved performance. 5. Project Document Updates Documents to be updated include Stakeholder Register and responsibility Assignment Matrix


PERFORM QUALITY ASSURANCE This is the application or execution of planned systemic quality activities to ensure that the project will employ all processes needed to meet requirements. It is the structured review of quality activities or lessons learned. Fig 5.Perfom Quality Assurance, Inputs, Tools, Techniques& Outputs Perform Quality Management Plan 1. The project management plan; this contains; Quality management plan which defines how quality assurance will be executed in the project. Process improvement plan which specifies steps to analyzing processes to identify activities that will add value to quality assurance. 2. Quality Metrics as described earlier. 3. Work Performance Information This is a collection of information on project activities .Sources of information are Technical performance measures Project deliverable status Schedule progress Costs incurred. 4. Quality Control Measurements These are used to analyze; evaluate quality standards and processes of performing organization.

PERFORM QUALITY ASSURANCE; Tools and Techniques Plan Quality and Perform Quality Tools and Techniques. These are same tools and techniques as described above. Quality Audits This is a structured, independent review to determine if project activities meet organizational and project policies, processes and procedures. The objectives are; Identify all the good/best practices executed Identify all the bad practices Share the best practices used in similar projects in the organization or industry. Offer assistance proactively in a positive way to improve implementation of processes to the team. 14

Highlight lessons learned of each audit in the organization. Process Analysis This includes root cause analysis which identify a problem, causes of the problem and develop preventive actions.

PERFORM QUALITY ASSURANCE; Outputs Organizational Process Assets Updates This includes updates of organizational process assets. Change Requests Change requests are used to take corrective or preventive action or to carry out a defect repair. Project Management Plan updates These include Quality management plan, Training plans and Processes documentation. PERFORM QUALITY CONTROL Perform quality Control is the process of monitoring and recording results of implementing quality activities to evaluate performance and recommend changes where required. It is performed throughout the project duration. It identifies causes of poor process or product quality and recommend and or take action to eliminate them. Fig 9 Perform Quality Control; Inputs, Tools& Techniques and Outputs Perform Quality Control; Inputs Project Management Plan Quality management plan describes how quality control will implemented in a project. It includes quality metrics and, Quality checklists earlier described. Work Performance Measurements; This is used to establish a project activity metrics to evaluate actual progress as compared to planned progress. Examples are; Planned vs actual technical performance Planned vs actual schedule performance Planned vs actual cost performance Approved change Requests Change requests can be used to effect a repair or correct a defect .Approved and un approved change request need to be updated as part of Perform integrated change control process. 15

Deliverables Organizational Process Assets These are Quality standards and policies, standard work guidelines and issue and defect reporting procedures and communication policies.

PERFORM QUALITY CONTROL; TOOLS AND TECHNIQUES The Ishikawas seven basic tools of quality are; Cause and Effect Daigrams;Cause and Effect diagrams also known as Ishikawa diagrams or fishbone diagrams show how various factors are linked to potential problems and effects. Fig 8 Cause and Effect Diagram 2. Control Charts; Control charts graphically show if a process variance is within acceptable limits. It depicts how a process behaves over time and when a process is subject to a variation resulting variance not within acceptable limits. 3. Flowcharting; Flow is a graphical representation of a process showing links in process steps.it is used in perform quality control to identify failing process steps and identify improvement opportunities. 4. Histogram A histogram is a vertical bar chart show the number of times a particular variable state occurred. It shows the common cause of problems in a process by number and heights of the bars. Fig 6 Histogram 5. Pareto Chart Pareto diagram are related to Paretos law also known as 80/20 principle states that a relatively small number of causes will produce a majority of problems or defects. It is a type of histogram determined by the frequency of occurrence. It shows how many defects are caused by an identified type of problem. 6. Run Chart Run chart shows history and pattern of variation without limits. It is a line graph that shows data points plotted in order of occurrence. It shows over time trends in a process, variation, declines or improvements in a process. They are used to monitor Technical Performance-How many defects are identified and how many are corrected Cost and Schedule Performance-This shows how many activities in a period where completed with significant variances. 16

