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TheIngeniousGentlemanDonQuixote delaMancha

byMigueldeCervantes[Saavedra] TranslatedbyJohnOrmsby EditedbyPatriciaGarrison

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THE AUTHORS PREFACE

Idle reader: thou mayest believe me without any oath that I would this book, as it is whimsical offspring, full of thoughts of all sorts and such as never came into any that go far to make even the most barren muses fertile, and bring into the world births that fill it with wonder and delight. Sometimes when a father has an ugly, loutish son, the love he bears him so blindfolds his eyes that he does not see his the child of my brain, were the fairest, gayest, and cleverest that could be imagined. then, could this sterile, ill-tilled wit of mine beget but the story of a dry, shriveled,

other imagination just what might be begotten in a prison, where every misery is lodged and every doleful sound makes its dwelling? Tranquility, a cheerful retreat,

But I could not counteract Natures law that everything shall beget its like; and what,

pleasant fields, bright skies, murmuring brooks, peace of mind, these are the things defects, or, rather, takes them for gifts and charms of mind and body, and talks of am but the stepfather to Don Quixote have no desire to go with the current of

them to his friends as wit and grace. I, however for though I pass for the father, I neither its kinsman nor its friend, thy soul is thine own and thy will as free as any king of his taxes and thou knowest the common saying, Under my cloak I kill the king; all which exempts and frees thee from every consideration and obligation, ill or rewarded for any good thou mayest say of it. My wish would be simply to present it to thee plain and unadorned, without any

custom, or to implore thee, dearest reader, almost with tears in my eyes, as others mans, whateer he be, thou art in thine own house and master of it as much as the

do, to pardon or excuse the defects thou wilt perceive in this child of mine. Thou art

and thou canst say what thou wilt of the story without fear of being abused for any embellishment of preface or uncountable muster of customary sonnets, epigrams, and eulogies, such as are commonly put at the beginning of books. For I can tell thee, though composing it cost me some labour, I found none greater than the making of this Preface thou art now reading. Many times did I take up my pen to write it, and -iii-

manydidIlayitdownagain,notknowingwhattowrite.Oneofthesetimes,asIwas ponderingwiththepaperbeforeme,apeninmyear,myelbowonthedesk,andmy cheekinmyhand,thinkingofwhatIshouldsay,therecameinunexpectedlya certainlively,cleverfriendofmine,who,seeingmesodeepinthought,askedthe reason;towhichI,makingnomysteryofit,answeredthatIwasthinkingofthe PrefaceIhadtomakeforthestoryofDonQuixote,whichsotroubledmethatIhad amindnottomakeanyatall,norevenpublishtheachievementsofsonoblea knight. For,howcouldyouexpectmenottofeeluneasyaboutwhatthatancientlawgiver theycallthePublicwillsaywhenitseesme,afterslumberingsomanyyearsinthe silenceofoblivion,comingoutnowwithallmyyearsuponmyback,andwithabook asdryasarush,devoidofinvention,meagerinstyle,poorinthoughts,wholly wantinginlearningandwisdom,withoutquotationsinthemarginorannotationsat theend,afterthefashionofotherbooksIsee,which,thoughallfablesandprofanity, aresofullofmaximsfromAristotle,andPlato,andthewholeherdofphilosophers, thattheyfillthereaderswithamazementandconvincethemthattheauthorsare menoflearning,erudition,andeloquence.Andthen,whentheyquotetheHoly Scriptures!anyonewouldsaytheyareSt.Thomasesorotherdoctorsofthe Church,observingastheydoadecorumsoingeniousthatinonesentencethey describeadistractedloverandinthenextdeliveradevoutlittlesermonthatitisa pleasureandatreattohearandread.Ofallthistherewillbenothinginmybook,for Ihavenothingtoquoteinthemarginortonoteattheend,andstilllessdoIknow whatauthorsIfollowinit,toplacethematthebeginning,asalldo,undertheletters A,B,C,beginningwithAristotleandendingwithXenophon,orZoilus,orZeuxis, thoughonewasaslandererandtheotherapainter.Alsomybookmustdowithout sonnetsatthebeginning,atleastsonnetswhoseauthorsaredukes,marquises, counts,bishops,ladies,orfamouspoets.ThoughifIweretoasktwoorthree obligingfriends,Iknowtheywouldgivemethem,andsuchastheproductionsof

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thosethathavethehighestreputationinourSpaincouldnotequal. Inshort,myfriend,Icontinued,IamdeterminedthatSeorDonQuixoteshall remainburiedinthearchivesofhisownLaManchauntilHeavenprovidesomeone togarnishhimwithallthosethingshestandsinneedof;becauseIfindmyself, throughmyshallownessandwantoflearning,unequaltosupplyingthem,and becauseIambynatureshyandcarelessabouthuntingforauthorstosaywhatI myselfcansaywithoutthem.Hencethecogitationandabstractionyoufoundmein, andreasonenough,whatyouhaveheardfromme. Hearingthis,myfriend,givinghimselfaslapontheforeheadandbreakingintoa heartylaugh,exclaimed,BeforeGod,Brother,nowamIdisabusedofanerrorin whichIhavebeenlivingallthislongtimeIhaveknownyou,allthroughwhichI havetakenyoutobeshrewdandsensibleinallyoudo;butnowIseeyouareasfar fromthatastheheavenisfromtheearth.Itispossiblethatthingsofsolittle momentandsoeasytosetrightcanoccupyandperplexaripewitlikeyours,fitto breakthroughandcrushfargreaterobstacles?Bymyfaith,thiscomes,notofany wantofability,butoftoomuchindolenceandtoolittleknowledgeoflife.Doyou wanttoknowifIamtellingthetruth?Well,then,attendtome,andyouwillseehow, intheopeningandshuttingofaneye,Isweepawayallyourdifficulties,andsupply allthosedeficiencieswhichyousaycheckanddiscourageyoufrombringingbefore theworldthestoryofyourfamousDonQuixote,thelightandmirrorofallknight errantry. Sayon,saidI,listeningtohistalk;howdoyouproposetomakeupformy diffidence,andreducetoorderthischaosofperplexityIamin? Towhichhemadeanswer,Yourfirstdifficultyaboutthesonnets,epigrams,or complimentaryverseswhichyouwantforthebeginning,andwhichoughttobeby personsofimportanceandrank,canberemovedifyouyourselftakealittletrouble tomakethem;youcanafterwardsbaptizethem,andputanynameyouliketothem, fatheringthemonPresterJohnoftheIndiesortheEmperorofTrebizond,who,to v

myknowledge,weresaidtohavebeenfamouspoets:andeveniftheywerenot,and anypedantsorbachelorsshouldattackyouandquestionthefact,nevercaretwo maravedisforthat,foreveniftheyprovealieagainstyoutheycannotcutoffthe handyouwroteitwith. Astoreferencesinthemargintothebooksandauthorsfromwhomyoutakethe aphorismsandsayingsyouputintoyourstory,itisonlycontrivingtofitinnicely anysentencesorscrapsofLatinyoumayhappentohavebyheart,oratanyrate thatwillnotgiveyoumuchtroubletolookup;soas,whenyouspeakoffreedom andcaptivity,toinsert Nonbeneprototolibertasvenditurauro; andthenreferinthemargintoHorace,orwhoeversaidit;or,ifyoualludetothe powerofdeath,tocomeinwith PallidamorsAequopulsatpedepauperumtabernas, Regumqueturres. IfitbefriendshipandtheloveGodbidsusbeartoourenemy,goatoncetotheHoly Scriptures,whichyoucandowithaverysmallamountofresearch,andquoteno lessthanthewordsofGodhimself:Egoautemdicovobis:diligiteinimicosvestros.If youspeakofevilthoughts,turntotheGospel:Decordeexeuntcogitationesmalae.If oftheficklenessoffriends,thereisCato,whowillgiveyouhisdistich: Donecerisfelixmultosnumerabisamicos, Temporasifuerintnubila,soluseris. WiththeseandsuchlikebitsofLatintheywilltakeyouforagrammarianatall events,andthatnowadaysisnosmallhonourandprofit. Withregardtoaddingannotationsattheendofthebook,youmaysafelydoitin thisway.Ifyoumentionanygiantinyourbookcontrivethatitshallbethegiant Goliath,andwiththisalone,whichwillcostyoualmostnothing,youhaveagrand vi

note,foryoucanputThegiantGoliasorGoliathwasaPhilistinewhomthe shepherdDavidslewbyamightystonecastintheTerebinthvalley,asisrelatedin theBookofKingsinthechapterwhereyoufinditwritten. Next,toproveyourselfamanoferuditioninpoliteliteratureandcosmography, managethattheriverTagusshallbenamedinyourstory,andthereyouareatonce withanotherfamousannotation,settingforthTheriverTaguswassocalledaftera KingofSpain:ithasitssourceinsuchandsuchaplaceandfallsintotheocean, kissingthewallsofthefamouscityofLisbon,anditisacommonbeliefthatithas goldensands,etc.Ifyoushouldhaveanythingtodowithrobbers,Iwillgiveyouthe storyofCacus,forIhaveitbyheart;ifwithloosewomen,thereistheBishopof Mondonedo,whowillgiveyoutheloanofLamia,Laida,andFlora,anyreferenceto whomwillbringyougreatcredit;ifwithhardheartedones,Ovidwillfurnishyou withMedea;ifwithwitchesorenchantresses,HomerhasCalypso,andVirgilCirce;if withvaliantcaptains,JuliusCaesarhimselfwilllendyouhimselfinhisown Commentaries,andPlutarchwillgiveyouathousandAlexanders.Ifyoushould dealwithlove,withtwoouncesyoumayknowofTuscanyoucangotoLeonthe Hebrew,whowillsupplyyoutoyourheartscontent;orifyoushouldnotcaretogo toforeigncountriesyouhaveathomeFonsecasOftheLoveofGod,inwhichis condensedallthatyouorthemostimaginativemindcanwantonthesubject.In short,allyouhavetodoistomanagetoquotethesenames,orrefertothesestories Ihavementioned,andleaveittometoinserttheannotationsandquotations,andI swearbyallthatsgoodtofillyourmarginsanduseupfoursheetsattheendofthe book. Nowletuscometothosereferencestoauthorswhichotherbookshave,andyou wantforyours.Theremedyforthisisverysimple:Youhaveonlytolookoutfor somebookthatquotesthemall,fromAtoZasyousayyourself,andtheninsertthe verysamealphabetinyourbook,andthoughtheimpositionmaybeplaintosee, vii

becauseyouhavesolittleneedtoborrowfromthem,thatisnomatter;therewill probablybesomesimpleenoughtobelievethatyouhavemadeuseofthemallin thisplain,artlessstoryofyours.Atanyrate,ifitanswersnootherpurpose,thislong catalogueofauthorswillservetogiveasurprisinglookofauthoritytoyourbook. Besides,noonewilltroublehimselftoverifywhetheryouhavefollowedthemor whetheryouhavenot,beingnowayconcernedinit;especiallyas,ifImistakenot, thisbookofyourshasnoneedofanyoneofthosethingsyousayitwants,foritis, frombeginningtoend,anattackuponthebooksofchivalry,ofwhichAristotlenever dreamt,norSt.Basilsaidaword,norCicerohadanyknowledge;nordotheniceties oftruthnortheobservationsofastrologycomewithintherangeofitsfanciful vagaries;norhavegeometricalmeasurementsorrefutationsoftheargumentsused inrhetoricanythingtodowithit;nordoesitmeantopreachtoanybody,mixingup thingshumananddivine,asortofmotleyinwhichnoChristianunderstanding shoulddressitself.Ithasonlytoavailitselfoftruthtonatureinitscomposition,and themoreperfecttheimitationthebettertheworkwillbe.Andasthispieceofyours aimsatnothingmorethantodestroytheauthorityandinfluencewhichbooksof chivalryhaveintheworldandwiththepublic,thereisnoneedforyoutogoa beggingforaphorismsfromphilosophers,preceptsfromHolyScripture,fablesfrom poets,speechesfromorators,ormiraclesfromsaints;butmerelytotakecarethat yourstyleanddictionrunmusically,pleasantly,andplainly,withclear,proper,and wellplacedwords,settingforthyourpurposetothebestofyourpower,andputting yourideasintelligibly,withoutconfusionorobscurity.Strive,too,thatinreading yourstorythemelancholymaybemovedtolaughter,andthemerrymademerrier still;thatthesimpleshallnotbewearied,thatthejudiciousshalladmirethe invention,thatthegraveshallnotdespiseit,northewisefailtopraiseit.Finally, keepyouraimfixedonthedestructionofthatillfoundededificeofthebooksof chivalry,hatedbysomeandpraisedbymanymore;forifyousucceedinthisyou willhaveachievednosmallsuccess. InprofoundsilenceIlistenedtowhatmyfriendsaid,andhisobservationsmade viii

suchanimpressiononmethat,withoutattemptingtoquestionthem,Iadmitted theirsoundness,andoutofthemIdeterminedtomakethisPreface;wherein,gentle reader,thouwiltperceivemyfriendsgoodsense,mygoodfortuneinfindingsuch anadviserinsuchatimeofneed,andwhatthouhastgainedinreceiving,without additionoralteration,thestoryofthefamousDonQuixoteofLaMancha,whois heldbyalltheinhabitantsofthedistrictoftheCampodeMontieltohavebeenthe chastestloverandthebravestknightthathasformanyyearsbeenseeninthat neighborhood.IhavenodesiretomagnifytheserviceIrendertheeinmakingthee acquaintedwithsorenownedandhonoredaknight,butIdodesirethythanksfor theacquaintancethouwiltmakewiththefamousSanchoPanza,hissquire,in whom,tomythinking,Ihavegiventheecondensedallthesquirelydrolleriesthat arescatteredthroughtheswarmofthevainbooksofchivalry.AndsomayGod givetheehealth,andnotforgetme.Vale.

DEDICATIONOFVOLUMEI
TOTHEDUKEOFBEJAR,MARQUISOFGIBRALEON,COUNTOFBENALCAZARAND BANARES,VICECOUNTOFTHEPUEBLADEALCOCER,MASTEROFTHETOWNSOF CAPILLA,CURIELANDBURGUILLOS InbeliefofthegoodreceptionandhonorsthatYourExcellencybestowsonallsort ofbooks,asprincesoinclinedtofavorgoodarts,chieflythosewhobytheir noblenessdonotsubmittotheserviceandbriberyofthevulgar,Ihavedetermined bringingtolightTheIngeniousGentlemanDonQuixoteoflaMancha,inshelterof YourExcellencysglamorousname,towhom,withtheobeisanceIowetosuch grandeur,Ipraytoreceiveitagreeablyunderhisprotection,sothatinthisshadow, thoughdeprivedofthatpreciousornamentofeleganceanderuditionthatclothethe workscomposedinthehousesofthosewhoknow,itdaresappearwithassurancein thejudgmentofsomewho,trespassingtheboundsoftheirownignorance,useto ix

condemnwithmorerigorandlessjusticethewritingsofothers.Itismyearnest hopethatYourExcellencysgoodcounselinregardtomyhonorablepurpose,will notdisdainthelittlenessofsohumbleaservice. MigueldeCervantes

DonQuixotedelaMancha

VOLUMEI

CHAPTERI
WHICHTREATSOFTHECHARACTERANDPURSUITSOFTHEFAMOUS GENTLEMANDONQUIXOTEOFLAMANCHA
InavillageofLaMancha,thenameofwhichIhavenodesiretocalltomind,there livednotlongsinceoneofthosegentlementhatkeepalanceinthelancerack,an oldbuckler,aleanhack,andagreyhoundforcoursing.Anollaofrathermorebeef thanmutton,asaladonmostnights,scrapsonSaturdays,lentilsonFridays,anda pigeonorsoextraonSundays,madeawaywiththreequartersofhisincome.The restofitwentinadoubletoffineclothandvelvetbreechesandshoestomatchfor holidays,whileonweekdayshemadeabravefigureinhisbesthomespun.Hehad inhishouseahousekeeperpastforty,anieceundertwenty,andaladforthefield andmarketplace,whousedtosaddlethehackaswellashandlethebillhook.The ageofthisgentlemanofourswasborderingonfifty;hewasofahardyhabit,spare, gauntfeatured,averyearlyriserandagreatsportsman.Theywillhaveithis surnamewasQuixadaorQuesada(forherethereissomedifferenceofopinion amongtheauthorswhowriteonthesubject),althoughfromreasonableconjectures itseemsplainthathewascalledQuexana.This,however,isofbutlittleimportance toourtale;itwillbeenoughnottostrayahair'sbreadthfromthetruthinthetelling ofit. Youmustknow,then,thattheabovenamedgentlemanwheneverhewasatleisure (whichwasmostlyalltheyearround)gavehimselfuptoreadingbooksofchivalry withsuchardorandaviditythathealmostentirelyneglectedthepursuitofhisfield sports,andeventhemanagementofhisproperty;andtosuchapitchdidhis eagernessandinfatuationgothathesoldmanyanacreoftillagelandtobuybooks

