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Name: Swaroop. R. M.A., M.S. Research scholar, DOS Psychology, University of Mysore. Lecturer, Jain University.

Residential Address: #200, Shree Rajarajeshwari, 10th B cross J.P.Nagar I phase, Bangalore-78. Phone: 09742164232. Mail ID: swaroopsharman@gmail.com This paper is under the category: To share various Models of Mental Health promotions in India. Key words: Education. Indian and western models. Adhi-sheela, Adhi-chitta and Adhi-prajna Shikshanam. Veda Vijnana Gurukulam.

Education: An Indigenous Model Abstract

Ancient Indias contribution to the world today is noted by people all over the globe. But hardly a few have tried to wear their thinking caps to analyze the reason behind such a phenomenal success of the ancient India. Unprecedented success at the societal level is a possibility only when the people therein are wise. Wisdom comes from education and application of the same in the day to day routine. Such education system was found in India for years. Unfortunately, invasions invaded the education system and it shook the culture, tradition and heritage of this country. This sad uprooting processs story and other mind-boggling historical facts are recorded in the book The Beautiful Tree authored by Dharmapal. Any amount of regret for losing the coveted treasure will not help us today; rather taking a leaf out of the ancient system and by implementing the same in the right way without prejudice and bias can help the society and thereby benefit the country in regaining its supremacy and glory. Ancient learning system is not obsolete and for that stands an example Veda Vijnana Gurukulam and its knowledge imparting system which is catering to a segment which is inclined to rejuvenate the deteriorated education system. Such a system has been successful not just in creating and sustaining interests in academics, but also in helping students of the same in entrenching themselves as responsible citizens in the society with more vigour and strength to approach not just life in a different way but also its problems in a novel way. The Gurukula system has with all respect imbibed the systematic and programmatic way of teaching the ancient knowledge to the students in three levels Adhi-sheela, Adhi-chitta and Adhi-prajna. The three steps here have been elaborated in a view to show the contemporariness of the apparently age old system, but inherently universal, fresh and all time relevant.

Introduction to education
My intuition is India and China will move somewhat together but in very distinctive ways. But I think the thing that will be really common to both of them will be the fact that they wont be able to do this without reconnecting to their heritage. They will have to develop a confidence that they can do this as Indians and they can do this as Chinese. They have learnt a lot from the West but they dont have to copy, they cannot create a

Chinese or Indian version of a western model. The western model itself is basically bankrupt. It doesnt give enough attention to the human side of development. These sentences culled from the seminal work Art and practice of the learning organization-Fifth Discipline of Peter Senge, conveys a message which every Indian has to think and act upon. In the hierarchy of living beings and in the gamut of the nature, human being is undoubtedly on the top for at least one chief reason that he can introspect. Introspection plays a pivotal role in the field of education. To quote Socrates, the best subject for mans study is MAN himself. Man on his way to progress has to constantly learn from his past mistakes and make his life or will perhaps mar his life and this is what the history has taught us. But, of course education is just not just about introspection. It is extremely important to facilitate an individual to know his real potential which needs to be unravelled first and then slowly nourished and nurtured. Eventually, such an act should pave way for the betterment of the society. However to comprehend such a thought, 20th centurys lead scientists quote would assist us. Albert Einstein felt deeply that, it is not enough to teach man a speciality. Through it he may become a kind of useful machine, but not a harmoniously developed personality. It is essential that the student acquires an understanding of and a lively feeling for values. He must acquire a vivid sense of the beautiful and a morally good. He must learn to understand the motives of human beings, their illusions and their sufferings in order to acquire a proper relationship to individual fellow-men and to the community. Whereas, if we have to borrow the idea of education from a great spiritual leader of the same century one has to look upon Swami Vivekananda the patriotic monk, who opined that the very essence of education was concentration of mind, not the collection of facts. If I had to do my education over again and had any voice in the matter, I wouldnt study facts at all. I would develop the power of concentration and detachment and then with a perfect instrument I could collect facts at will. Finally after hoarding a few quotes and ideas about education, we can boil it down to the idea of character building, man-making and life-enhancing, as told by Vivekananda.