7. ScatterDaigram A scatter diagram shows the interrelationship between two variables. It serves as a learning tool in identifying between changes in two variables. Dependent variables is plotted against Independent variables. Fig 7 Scatter Diagram 8. Statistical Sampling This is choosing part of a population of interest for inspection. 9. Inspection This is the examination of work product to determine if it confirms to accepted standards and if not, remedial actions are recommended to bring quality output to acceptable standard. Approved change Request Review All approved change requests are reviewed to confirm implementation. PERFORM QUALITY CONTROL; Outputs Quality Control Measurements This is the documented results of quality control activities in the format specified in quality planning stage Validated changes Any change or repaired product is inspected to confirm if it meets specification, accepted or rejected for re-work. Validated Deliverables This is the result of execution quality control processes. Organizational Process Assets Updates This is the updating of completed checklists and lessons learned documentations. In addition, change requests, project managements updates and project document updates. Should also be documented.


SYSTEMATIC APPROACH TO QUALITY MANAGEMENT USING SIX SIGMA STRATEGIES (Sivaram 2009) defined Six Sigma is a well structured, data-driven methodology for eliminating defects, waste, or quality control problems of all kinds in manufacturing, service delivery, management, and other business activities. It is an institutionalized rigorous,disciplined ,fact based method to deliver more money to the bottom line through process improvement and process design projects ,selected by the top leadership and led by high potentials trained as Black Belts or Master Black Belts in Six sigma with the aim to create near perfect process ,products and services all focused to meeting customers requirements..(Kaizen 2010) definedSix sigma as. A system of continuous improvement in quality, technology, processes, company culture, productivity, safety and leadership. Six Sigma is used as tools for improving processes and products and as an approach for improving both the process- and people-related aspects of business performance. Six Sigma is also used as a hands-on approach to developing leadership and change management skills.. GE(2000) describes the changes brought by Six Sigma this way: Six Sigma has turned the Companys focus from inside to outside, changed the way we think and train our future leaders and moved us toward becoming a truly customerfocused organization.The main focus of Six sigma management is that if defects or non conformance can be measured in a process, systematically ways of elimination of defects can be initiated, to approach a quality level of zero defects or non conformance. SIX SIGMA QUALITY STRATEGIES To achieve Six Sigma quality, a process must produce no more than 3.4 defects per million opportunities. An opportunity is defined as a chance for nonconformance, or not meeting the required specifications.

Key Concepts of Six Sigma Critical to Quality Defect Process Capability Variation Stable Operations Design for Six Sigma Attributes most important to the customer Failing to deliver what the customer wants What your process can deliver What the customer sees and feels Ensuring consistent, predictable processes to improve what the customer sees and feels

Designing to meet customers needs and process capability

Table 1.1


Six Sigma Methodologies The methodology of six sigma is based on the combination of well defined statistical quality control techniques, simple and advanced data analysis methods, and the systematic training of all personnel at every level in the organization involved in the activity or process targeted by Six Sigma. The methodology is to improve a business process by constantly reviewing, updating and re-tuning the existing process Six Sigma improves the process performance, decreases variation and maintains consistent quality of the process output. This leads to defect reduction and improvement in profits, employee morale, product quality and finally customer satisfaction. Six Sigma Strives for perfection. It allows for only 3.4 defects per million opportunities for each product or service transaction (Kaizen 2010) said that Six Sigma is a methodology to improve a business process by constantly reviewing, updating and re-tuning the existing process. Six Sigma improves the process performance, decreases variation and maintains consistent quality of the process output. This result in defect reduction and improvement in profits, employee morale, product quality and customer satisfaction. It allows for only 3.4 defects per million opportunities for each product or service transaction. Six Sigma uses statistical techniques to reduce defects and measure quality

Six Sigma level and process.

Table 2.2


Three Levels of Six Sigma

As a Metric 1. Six Sigma is a scale of level of quality 2. Equates to 3.4 defects per one million opportunities (DPMO). 3. It is a defect reduction process that can be applied to any business processes. As a Methodology As a business methodology it focuses an organization on; 1 Understanding and managing customer requirements 2 Aligning main businesses processes to achieving these requirements. 3 Applying rigorous data analysis to minimize variations in those processes. 4 Maintaining rapid and sustainable improvement to businesses. As a Management Systems A top-down solution to assists organizations: Align their business strategy to critical improvement efforts Select and mobilizeteams to execute high impact projects Accelerate improved business results Manage processes that will ensure improvements are sustained Framework to prioritize resources for projects that will improve the metrics and it supports leaders who will manage the efforts for rapid, sustainable, and improved business results.