2 DonQuixotedelaMancha ofchivalrytoread,andbroughthomeasmanyofthemashecouldget.Butofall therewerenonehelikedsowellasthoseofthefamousFelicianodeSilva's1 composition,fortheirlucidityofstyleandcomplicatedconceitswereaspearlsinhis sight,particularlywheninhisreadinghecameuponcourtshipsandcartels,where heoftenfoundpassageslike"thereasonoftheunreasonwithwhichmyreasonis afflictedsoweakensmyreasonthatwithreasonImurmuratyourbeauty;"oragain, "thehighheavens,thatofyourdivinitydivinelyfortifyyouwiththestars,renderyou deservingofthedesertyourgreatnessdeserves."Overconceitsofthissortthepoor gentlemanlosthiswits,andusedtolieawakestrivingtounderstandthemand wormthemeaningoutofthem;whatAristotlehimselfcouldnothavemadeoutor extractedhadhecometolifeagainforthatspecialpurpose.Hewasnotatalleasy aboutthewoundswhichDonBelianisgaveandtook,becauseitseemedtohimthat, greataswerethesurgeonswhohadcuredhim,hemusthavehadhisfaceandbody coveredalloverwithseamsandscars.Hecommended,however,theauthor'sway ofendinghisbookwiththepromiseofthatinterminableadventure,andmanya timewashetemptedtotakeuphispenandfinishitproperlyasisthereproposed, whichnodoubthewouldhavedone,andmadeasuccessfulpieceofworkofittoo, hadnotgreaterandmoreabsorbingthoughtspreventedhim. Manyanargumentdidhehavewiththecurateofhisvillage(alearnedman,anda graduateofSiguenza)astowhichhadbeenthebetterknight,PalmerinofEngland orAmadisofGaul.MasterNicholas,thevillagebarber,however,usedtosaythat neitherofthemcameuptotheKnightofPhoebus,andthatiftherewasanythat couldcomparewithhimitwasDonGalaor,thebrotherofAmadisofGaul,because hehadaspiritthatwasequaltoeveryoccasion,andwasnofinicalknight,nor lachrymoselikehisbrother,whileinthematterofvalorhewasnotawhitbehind him.Inshort,hebecamesoabsorbedinhisbooksthathespenthisnightsfrom sunsettosunrise,andhisdaysfromdawntodark,poringoverthem;andwhatwith littlesleepandmuchreadinghisbrainsgotsodrythathelosthiswits.Hisfancy 1Asixteenthcenturyauthorofromances;thequotationthatfollowsisfromhisDon FloriseldeNiquea

DonQuixotedelaMancha grewfullofwhatheusedtoreadaboutinhisbooks,enchantments,quarrels, battles,challenges,wounds,wooings,loves,agonies,andallsortsofimpossible

nonsense;anditsopossessedhismindthatthewholefabricofinventionandfancy hereadofwastrue,thattohimnohistoryintheworldhadmorerealityinit.He usedtosaytheCidRuyDiazwasaverygoodknight,butthathewasnottobe comparedwiththeKnightoftheBurningSwordwhowithonebackstrokecutin halftwofierceandmonstrousgiants.HethoughtmoreofBernardodelCarpio becauseatRoncesvallesheslewRolandinspiteofenchantments2,availinghimself oftheartificeofHerculeswhenhestrangledAntaeus3thesonofTerrainhisarms. HeapprovedhighlyofthegiantMorgante,because,althoughofthegiantbreed whichisalwaysarrogantandillconditioned,healonewasaffableandwellbred. ButaboveallheadmiredReinaldosofMontalban,especiallywhenhesawhim sallyingforthfromhiscastleandrobbingeveryonehemet,andwhenbeyondthe seashestolethatimageofMahometwhich,ashishistorysays,wasentirelyofgold. TohaveaboutofkickingatthattraitorofaGanelonhewouldhavegivenhis housekeeper,andhisnieceintothebargain. Inshort,hiswitsbeingquitegone,hehituponthestrangestnotionthatever madmaninthisworldhitupon,andthatwasthathefancieditwasrightand requisite,aswellforthesupportofhisownhonorasfortheserviceofhiscountry, thatheshouldmakeaknighterrantofhimself,roamingtheworldoverinfullarmor andonhorsebackinquestofadventures,andputtinginpracticehimselfallthathe hadreadofasbeingtheusualpracticesofknightserrant;rightingeverykindof wrong,andexposinghimselftoperilanddangerfromwhich,intheissue,hewasto reapeternalrenownandfame.Alreadythepoormansawhimselfcrownedbythe mightofhisarmEmperorofTrebizondatleast;andso,ledawaybytheintense enjoymenthefoundinthesepleasantfancies,hesethimselfforthwithtoputhis schemeintoexecution. 2Rolandhadthemagicgiftofinvulnerability 3ThemythologicalAntaeuswasinvulnerableaslongashemaintainedcontactwith hismother,theEarth.

DonQuixotedelaMancha

Thefirstthinghedidwastocleanupsomearmorthathadbelongedtohisgreat grandfather,andhadbeenforageslyingforgotteninacornereatenwithrustand coveredwithmildew.Hescouredandpolisheditasbesthecould,butheperceived onegreatdefectinit,thatithadnoclosedhelmet,nothingbutasimplemorion.This deficiency,however,hisingenuitysupplied,forhecontrivedakindofhalfhelmetof pasteboardwhich,fittedontothemorion,lookedlikeawholeone.Itistruethat,in ordertoseeifitwasstrongandfittostandacut,hedrewhisswordandgaveita coupleofslashes,thefirstofwhichundidinaninstantwhathadtakenhimaweek todo.Theeasewithwhichhehadknockedittopiecesdisconcertedhimsomewhat, andtoguardagainstthatdangerhesettoworkagain,fixingbarsofirononthe insideuntilhewassatisfiedwithitsstrength;andthen,notcaringtotryanymore experimentswithit,hepasseditandadopteditasahelmetofthemostperfect construction. Henextproceededtoinspecthishack,which,withmorequartosthanareal4and moreblemishesthanthesteedofGonela,that"tantumpellisetossafuit,5"surpassed inhiseyestheBucephalusofAlexanderortheBabiecaoftheCid.Fourdayswere spentinthinkingwhatnametogivehim,because(ashesaidtohimself)itwasnot rightthatahorsebelongingtoaknightsofamous,andonewithsuchmeritsofhis own,shouldbewithoutsomedistinctivename,andhestrovetoadaptitsoasto indicatewhathehadbeenbeforebelongingtoaknighterrant,andwhathethen was;foritwasonlyreasonablethat,hismastertakinganewcharacter,heshould takeanewname,andthatitshouldbeadistinguishedandfullsoundingone, befittingtheneworderandcallinghewasabouttofollow.Andso,afterhaving composed,struckout,rejected,addedto,unmade,andremadeamultitudeofnames outofhismemoryandfancy,hedecideduponcallinghimRocinante,aname,tohis

4Acoin(aboutfivecents);aquartowasoneeighthofareal. 5Wassomuchskinandbones.

DonQuixotedelaMancha thinking,lofty,sonorous,andsignificantofhisconditionasahack6beforehe becamewhathenowwas,thefirstandforemostofallthehacksintheworld. Havinggotanameforhishorsesomuchtohistaste,hewasanxioustogetonefor himself,andhewaseightdaysmoreponderingoverthispoint,tillatlasthemade uphismindtocallhimself"DonQuixote,"whence,ashasbeenalreadysaid,the authorsofthisveracioushistoryhaveinferredthathisnamemusthavebeen beyondadoubtQuixada,andnotQuesadaasotherswouldhaveit.Recollecting, however,thatthevaliantAmadiswasnotcontenttocallhimselfcurtlyAmadisand nothingmore,butaddedthenameofhiskingdomandcountrytomakeitfamous, andcalledhimselfAmadisofGaul,he,likeagoodknight,resolvedtoaddonthe

nameofhis,andtostylehimselfDonQuixoteofLaMancha,whereby,heconsidered, hedescribedaccuratelyhisoriginandcountry,anddidhonortoitintakinghis surnamefromit. Sothen,hisarmorbeingfurbished,hismorionturnedintoahelmet,hishack christened,andhehimselfconfirmed,hecametotheconclusionthatnothingmore wasneedednowbuttolookoutforaladytobeinlovewith;foraknighterrant withoutlovewaslikeatreewithoutleavesorfruit,orabodywithoutasoul.Ashe saidtohimself,"If,formysins,orbymygoodfortune,Icomeacrosssomegiant hereabouts,acommonoccurrencewithknightserrant,andoverthrowhiminone onslaught,orcleavehimasundertothewaist,or,inshort,vanquishandsubduehim, willitnotbewelltohavesomeoneImaysendhimtoasapresent,thathemay comeinandfallonhiskneesbeforemysweetlady,andinahumble,submissive voicesay,'IamthegiantCaraculiambro,lordoftheislandofMalindrania, vanquishedinsinglecombatbytheneversufficientlyextolledknightDonQuixoteof LaMancha,whohascommandedmetopresentmyselfbeforeyourGrace,thatyour Highnessdisposeofmeatyourpleasure'?"Oh,howourgoodgentlemanenjoyedthe deliveryofthisspeech,especiallywhenhehadthoughtofsomeonetocallhisLady! 6Anag;inSpanish,arocin.

6 DonQuixotedelaMancha Therewas,sothestorygoes,inavillagenearhisownaverygoodlookingfarmgirl withwhomhehadbeenatonetimeinlove,though,sofarasisknown,shenever knewitnorgaveathoughttothematter.HernamewasAldonzaLorenzo,andupon herhethoughtfittoconferthetitleofLadyofhisThoughts;andaftersomesearch foranamewhichshouldnotbeoutofharmonywithherown,andshouldsuggest andindicatethatofaprincessandgreatlady,hedecideduponcallingherDulcinea delTobososhebeingofElTobosoaname,tohismind,musical,uncommon,and significant,likeallthosehehadalreadybestoweduponhimselfandthethings belongingtohim.

DonQuixotedelaMancha

CHAPTERII
WHICHTREATSOFTHEFIRSTSALLYTHEINGENIOUSDONQUIXOTEMADE FROMHOME
Thesepreliminariessettled,hedidnotcaretoputoffanylongertheexecutionofhis design,urgedontoitbythethoughtofalltheworldwaslosingbyhisdelay,seeing whatwrongsheintendedtoright,grievancestoredress,injusticestorepair,abuses toremove,anddutiestodischarge.So,withoutgivingnoticeofhisintentionto anyone,andwithoutanybodyseeinghim,onemorningbeforethedawningofthe day(whichwasoneofthehottestofthemonthofJuly)hedonnedhissuitofarmor, mountedRocinantewithhispatcheduphelmeton,bracedhisbuckler,tookhis lance,andbythebackdooroftheyardsalliedforthupontheplaininthehighest contentmentandsatisfactionatseeingwithwhateasehehadmadeabeginning withhisgrandpurpose.Butscarcelydidhefindhimselfupontheopenplain,whena terriblethoughtstruckhim,oneallbutenoughtomakehimabandontheenterprise attheveryoutset.Itoccurredtohimthathehadnotbeendubbedaknight,andthat accordingtothelawofchivalryheneithercouldnoroughttobeararmsagainstany knight;andthatevenifhehadbeen,stillheought,asanoviceknight,towearwhite armor,withoutadeviceupontheshielduntilbyhisprowesshehadearnedone. Thesereflectionsmadehimwaverinhispurpose,buthiscrazebeingstrongerthan anyreasoning,hemadeuphismindtohavehimselfdubbedaknightbythefirstone hecameacross,followingtheexampleofothersinthesamecase,ashehadreadin thebooksthatbroughthimtothispass.Asforwhitearmor,heresolved,onthefirst opportunity,toscourhisuntilitwaswhiterthananermine;andsocomforting himselfhepursuedhisway,takingthatwhichhishorsechose,forinthishebelieved laytheessenceofadventures. Thussettingout,ournewfledgedadventurerpacedalong,talkingtohimselfand saying,"Whoknowsbutthatintimetocome,whentheveracioushistoryofmy

8 DonQuixotedelaMancha famousdeedsismadeknown,thesagewhowritesit,whenhehastosetforthmy firstsallyintheearlymorning,willdoitafterthisfashion?'Scarcehadtherubicund Apollospreado'erthefaceofthebroadspaciousearththegoldenthreadsofhis brighthair,scarcehadthelittlebirdsofpaintedplumageattunedtheirnotestohail withdulcetandmellifluousharmonythecomingoftherosyDawn,that,deserting thesoftcouchofherjealousspouse,wasappearingtomortalsatthegatesand balconiesoftheMancheganhorizon,whentherenownedknightDonQuixoteofLa Mancha,quittingthelazydown,mountedhiscelebratedsteedRocinanteandbegan totraversetheancientandfamousCampodeMontiel;7'"whichinfacthewas actuallytraversing."Happytheage,happythetime,"hecontinued,"inwhichshall bemadeknownmydeedsoffame,worthytobemoldedinbrass,carvedinmarble, limnedinpictures,foramemorialforever.Andthou,Osagemagician,whoever thouart,towhomitshallfalltobethechroniclerofthiswondroushistory,forget not,Ientreatthee,mygoodRocinante,theconstantcompanionofmywaysand wanderings."Presentlyhebrokeoutagain,asifhewerelovestrickeninearnest,"O PrincessDulcinea,ladyofthiscaptiveheart,agrievouswronghastthoudonemeto drivemeforthwithscorn,andwithinexorableobduracybanishmefromthe presenceofthybeauty.Olady,deigntoholdinremembrancethisheart,thyvassal, thatthusinanguishpinesforloveofthee." Sohewentonstringingtogethertheseandotherabsurdities,allinthestyleofthose hisbookshadtaughthim,imitatingtheirlanguageaswellashecould;andallthe whileherodesoslowlyandthesunmountedsorapidlyandwithsuchfervorthatit wasenoughtomelthisbrainsifhehadany.Nearlyalldayhetraveledwithout anythingremarkablehappeningtohim,atwhichhewasindespair,forhewas anxioustoencountersomeoneatonceuponwhomtotrythemightofhisstrong arm.

7Famousbecauseithadbeenthesceneofabattlein1369.

9 WriterstherearewhosaythefirstadventurehemetwithwasthatofPuertoLapice; otherssayitwasthatofthewindmills;butwhatIhaveascertainedonthispoint, andwhatIhavefoundwrittenintheannalsofLaMancha,isthathewasontheroad allday,andtowardsnightfallhishackandhefoundthemselvesdeadtiredand hungry,when,lookingallaroundtoseeifhecoulddiscoveranycastleorshepherd's shantywherehemightrefreshhimselfandrelievehissorewants,heperceivednot faroutofhisroadaninn,whichwasaswelcomeasastarguidinghimtotheportals, ifnotthepalaces,ofhisredemption;andquickeninghispacehereacheditjustas nightwassettingin.Atthedoorwerestandingtwoyoungwomen,girlsofthe districtastheycallthem,ontheirwaytoSevillewithsomecarrierswhohad chancedtohaltthatnightattheinn;andas,happenwhatmighttoouradventurer, everythinghesaworimagedseemedtohimtobeandtohappenafterthefashionof whathereadof,themomenthesawtheinnhepicturedittohimselfasacastlewith itsfourturretsandpinnaclesofshiningsilver,notforgettingthedrawbridgeand moatandallthebelongingsusuallyascribedtocastlesofthesort.Tothisinn,which tohimseemedacastle,headvanced,andatashortdistancefromithechecked Rocinante,hopingthatsomedwarfwouldshowhimselfuponthebattlements,and bysoundoftrumpetgivenoticethataknightwasapproachingthecastle.Butseeing thattheywereslowaboutit,andthatRocinantewasinahurrytoreachthestable, hemadefortheinndoor,andperceivedthetwogaydamselswhowerestanding there,andwhoseemedtohimtobetwofairmaidensorlovelyladiestakingtheir easeatthecastlegate. Atthismomentitsohappenedthataswineherdwhowasgoingthroughthe stubblescollectingadroveofpigs(for,withoutanyapology,thatiswhattheyare called)gaveablastofhishorntobringthemtogether,andforthwithitseemedto DonQuixotetobewhathewasexpecting,thesignalofsomedwarfannouncinghis arrival;andsowithprodigioussatisfactionherodeuptotheinnandtotheladies, who,seeingamanofthissortapproachinginfullarmorandwithlanceandbuckler, wereturningindismayintotheinn,whenDonQuixote,guessingtheirfearbytheir flight,raisinghispasteboardvisor,disclosedhisdrydustyvisage,andwith

DonQuixotedelaMancha

10 DonQuixotedelaMancha courteousbearingandgentlevoiceaddressedthem,"Yourladyshipsneednotflyor fearanyrudeness,forthatitbelongsnottotheorderofknighthoodwhichIprofess tooffertoanyone,muchlesstohighbornmaidensasyourappearanceproclaims youtobe."Thegirlswerelookingathimandstrainingtheireyestomakeoutthe featureswhichtheclumsyvisorobscured,butwhentheyheardthemselvescalled maidens,athingsomuchoutoftheirline,theycouldnotrestraintheirlaughter, whichmadeDonQuixotewaxindignant,andsay,"Modestybecomesthefair,and moreoverlaughterthathaslittlecauseisgreatsilliness;this,however,Isaynotto painorangeryou,formydesireisnoneotherthantoserveyou." Theincomprehensiblelanguageandtheunpromisinglooksofourcavalieronly increasedtheladies'laughter,andthatincreasedhisirritation,andmattersmight havegonefartherifatthatmomentthelandlordhadnotcomeout,who,beinga veryfatman,wasaverypeacefulone.He,seeingthisgrotesquefigurecladinarmor thatdidnotmatchanymorethanhissaddle,bridle,lance,buckler,orcorselet,was notatallindisposedtojointhedamselsintheirmanifestationsofamusement;but, intruth,standinginaweofsuchacomplicatedarmament,hethoughtitbestto speakhimfairly,sohesaid,"SeorCaballero,ifyourworshipwantslodging,bating thebed(forthereisnotoneintheinn)thereisplentyofeverythingelsehere."Don Quixote,observingtherespectfulbearingoftheAlcaideofthefortress(forso innkeeperandinnseemedinhiseyes),madeanswer,"SirCastellan8,forme anythingwillsuffice,for 'Myarmorismyonlywear, Myonlyrestthefight.'" ThehostfanciedhecalledhimCastellanbecausehetookhimfora"worthyof Castile,"thoughhewasinfactanAndalusian,andonefromthestrandofSanLucar,

8Theoriginalcastellano,meantbothcastellanandCastilian.