Education in India and west: A comparison

Education in the ancient India or ancient learning system proposes a very concrete idea which is systematic and programmatic in its approach to the development of an individual based on ones potentials and strengths. Such an idea zeros in on the human side of a being. It is important for one to be emphatic in understanding psychologically the word Being in human-being, as it alone can play an instrumental role to change our existing world views. All of us share between us only one thing in common called existence. This is also a thought or a moment circulated by Abraham Maslow in the west with a title Humanitarianism. We are all intrinsically at the mental level and apparently especially at the body level different from each another. Hence, heterogeneity or multiversity is a striking feature of this world. The moment one respects the existence of the other and vice versa, a phenomenal change at a rudimentary level is possible and achievable. The approach to education of the easterners was holistic. Perfect idea to education was not just to develop physical abilities, but also to foster the vital, mental, intellectual and spiritual principles of life. These five facets of

personality which all of us possess, ruled in its birth place, before it was forcibly and unluckily replaced by the western education system which centres only on the physical, mental and intellectual dimensions. But the western construct of education has in its own way contributed to the growth of the civilization but from it only a few things should be carefully chosen or to be more precise it has to be nitpicked, as it is solely responsible in letting the monotony creep into the life of humans. It has kept alive in the human the desire to live with his animal instincts. It has mechanised the existence. It has isolated the human from loving others and being loved. It has to a large extent nullified the emotional growth. It has only created in the minds of people, passion towards things which is fleeting and only a product of utilitarianism. The impact of industrial revolution is still so thick that we presently witness marketing and shop-keeping culture floating everywhere and in every sphere of life. This is no doubt that such a culture or trend is helping one to earn fat salaries, luxuries of highest accord and comforts which are daintily and are absolutely mind-boggling. But what after every luxury yielding materials are possessed and if still the insatiable thirst is not appeased? Man has mixed and confused the two concepts earning livelihood and chasing goals. These two terms have almost become synonymous. A gentle reminder is required to everyone that: Livelihood is not the goal of life. Man in this tiny world employs everywhere only one language called trade. Man has lost his individuality by identifying himself with the external objects which he has brought through trade. He is not ready to let go of his toys, like a child which clenches on to it, even in dire situations. So life of todays men can be delineated in a nutshell this way: man is plagued by high-octane stress and high-strung tension. Social networking is an international obsession. Gadgets like mobile phones, palmtops and others are compulsions. Late night parties and evening shopping with friends, lovers and spouses are fixations. Junk food and cosy restaurants are indeed our strong temptations. 20-20 cricket is a revolution. Buying the newest car in the town is a sensation. English is as intrinsic as blood for the old, current and new-sprung generation and probably the Gods are in heavens busily scratching their heads to find an option and make Sanskrit therein, a third language fearing Saffronization! For all these problems, people are trying to establish Yoga (mainly Asana & Pranayama) as a universal solution.

Right and the left brain:

The right hemisphere of the brain is to be activated and utilized equally along with the enrichment of the left hemisphere. Emotional intelligence has been the talk of the hour and counselling psychology has started to spread its wings in all available space and directions. Alas! Like most Americans, many Indians too have started to believe and consider the status quo of attending a counselling session as a social status. At this juncture the role of education will definitely be considered valuable and moreover its role in bringing about the elements of solace to the existing system which is unfortunately creating turmoil on a larger scale is simply priceless. Man has been fraught by anxiety and to mitigate the same he has been living life of the animals. He has adopted and imbibed in him the laws of jungle, wherein a big fish can eat a small fish. He is living life every moment in fear and insecurity. To surpass such deadly negative emotions he is manipulating

human resources and squeezing the natural resources to his advantage. He has no permanent friends and no permanent enemies, but what he sees in everyone is profit. It is piteous that he has hardly tried to assimilate the fact that everyone like him has his/her own fears and apprehensions. Living a life of animal and exploitation is not the only way to escape from the consequences, but to step into others shoes and incorporate empathy can lead to the pinnacle of glory is the lesson he has utterly failed to learn from the previous civilizations or from his ancestors. So an individual who is a rich blend of the optimized usage of right and left brain is a blessing to the society. With all these in purview one can extract from the ancient scriptures three stages of education which helps in the grooming of a human being into a individually vibrant and socially productive viz, Adhi-Sheela Shikshanam: The Sanskrit word Sheela when translated to English refers to character. Character was the central focus of education. This basic education begins at home and the members of the family would become the active participants of teaching and learning. They collectively shape the mind of the child. Hence, the idea mother as the first teacher and guide to the child is still prevalent in the modern society or call modernized society. The child has infinite faith in its mother. This unshakable faith is the driving force of the child. It is called Shraddha or a vague English translation. It believes and follows the words of mother with all conviction. If mother becomes successful in discharging her duty, the child never fails to follow the lessons in its entire life. Therefore, parents are called as superior gods. In this particular stage, the mother making herself as a role model teaches values of life. Child learns many things by close observation into the acts of its mother and family members. The mother who keeps the company of learned women, and who like fire, can destroy the darkness of ignorance. Such mother brimming with knowledge elicits praise both from the ordinary as well as scholarly males. Such a mother alone by instilling the trinity of the goodness of culture, nationalism and learning can make her children able. This character moulding education lays firm foundation for the further evolution. When the basic education is provided with complete care and affection, the next part of education may not be of much difficulty. Environment plays the key role in shaping the mind of child. But unfortunately, due to urbanization, the parents dont have time to educate their child. They are very much engaged in earning money from dawn to dusk. Instead of providing a homely atmosphere, the child is fostered with full of information which are not even possible to perceive. As a result of it, it becomes an over-burden to the child and imposed-information becomes an alien body for the child. Due to that, the child feels extremely happy when it is left free to play. To facilitate the child in its natural evolution, we have to bring back Bharatiya system of education which is relevant to all the times. Adhi-Chitta Shikshanam: It is the next level of education. Chitta refers to mind. By the age of 7-8, mind becomes powerful and the competency of retention will be at its peak. In Shastras, it is called Medha-Shakti. At this age, utmost importance was given to basic recitation work. According to lexicons meaning, Medha is the retentive power of brain. Realizing this fact, all the fundamental concepts which are in the form of aphorisms (stra-s) and the Veda-s were taught in olden days.