LEVELS OF SIX SIGMA IMPLEMENTATION Champion: Champions undergo five days of training and are taught how to manage projects and act as advisors to various project teams. Green Belts: They are trained for two weeks of training that includes project-oriented tasks. They act as team members to the Six Sigma project team. Black belts: They are trained for four weeks and are directly involved in the implementation of Six Sigma Projects. They are the project leaders and go through in-depth training on Six Sigma approach and tools and work full time on the project. Master Black Belts: They conduct Six Sigma Training and also have on the job training and experience.


SOME SIX SIGMA TOOLS QUALITY DEPLOYMENT FUNCTION Quality Deployment Function helps Six Sigma Black Belts drive customer-focused development across the design process. Quality Deployment Function is a system and set of procedures to identify, communicate, and prioritize customer requirements. Quality Deployment Function helps Six Sigma teams focus more on activities that have the highest levels of impact on meeting customers requirements, beat the competition and focus with the mission of the organization.

CAUSE AND EFFECT The Cause &Effect Matrix helps Six Sigma project leaders facilitate team decision-making. The Cause &Effect Matrix helps Six Sigma teams select, prioritize, and analyze the data they collect over the course of a project to identify problems in that process. The Cause &Effect Matrix is used in the Measure phase of the DMAIC methodology. The Cause & Effect Matrix helps teams to reach consensus on the potential relationships between factors that affect a process and the output of that process

FAILURE MODES EFFECTS ANALYSIS FMEA helps Six Sigma teams to identify and address weaknesses in a product or process, before they occur. Before new products, processes, or services are implemented, Six Sigma teams use FMEA to identify ways these newproducts, processes, or services might fail, and which will help team develop preventative measures targeted at the failure scenarios. FMEA identifies corrective actions required to prevent failures from reaching the customer and will improve performance, quality, and reliability T-TEST The t-test helps Six Sigma teams validate test results using small sample sizes. The t-test is used to determine the statistical difference between two groups, not just a difference due to random chance. Six Sigma teams might use it to determine if a plan for a comparative analysis of patient blood pressures, before and after they receive a drug, is likely to provide reliable results.


CONTROL CHARTS Six Sigma teams use Control Charts to assess process stability. Control Charts are highly effective tool for monitoring and improving process performance over time. It is used by Six Sigma teams to observe and analyze variation. The three basic components of control chart are a centerline, upper and lower statistically determined control limits, and performance data plotted over time. DESIGN OF EXPERIMENTS DOE helps Six Sigma Black Belts make the best use of valuable resources. DOE is a statistical technique that comprise of planning, design, data collection, analysis and interpretation strategy. DOE is used to determine the relationship between factors (Xs) affecting a process and the output of that process (Y).


Step Define

Special Tasks

Describes the specific tasks in each step, and the tools and techniques used in the steps Tools and Techniques employed Customer complaint analysis Cost of poor quality(COPQ) Brainstorming Run charts, control charts Benchmarking

Identify improvement issues Organize project team Set up improvement goal Estimate financial benefit


Map process and identify inputs and outputs

Process map (SIPOC) Cause and effect matrix(diagram)

Establish measurements system for inputs and outputs

Gauge R&R Control charts

Understand the existing capability of process

Process capability analysis Failure models and effects analysis(FMEA)


Identify sources of variation in process

Cause and effect diagram Pareto diagram

Identify potential critical inputs Determine tools used in the improvement step

Scatter diagram Brainstorming Analysis of variance(ANOVA)


Conduct improvement actions Use experiments Optimize critical inputs

Design of experiment(DOE) Quality function deployment(QFD) Process capability analysis Control charts


Standardize the process Maintain critical inputs in the optimal area Verify long -term capability Evaluate the results of improvement projects

Standard operation procedure Process capability analysis Fool-proofing (Poka Yoke) Run charts