DonQuixotedelaMancha ascraftyathiefasCacus9andasfulloftricksasastudentorapage."Inthatcase," saidhe, "'Yourbedisontheflintyrock, Yoursleeptowatchallnight;' andifso,youmaydismountandsafelyreckonuponanyquantityofsleeplessness underthisroofforatwelvemonth,nottosayforasinglenight."Sosaying,he advancedtoholdthestirrupforDonQuixote,whogotdownwithgreatdifficulty andexertion(forhehadnotbrokenhisfastallday),andthenchargedthehostto

11

takegreatcareofhishorse,ashewasthebestbitoffleshthateveratebreadinthis world.ThelandlordeyedhimoverbutdidnotfindhimasgoodasDonQuixotesaid, norevenhalfasgood;andputtinghimupinthestable,hereturnedtoseewhat mightbewantedbyhisguest,whomthedamsels,whohadbythistimemadetheir peacewithhim,werenowrelievingofhisarmor.Theyhadtakenoffhisbreastplate andbackpiece,buttheyneitherknewnorsawhowtoopenhisgorgetorremovehis makeshifthelmet,forhehadfasteneditwithgreenribbons,which,astherewasno untyingtheknots,requiredtobecut.This,however,hewouldnotbyanymeans consentto,soheremainedalltheeveningwithhishelmeton,thedrollestand oddestfigurethatcanbeimagined;andwhiletheywereremovinghisarmor,taking thebaggageswhowereaboutitforladiesofhighdegreebelongingtothecastle,he saidtothemwithgreatsprightliness: "Oh,never,surely,wasthereknight Soservedbyhandofdame, Asservedwashe,DonQuixotehight, Whenfromhistownhecame; Withmaidenswaitingonhimself, Princessesonhishack 9InRomanmythology,hestolesomeofthecattleofHercules,concealingthetheft byhavingthemwalkbackwardintohiscave,butwasfinallydiscoveredandslain.

12

DonQuixotedelaMancha

orRocinante,forthat,ladiesmine,ismyhorse'sname,andDonQuixoteofLa Manchaismyown;forthoughIhadnointentionofdeclaringmyselfuntilmy achievementsinyourserviceandhonorhadmademeknown,thenecessityof adaptingthatoldballadofLancelottothepresentoccasionhasgivenyouthe knowledgeofmynamealtogetherprematurely.Atime,however,willcomeforyour ladyshipstocommandandmetoobey,andthenthemightofmyarmwillshowmy desiretoserveyou." Thegirls,whowerenotusedtohearingrhetoricofthissort,hadnothingtosayin reply;theyonlyaskedhimifhewantedanythingtoeat."Iwouldgladlyeatabitof something,"saidDonQuixote,"forIfeelitwouldcomeveryseasonably."Theday happenedtobeaFriday,andinthewholeinntherewasnothingbutsomepiecesof thefishtheycallinCastile"abadejo,"inAndalusia"bacallao,"andinsomeplaces "curadillo,"andinothers"troutlet;"sotheyaskedhimifhethoughthecouldeat troutlet,fortherewasnootherfishtogivehim."Iftherebetroutletsenough,"said DonQuixote,"theywillbethesamethingasatrout;foritisallonetomewhetherI amgiveneightrealsinsmallchangeorapieceofeight;moreover,itmaybethat thesetroutletsarelikeveal,whichisbetterthanbeef,orkid,whichisbetterthan goat.Butwhateveritbeletitcomequickly,fortheburdenandpressureofarms cannotbebornewithoutsupporttotheinside."Theylaidatableforhimatthedoor oftheinnforthesakeoftheair,andthehostbroughthimaportionofillsoakedand worsecookedstockfish,andapieceofbreadasblackandmoldyashisownarmor; butalaughablesightitwastoseehimeating,forhavinghishelmetonandthe beaverup,hecouldnotwithhisownhandsputanythingintohismouthunless someoneelseplaceditthere,andthisserviceoneoftheladiesrenderedhim.Butto givehimanythingtodrinkwasimpossible,orwouldhavebeensohadnotthe landlordboredareed,andputtingoneendinhismouthpouredthewineintohim throughtheother;allwhichheborewithpatienceratherthansevertheribbonsof hishelmet.

DonQuixotedelaMancha Whilethiswasgoingontherecameuptotheinnasowgelder,who,ashe approached,soundedhisreedpipefourorfivetimes,andtherebycompletely convincedDonQuixotethathewasinsomefamouscastle,andthattheywere

13

regalinghimwithmusic,andthatthestockfishwastrout,thebreadthewhitest,the wenchesladies,andthelandlordthecastellanofthecastle;andconsequentlyhe heldthathisenterpriseandsallyhadbeentosomepurpose.Butstillitdistressed himtothinkhehadnotbeendubbedaknight,foritwasplaintohimhecouldnot lawfullyengageinanyadventurewithoutreceivingtheorderofknighthood.

14

DonQuixotedelaMancha

CHAPTERIII
WHEREINISRELATEDTHEDROLLWAYINWHICHDONQUIXOTEHADHIMSELF DUBBEDAKNIGHT
Harassedbythisreflection,hemadehastewithhisscantypothousesupper,and havingfinisheditcalledthelandlord,andshuttinghimselfintothestablewithhim, fellonhiskneesbeforehim,saying,"FromthisspotIrisenot,valiantknight,until yourcourtesygrantsmetheboonIseek,onethatwillredoundtoyourpraiseand thebenefitofthehumanrace."Thelandlord,seeinghisguestathisfeetandhearing aspeechofthiskind,stoodstaringathiminbewilderment,notknowingwhattodo orsay,andentreatinghimtorise,butalltonopurposeuntilhehadagreedtogrant theboondemandedofhim."Ilookedfornoless,mylord,fromyourHigh Magnificence,"repliedDonQuixote,"andIhavetotellyouthattheboonIhave askedandyourliberalityhasgrantedisthatyoushalldubmeknighttomorrow morning,andthattonightIshallwatchmyarmsinthechapelofthisyourcastle; thustomorrow,asIhavesaid,willbeaccomplishedwhatIsomuchdesire,enabling melawfullytoroamthroughallthefourquartersoftheworldseekingadventures onbehalfofthoseindistress,asisthedutyofchivalryandofknightserrantlike myself,whoseambitionisdirectedtosuchdeeds." Thelandlord,who,ashasbeenmentioned,wassomethingofawag,andhadalready somesuspicionofhisguest'swantofwits,wasquiteconvincedofitonhearingtalk ofthiskindfromhim,andtomakesportforthenighthedeterminedtofallinwith hishumor.Sohetoldhimhewasquiterightinpursuingtheobjecthehadinview, andthatsuchamotivewasnaturalandbecomingincavaliersasdistinguishedashe seemedandhisgallantbearingshowedhimtobe;andthathehimselfinhisyounger dayshadfollowedthesamehonorablecalling,roaminginquestofadventuresin variouspartsoftheworld,amongotherstheCuringgroundsofMalaga,theIslesof

15 Riaran,thePrecinctofSeville,theLittleMarketofSegovia,theOliveraofValencia, theRondillaofGranada,theStrandofSanLucar,theColtofCordova,theTavernsof Toledo,anddiversotherquarters10,wherehehadprovedthenimblenessofhisfeet andthelightnessofhisfingers,doingmanywrongs,cheatingmanywidows,ruining maidsandswindlingminors,and,inshort,bringinghimselfunderthenoticeof almosteverytribunalandcourtofjusticeinSpain;untilatlasthehadretiredtothis castleofhis,wherehewaslivinguponhispropertyanduponthatofothers;and wherehereceivedallknightserrantofwhateverrankorconditiontheymightbe, allforthegreatloveheborethemandthattheymightsharetheirsubstancewith himinreturnforhisbenevolence.Hetoldhim,moreover,thatinthiscastleofhis therewasnochapelinwhichhecouldwatchhisarmor,asithadbeenpulleddown inordertoberebuilt,butthatinacaseofnecessityitmight,heknew,bewatched anywhere,andhemightwatchitthatnightinacourtyardofthecastle,andinthe morning,Godwilling,therequisiteceremoniesmightbeperformedsoastohave himdubbedaknight,andsothoroughlydubbedthatnobodycouldbemoreso.He askedifhehadanymoneywithhim,towhichDonQuixoterepliedthathehadnota farthing,asinthehistoriesofknightserranthehadneverreadofanyofthem carryingany.Onthispointthelandlordtoldhimhewasmistaken;for,thoughnot recordedinthehistories,becauseintheauthor'sopiniontherewasnoneedto mentionanythingsoobviousandnecessaryasmoneyandcleanshirts,itwasnotto besupposedthereforethattheydidnotcarrythem,andhemightregarditas certainandestablishedthatallknightserrant(aboutwhomthereweresomanyfull andunimpeachablebooks)carriedwellfurnishedpursesincaseofemergency,and likewisecarriedshirtsandalittleboxofointmenttocurethewoundstheyreceived. Forinthoseplainsanddesertswheretheyengagedincombatandcameout wounded,itwasnotalwaysthattherewassomeonetocurethem,unlessindeed theyhadforafriendsomesagemagiciantosuccorthematoncebyfetchingthrough theairuponacloudsomedamselordwarfwithavialofwaterofsuchvirtuethatby tastingonedropofittheywerecuredoftheirhurtsandwoundsinaninstantand

DonQuixotedelaMancha

10Alltheplacesmentionedwerereputedtobethehauntsofrobbersandrogues.

16 DonQuixotedelaMancha leftassoundasiftheyhadnotreceivedanydamagewhatever.Butincasethis shouldnotoccur,theknightsofoldtookcaretoseethattheirsquireswereprovided withmoneyandotherrequisites,suchaslintandointmentsforhealingpurposes; andwhenithappenedthatknightshadnosquires(whichwasrarelyandseldomthe case)theythemselvescarriedeverythingincunningsaddlebagsthatwerehardly seenonthehorse'scroup,asifitweresomethingelseofmoreimportance,because, unlessforsomesuchreason,carryingsaddlebagswasnotveryfavorablyregarded amongknightserrant.Hethereforeadvisedhim(and,ashisgodsonsosoontobe, hemightevencommandhim)neverfromthattimeforthtotravelwithoutmoney andtheusualrequirements,andhewouldfindtheadvantageofthemwhenheleast expectedit. DonQuixotepromisedtofollowhisadvicescrupulously,anditwasarranged forthwiththatheshouldwatchhisarmorinalargeyardatonesideoftheinn;so, collectingitalltogether,DonQuixoteplaceditonatroughthatstoodbythesideofa well,andbracinghisbuckleronhisarmhegraspedhislanceandbeganwitha statelyairtomarchupanddowninfrontofthetrough,andashebeganhismarch nightbegantofall. Thelandlordtoldallthepeoplewhowereintheinnaboutthecrazeofhisguest,the watchingofthearmor,andthedubbingceremonyhecontemplated.Fullofwonder atsostrangeaformofmadness,theyflockedtoseeitfromadistance,andobserved withwhatcomposurehesometimespacedupanddown,orsometimes,leaningon hislance,gazedonhisarmorwithouttakinghiseyesoffitforeversolong;andas thenightclosedinwithalightfromthemoonsobrilliantthatitmightviewithhis thatlentit,everythingthenoviceknightdidwasplainlyseenbyall. Meanwhileoneofthecarrierswhowereintheinnthoughtfittowaterhisteam,and itwasnecessarytoremoveDonQuixote'sarmorasitlayonthetrough;buthe seeingtheotherapproachhailedhiminaloudvoice,"Othou,whoeverthouart, rashknightthatcomesttolayhandsonthearmorofthemostvalorouserrantthat

17 evergirtonsword,haveacarewhatthoudost;touchitnotunlessthouwouldstlay downthylifeasthepenaltyofthyrashness."Thecarriergavenoheedtothese words(andhewouldhavedonebettertoheedthemifhehadbeenheedfulofhis health),butseizingitbythestrapsflungthearmorsomedistancefromhim.Seeing this,DonQuixoteraisedhiseyestoheaven,andfixinghisthoughts,apparently, uponhisladyDulcinea,exclaimed,"Aidme,ladymine,inthisthefirstencounter thatpresentsitselftothisbreastwhichthouholdestinsubjection;letnotthyfavor andprotectionfailmeinthisfirstjeopardy;"and,withthesewordsandothersto thesamepurpose,droppinghisbucklerheliftedhislancewithbothhandsandwith itsmotesuchablowonthecarrier'sheadthathestretchedhimontheground,so stunnedthathadhefolloweditupwithasecondtherewouldhavebeennoneedof asurgeontocurehim.Thisdone,hepickeduphisarmorandreturnedtohisvigil withthesameserenityasbefore. Shortlyafterthis,another,notknowingwhathadhappened(forthecarrierstilllay senseless),camewiththesameobjectofgivingwatertohismules,andwas proceedingtoremovethearmorinordertoclearthetrough,whenDonQuixote, withoututteringawordorimploringaidfromanyone,oncemoredroppedhis bucklerandoncemoreliftedhislance,andwithoutactuallybreakingthesecond carrier'sheadintopieces,mademorethanthreeofit,forhelaiditopeninfour.11At thenoiseallthepeopleoftheinnrantothespot,andamongthemthelandlord. Seeingthis,DonQuixotebracedhisbuckleronhisarm,andwithhishandonhis swordexclaimed,"OLadyofBeauty,strengthandsupportofmyfaintheart,itis timefortheetoturntheeyesofthygreatnessonthisthycaptiveknightonthebrink ofsomightyanadventure."Bythishefelthimselfsoinspiredthathewouldnot haveflinchedifallthecarriersintheworldhadassailedhim.Thecomradesofthe woundedperceivingtheplighttheywereinbeganfromadistancetoshowerstones onDonQuixote,whoscreenedhimselfasbesthecouldwithhisbuckler,notdaring toquitthetroughandleavehisarmorunprotected.Thelandlordshoutedtothemto 11Thisisafigureofspeech;aswhenwesaysomebodykickedbutt,wedontmean itliterally.

DonQuixotedelaMancha

18 DonQuixotedelaMancha leavehimalone,forhehadalreadytoldthemthathewasmad,andasamadmanhe wouldnotbeaccountableevenifhekilledthemall.StillloudershoutedDon Quixote,callingthemknavesandtraitors,andthelordofthecastle,whoallowed knightserranttobetreatedinthisfashion,avillainandalowbornknightwhom, hadhereceivedtheorderofknighthood,hewouldcalltoaccountforhistreachery. "Butofyou,"hecried,"baseandvilerabble,Imakenoaccount;fling,strike,come on,doallyecanagainstme,yeshallseewhattherewardofyourfollyandinsolence willbe."Thisheutteredwithsomuchspiritandboldnessthathefilledhisassailants withaterriblefear,andasmuchforthisreasonasatthepersuasionofthelandlord theyleftoffstoninghim,andheallowedthemtocarryoffthewounded,andwith thesamecalmnessandcomposureasbeforeresumedthewatchoverhisarmor. Butthesefreaksofhisguestwerenotmuchtothelikingofthelandlord,sohe determinedtocutmattersshortandconferuponhimatoncetheunluckyorderof knighthoodbeforeanyfurthermisadventurecouldoccur;so,goinguptohim,he apologizedfortherudenesswhich,withouthisknowledge,hadbeenofferedtohim bytheselowpeople,who,however,hadbeenwellpunishedfortheiraudacity.Ashe hadalreadytoldhim,hesaid,therewasnochapelinthecastle,norwasitneeded forwhatremainedtobedone,for,asheunderstoodtheceremonialoftheorder,the wholepointofbeingdubbedaknightlayintheaccoladeandintheslaponthe shoulder,andthatcouldbeadministeredinthemiddleofafield;andthathehad nowdoneallthatwasneedfulastowatchingthearmor,forallrequirementswere satisfiedbyawatchoftwohoursonly,whilehehadbeenmorethanfouraboutit. DonQuixotebelieveditall,andtoldhimhestoodtherereadytoobeyhim,andto makeanendofitwithasmuchdespatch12aspossible;for,ifhewereagainattacked, andfelthimselftobedubbedknight,hewouldnot,hethought,leaveasoulalivein thecastle,exceptsuchasoutofrespecthemightspareathisbidding. Thuswarnedandmenaced,thecastellanforthwithbroughtoutabookinwhichhe usedtoenterthestrawandbarleyheservedouttothecarriers,and,withalad

12Efficiency

DonQuixotedelaMancha carryingacandleend,andthetwodamselsalreadymentioned,hereturnedto whereDonQuixotestood,andbadehimkneeldown.Then,readingfromhis accountbookasifhewererepeatingsomedevoutprayer,inthemiddleofhis

19

deliveryheraisedhishandandgavehimasturdyblowontheneck,andthen,with hisownsword,asmartslapontheshoulder,allthewhilemutteringbetweenhis teethasifhewassayinghisprayers.Havingdonethis,hedirectedoneoftheladies togirdonhissword,whichshedidwithgreatselfpossessionandgravity,andnota littlewasrequiredtopreventaburstoflaughterateachstageoftheceremony;but whattheyhadalreadyseenofthenoviceknight'sprowesskepttheirlaughter withinbounds.Ongirdinghimwiththeswordtheworthyladysaidtohim,"May Godmakeyourworshipaveryfortunateknight,andgrantyousuccessinbattle." DonQuixoteaskedhernameinorderthathemightfromthattimeforwardknowto whomhewasbeholdenforthefavorhehadreceived,ashemeanttoconferupon hersomeportionofthehonorheacquiredbythemightofhisarm.Sheanswered withgreathumilitythatshewascalledLaTolosa,andthatshewasthedaughterofa cobblerofToledowholivedinthestallsofSanchobienaya13,andthatwherevershe mightbeshewouldserveandesteemhimasherlord.DonQuixotesaidinreplythat shewoulddohimafavorifthenceforwardsheassumedthe"Don"andcalledherself DonaTolosa.Shepromisedshewould,andthentheotherbuckledonhisspur,and withherfollowedalmostthesameconversationaswiththeladyofthesword.He askedhername,andshesaiditwasLaMolinera,andthatshewasthedaughterofa respectablemillerofAntequera;andofherlikewiseDonQuixoterequestedthatshe wouldadoptthe"Don"andcallherselfDonaMolinera,makingofferstoherfurther servicesandfavors. Havingthus,withhothasteandspeed,broughttoaconclusionthesenevertillnow seenceremonies,DonQuixotewasonthornsuntilhesawhimselfonhorseback sallyingforthinquestofadventures;andsaddlingRocinanteatoncehemounted, andembracinghishost,ashereturnedthanksforhiskindnessinknightinghim,he

13AnoldsquareinToledo.