Hence, enough food for the proper nourishment of the mind was supplied. Whatever one has memorized in this age, never erased throughout his life provided it is recollected now and then. At this age, crya assists the antevasi in identifying his strengths and weakness. This is done through several observations and personal talk. After pointing out the talents in the antevasi, the entire responsibility of the crya is to nurture and direct the latent talent for the welfare of humanity. Otherwise, there is all possibility of misusing skills and talents against public interest. Adhi-Prajna Shikshanam: It is the state at which person starts analyzing and synthesizing the ideas which are learnt in previous stages. The word Prajna in this context stands for the refined knowledge. In all the previous stages, one has collected various types of information. The third state of education helps him achieve the knowledge through practical application of mental concepts. Consequently, information is transformed into knowledge. Here, the Acharyas (tutors) role is momentous. Acharya sets some standards of life into deeper layers of the personality of antevasi and assists him to bloom his complete personality. Existence of such a model in the contemporary world: The aforesaid model of education is not a fictious model or a non-pragmatic one, but a factual one which is seen even today in a very few traditional Gurukulam systems across the globe. One such institution is in Bangalore, named aptly as Veda Vijnana Gurukulam. It has taken a major initiative to teach Indian Philosophy from a modern perspective in Samskritam and English medium to students who are inclined to study Indology after having finished their 10th or 12th Std. It is a residential unit, wherein, six years of moral and spiritual education is given primarily, along with the nurturing of the other aspects of human personality. It has helped the students to revisit the ancient concepts in an innovative way and inspired them to take up special researches therein. Thus a rich blend of ancient Indian knowledge with the modern disciplines is enticing interests among the youth who are the corner-stones in the modern world and one promising source who can entrench harmonious living in the world. However to get a glimpse of such a system one will have to visit the institution or at least go through the website for a birds view of the same. www.vvgurukulam.org Impact created by adopting such an Indigenous Model: The aforesaid model is a tested model and the most exciting feature of this model which can be put here considering the major threat in the current education system is that the Indigenous model has almost nullified the fear of examinations in those students who have undergone such Indigenous education. Such a phenomenon has occurred as the process of learning in the Indigenous system is programmatic and above all the learning is chiefly for the sake of learning and not for only bread-earning. The system has adopted many other ideas from the ancient learning system which has helped the students to develop a very unique strength and confidence to approach life and its problems in a systematic way. The system boasts of producing successfully bunch of youths who are free from deadly addictions which can ruin their personal life and also have a negative impact on the society too. It also boasts of producing students who dont stop their education merely at bachelors or masters level to chase money and still remain to feel insecure about life and continue

to be apprehensive all through the life journey. On the contrary, it has successfully encouraged students to pursue M.Phil and Ph.D and take up career mainly in teaching and researches. The outlook of life possessed by students nourished in the Indigenous model is relatively better than students who are trained in the contemporary education system. A few Ph.D researches based on the worthiness of emulating ancient learning system has been carried by a few scholars both in the east and the west. The results showed that such a system can reap desired fruits and bring about a sea change in the society where the education system especially is in a catastrophe.

Dharmapal, The Beautiful Tree. Dr. Carrel.A, Man the Unknown. Frankyl.E.V, Mans search for meaning. Senge.P, Art and practice of the learning organization-Fifth Discipline.