Table 3.3 DMAIC steps and tools usage. Critical success factors for Six Sigma effectiveness
Hahn et al.,1999 Key Factors for Six Sigma effectiveness Quantified functional impact Continued top management support and enthusiasm The emphasis on a quantities and disciplined approach The value placed on understanding and satisfying customer needs. Combining the right projects ,the right people, and the right tools Strong proactive support with required resources provide by top management Acceptance and implementation of Six Sigma's basic discipline by employees Linkage with all innovative and infrastructure activities Accurate and fair evaluation of all successful six sigma projects with meaningful recognition and rewards for employees. Linkage with all innovative and infrastructure activities Accurate and fair evaluation of all successful Six Sigma projects with meaningful recognition and Sandholm & Sorqvist,2002 Requirements for Six Sigma success

Yun & Chua,2002

Success factors

for Six Sigma effectiveness

rewards for employees

Management commitment and visible support Treatment of Six Sigma as a holistic concept Investment of adequate resources Focus on results Customer orientation Focus on training and its content Adaptation to an organizations situation and needs Prioritization and selection of projects Development of uniform language & terminology Development of strategy to introduce Six Sigma


Follow-up and communication of success stories Responsiveness to external influences. Coronado & Antony,2002 Critical success factors for Sigma projects Management involvement and commitment Cultural change Communication Organization infrastructure Training Linking Six Sigma to business strategy Linking Six Sigma to customers Linking Six Sigma to human resources Linking Six Sigma to suppliers Understanding tools and techniques within Six Sigma Project management skills Project prioritization and selection, reviews and tracking Understanding the Six Sigma methodology, tools and techniques Linking Six Sigma to business strategy Linking Six Sigma to customers Linking Six Sigma to human resources Linking Six Sigma to suppliers

Table 4.4


Six Sigma Quality strategy sequence (DMAIC) DMAIC (Define, Measure, Analyze, Improve and Control) Define. The Definephase defines project goals and boundaries, and the identification of issues that need to be addressed to achieve the higher (better) sigma level. Measure. TheMeasurephase of the Six Sigma strategy is to gather information about the current situation, to obtain baseline data on current process performance, and to identify problem areas. Analyze. TheAnalyzephase is to identify the root cause(s) of quality problems, and to confirm those causes using the appropriate data analysis tools. Improve. TheImprovephase is to implement solutions that address the problems (root causes) identified during the previous (Analyze) phase. Control. The Controlphase is to evaluate and monitor the results of the previous phase (Improve). The DMAIC Six Sigma quality strategy sequence is an application used in process improvement project. DMAIC is a process for continued improvement. It is systematic, scientific and fact based. It is a closed loop process that eliminates unproductive steps, and focuses on new measurements, and applies technology for improvement. The DMAIC six sigma quality strategy will be applied in the Surge Protection and Earth Improvement Project. Six sigma Quality strategy sequence (DMADV) DMADV (Define Measure, Analyze, Design& Verify) Define Phase-The Definephase defines project goals and boundaries, and the identification of issues that need to be addressed to achieve the higher (better) sigma level. Measure Phase- The focuses on the measurement of the customer and /or market application needs. Analyze Phase-This analyze process options Design Phase-This design process to meet customer requirements. Verify Phase-This verifies the design performance and ability to criteria set at Design phase. DMADV Six Sigma quality strategy is applied in process design and re-design



DMAIC Phase Steps D - Define Phase: Define the project goals and customer (internal and external) deliverables. Steps Define Customers and Requirements (CTQs) Develop Problem Statement, Goals and Benefits Identify Champion, Process Owner and Team Define Resources Evaluate Key Organizational Support Develop Project Plan and Milestones Develop High Level Process Map Tools Used Project Charter Process Flowchart SIPOC Diagram Stakeholder Analysis DMAIC Work Breakdown Structure CTQ Definitions Voice of the Customer Gathering Deliverables of Define Phase: Fully trained team is formed, supported, and committed to work on improvement project Customers identified and high impact characteristics (CTQs) defined, team charter developed, business process mapped. M - Measure Phase: Measure the process to determine current performance; quantify the problem. Define Defect, Opportunity, Unit and Metrics Detailed Process Map of Appropriate Areas 27

Develop Data Collection Plan Validate the Measurement System Collect the Data Begin Developing Y=f(x) Relationship Determine Process Capability and Sigma Baseline Tools used Process Flowchart Data Collection Plan/Example Benchmarking Measurement System Analysis/Gage R&R Voice of the Customer Gathering Process Sigma Calculation Deliverables of Measure Phase: Key measures identified, data collection planned and executed, process variation displayed and communicated, performance baseline, sigma level calculated A - Analyze Phase: Analyze and determine the root cause(s) of the defects. Define Performance Objectives Identify Value/Non-Value Added Process Steps Identify Sources of Variation Determine Root Cause(s) Determine Vital Few x's, Y=f(x) Relationship Tools used Histogram Pareto Chart Time Series/Run Chart Scatter Plot Regression Analysis 28