20 DonQuixotedelaMancha addressedhiminlanguagesoextraordinarythatitisimpossibletoconveyanideaof itorreportit.Thelandlord,togethimoutoftheinn,repliedwithnolessrhetoric thoughwithshorterwords,andwithoutcallinguponhimtopaythereckoninglet himgowithaGodspeed.

DonQuixotedelaMancha

21

CHAPTERIV
OFWHATHAPPENEDTOOURKNIGHTWHENHELEFTTHEINN
DaywasdawningwhenDonQuixotequittedtheinn,sohappy,sogay,so exhilaratedatfindinghimselfnowdubbedaknight,thathisjoywasliketobursthis horsegirths.However,recallingtheadviceofhishostastotherequisitesheought tocarrywithhim,especiallythatreferringtomoneyandshirts,hedeterminedtogo homeandprovidehimselfwithall,andalsowithasquire,forhereckonedupon securingafarmlaborer,aneighborofhis,apoormanwithafamily,butverywell qualifiedfortheofficeofsquiretoaknight.Withthisobjectheturnedhishorse's headtowardshisvillage,andRocinante,thusremindedofhisoldquarters,stepped outsobrisklythathehardlyseemedtotreadtheearth. Hehadnotgonefar,whenoutofathicketonhisrightthereseemedtocomefeeble criesasofsomeoneindistress,andtheinstantheheardthemheexclaimed, "Thanksbetoheavenforthefavoritaccordsme,thatitsosoonoffersmean opportunityoffulfillingtheobligationIhaveundertaken,andgatheringthefruitof myambition.Thesecries,nodoubt,comefromsomemanorwomaninwantofhelp, andneedingmyaidandprotection;"andwheeling,heturnedRocinanteinthe directionwhencethecriesseemedtoproceed.Hehadgonebutafewpacesintothe wood,whenhesawamaretiedtoanoak,andtiedtoanother,andstrippedfromthe waistupwards,ayouthofaboutfifteenyearsofage,fromwhomthecriescame.Nor weretheywithoutcause,foralustyfarmerwasflogginghimwithabeltand followingupeveryblowwithscoldingsandcommands,repeating,"Yourmouthshut andyoureyesopen!"whiletheyouthmadeanswer,"Iwon'tdoitagain,master mine;byGod'spassionIwon'tdoitagain,andI'lltakemorecareoftheflock anothertime."

22 DonQuixotedelaMancha Seeingwhatwasgoingon,DonQuixotesaidinanangryvoice,"Discourteousknight, itillbecomesyoutoassailonewhocannotdefendhimself;mountyoursteedand takeyourlance"(fortherewasalanceleaningagainsttheoaktowhichthemare wastied),"andIwillmakeyouknowthatyouarebehavingasacoward."The farmer,seeingbeforehimthisfigureinfullarmorbrandishingalanceoverhishead, gavehimselfupfordead,andmadeanswermeekly,"SirKnight,thisyouththatIam chastisingismyservant,employedbymetowatchaflockofsheepthatIhavehard by,andheissocarelessthatIloseoneeveryday,andwhenIpunishhimforhis carelessnessandknaveryhesaysIdoitoutofniggardliness,toescapepayinghim thewagesIowehim,andbeforeGod,andonmysoul,helies." "Liesbeforeme,baseclown!"saidDonQuixote."BythesunthatshinesonusIhave amindtorunyouthroughwiththislance.Payhimatoncewithoutanotherword;if not,bytheGodthatrulesusIwillmakeanendofyou,andannihilateyouonthe spot;releasehiminstantly." Thefarmerhunghishead,andwithoutaworduntiedhisservant,ofwhomDon Quixoteaskedhowmuchhismasterowedhim. Hereplied,ninemonthsatsevenrealsamonth.DonQuixoteaddeditup,foundthat itcametosixtythreereals,andtoldthefarmertopayitdownimmediately,ifhedid notwanttodieforit. Thetremblingclownrepliedthatashelivedandbytheoathhehadsworn(though hehadnotswornany)itwasnotsomuch;forthereweretobetakenintoaccount anddeductedthreepairsofshoeshehadgivenhim,andarealfortwoblood lettingswhenhewassick.14

14Barberswerealsosurgeons.

DonQuixotedelaMancha "Allthatisverywell,"saidDonQuixote;"butlettheshoesandthebloodlettings standasasetoffagainsttheblowsyouhavegivenhimwithoutanycause;forifhe

23

spoiledtheleatheroftheshoesyoupaidfor,youhavedamagedthatofhisbody,and ifthebarbertookbloodfromhimwhenhewassick,youhavedrawnitwhenhewas sound;soonthatscoreheowesyounothing." "Thedifficultyis,SirKnight,thatIhavenomoneyhere;letAndrescomehomewith me,andIwillpayhimall,realbyreal." "Igowithhim!"saidtheyouth."Nay,Godforbid!No,seor,notfortheworld;for oncealonewithme,hewouldraymelikeaSaintBartholomew." "Hewilldonothingofthekind,"saidDonQuixote;"Ihaveonlytocommand,andhe willobeyme;andashehassworntomebytheorderofknighthoodwhichhehas received,Ileavehimfree,andIguaranteethepayment." "Considerwhatyouaresaying,seor,"saidtheyouth;"thismasterofmineisnota knight,norhashereceivedanyorderofknighthood;forheisJuanHaldudotheRich, ofQuintanar." "Thatmatterslittle,"repliedDonQuixote;"theremaybeHaldudosknights; moreover,everyoneisthesonofhisworks." "Thatistrue,"saidAndres;"butthismasterofmineofwhatworksishetheson, whenherefusesmethewagesofmysweatandlabor?" "Idonotrefuse,brotherAndres,"saidthefarmer,"begoodenoughtocomealong withme,andIswearbyalltheordersofknighthoodthereareintheworldtopay youasIhaveagreed,realbyreal,andperfumed."

24 DonQuixotedelaMancha "FortheperfumeryIexcuseyou,"saidDonQuixote;"giveittohiminreals,andI shallbesatisfied;andseethatyoudoasyouhavesworn;ifnot,bythesameoathI sweartocomebackandhuntyououtandpunishyou;andIshallfindyouthough youshouldliecloserthanalizard.Andifyoudesiretoknowwhoitislaysthis commanduponyou,thatyoubemorefirmlyboundtoobeyit,knowthatIamthe valorousDonQuixoteofLaMancha,theundoerofwrongsandinjustices;andso, Godbewithyou,andkeepinmindwhatyouhavepromisedandswornunderthose penaltiesthathavebeenalreadydeclaredtoyou." Sosaying,hegaveRocinantethespurandwassoonoutofreach.Thefarmer followedhimwithhiseyes,andwhenhesawthathehadclearedthewoodandwas nolongerinsight,heturnedtohisboyAndres,andsaid,"Comehere,myson,Iwant topayyouwhatIoweyou,asthatundoerofwrongshascommandedme." "Myoathonit,"saidAndres,"yourworshipwillbewelladvisedtoobeythe commandofthatgoodknightmayheliveathousandyearsfor,asheisavaliant andjustjudge,byRoque15,ifyoudonotpayme,hewillcomebackanddoashe said." "Myoathonit,too,"saidthefarmer;"butasIhaveastrongaffectionforyou,Iwant toaddtothedebtinordertoaddtothepayment;"andseizinghimbythearm,he tiedhimupagain,andgavehimsuchafloggingthathelefthimfordead. "Now,MasterAndres,"saidthefarmer,"callontheundoerofwrongs;youwillfind hewon'tundothat,thoughIamnotsurethatIhavequitedonewithyou,forIhavea goodmindtoflayyoualive."Butatlastheuntiedhim,andgavehimleavetogolook forhisjudgeinordertoputthesentencepronouncedintoexecution.

15Theoriginofthisoathisunknown.

DonQuixotedelaMancha Andreswentoffratherdowninthemouth,swearinghewouldgotolookforthe

25

valiantDonQuixoteofLaManchaandtellhimexactlywhathadhappened,andthat allwouldhavetoberepaidhimsevenfold;butforallthat,hewentoffweeping, whilehismasterstoodlaughing. ThusdidthevaliantDonQuixoterightthatwrong,and,thoroughlysatisfiedwith whathadtakenplace,asheconsideredhehadmadeaveryhappyandnoble beginningwithhisknighthood,hetooktheroadtowardshisvillageinperfectself content,sayinginalowvoice,"Wellmayestthouthisdaycallthyselffortunate aboveallonearth,ODulcineadelToboso,fairestofthefair!sinceithasfallentothy lottoholdsubjectandsubmissivetothyfullwillandpleasureaknightsorenowned asisandwillbeDonQuixoteofLaMancha,who,asalltheworldknows,yesterday receivedtheorderofknighthood,andhathtodayrightedthegreatestwrongand grievancethateverinjusticeconceivedandcrueltyperpetrated:whohathtoday pluckedtherodfromthehandofyonderruthlessoppressorsowantonlylashing thattenderchild." Henowcametoaroadbranchinginfourdirections,andimmediatelyhewas remindedofthosecrossroadswhereknightserrantusedtostoptoconsiderwhich roadtheyshouldtake.Inimitationofthemhehaltedforawhile,andafterhaving deeplyconsideredit,hegaveRocinantehishead,submittinghisownwilltothatof hishack,whofollowedouthisfirstintention,whichwastomakestraightforhis ownstable.AfterhehadgoneabouttwomilesDonQuixoteperceivedalargeparty ofpeople,who,asafterwardsappeared,weresomeToledotraders,ontheirwayto buysilkatMurcia.Thereweresixofthemcomingalongundertheirsunshades,with fourservantsmounted,andthreemuleteersonfoot.ScarcelyhadDonQuixote descriedthemwhenthefancypossessedhimthatthismustbesomenew adventure;andtohelphimtoimitateasfarashecouldthosepassageshehadread ofinhisbooks,hereseemedtocomeonemadeonpurpose,whichheresolvedto attempt.Sowithaloftybearinganddeterminationhefixedhimselffirmlyinhis stirrups,gothislanceready,broughthisbucklerbeforehisbreast,andplanting

26 DonQuixotedelaMancha himselfinthemiddleoftheroad,stoodwaitingtheapproachoftheseknights errant,forsuchhenowconsideredandheldthemtobe;andwhentheyhadcome nearenoughtoseeandhear,heexclaimedwithahaughtygesture,"Alltheworld stand,unlessalltheworldconfessthatinalltheworldthereisnomaidenfairer thantheEmpressofLaMancha,thepeerlessDulcineadelToboso." Thetradershaltedatthesoundofthislanguageandthesightofthestrangefigure thatutteredit,andfrombothfigureandlanguageatonceguessedthecrazeoftheir owner;theywished,however,tolearnquietlywhatwastheobjectofthisconfession thatwasdemandedofthem,andoneofthem,whowasratherfondofajokeandwas verysharpwitted,saidtohim,"SirKnight,wedonotknowwhothisgoodladyis thatyouspeakof;showhertous,for,ifshebeofsuchbeautyasyousuggest,with allourheartsandwithoutanypressurewewillconfessthetruththatisonyourpart requiredofus." "IfIweretoshowhertoyou,"repliedDonQuixote,"whatmeritwouldyouhavein confessingatruthsomanifest?Theessentialpointisthatwithoutseeingheryou mustbelieve,confess,affirm,swear,anddefendit;elseyehavetodowithmein battle,illconditioned,arrogantrabblethatyeare;andcomeyeon,onebyoneasthe orderofknighthoodrequires,oralltogetherasisthecustomandvileusageofyour breed,heredoIbideandawaityourelyingonthejusticeofthecauseImaintain." "SirKnight,"repliedthetrader,"Ientreatyourworshipinthenameofthispresent companyofprinces,that,tosaveusfromchargingourconscienceswiththe confessionofathingwehaveneverseenorheardof,andonemoreoversomuchto theprejudiceoftheEmpressesandQueensoftheAlcarriaandEstremadura16,your worshipwillbepleasedtoshowussomeportraitofthislady,thoughitbenobigger thanagrainofwheat;forbythethreadonegetsattheball,andinthiswayweshall besatisfiedandeasy,andyouwillbecontentandpleased;nay,Ibelieveweare

16Ironical,sincebothplaceswereknownasespeciallybackwardregions.

27 alreadysofaragreedwithyouthateventhoughherportraitshouldshowherblind ofoneeye,anddistillingvermilionandsulphurfromtheother,wewould nevertheless,togratifyyourworship,sayallinherfavorthatyoudesire." "Shedistilsnothingofthekind,vilerabble,"saidDonQuixote,burningwithrage, "nothingofthekind,Isay,onlyambergrisandcivet17incotton;norissheoneeyed orhumpbacked,butstraighterthanaGuadarramaspindle:butyemustpayforthe blasphemyyehaveutteredagainstbeautylikethatofmylady." Andsosaying,hechargedwithleveledlanceagainsttheonewhohadspoken,with suchfuryandfiercenessthat,ifluckhadnotcontrivedthatRocinanteshould stumblemidwayandcomedown,itwouldhavegonehardwiththerashtrader. DownwentRocinante,andoverwenthismaster,rollingalongthegroundforsome distance;andwhenhetriedtorisehewasunable,soencumberedwashewithlance, buckler,spurs,helmet,andtheweightofhisoldarmor;andallthewhilehewas strugglingtogetuphekeptsaying,"Flynot,cowardsandcaitiffs!stay,fornotbymy fault,butmyhorse's,amIstretchedhere." Oneofthemuleteersinattendance,whocouldnothavehadmuchgoodnaturein him,hearingthepoorprostratemanblusteringinthisstyle,wasunabletorefrain fromgivinghimanansweronhisribs;andcominguptohimheseizedhislance,and havingbrokenitinpieces,withoneofthemhebegansotobelaborourDonQuixote that,notwithstandingandinspiteofhisarmor,hemilledhimlikeameasureof wheat.Hismasterscalledoutnottolayonsohardandtoleavehimalone,butthe muleteersbloodwasup,andhedidnotcaretodropthegameuntilhehadvented therestofhiswrath,andgatheringuptheremainingfragmentsofthelancehe finishedwithadischargeupontheunhappyvictim,whoallthroughthestormof sticksthatrainedonhimneverceasedthreateningheaven,andearth,andthe brigands,forsuchtheyseemedtohim.Atlastthemuleteerwastired,andthe

DonQuixotedelaMancha

17Amuskysubstanceusedinperfume,importedfromAfricaincottonpacking.

28 DonQuixotedelaMancha traderscontinuedtheirjourney,takingwiththemmatterfortalkaboutthepoor fellowwhohadbeencudgelled.Hewhenhefoundhimselfalonemadeanother efforttorise;butifhewasunablewhenwholeandsound,howwashetoriseafter havingbeenthrashedandwellnighknockedtopieces?Andyetheesteemedhimself fortunate,asitseemedtohimthatthiswasaregularknighterrant'smishap,and entirely,heconsidered,thefaultofhishorse.However,batteredinbodyashewas, torisewasbeyondhispower.

DonQuixotedelaMancha

29

CHAPTERV
INWHICHTHENARRATIVEOFOURKNIGHT'SMISHAPISCONTINUED
Finding,then,that,infacthecouldnotmove,hethoughthimselfofhavingrecourse tohisusualremedy,whichwastothinkofsomepassageinhisbooks,andhiscraze broughttohismindthataboutBaldwinandtheMarquisofMantua,whenCarloto lefthimwoundedonthemountainside18,astoryknownbyheartbythechildren, notforgottenbytheyoungmen,andlaudedandevenbelievedbytheoldfolk;and forallthatnotawhittruerthanthemiraclesofMahomet.Thisseemedtohimtofit exactlythecaseinwhichhefoundhimself,so,makingashowofseveresuffering,he begantorollonthegroundandwithfeeblebreathrepeattheverywordswhichthe woundedknightofthewoodissaidtohaveuttered: Whereartthou,ladymine,thatthou Mysorrowdostnotrue? Thoucanstnotknowit,ladymine, Orelsethouartuntrue. Andsohewentonwiththeballadasfarasthelines: OnobleMarquisofMantua, MyUncleandliegelord! Aschancewouldhaveit,whenhehadgottothislinetherehappenedtocomebya peasantfromhisownvillage,aneighborofhis,whohadbeenwithaloadofwheat

18TheallusionistoanoldballadaboutCharlemagnessonCharlot(Carloto) woundingBaldwin,nephewoftheMarquisofMantua.

30 DonQuixotedelaMancha tothemill,andhe,seeingthemanstretchedthere,cameuptohimandaskedwho hewasandwhatwasthematterwithhimthathecomplainedsodolefully. DonQuixotewasfirmlypersuadedthatthiswastheMarquisofMantua,hisuncle,so theonlyanswerhemadewastogoonwithhisballad,inwhichhetoldthetaleofhis misfortune,andofthelovesoftheEmperor'ssonandhiswifeallexactlyasthe balladsingsit. Thepeasantstoodamazedathearingsuchnonsense,andrelievinghimofthevisor, alreadybatteredtopiecesbyblows,hewipedhisface,whichwascoveredwithdust, andassoonashehaddonesoherecognizedhimandsaid,"SeorQuixada"(forso heappearstohavebeencalledwhenhewasinhissensesandhadnotyetchanged fromaquietcountrygentlemanintoaknighterrant),"whohasbroughtyour worshiptothispass?"Buttoallquestionstheotheronlywentonwithhisballad. Seeingthis,thegoodmanremovedaswellashecouldhisbreastplateandbackpiece toseeifhehadanywound,buthecouldperceivenobloodnoranymarkwhatever. Hethencontrivedtoraisehimfromtheground,andwithnolittledifficultyhoisted himuponhisass,whichseemedtohimtobetheeasiestmountforhim;and collectingthearms,eventothesplintersofthelance,hetiedthemonRocinante,and leadinghimbythebridleandtheassbythehalterhetooktheroadforthevillage, verysadtohearwhatabsurdstuffDonQuixotewastalking. NorwasDonQuixotelessso,forwhatwithblowsandbruiseshecouldnotsit uprightontheass,andfromtimetotimehesentupsighstoheaven,sothatonce morehedrovethepeasanttoaskwhatailedhim.Anditcouldhavebeenonlythe devilhimselfthatputintohisheadtalestomatchhisownadventures,fornow, forgettingBaldwin,hebethoughthimselfoftheMoorAbindarraez,whentheAlcaide ofAntequera,RodrigodeNarvaez,tookhimprisonerandcarriedhimawaytohis castle;sothatwhenthepeasantagainaskedhimhowhewasandwhatailedhim,he gavehimforreplythesamewordsandphrasesthatthecaptiveAbindarraezgaveto

DonQuixotedelaMancha RodrigodeNarvaez,justashehadreadthestoryintheDianaofJorgede Montemayor19whereitiswritten,applyingittohisowncasesoaptlythatthe peasantwentalongcursinghisfatethathehadtolistentosuchalotofnonsense;

31

fromwhich,however,hecametotheconclusionthathisneighborwasmad,andso madeallhastetoreachthevillagetoescapethewearisomenessofthisharangueof DonQuixote's;who,attheendofit,said,"SeorDonRodrigodeNarvaez,your worshipmustknowthatthisfairXarifaIhavementionedisnowthelovelyDulcinea delToboso,forwhomIhavedone,amdoing,andwilldothemostfamousdeedsof chivalrythatinthisworldhavebeenseen,aretobeseen,orevershallbeseen." Tothisthepeasantanswered,"SeorsinnerthatIam!cannotyourworshipsee thatIamnotDonRodrigodeNarvaeznortheMarquisofMantua,butPedroAlonso yourneighbor,andthatyourworshipisneitherBaldwinnorAbindarraez,butthe worthygentlemanSeorQuixada?" "IknowwhoIam,"repliedDonQuixote,"andIknowwhoImaybeifIchoose;not onlythoseIhavenamed,butalltheTwelvePeersofFranceandevenalltheNine Worthies,20sincemyachievementssurpassallthattheyhavedonealltogetherand eachofthemonhisownaccount." Withthistalkandmoreofthesamekindtheyreachedthevillagejustasnightwas beginningtofall,butthepeasantwaiteduntilitwasalittlelaterthatthebelabored gentlemanmightnotbeseenridinginsuchamiserabletrim.Whenitwaswhat seemedtohimthepropertimeheenteredthevillageandwenttoDonQuixote's house,whichhefoundallinconfusion,andtherewerethecurateandthevillage 19ThereferenceistothetaleoftheloveofAbindarraez,acaptiveMoor,forthe beautifulJarifa(mentionedinthefollowingparagraph),containedinthesecond editionofDiana,thepastoralromancebyJorgedeMontemayor. 20IntheFrenchmedievalepicstheTwelvePeers(Roland,Olivier,etc.)were warriorsallequalinrankformingasortofguardofhonoraroundCharelmagne. TheNineWorthies,inatraditionoriginatinginFrance,wereninefigures,three biblical,threeclassical,andthreeChristian(David,Hector,Alexander,etc.)

32 DonQuixotedelaMancha barber,whoweregreatfriendsofDonQuixote,andhishousekeeperwassayingto theminaloudvoice,"Whatdoesyourworshipthinkcanhavebefallenmymaster, SeorLicentiatePeroPerez?"forsothecuratewascalled;"itisthreedaysnow sinceanythinghasbeenseenofhim,orthehack,orthebuckler,lance,orarmor. Miserableme!Iamcertainofit,anditisastrueasthatIwasborntodie,thatthese accursedbooksofchivalryhehas,andhasgotintothewayofreadingsoconstantly, haveupsethisreason;fornowIrememberhavingoftenheardhimsayingtohimself thathewouldturnknighterrantandgoallovertheworldinquestofadventures. TothedevilandBarabbas21withsuchbooks,thathavebroughttoruininthisway thefinestunderstandingtherewasinallLaMancha!" Theniecesaidthesame,and,more:"Youmustknow,MasterNicholas"forthat wasthenameofthebarber"itwasoftenmyuncle'swaytostaytwodaysand nightstogetherporingovertheseunholybooksofmisadventures,afterwhichhe wouldflingthebookawayandsnatchuphisswordandfalltoslashingthewalls; andwhenhewastiredouthewouldsayhehadkilledfourgiantslikefourtowers; andthesweatthatflowedfromhimwhenhewaswearyhesaidwasthebloodofthe woundshehadreceivedinbattle;andthenhewoulddrinkagreatjugofcoldwater andbecomecalmandquiet,sayingthatthiswaterwasamostpreciouspotion whichthesageEsquife,agreatmagicianandfriendofhis,hadbroughthim.ButI takealltheblameuponmyselfforneverhavingtoldyourworshipsofmyuncle's vagaries,thatyoumightputastoptothembeforethingshadcometothispass,and burnalltheseaccursedbooksforhehasagreatnumberthatrichlydeservetobe burnedlikeheretics." "SosayItoo,"saidthecurate,"andbymyfaithtomorrowshallnotpasswithout publicjudgmentuponthem,andmaytheybecondemnedtotheflameslestthey leadthosethatreadtobehaveasmygoodfriendseemstohavebehaved."

21thethiefPontiusPilatereleasedtothecrowd,ratherthanJesus.

DonQuixotedelaMancha Allthisthepeasantheard,andfromitheunderstoodatlastwhatwasthematter withhisneighbor,sohebegancallingaloud,"Open,yourworships,toSeor BaldwinandtoSeortheMarquisofMantua,whocomesbadlywounded,andto

33

SeorAbindarraez,theMoor,whomthevaliantRodrigodeNarvaez,theAlcaideof Antequera,bringscaptive." Atthesewordstheyallhurriedout,andwhentheyrecognizedtheirfriend,master, anduncle,whohadnotyetdismountedfromtheassbecausehecouldnot,theyran toembracehim. "Hold!"saidhe,"forIambadlywoundedthroughmyhorse'sfault;carrymetobed, andifpossiblesendforthewiseUrgandatocureandseetomywounds." "Seethere!plagueonit!"criedthehousekeeperatthis:"didnotmyhearttellthe truthastowhichfootmymasterwentlameof?Tobedwithyourworshipatonce, andwewillcontrivetocureyouherewithoutfetchingthatHurgada.AcurseIsay oncemore,andahundredtimesmore,onthosebooksofchivalrythathavebrought yourworshiptosuchapass." Theycarriedhimtobedatonce,andaftersearchingforhiswoundscouldfindnone, buthesaidtheywereallbruisesfromhavinghadaseverefallwithhishorse Rocinantewhenincombatwithtengiants,thebiggestandtheboldesttobefound onearth. "So,so!"saidthecurate,"aretheregiantsinthedance?BythesignoftheCrossIwill burnthemtomorrowbeforethedayover." TheyputahostofquestionstoDonQuixote,buthisonlyanswertoallwasgive himsomethingtoeat,andleavehimtosleep,forthatwaswhatheneededmost. Theydidso,andthecuratequestionedthepeasantatgreatlengthastohowhehad foundDonQuixote.Hetoldhim,andthenonsensehehadtalkedwhenfoundandon

34 DonQuixotedelaMancha thewayhome,allwhichmadethelicentiatethemoreeagertodowhathedidthe nextday,whichwastosummonhisfriendthebarber,MasterNicholas,andgowith himtoDonQuixote'shouse.

DonQuixotedelaMancha

35

CHAPTERVII
OFTHESECONDSALLYOFOURGOODKNIGHT,DONQUIXOTEDELAMANCHA
...Inshort,then,heremainedathomefifteendaysveryquietlywithoutshowing anysignsofadesiretotakeupwithhisformerdelusions,andduringthistimehe heldlivelydiscussionswithhistwogossips,thecurateandthebarber,onthepoint hemaintained,thatknightserrantwerewhattheworldstoodmostinneedof,and thatinhimwastobeaccomplishedtherevivalofknighterrantry.Thecurate sometimescontradictedhim,sometimesagreedwithhim,forifhehadnotobserved thisprecautionhewouldhavebeenunabletobringhimtoreason. MeanwhileDonQuixoteworkeduponafarmlaborer,aneighborofhis,anhonest man(ifindeedthattitlecanbegiventohimwhoispoor),butwithverylittlewitin hishead.Inaword,hesotalkedhimover,andwithsuchpersuasionsandpromises, thatthepoorclownmadeuphismindtosallyforthwithhimandservehimas squire.DonQuixote,amongotherthings,toldhimheoughttobereadytogowith himgladly,becauseanymomentanadventuremightoccurthatmightwinanisland inthetwinklingofaneyeandleavehimgovernorofit.Ontheseandthelike promisesSanchoPanza(forsothelaborerwascalled)leftwifeandchildren,and engagedhimselfassquiretohisneighbor. DonQuixotenextsetaboutgettingsomemoney;andsellingonethingandpawning another,andmakingabadbargainineverycase,hegottogetherafairsum.He providedhimselfwithabuckler,whichhebeggedasaloanfromafriend,and, restoringhisbatteredhelmetasbesthecould,hewarnedhissquireSanchoofthe dayandhourhemeanttosetout,thathemightprovidehimselfwithwhathe thoughtmostneedful.Aboveall,hechargedhimtotakealforjas22withhim.The othersaidhewould,andthathemeanttotakealsoaverygoodasshehad,ashe
22Saddlebags

36 DonQuixotedelaMancha wasnotmuchgiventogoingonfoot.Abouttheass,DonQuixotehesitatedalittle, tryingwhetherhecouldcalltomindanyknighterranttakingwithhimansquire mountedonassback,butnoinstanceoccurredtohismemory.Forallthat,however, hedeterminedtotakehim,intendingtofurnishhimwithamorehonorablemount whenachanceofitpresenteditself,byappropriatingthehorseofthefirst discourteousknightheencountered.Himselfheprovidedwithshirtsandsuch otherthingsashecould,accordingtotheadvicethehosthadgivenhim;allwhich beingdone,withouttakingleave,SanchoPanzaofhiswifeandchildren,orDon Quixoteofhishousekeeperandniece,theysalliedforthunseenbyanybodyfromthe villageonenight,andmadesuchgoodwayinthecourseofitthatbydaylightthey heldthemselvessafefromdiscovery,evenshouldsearchbemadeforthem. Sanchorodeonhisasslikeapatriarch,withhisalforjasandbota23,andlongingto seehimselfsoongovernoroftheislandhismasterhadpromisedhim.DonQuixote decidedupontakingthesamerouteandroadhehadtakenonhisfirstjourney,that overtheCampodeMontiel,whichhetraveledwithlessdiscomfortthanonthelast occasion,for,asitwasearlymorningandtheraysofthesunfellonthemobliquely, theheatdidnotdistressthem. AndnowsaidSanchoPanzatohismaster,"Yourworshipwilltakecare,Seor Knighterrant,nottoforgetabouttheislandyouhavepromisedme,forbeiteverso bigI'llbeequaltogoverningit." TowhichDonQuixotereplied,"Thoumustknow,friendSanchoPanza,thatitwasa practiceverymuchinvoguewiththeknightserrantofoldtomaketheirsquires governorsoftheislandsorkingdomstheywon,andIamdeterminedthatthere shallbenofailureonmypartinsoliberalacustom;onthecontrary,Imeanto improveuponit,fortheysometimes,andperhapsmostfrequently,waiteduntil theirsquireswereold,andthenwhentheyhadhadenoughofserviceandharddays 23Flask

DonQuixotedelaMancha andworsenights,theygavethemsometitleorother,ofcount,oratthemost

37

marquis,ofsomevalleyorprovincemoreorless;butifthoulivestandIlive,itmay wellbethatbeforesixdaysareover,Imayhavewonsomekingdomthathasothers dependentuponit,whichwillbejustthethingtoenabletheetobecrownedkingof oneofthem.Norneedstthoucountthiswonderful,forthingsandchancesfalltothe lotofsuchknightsinwayssounexampledandunexpectedthatImighteasilygive theeevenmorethanIpromisethee." "Inthatcase,"saidSanchoPanza,"ifIshouldbecomeakingbyoneofthosemiracles yourworshipspeaksof,evenJuanaGutierrez,myoldwoman,wouldcometobe queenandmychildreninfantes." "Well,whodoubtsit?"saidDonQuixote. "Idoubtit,"repliedSanchoPanza,"becauseformypartIampersuadedthatthough Godshouldshowerdownkingdomsuponearth,notoneofthemwouldfitthehead ofMariGutierrez.Letmetellyou,seor,sheisnotworthtwomaravedis24fora queen;countesswillfitherbetter,andthatonlywithGod'shelp." "LeaveittoGod,Sancho,"returnedDonQuixote,"forhewillgiveherwhatsuitsher best;butdonotundervaluethyselfsomuchastocometobecontentwithanything lessthanbeinggovernorofaprovince." "Iwillnot,seor,"answeredSancho,"speciallyasIhaveamanofsuchqualityfora masterinyourworship,whowillknowhowtogivemeallthatwillbesuitablefor meandthatIcanbear."

24Acoinworthonethirtyfourthofareal.

38

DonQuixotedelaMancha

CHAPTERVIII
OFTHEGOODFORTUNEWHICHTHEVALIANTDONQUIXOTEHADINTHE TERRIBLEANDUNDREAMTOFADVENTUREOFTHEWINDMILLS,WITHOTHER OCCURRENCESWORTHYTOBEFITLYRECORDED
Atthispointtheycameinsightofthirtyfortywindmillsthatthereareonplain,and assoonasDonQuixotesawthemhesaidtohissquire,"Fortuneisarranging mattersforusbetterthanwecouldhaveshapedourdesiresourselves,forlook there,friendSanchoPanza,wherethirtyormoremonstrousgiantspresent themselves,allofwhomImeantoengageinbattleandslay,andwithwhosespoils weshallbegintomakeourfortunes;forthisisrighteouswarfare,anditisGod's goodservicetosweepsoevilabreedfromoffthefaceoftheearth." "Whatgiants?"saidSanchoPanza. "Thosethouseestthere,"answeredhismaster,"withthelongarms,andsomehave themnearlytwoleagueslong." "Look,yourworship,"saidSancho;"whatweseetherearenotgiantsbutwindmills, andwhatseemtobetheirarmsarethesailsthatturnedbythewindmakethe millstonego." "Itiseasytosee,"repliedDonQuixote,"thatthouartnotusedtothisbusinessof adventures;thosearegiants;andifthouartafraid,awaywiththeeoutofthisand betakethyselftoprayerwhileIengagetheminfierceandunequalcombat." Sosaying,hegavethespurtohissteedRocinante,heedlessofthecrieshissquire Sanchosentafterhim,warninghimthatmostcertainlytheywerewindmillsandnot giantshewasgoingtoattack.He,however,wassopositivetheyweregiantsthathe neitherheardthecriesofSancho,norperceived,nearashewas,whattheywere,

DonQuixotedelaMancha butmadeatthemshouting,"Flynot,cowardsandvilebeings,forasingleknight attacksyou."