Cause and Effect/Fishbone Diagram 5 Whys Process Map Review and Analysis Statistical Analysis Hypothesis Testing (Continuous and Discrete) Non-Normal Data Analysis Deliverables of Analyze Phase: Data and process analysis, root cause analysis, quantifying the gap/opportunity I - Improve Phase: Improve the process by eliminating defects. Perform Design of Experiments Develop Potential Solutions Define Operating Tolerances of Potential System Assess Failure Modes of Potential Solutions Validate Potential Improvement by Pilot Studies Correct/Re-Evaluate Potential Solution Tools used Brainstorming Mistake Proofing Design of Experiments Pugh Matrix House of Quality Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA) Simulation Software Deliverables of Improve Phase: Generate (and test) possible solutions, select the best solutions, design implementation plan. C - Control Phase: Control future process performance.


Define and Validate Monitoring and Control System Develop Standards and Procedures Implement Statistical Process Control Determine Process Capability Develop Transfer Plan, Handoff to Process Owner Verify Benefits, Cost Savings/Avoidance, Profit Growth Close Project, Finalize Documentation Communicate to Business, Celebrate Tools used Process Sigma Calculation Control Charts (Variable and Attribute) Cost Savings Calculations Control Plan Deliverables of Control Phase: Documented and implemented monitoring plan, standardized process, documented procedures, response plan established and deployed, transfer of ownership (project closure).

Six Sigma Overview

Define: Step One of DMAIC

Measure: Step Two of DMAIC

Analyze: Step Three of DMAIC

Improve: Step Four of DMAIC

Control: Step Five of DMAIC

Project charter, problem statement, stretch goal, etc. Voice of the customer (VOC)

Measurement process and steps Process Mapping FunctionalActivity Flow

Logical cause analysis Root cause analysis Narrowing down 30

Unleashing your creativity Think like a genius Brainstorming and

History of Statistical Process Control (SPC) Cautions in SPC Using code values to

Converting VOC into Critical to Quality (CTQ) variables to measure SIPOC diagram Customer and supplier evaluations Quality Function Deployment (QFD)

Chart Fishbone, Cause & Effect, Ishikawa Diagrams Check sheets Pareto diagrams Cycle time measurement system Continuous and Discrete variables Stratified sampling Gauge R&R DPMO Rolled throughput yield Project storyboard

root causes Frequency plots Histograms Run charts Scatter plots and correlation diagrams Cycle time causal analysis Verifying root causes with data

other creativity tools Sixteen process redesign creativity techniques Thirty-five design principles for solving process problems Lean enterprise approach Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA) Turning wild ideas into winners Selecting your optimal process Developing an implementation plan De-risk your process proposal Implementation options

ease data collection Control charts: an overview Choosing the right type of control chart Process capability analysis Control plan

Table 5.5


Fig 2.1 Sigma-Deviation from Perfection, the target ,location.

Fig 3.1Six Sigma Statistically defined


The word sigma, a statistical term measures how far a process deviates from perfection. Defect A measurable characteristic of the process or its output that is not within the acceptable customer limits, i.e., not conforming to Specifications. The sigma level of a process is calculated in terms of defects per million opportunities (DPMO).

Figure 6.6. DPMO at sigma levels Six Sigma relies heavily on statistical techniques to reduce defects and measure quality. It measures a process in terms of number of defects. The statistical concept of six sigma means that the processes are working nearly perfectly ,delivering only 3.4 defects per million opportunities(DPMO). Six steps to six sigma 1. Identify the product you create or the service you provide 2. Identify the customers for your product or service and determine what you consider important. 3. Identify your needs to provide product /service so that it satisfies the customer 4. Define the process for doing the work 5. Mistake the proof the process and eliminate wasted effort 6. Ensure continuous improvement by measuring, analyzing, and controlling the improved process.