39

Aslightbreezeatthismomentsprangup,andthegreatsailsbegantomove,seeing whichDonQuixoteexclaimed,"Thoughyeflourishmorearmsthanthegiant Briareus,25yehavetoreckonwithme." Sosaying,andcommendinghimselfwithallhishearttohisladyDulcinea,imploring hertosupporthiminsuchaperil,withlanceinrestandcoveredbyhisbuckler,he chargedatRocinante'sfullestgallopandfelluponthefirstmillthatstoodinfrontof him;butashedrovehislancepointintothesailthewindwhirleditroundwithsuch forcethatitshiveredthelancetopieces,sweepingwithithorseandrider,whowent rollingoverontheplain,inasorrycondition.Sanchohastenedtohisassistanceas fastashisasscouldgo,andwhenhecameupfoundhimunabletomove,withsucha shockhadRocinantefallenwithhim. "Godblessme!"saidSancho,"didInottellyourworshiptomindwhatyouwere about,fortheywereonlywindmills?andnoonecouldhavemadeanymistakeabout itbutonewhohadmillsofthesamekindinhishead." "Hush,friendSancho,"repliedDonQuixote,"thefortunesofwarmorethanany otherareliabletofrequentfluctuations;andmoreoverIthink,anditisthetruth, thatthatsamesageFristonwhocarriedoffmystudyandbooks,26hasturnedthese giantsintomillsinordertorobmeofthegloryofvanquishingthem,suchisthe enmityhebearsme;butintheendhiswickedartswillavailbutlittleagainstmy goodsword."

25Amythologicalgiantwithahundredarms. 26Afterthebarberandthecuratehadburnedallhisbooksandwalleduphisstudy,

QuixotepromptlyattributedthedisappearancetoanevilsorcerernamedFriston, who,naturally,heldagrudgeagainsthim.

40 DonQuixotedelaMancha "Godorderitashemay,"saidSanchoPanza,andhelpinghimtorisegothimup againonRocinante,whoseshoulderwashalfout;andthen,discussingthelate adventure,theyfollowedtheroadtoPuertoLapice,forthere,saidDonQuixote,they couldnotfailtofindadventuresinabundanceandvariety,asitwasagreat thoroughfare.Forallthat,hewasmuchgrievedatthelossofhislance,andsayingso tohissquire,headded,"IrememberhavingreadhowaSpanishknight,DiegoPerez deVargasbyname,havingbrokenhisswordinbattle,torefromanoakaponderous boughorbranch,andwithitdidsuchthingsthatday,andpoundedsomanyMoors, thathegotthesurnameofMachuca27,andheandhisdescendantsfromthatday forthwerecalledVargasyMachuca.ImentionthisbecausefromthefirstoakIseeI meantorendsuchanotherbranch,largeandstoutlikethat,withwhichIam determinedandresolvedtodosuchdeedsthatthoumayestdeemthyselfvery fortunateinbeingfoundworthytocomeandseethem,andbeaneyewitnessof thingsthatwillwithdifficultybebelieved." "BethatasGodwill,"saidSancho,"Ibelieveitallasyourworshipsaysit;but straightenyourselfalittle,foryouseemallononeside,maybefromtheshakingof thefall." "Thatisthetruth,"saidDonQuixote,"andifImakenocomplaintofthepainitis becauseknightserrantarenotpermittedtocomplainofanywound,eventhough theirbowelsbecomingoutthroughit." "Ifso,"saidSancho,"Ihavenothingtosay;butGodknowsIwouldratheryour worshipcomplainedwhenanythingailedyou.Formypart,IconfessImust complain,howeversmalltheachemaybe;unlessthisruleaboutnotcomplaining extendstothesquiresofknightserrantalso."

27Machuca,meaningTheCrusher,wastheheroofafolkbalad.

41 DonQuixotecouldnothelplaughingathissquire'ssimplicity,andheassuredhim hemightcomplainwheneverandhoweverhechose,justasheliked,for,sofar,he hadneverreadofanythingtothecontraryintheorderofknighthood. Sanchobadehimrememberitwasdinnertime,towhichhismasteransweredthat hewantednothinghimselfjustthen,butthathemighteatwhenhehadamind.With thispermissionSanchosettledhimselfascomfortablyashecouldonhisbeast,and takingoutofthealforjaswhathehadstowedawayinthem,hejoggedalongbehind hismastermunchingdeliberately,andfromtimetotimetakingapullatthebota witharelishthatthethirstiesttapsterinMalagamighthaveenvied;andwhilehe wentoninthisway,gulpingdowndraughtafterdraught,henevergaveathoughtto anyofthepromiseshismasterhadmadehim,nordidherateitashardshipbut ratherasrecreationgoinginquestofadventures,howeverdangeroustheymightbe. Finallytheypassedthenightamongsometrees,fromoneofwhichDonQuixote pluckedadrybranchtoservehimafterafashionasalance,andfixedonitthehead hehadremovedfromthebrokenone.AllthatnightDonQuixotelayawakethinking ofhisladyDulcinea,inordertoconformtowhathehadreadinhisbooks,how manyanightintheforestsanddesertsknightsusedtoliesleeplesssupportedby thememoryoftheirmistresses.NotsodidSanchoPanzaspendit,forhavinghis stomachfullofsomethingstrongerthanchicorywaterhemadebutonesleepofit, and,ifhismasterhadnotcalledhim,neithertheraysofthesunbeatingonhisface norallthecheerynotesofthebirdswelcomingtheapproachofdaywouldhavehad powertowakenhim.Ongettinguphetriedthebotaandfounditsomewhatlessfull thanthenightbefore,whichgrievedhisheartbecausetheydidnotseemtobeon thewaytoremedythedeficiencyreadily.DonQuixotedidnotcaretobreakhisfast, for,ashasbeenalreadysaid,heconfinedhimselftosavoryrecollectionsfor nourishment. Theyreturnedtotheroadtheyhadsetoutwith,leadingtoPuertoLapice,andat threeintheafternoontheycameinsightofit."Here,brotherSanchoPanza,"said DonQuixotewhenhesawit,"wemayplungeourhandsuptotheelbowsinwhat

DonQuixotedelaMancha

42 DonQuixotedelaMancha theycalladventures;butobserve,evenshouldstthouseemeinthegreatestdanger intheworld,thoumustnotputahandtothyswordinmydefense,unlessindeed thouperceivestthatthosewhoassailmearerabbleorbasefolk;forinthatcase thoumayestveryproperlyaidme;butiftheybeknightsitisonnoaccount permittedorallowedtheebythelawsofknighthoodtohelpmeuntilthouhastbeen dubbedaknight." "Mostcertainly,seor,"repliedSancho,"yourworshipshallbefullyobeyedinthis matter;allthemoreasofmyselfIampeacefulandnofriendtomixinginstrifeand quarrels:itistruethatasregardsthedefenseofmyownpersonIshallnotgive muchheedtothoselaws,forlawshumananddivinealloweachonetodefend himselfagainstanyassailantwhatever." "ThatIgrant,"saidDonQuixote,"butinthismatterofaidingmeagainstknights thoumustputarestraintuponthynaturalimpetuosity." "Iwilldoso,Ipromiseyou,"answeredSancho,"andwillkeepthispreceptas carefullyasSunday." Whiletheywerethustalkingthereappearedontheroadtwofriarsoftheorderof St.Benedict,mountedontwodromedaries,fornotlesstallwerethetwomulesthey rodeon.Theyworetravelingspectaclesandcarriedsunshades;andbehindthem cameacoachattendedbyfourorfivepersonsonhorsebackandtwomuleteerson foot.Inthecoachtherewas,asafterwardsappeared,aBiscayladyonherwayto Seville,whereherhusbandwasabouttotakepassagefortheIndieswithan appointmentofhighhonor.Thefriars,thoughgoingthesameroad,werenotinher company;butthemomentDonQuixoteperceivedthemhesaidtohissquire,"Either Iammistaken,orthisisgoingtobethemostfamousadventurethathaseverbeen seen,forthoseblackbodiesweseetheremustbe,anddoubtlessare,magicianswho arecarryingoffsomestolenprincessinthatcoach,andwithallmymightImust undothiswrong."

DonQuixotedelaMancha

43

"Thiswillbeworsethanthewindmills,"saidSancho."Look,seor;thosearefriars ofSt.Benedict,andthecoachplainlybelongstosometravelers:Itellyoutomind wellwhatyouareaboutanddon'tletthedevilmisleadyou." "Ihavetoldtheealready,Sancho,"repliedDonQuixote,"thatonthesubjectof adventuresthouknowestlittle.WhatIsayisthetruth,asthoushaltseepresently." Sosaying,headvancedandpostedhimselfinthemiddleoftheroadalongwhichthe friarswerecoming,andassoonashethoughttheyhadcomenearenoughtohear whathesaid,hecriedaloud,"Devilishandunnaturalbeings,releaseinstantlythe highbornprincesseswhomyouarecarryingoffbyforceinthiscoach,elseprepare tomeetaspeedydeathasthejustpunishmentofyourevildeeds." ThefriarsdrewreinandstoodwonderingattheappearanceofDonQuixoteaswell asathiswords,towhichtheyreplied,"SeorCaballero,wearenotdevilishor unnatural,buttwobrothersofSt.Benedictfollowingourroad,nordoweknow whetherornotthereareanycaptiveprincessescominginthiscoach." "Nosoftwordswithme,forIknowyou,lyingrabble,"saidDonQuixote,andwithout waitingforareplyhespurredRocinanteandwithleveledlancechargedthefirst friarwithsuchfuryanddetermination,that,ifthefriarhadnotflunghimselfoffthe mule,hewouldhavebroughthimtothegroundagainsthiswill,andsorewounded, ifnotkilledoutright.Thesecondbrother,seeinghowhiscomradewastreated, drovehisheelsintohiscastleofamuleandmadeoffacrossthecountryfasterthan thewind. SanchoPanza,whenhesawthefriarontheground,dismountingbrisklyfromhis ass,rushedtowardshimandbegantostripoffhisgown.Atthatinstantthefriars muleteerscameupandaskedwhathewasstrippinghimfor.Sanchoansweredthem thatthisfelltohimlawfullyasspoilofthebattlewhichhislordDonQuixotehad

44 DonQuixotedelaMancha won.Themuleteers,whohadnoideaofajokeanddidnotunderstandallthisabout battlesandspoils,seeingthatDonQuixotewassomedistanceofftalkingtothe travelersinthecoach,felluponSancho,knockedhimdown,andleavinghardlya hairinhisbeard,belaboredhimwithkicksandlefthimstretchedbreathlessand senselessontheground;andwithoutanymoredelayhelpedthefriartomount, who,trembling,terrified,andpale,assoonashefoundhimselfinthesaddle, spurredafterhiscompanion,whowasstandingatadistancelookingon,watching theresultoftheonslaught;then,notcaringtowaitfortheendoftheaffairjust begun,theypursuedtheirjourneymakingmorecrossesthaniftheyhadthedevil afterthem. DonQuixotewas,ashasbeensaid,speakingtotheladyinthecoach:"Yourbeauty, ladymine,"saidhe,"maynowdisposeofyourpersonasmaybemostinaccordance withyourpleasure,fortheprideofyourravishersliesprostrateontheground throughthisstrongarmofmine;andlestyoushouldbepiningtoknowthenameof yourdeliverer,knowthatIamcalledDonQuixoteofLaMancha,knighterrantand adventurer,andcaptivetothepeerlessandbeautifulladyDulcineadelToboso:and inreturnfortheserviceyouhavereceivedofmeIasknomorethanthatyoushould returntoElToboso,andonmybehalfpresentyourselfbeforethatladyandtellher whatIhavedonetosetyoufree." Oneofthesquiresinattendanceuponthecoach,aBiscayan,28waslisteningtoall DonQuixotewassaying,and,perceivingthathewouldnotallowthecoachtogoon, butwassayingitmustreturnatoncetoElToboso,hemadeathim,andseizinghis lanceaddressedhiminbadCastilianandworseBiscayanafterhisfashion,"Begone, caballero,andillgowiththee;bytheGodthatmademe,unlessthouquittestcoach, slayesttheeasarthereaBiscayan."

28FromtheBosqueregioninnortheasternSpain.

DonQuixotedelaMancha DonQuixoteunderstoodhimquitewell,andansweredhimveryquietly,"Ifthou wertaknight,asthouartnone,Ishouldhavealreadychastisedthyfollyand

45

rashness,miserablecreature."TowhichtheBiscayanreturned,"Inogentleman!I sweartoGodthouliestasIamChristian:ifthoudroppestlanceanddrawestsword, soonshaltthouseethouartcarryingwatertothecat29:Biscayanonland,hidalgoat sea,hidalgoinspiteofthedevil,andlook,ifthousayestotherwisethouliest." "'"Youwillseepresently,"saidAgrajes,'"repliedDonQuixote;andthrowinghis lanceonthegroundhedrewhissword,bracedhisbuckleronhisarm,andattacked theBiscayan,bentupontakinghislife. TheBiscayan,whenhesawhimcomingon,thoughhewishedtodismountfromhis mule,inwhich,beingoneofthosesorryonesletoutforhire,hehadnoconfidence, hadnochoicebuttodrawhissword;itwasluckyforhim,however,thathewasnear thecoach,fromwhichhewasabletosnatchacushionthatservedhimforashield; andtheywentatoneanotherasiftheyhadbeentwomortalenemies.Theothers strovetomakepeacebetweenthem,butcouldnot,fortheBiscayandeclaredinhis disjointedphrasethatiftheydidnotlethimfinishhisbattlehewouldkillhis mistressandeveryonethatstrovetopreventhim.Theladyinthecoach,amazed andterrifiedatwhatshesaw,orderedthecoachmantodrawasidealittle,andset herselftowatchthisseverestruggle,inthecourseofwhichtheBiscayansmoteDon Quixoteamightystrokeontheshoulderoverthetopofhisbuckler,which,givento onewithoutarmor,wouldhaveclefthimtothewaist.DonQuixote,feelingthe weightofthisprodigiousblow,criedaloud,saying,"Oladyofmysoul,Dulcinea, flowerofbeauty,cometotheaidofthisyourknight,who,infulfillinghisobligations toyourbeauty,findshimselfinthisextremeperil."Tosaythis,tolifthissword,to shelterhimselfwellbehindhisbuckler,andtoassailtheBiscayanwastheworkof aninstant,determinedashewastoventurealluponasingleblow.TheBiscayan, seeinghimcomeoninthisway,wasconvincedofhiscouragebyhisspirited 29Aninversionoftheproverbialphrase,carryingthecattowater,anotaltogether pleasanttask.

46 DonQuixotedelaMancha bearing,andresolvedtofollowhisexample,sohewaitedforhimkeepingwell undercoverofhiscushion,beingunabletoexecuteanysortofmaneuverwithhis mule,which,deadtiredandnevermeantforthiskindofgame,couldnotstirastep. On,then,asaforesaid,cameDonQuixoteagainstthewaryBiscayan,withuplifted swordandafirmintentionofsplittinghiminhalf,whileonhissidetheBiscayan waitedforhimswordinhand,andundertheprotectionofhiscushion;andall presentstoodtrembling,waitinginsuspensetheresultofblowssuchasthreatened tofall,andtheladyinthecoachandtherestofherfollowingweremakinga thousandvowsandofferingstoalltheimagesandshrinesofSpain,thatGodmight deliverhersquireandallofthemfromthisgreatperilinwhichtheyfound themselves.Butitspoilsall,thatatthispointandcrisistheauthorofthehistory leavesthisbattleimpending,givingasexcusethathecouldfindnothingmore writtenabouttheseachievementsofDonQuixotethanwhathasbeenalreadyset forth.Itistruethesecondauthor30ofthisworkwasunwillingtobelievethata historysocuriouscouldhavebeenallowedtofallunderthesentenceofoblivion,or thatthewitsofLaManchacouldhavebeensoundiscerningasnottopreservein theirarchivesorregistriessomedocumentsreferringtothisfamousknight;andthis beinghispersuasion,hedidnotdespairoffindingtheconclusionofthispleasant history....

romancesofchivalrytocreatesuspense.
30Cervanteshimself,adoptingherewithtongueincheekadeviceusedinthe

DonQuixotedelaMancha

47

CHAPTERIX
INWHICHISCONCLUDEDANDFINISHEDTHETERRIFICBATTLEBETWEENTHE GALLANTBISCAYANANDTHEVALIANTMANCHEGAN
...weleftthevaliantBiscayanandtherenownedDonQuixotewithdrawnswords uplifted,readytodelivertwosuchfuriousslashingblowsthatiftheyhadfallenfull andfairtheywouldatleasthavesplitandcleftthemasunderfromtoptotoeand laidthemopenlikeapomegranate;andatthissocriticalpointthedelightfulhistory cametoastopandstoodcutshortwithoutanyintimationfromtheauthorwhere whatwasmissingwastobefound. Thisdistressedmegreatly,becausethepleasurederivedfromhavingreadsucha smallportionturnedtovexationatthethoughtofthepoorchancethatpresented itselfoffindingthelargepartthat,soitseemedtome,wasmissingofsuchan interestingtale.Itappearedtometobeathingimpossibleandcontrarytoall precedentthatsogoodaknightshouldhavebeenwithoutsomesagetoundertake thetaskofwritinghismarvelousachievements;athingthatwasneverwantingto anyofthoseknightserrantwho,theysay,wentafteradventures;foreveryoneof themhadoneortwosagesasifmadeonpurpose,whonotonlyrecordedtheir deedsbutdescribedtheirmosttriflingthoughtsandfollies,howeversecretthey mightbe;andsuchagoodknightcouldnothavebeensounfortunateasnottohave whatPlatirandotherslikehimhadinabundance.AndsoIcouldnotbringmyselfto believethatsuchagallanttalehadbeenleftmaimedandmutilated,andIlaidthe blameonTime,thedevoureranddestroyerofallthings,thathadeitherconcealed orconsumedit. Ontheotherhand,itstruckmethat,inasmuchasamonghisbookstherehadbeen foundsuchmodernonesasTheEnlightenmentofJealousyandtheNymphsand ShepherdsofHenares,hisstorymustlikewisebemodern,andthatthoughitmight notbewritten,itmightexistinthememoryofthepeopleofhisvillageandofthose

48 DonQuixotedelaMancha intheneighborhood.Thisreflectionkeptmeperplexedandlongingtoknowthe wholestory,thetruestory,ofthelifeandwondrousdeedsofourfamousSpaniard, DonQuixoteofLaMancha,lightandmirrorofchivalryinLaMancha,andthefirstin ourageandinthesecalamitoustimestohavedevotedhimselftothelaborand exerciseofknighterrantry,rightingwrongs,succoringwidows,andprotecting damselsofthatsortthatusedtorideabout,whipinhand,ontheirpalfreys,withall theirvirginityaboutthem,frommountaintomountainandvalleytovalleyfor,ifit werenotforsomeruffian,orboorwithahoodandhatchet,ormonstrousgiant,that forcedthem,therewereindaysofyoredamselsthatattheendofeightyyears,inall whichtimetheyhadneversleptadayunderaroof,wenttotheirgravesasmuch maidsasthemothersthatborethem.Isay,then,thatintheseandotherrespects ourgallantDonQuixoteisworthyofeverlastingandnotablepraise,norshouldsuch praisebewithheldevenfrommeforthelaborandpainsspentinsearchingforthe conclusionofthisdelightfulhistory;thoughIknowwellthatifHeaven,chanceand goodfortunehadnothelpedme,theworldwouldhaveremaineddeprivedofan entertainmentandpleasurethatforacoupleofhoursorsomaywelloccupyhim whoshallreaditattentively.Thediscoveryofitoccurredinthisway. Oneday,asIwasintheAlcanaofToledo,aboycameuptosellsomepamphletsand oldpaperstoasilkmercer,and,asIamfondofreadingeventheveryscrapsof paperinthestreets,ledbythisnaturalbentofmineItookuponeofthepamphlets theboyhadforsale,andsawthatitwasincharacterswhichIrecognizedasArabic, andasIwasunabletoreadthemthoughIcouldrecognizethem,Ilookedaboutto seeiftherewereanySpanishspeakingMoriscoathandtoreadthemforme;nor wasthereanygreatdifficultyinfindingsuchaninterpreter,forevenhadIsought oneforanolderandbetterlanguage31Ishouldhavefoundhim.Inshort,chance providedmewithone,whowhenItoldhimwhatIwantedandputthebookintohis hands,openeditinthemiddleandafterreadingalittleinitbegantolaugh.Iasked himwhathewaslaughingat,andherepliedthatitwasatsomethingthebookhad

31i.e.,Hebrew

49 writteninthemarginbywayofanote.Ibadehimtellittome;andhestilllaughing said,"Inthemargin,asItoldyou,thisiswritten:'ThisDulcineadelTobososooften mentionedinthishistory,had,theysay,thebesthandofanywomaninallLa Manchaforsaltingpigs.'" WhenIheardDulcineadelTobosonamed,Iwasstruckwithsurpriseand amazement,foritoccurredtomeatoncethatthesepamphletscontainedthehistory ofDonQuixote.WiththisideaIpressedhimtoreadthebeginning,anddoingso, turningtheArabicoffhandintoCastilian,hetoldmeitmeant,HistoryofDonQuixote ofLaMancha,writtenbyCideHameteBenengeli32,anArabhistorian.Itrequired greatcautiontohidethejoyIfeltwhenthetitleofthebookreachedmyears,and snatchingitfromthesilkmercer,Iboughtallthepapersandpamphletsfromthe boyforhalfareal;andifhehadhadhiswitsabouthimandhadknownhoweagerI wasforthem,hemighthavesafelycalculatedonmakingmorethansixrealsbythe bargain.IwithdrewatoncewiththeMoriscointothecloisterofthecathedral,and beggedhimtoturnallthesepamphletsthatrelatedtoDonQuixoteintotheCastilian tongue,withoutomittingoraddinganythingtothem,offeringhimwhatever paymenthepleased.Hewassatisfiedwithtwoarrobasofraisins33andtwobushels ofwheat,andpromisedtotranslatethemfaithfullyandwithalldispatch;butto makethemattereasier,andnottoletsuchapreciousfindoutofmyhands,Itook himtomyhouse,whereinlittlemorethanamonthandahalfhetranslatedthe wholejustasitissetdownhere. InthefirstpamphletthebattlebetweenDonQuixoteandtheBiscayanwasdrawnto theverylife,theyplantedinthesameattitudeasthehistorydescribes,theirswords raised,andtheoneprotectedbyhisbuckler,theotherbyhiscushion,andthe Biscayan'smulesotruetonaturethatitcouldbeseentobeahiredoneabowshot off.TheBiscayanhadaninscriptionunderhisfeetwhichsaid,"DonSanchode
32Citingsomeancientchronicleastheauthorssourceandauthorityisverymuchin

DonQuixotedelaMancha

thetraditionoftheromances.Benengeli,incidentally,meanseggplant. 33About50pounds.

50 DonQuixotedelaMancha Azpeitia,"whichnodoubtmusthavebeenhisname;andatthefeetofRocinante wasanotherthatsaid,"DonQuixote."Rocinantewasmarvelouslyportrayed,solong andthin,solankandlean,withsomuchbackboneandsofargoneinconsumption, thatheshowedplainlywithwhatjudgmentandproprietythenameofRocinante hadbeenbestoweduponhim.NearhimwasSanchoPanzaholdingthehalterofhis ass,atwhosefeetwasanotherlabelthatsaid,"SanchoZancas,"andaccordingtothe picture,hemusthavehadabigbelly,ashortbody,andlongshanks,forwhich reason,nodoubt,thenamesofPanzaandZancas34weregivenhim,forbythesetwo surnamesthehistoryseveraltimescallshim.Someothertriflingparticularsmight bementioned,buttheyareallofslightimportanceandhavenothingtodowiththe truerelationofthehistory;andnohistorycanbebadsolongasitistrue. Ifagainstthepresentoneanyobjectionberaisedonthescoreofitstruth,itcanonly bethatitsauthorwasanArab,aslyingisaverycommonpropensitywiththoseof thatnation;though,astheyaresuchenemiesofours,itisconceivablethatthere wereomissionsratherthanadditionsmadeinthecourseofit.Andthisismyown opinion;for,wherehecouldandshouldgivefreedomtohispeninpraiseofso worthyaknight,heseemstomedeliberatelytopassitoverinsilence;whichisill doneandworsecontrived,foritisthebusinessanddutyofhistorianstobeexact, truthful,andwhollyfreefrompassion,andneitherinterestnorfear,hatrednorlove, shouldmakethemswervefromthepathoftruth,whosemotherishistory,rivalof time,storehouseofdeeds,witnessforthepast,exampleandcounselforthepresent, andwarningforthefuture.InthisIknowwillbefoundallthatcanbedesiredinthe pleasantest,andifitbewantinginanygoodquality,Imaintainitisthefaultofits houndofanauthorandnotthefaultofthesubject.Tobebrief,itsSecondPart, accordingtothetranslation,beganinthisway: Withtrenchantswordsupraisedandpoisedonhigh,itseemedasthoughthetwo valiantandwrathfulcombatantsstoodthreateningheaven,andearth,andhell,with

34i.e.,PaunchandShanks

51 suchresolutionanddeterminationdidtheybearthemselves.ThefieryBiscayanwas thefirsttostrikeablow,whichwasdeliveredwithsuchforceandfurythathadnot theswordturnedinitscourse,thatsinglestrokewouldhavesufficedtoputanend tothebitterstruggleandtoalltheadventuresofourknight;butthatgoodfortune whichreservedhimforgreaterthings,turnedasidetheswordofhisadversary,so thatalthoughitsmotehimupontheleftshoulder,itdidhimnomoreharmthanto stripallthatsideofitsarmor,carryingawayagreatpartofhishelmetwithhalfof hisear,allwhichwithfearfulruinfelltotheground,leavinghiminasorryplight. GoodGod!Whoistherethatcouldproperlydescribetheragethatfilledtheheartof ourMancheganwhenhesawhimselfdealtwithinthisfashion?Allthatcanbesaid is,itwassuchthatheagainraisedhimselfinhisstirrups,and,graspinghissword morefirmlywithbothhands,hecamedownontheBiscayanwithsuchfury,smiting himfulloverthecushionandoverthehead,thatevensogoodashieldproving uselessasifamountainhadfallenonhim,hebegantobleedfromnose,mouth, andears,reelingasifabouttofallbackwardsfromhismule,asnodoubthewould havedonehadhenotflunghisarmsaboutitsneck;atthesametime,however,he slippedhisfeetoutofthestirrupsandthenunclaspedhisarms,andthemule,taking frightattheterribleblow,madeoffacrosstheplain,andwithafewplungesflungits mastertotheground.DonQuixotestoodlookingonverycalmly,and,whenhesaw himfall,leapedfromhishorseandwithgreatbrisknessrantohim,and,presenting thepointofhisswordtohiseyes,badehimsurrender,orhewouldcuthisheadoff. TheBiscayanwassobewilderedthathewasunabletoansweraword,anditwould havegonehardwithhim,soblindwasDonQuixote,hadnottheladiesinthecoach, whohadhithertobeenwatchingthecombatingreatterror,hastenedtowherehe stoodandimploredhimwithearnestentreatiestograntthemthegreatgraceand favorofsparingtheirsquire'slife;towhichDonQuixoterepliedwithmuchgravity anddignity,"Intruth,fairladies,Iamwellcontenttodowhatyeaskofme;butit mustbeononeconditionandunderstanding,whichisthatthisknightpromiseme togotothevillageofElToboso,andonmybehalfpresenthimselfbeforethe peerlessladyDulcinea,thatshedealwithhimasshallbemostpleasingtoher."

DonQuixotedelaMancha

52

DonQuixotedelaMancha

Theterrifiedanddisconsolateladies,withoutdiscussingDonQuixote'sdemandor askingwhoDulcineamightbe,promisedthattheirsquireshoulddoallthathad beencommanded. "Then,onthefaithofthatpromise,"saidDonQuixote,"Ishalldohimnofurther harm,thoughhewelldeservesitofme."

DonQuixotedelaMancha

53

CHAPTERX
OFTHEPLEASANTDISCOURSETHATPASSEDBETWEENDONQUIXOTEANDHIS SQUIRESANCHOPANZA
NowbythistimeSanchohadrisen,rathertheworseforthehandlingofthefriars' muleteers,andstoodwatchingthebattleofhismaster,DonQuixote,andprayingto Godinhisheartthatitmightbehiswilltogranthimthevictory,andthathemight therebywinsomeislandtomakehimgovernorof,ashehadpromised.Seeing, therefore,thatthestrugglewasnowover,andthathismasterwasreturningto mountRocinante,heapproachedtoholdthestirrupforhim,and,beforehecould mount,hewentonhiskneesbeforehim,andtakinghishand,kisseditsaying,"May itpleaseyourworship,SeorDonQuixote,togivemethegovernmentofthatisland whichhasbeenwoninthishardfight,forbeiteversobigIfeelmyselfinsufficient forcetobeabletogovernitasmuchandaswellasanyoneintheworldwhohas evergovernedislands." TowhichDonQuixotereplied,"Thoumusttakenotice,brotherSancho,thatthis adventureandthoselikeitarenotadventuresofislands,butofcrossroads,in whichnothingisgotexceptabrokenheadoraneartheless:havepatience,for adventureswillpresentthemselvesfromwhichImaymakeyou,notonlya governor,butsomethingmore." Sanchogavehimmanythanks,andagainkissinghishandandtheskirtofhis hauberk,helpedhimtomountRocinante,andmountinghisasshimself,proceeded tofollowhismaster,whoatabriskpace,withouttakingleave,orsayinganything furthertotheladiesbelongingtothecoach,turnedintoawoodthatwashardby. Sanchofollowedhimathisass'sbesttrot,butRocinantesteppedoutsothat,seeing himselfleftbehind,hewasforcedtocalltohismastertowaitforhim.DonQuixote didso,reininginRocinanteuntilhiswearysquirecameup,whoonreachinghim said,"Itseemstome,seor,itwouldbeprudentinustogoandtakerefugeinsome

54 DonQuixotedelaMancha church,for,seeinghowmauledhewithwhomyoufoughthasbeenleft,itwillbeno wonderiftheygiveinformationoftheaffairtotheHolyBrotherhoodandarrestus, and,faith,iftheydo,beforewecomeoutofjailweshallhavetosweatforit." "Peace,"saidDonQuixote;"wherehastthoueverseenorheardthataknighterrant hasbeenarraignedbeforeacourtofjustice,howevermanyhomicideshemayhave committed?" "Iknownothingaboutomecils,35"answeredSancho,"norinmylifehavehad anythingtodowithone;IonlyknowthattheHolyBrotherhoodlooksafterthose whofightinthefields,andinthatothermatterIdonotmeddle." "Thenthouneedsthavenouneasiness,myfriend,"saidDonQuixote,"forIwill delivertheeoutofthehandsoftheChaldeans,muchmoreoutofthoseofthe Brotherhood.Buttellme,asthoulivest,hastthouseenamorevaliantknightthanI inalltheknownworld;hastthoureadinhistoryofanywhohasorhadhigher mettleinattack,morespiritinmaintainingit,moredexterityinwoundingorskillin overthrowing?" "Thetruthis,"answeredSancho,"thatIhaveneverreadanyhistory,forIcan neitherreadnorwrite,butwhatIwillventuretobetisthatamoredaringmaster thanyourworshipIhaveneverservedinallthedaysofmylife,andGodgrantthat thisdaringbenotpaidforwhereIhavesaid;whatIbegofyourworshipistodress yourwound,foragreatdealofbloodflowsfromthatear,andIhaveheresomelint andalittlewhiteointmentinthealforjas." "Allthatmightbewelldispensedwith,"saidDonQuixote,"ifIhadrememberedto makeavialofthebalsamofFierabras,fortimeandmedicinearesavedbyonesingle drop."

35grudges

DonQuixotedelaMancha "Whatvialandwhatbalsamisthat?"saidSanchoPanza.

55

"Itisabalsam,"answeredDonQuixote,"thereceiptofwhichIhaveinmymemory, withwhichoneneedhavenofearofdeath,ordreaddyingofanywound;andso whenImakeitandgiveittotheethouhastnothingtodowheninsomebattlethou seesttheyhavecutmeinhalfthroughthemiddleofthebodyasiswonttohappen frequently,butneatlyandwithgreatnicety,erethebloodcongeal,toplacethat portionofthebodywhichshallhavefallentothegroundupontheotherhalfwhich remainsinthesaddle,takingcaretofititonevenlyandexactly.Thenthoushaltgive metodrinkbuttwodropsofthebalsamIhavementioned,andthoushaltseeme becomesounderthananapple." "Ifthatbeso,"saidPanza,"Irenouncehenceforththegovernmentofthepromised island,anddesirenothingmoreinpaymentofmymanyandfaithfulservicesthan thatyourworshipgivemethereceiptofthissupremeliquor,forIampersuadedit willbeworthmorethantworealsanounceanywhere,andIwantnomorethanto passtherestofmylifeineaseandhonor;butitremainstobetoldifitcostsmuchto makeit." "Withlessthanthreereals,sixquartsofitmaybemade,"saidDonQuixote. "SinnerthatIam!"saidSancho,"thenwhydoesyourworshipputoffmakingitand teachingittome?" "Peace,friend,"answeredDonQuixote;"greatersecretsImeantoteachtheeand greaterfavorstobestowuponthee;andforthepresentletusseetothedressing,for myearpainsmemorethanIcouldwish." Sanchotookoutsomelintandointmentfromthealforjas;butwhenDonQuixote cametoseehishelmetshattered,hewasliketolosehissenses,andclappinghis

56 DonQuixotedelaMancha handuponhisswordandraisinghiseyestoheaven,besaid,"IswearbytheCreator ofallthingsandthefourGospelsintheirfullestextent,todoasthegreatMarquisof MantuadidwhenhesworetoavengethedeathofhisnephewBaldwin(andthat wasnottoeatbreadfromatablecloth,norembracehiswife,andotherpoints which,thoughIcannotnowcallthemtomind,Iheregrantasexpressed)untilItake completevengeanceuponhimwhohascommittedsuchanoffenceagainstme." Hearingthis,Sanchosaidtohim,"Yourworshipshouldbearinmind,SeorDon Quixote,thatiftheknighthasdonewhatwascommandedhimingoingtopresent himselfbeforemyladyDulcineadelToboso,hewillhavedoneallthathewasbound todo,anddoesnotdeservefurtherpunishmentunlesshecommitssomenew offence." "Thouhastsaidwellandhitthepoint,"answeredDonQuixote;andsoIrecallthe oathinsofarasrelatestotakingfreshvengeanceonhim,butImakeandconfirmit anewtoleadthelifeIhavesaiduntilsuchtimeasItakebyforcefromsomeknight anotherhelmetsuchasthisandasgood;andthinknot,Sancho,thatIamraising smokewithstrawindoingso,forIhaveonetoimitateinthematter,sincethevery samethingtoahairhappenedinthecaseofMambrino'shelmet,whichcost Sacripantesodear."36 "Seor,"repliedSancho,"letyourworshipsendallsuchoathstothedevil,forthey areverypernicioustosalvationandprejudicialtotheconscience;justtellmenow,if forseveraldaystocomewefallinwithnomanarmedwithahelmet,whatareweto do?Istheoathtobeobservedinspiteofalltheinconvenienceanddiscomfortitwill betosleepinyourclothes,andnottosleepinahouse,andathousandother mortificationscontainedintheoathofthatoldfooltheMarquisofMantua,which yourworshipisnowwantingtorevive?Letyourworshipobservethatthereareno
36TheenchantedhelmetofMambrino,aMoorishking,isstolenbyRinaldointhe

15thcenturyepicpoemOrlandoInnamorato(RolandinLove)byMatteoMaria Boiardo.