Design for six sigma (DFSS) This is a systematic methodology using tools, training and measurements to enable the design of products, services and processes that meet customer expectations at six sigma quality levels. DFSS optimizes the design process to achieve six sigma performances and integrates characteristics of six sigma at the outset of new product development with disciplined set of tools.

Determination of process sigma Function- Project Management Product- Surge Protection & Earth Improvement Defect - Not known No of defects- 400 Unit- Number No of units -400 No of opportunity-1


DEFECTS PER UNIT (DPU)=400 800 = 0.5 DEFECTS PER MILLION OPPORTUNITY=DPUx1, 000,000 No of Opportunity = 0.5x1, 000,000 1 DPMO=500,000 From the table, the Sigma level is 1.5 sigma. Which is 50% defect free?


The aim of Six Sigma is to achieve the target of 3.4 defects per a million opportunities, but from the above calculation of 1.5 sigma level which is 50% defect free, there is need for continuous improvement of the process Recommendations The critical success factors for Six Sigma effectiveness recommended for continuous improvement are;

1. Strong proactive support with required resources provided by top management.. 2. High value should be placed on understanding and satisfying customer needs. 3. The right project should be combined with the right people and right tools. 4. There should be acceptance and implementation of Six Sigmas basic discipline 5. There should be linkage with all innovative and infrastructural activities 6. There should be accurate and fair evaluation of all successful six sigma 7. Projects with intrinsic and extrinsic recognition and rewards for staff. 8. The Company should invest on adequate resources. 9. There should be focus on results. 10. The company should embark on customer orientation 11. Company should focus on training of staff for specific roles as Six sigma champions, Green Belt Black Belt and Master Belt holders for adequate implementation for Six Sigma quality strategy. 12. The company should be ready to respond to external influences. 13. There should be a cultural change in the organization. 14. There must be effective communication in the organization. 15. Six Sigma should be linked to business strategy 16. Six Sigma should be linked to the customers. 17. Six Sigma should be linked to the suppliers. 18. Six Sigma should be linked to human resources. 19. There must be good understanding of tools and techniques of six sigma. 20. There should also be emphasis on Project management skills acquisition. 21. There should be project prioritization, selection, reviews, monitoring and tracking.


Ericsson (2007), Managed Services Impact on the Telecom Industry. Yawson, Y (2011), Quality Management and Six Sigma, Lecture Notes. Hahn et al (1999), Key Factors for Six Sigma Effectiveness, Project Management Dept., of Management Science. Yun &Chua (2002), Success Factors for Six Sigma Effectiveness, International Journal for Six Sigma and Competitive Advantage. Sandholm, & Sorqvist, (2002), 12 Key Requirements for six sigma. Coronado & Antony (2002) Critical Success Factors for Sigma Projects in Organization, The TQM Magazine,vol 14.,No 2,pp 92-99. Aeroflex Microflex Solution, http://www.aeroflex.com/ams/weinschel/micro-weinschel-prodsquality-statement.cfm (assessed Dec15th, 2011). Eaton Tower (2011), what we do. Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK Guide) (2008), 4th edition, Pennsylvania, USA, Project Management Institute. Sivaram, A. (2009) Six Sigma unplugged General Electric (2000), The road map to customer impact Coskun, A.(2010),Quality Management and Six Sigma,Rijeka Croatia,Scivo.



AeroflexMicroflex Solution,http://www.aeroflex.com/ams/weinschel/micro-weinschel-prodsquality-statement.cfm(assessed Dec15th,2011). Coronado &Antony(2002) Critical Success Factors for Sigma Projects in Organization, The TQM Magazine, vol 14.,No 2,pp 92-99. Coskun,A.(2010),Quality Management and Six Sigma,Rijeka Croatia,Scivo Eaton Tower(2011),What we do. Ericsson(2007), Managed Services Impact on the Telecom Industry General Electric (2000),The road map to customer impact Hahn et al (1999), Key Factors for Six Sigma Effectiveness Project Management Dept., of Management Science Project Management Body of Knowledge ( PMBOK Guide)(2008),4thedition,Pennsylvania,USA,Project Management Institute. Sandholm, & Sorqvist, (2002), 12 Key Requirements for six sigma Yawson, Y (2011), Quality Management and Six Sigma, Lecture Notes. Yun &Chua (2002), Success Factors for Six Sigma Effectiveness, International Journal for Six Sigma and Competitive Advantage