57 meninarmortravelingonanyoftheseroads,nothingbutcarriersandcarters,who notonlydonotwearhelmets,butperhapsneverheardtellofthemalltheirlives." "Thouartwrongthere,"saidDonQuixote,"forweshallnothavebeenabovetwo hoursamongthesecrossroadsbeforeweseemoremeninarmorthancameto AlbracatowinthefairAngelica."37 "Enough,"saidSancho;"sobeitthen,andGodgrantussuccess,andthatthetimefor winningthatislandwhichiscostingmesodearmaysooncome,andthenletme die." "Ihavealreadytoldthee,Sancho,"saidDonQuixote,"nottogivethyselfany uneasinessonthatscore;forifanislandshouldfail,thereisthekingdomof Denmark,orofSobradisa,38whichwillfittheeasaringfitsthefinger,andallthe morethat,beingonterrafirma39,thouwiltallthebetterenjoythyself.Butletus leavethattoitsowntime;seeifthouhastanythingforustoeatinthosealforjas, becausewemustpresentlygoinquestofsomecastlewherewemaylodgetonight andmakethebalsamItoldtheeof,forIsweartotheebyGod,thisearisgivingme greatpain." "Ihavehereanonionandalittlecheeseandafewscrapsofbread,"saidSancho, "buttheyarenotvictualsfitforavaliantknightlikeyourworship." "Howlittlethouknowestaboutit,"answeredDonQuixote;"Iwouldhavetheeto know,Sancho,thatitisthegloryofknightserranttogowithouteatingforamonth, andevenwhentheydoeat,thatitshouldbeofwhatcomesfirsttohand;andthis wouldhavebeencleartotheehadstthoureadasmanyhistoriesasIhave,for,
37AnotherallusiontoBoiardospoem. 38Animaginaryrealm. 39Solidearth,herealsoFirmIsland,animaginaryfinaldestinationforsquiresof

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knightserrant.

58 DonQuixotedelaMancha thoughtheyareverymany,amongthemallIhavefoundnomentionmadeof knightserranteating,unlessbyaccidentoratsomesumptuousbanquetsprepared forthem,andtherestofthetimetheypassedindalliance.Andthoughitisplain theycouldnotdowithouteatingandperformingalltheothernaturalfunctions, because,infact,theyweremenlikeourselves,itisplaintoothat,wanderingasthey didthemostpartoftheirlivesthroughwoodsandwildsandwithoutacook,their mostusualfarewouldberusticviandssuchasthosethounowofferme;sothat, friendSancho,letnotthatdistresstheewhichpleasesme,anddonotseektomakea newworldorpervertknighterrantry." "Pardonme,yourworship,"saidSancho,"for,asIcannotreadorwrite,asIsaidjust now,Ineitherknownorcomprehendtherulesoftheprofessionofchivalry: henceforwardIwillstockthealforjaswitheverykindofdryfruitforyourworship, asyouareaknight;andformyself,asIamnotone,Iwillfurnishthemwithpoultry andotherthingsmoresubstantial." "Idonotsay,Sancho,"repliedDonQuixote,"thatitisimperativeonknightserrant nottoeatanythingelsebutthefruitsthouspeakestof;onlythattheirmoreusual dietmustbethose,andcertainherbstheyfoundinthefieldswhichtheyknewandI knowtoo." "Agoodthingitis,"answeredSancho,"toknowthoseherbs,fortomythinkingit willbeneedfulsomedaytoputthatknowledgeintopractice." Andheretakingoutwhathesaidhehadbrought,thepairmadetheirrepast peaceablyandsociably.Butanxioustofindquartersforthenight,theywithall despatchmadeanendoftheirpoordryfare,mountedatonce,andmadehasteto reachsomehabitationbeforenightsetin;butdaylightandthehopeofsucceedingin theirobjectfailedthemclosebythehutsofsomegoatherds,sotheydeterminedto passthenightthere,anditwasasmuchtoSancho'sdiscontentnottohavereached ahouse,asitwastohismaster'ssatisfactiontosleepundertheopenheaven,forhe

59 fanciedthateachtimethishappenedtohimheperformedanactofownershipthat helpedtoprovehischivalry.

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CHAPTERXI
WHATBEFELLDONQUIXOTEWITHCERTAINGOATHERDS
Hewascordiallywelcomedbythegoatherds,andSancho,havingasbesthecould putupRocinanteandtheass,drewtowardsthefragrancethatcamefromsome piecesofsaltedgoatsimmeringinapotonthefire;andthoughhewouldhaveliked atoncetotryiftheywerereadytobetransferredfromthepottothestomach,he refrainedfromdoingsoasthegoatherdsremovedthemfromthefire,andlaying sheepskinsontheground,quicklyspreadtheirrudetable,andwithsignsofhearty goodwillinvitedthembothtosharewhattheyhad.Roundtheskinssixofthemen belongingtothefoldseatedthemselves,havingfirstwithroughpolitenesspressed DonQuixotetotakeaseatuponatroughwhichtheyplacedforhimupsidedown. DonQuixoteseatedhimself,andSanchoremainedstandingtoservethecup,which wasmadeofhorn.Seeinghimstanding,hismastersaidtohim: "Thatthoumayestsee,Sancho,thegoodthatknighterrantrycontainsinitself,and howthosewhofillanyofficeinitareonthehighroadtobespeedilyhonouredand esteemedbytheworld,Idesirethatthouseatthyselfhereatmysideandinthe companyoftheseworthypeople,andthatthoubeonewithmewhoamthymaster andnaturallord,andthatthoueatfrommyplateanddrinkfromwhateverIdrink from;forthesamemaybesaidofknighterrantryasoflove,thatitlevelsall." "Greatthanks,"saidSancho,"butImaytellyourworshipthatprovidedIhave enoughtoeat,Icaneatitaswell,orbetter,standing,andbymyself,thanseated alongsideofanemperor.Andindeed,ifthetruthistobetold,whatIeatinmy cornerwithoutformorfusshasmuchmorerelishforme,eventhoughitbebread andonions,thantheturkeysofthoseothertableswhereIamforcedtochewslowly, drinklittle,wipemymoutheveryminute,andcannotsneezeorcoughifIwantordo

DonQuixotedelaMancha otherthingsthataretheprivilegesoflibertyandsolitude.So,seor,asforthese

61

honorswhichyourworshipwouldputuponmeasaservantandfollowerofknight errantry,exchangethemforotherthingswhichmaybeofmoreuseandadvantage tome;forthese,thoughIfullyacknowledgethemasreceived,Irenouncefromthis momenttotheendoftheworld." "Forallthat,"saidDonQuixote,"thoumustseatthyself,becausehimwhohumbleth himselfGodexalteth;"andseizinghimbythearmheforcedhimtositdownbeside himself. Thegoatherdsdidnotunderstandthisjargonaboutsquiresandknightserrant,and alltheydidwastoeatinsilenceandstareattheirguests,whowithgreatelegance andappetitewerestowingawaypiecesasbigasone'sfist.Thecourseofmeat finished,theyspreaduponthesheepskinsagreatheapofparchedacorns,andwith themtheyputdownahalfcheeseharderthanifithadbeenmadeofmortar.Allthis whilethehornwasnotidle,foritwentroundsoconstantly,nowfull,nowempty, likethebucketofawaterwheel,thatitsoondrainedoneofthetwowineskinsthat wereinsight.WhenDonQuixotehadquiteappeasedhisappetitehetookupa handfuloftheacorns,andcontemplatingthemattentivelydeliveredhimself somewhatinthisfashion: "Happytheage,happythetime,towhichtheancientsgavethenameofgolden,not becauseinthatfortunateagethegoldsocovetedinthisourirononewasgained withouttoil,butbecausetheythatlivedinitknewnotthetwowords"mine"and "thine"!Inthatblessedageallthingswereincommon;towinthedailyfoodnolabor wasrequiredofanysavetostretchforthhishandandgatheritfromthesturdyoaks thatstoodgenerouslyinvitinghimwiththeirsweetripefruit.Theclearstreamsand runningbrooksyieldedtheirsavorylimpidwatersinnobleabundance.Thebusy andsagaciousbeesfixedtheirrepublicinthecleftsoftherocksandhollowsofthe trees,offeringwithoutusancetheplenteousproduceoftheirfragranttoiltoevery hand.Themightycorktrees,unenforcedsaveoftheirowncourtesy,shedthebroad

62 DonQuixotedelaMancha lightbarkthatservedatfirsttoroofthehousessupportedbyrudestakes,a protectionagainsttheinclemencyofheavenalone.Thenallwaspeace,all friendship,allconcord;asyetthedullshareofthecrookedploughhadnotdaredto rendandpiercethetenderbowelsofourfirstmotherthatwithoutcompulsion yieldedfromeveryportionofherbroadfertilebosomallthatcouldsatisfy,sustain, anddelightthechildrenthatthenpossessedher.Thenwasitthattheinnocentand fairyoungshepherdessroamedfromvaletovaleandhilltohill,withflowinglocks, andnomoregarmentsthanwereneedfulmodestlytocoverwhatmodestyseeks andeversoughttohide.Norweretheirornamentslikethoseinusetoday,setoffby Tyrianpurple,andsilktorturedinendlessfashions,butthewreathedleavesofthe greendockandivy,wherewiththeywentasbravelyandbecominglydeckedasour Courtdameswithalltherareandfarfetchedartificesthatidlecuriosityhastaught them.Thenthelovethoughtsoftheheartclothedthemselvessimplyandnaturally astheheartconceivedthem,norsoughttocommendthemselvesbyforcedand ramblingverbiage.Fraud,deceit,ormalicehadthennotyetmingledwithtruthand sincerity.Justiceheldherground,undisturbedandunassailedbytheeffortsoffavor andofinterest,thatnowsomuchimpair,pervert,andbesether.Arbitrarylawhad notyetestablisheditselfinthemindofthejudge,forthentherewasnocauseto judgeandnoonetobejudged.Maidensandmodesty,asIhavesaid,wanderedat willaloneandunattended,withoutfearofinsultfromlawlessnessorlibertine assault,andiftheywereundoneitwasoftheirownwillandpleasure.Butnowin thishatefulageofoursnotoneissafe,notthoughsomenewlabyrinthlikethatof Creteconcealandsurroundher;eventherethepestilenceofgallantrywillmakeits waytothemthroughchinksorontheairbythezealofitsaccursedimportunity, and,despiteofallseclusion,leadthemtoruin.Indefenseofthese,astimeadvanced andwickednessincreased,theorderofknightserrantwasinstituted,todefend maidens,toprotectwidowsandtosuccortheorphansandtheneedy.TothisorderI belong,brothergoatherds,towhomIreturnthanksforthehospitalityandkindly welcomeyeoffermeandmysquire;forthoughbynaturallawalllivingareboundto showfavortoknightserrant,yet,seeingthatwithoutknowingthisobligationye

63 havewelcomedandfeastedme,itisrightthatwithallthegoodwillinmypowerI shouldthankyouforyours." Allthislongharangue(whichmightverywellhavebeenspared)ourknight deliveredbecausetheacornstheygavehimremindedhimofthegoldenage;andthe whimseizedhimtoaddressallthisunnecessaryargumenttothegoatherds,who listenedtohimgapinginamazementwithoutsayingawordinreply.Sancho likewiseheldhispeaceandateacorns,andpaidrepeatedvisitstothesecondwine skin,whichtheyhadhunguponacorktreetokeepthewinecool. DonQuixotewaslongerintalkingthanthesupperinfinishing,attheendofwhich oneofthegoatherdssaid,"Thatyourworship,seorknighterrant,maysaywith moretruththatweshowyouhospitalitywithreadygoodwill,wewillgiveyou amusementandpleasurebymakingoneofourcomradessing:hewillbehere beforelong,andheisaveryintelligentyouthanddeepinlove,andwhatismorehe canreadandwriteandplayontherebeck40toperfection." Thegoatherdhadhardlydonespeaking,whenthenotesoftherebeckreachedtheir ears;andshortlyafter,theplayercameup,averygoodlookingyoungmanofabout twoandtwenty.Hiscomradesaskedhimifhehadsupped,andonhisreplyingthat hehad,hewhohadalreadymadetheoffersaidtohim: "Inthatcase,Antonio,thoumayestaswelldousthepleasureofsingingalittle,that thegentleman,ourguest,mayseethateveninthemountainsandwoodsthereare musicians:wehavetoldhimofthyaccomplishments,andwewanttheetoshow themandprovethatwesaytrue;so,asthoulivest,praysitdownandsingthat balladaboutthylovethatthyuncletheprebendary41madethee,andthatwasso muchlikedinthetown."
40Apearshaped,twoorthreestringedmedievalinstrument,playedwithabow.

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prebendthatis,astipendoragrant.

41acanonormemberofthechapterofacathedralorcollegiatechurchwhoholdsa

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"Withallmyheart,"saidtheyoungman,andwithoutwaitingformorepressinghe seatedhimselfonthetrunkofafelledoak,andtuninghisrebeck,presentlybeganto singtothesewords. ANTONIO'SBALLAD Iknowwellthatthoudoesloveme, MyOlalla,eventhough Eyesofthinehaveneverspoken Lovesmutetonguestotellmeso. SinceIknowthouknowestmypassion, OfthyloveIammoresure; Noloveeverywasunhappy Whenitwasbothfrankandpure. Trueitis,Olalla,sometimes Thouaheartofbronzehastshown, Anditseemedtomethatbosom, Whiteandfair,wasmadeofstone. Yetinspiteofallrepulses Andachastitysocold, ItappearedthatIHopesgarment Bythehemdidclutchandhold. FormyfaithIevercherished; Itwouldrisetomeetthebait; Spurned,itneverdiddiminish; Favored,itpreferredtowait. Love,theysay,hathgentlemanners: Thusitisitshowsitsface;

DonQuixotedelaMancha ThenmayItakehope,Olalla, Trusttowinalongedforgrace. Ifdevotionhaththepower Heartstomoveandmakethemkind, LettheloyaltyIveshownthee Pleadmycause,bekeptinmind. Forifthoudidstnotemycostume, Morethanoncethoumusthaveseen, WornuponasimpleMonday Sundaysgarbsobrightandclean. Loveandbrightnessgotogether. Dostthouaskthereasonwhy IthusdeckmyselfonMonday? Itisbuttocatchthineeye. Isaynothingofthedances Ihavedancedforthysweetsake; NortheserenadesIvesungthee Tillthefirstcockdidawake. NorwillIrepeatmypraises Ofthatbeautyallcansee; True,mywordsbutoftunwelcome Manylasseshatedme. ForTeresaofthehillside Atmypraiseoftheewassore; Said,"Youthinkyouloveanangel; It'samonkeyyouadore; "Caughtbyallherglitteringtrinkets, Andherartificialhair, Andhermanyaidstobeauty, ThatwouldLovehimselfensnare."

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DonQuixotedelaMancha 'Twasalie,andsoItoldher, Andhercousin,verybold, Challengedmeuponmyhonor; Whatensuedneednotbetold.42 Highflownwordsdonotbecomeme; Imaplainandsimpleman. PurethelovethatIwouldoffer, ServingtheeasbestIcan. Silkenarethebondsofmarriage, Whentwoheartsdointertwine; MotherChurchtheyokewillfasten; BowyourneckandIllbowmine. Orifnot,mywordIllgivethee, FromthesemountainsIllcomedown Saintmostholdbemywitness WearingaCapuchingown.43

Herethegoatherdbroughthissongtoanend,andthoughDonQuixoteentreated himtosingmore,Sanchohadnomindthatway,beingmoreinclinedforsleepthan forlisteningtosongs;sosaidhetohismaster,"Yourworshipwilldowelltosettleat oncewhereyoumeantopassthenight,forthelaborthesegoodmenareatallday doesnotallowthemtospendthenightinsinging." "Iunderstandthee,Sancho,"repliedDonQuixote;"Iperceiveclearlythatthosevisits tothewineskindemandcompensationinsleepratherthaninmusic." "It'ssweettousall,blessedbeGod,"saidSancho.


42Essentially,hekilledthecousininaduel. 43Inotherwords,hellbecomeamonk.

67 "Idonotdenyit,"repliedDonQuixote;"butsettlethyselfwherethouwilt;thoseof mycallingaremorebecominglyemployedinwatchingthaninsleeping;stillit wouldbeaswellifthouwerttodressthisearformeagain,foritisgivingmemore painthanitneed." Sanchodidashebadehim,butoneofthegoatherds,seeingthewound,toldhimnot tobeuneasy,ashewouldapplyaremedywithwhichitwouldbesoonhealed;and gatheringsomeleavesofrosemary,ofwhichtherewasagreatquantitythere,he chewedthemandmixedthemwithalittlesalt,andapplyingthemtotheearhe securedthemfirmlywithabandage,assuringhimthatnoothertreatmentwouldbe required,andsoitproved.

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CHAPTERXII.
OFWHATAGOATHERDRELATEDTOTHOSEWITHDONQUIXOTE
Justthenanotheryoungman,oneofthosewhofetchedtheirprovisionsfromthe village,cameupandsaid,"Doyouknowwhatisgoingoninthevillage,comrades?" "Howcouldweknowit?"repliedoneofthem. "Well,then,youmustknow,"continuedtheyoungman,"thismorningthatfamous studentshepherdcalledChrysostomodied,anditisrumoredthathediedoflovefor thatdevilofavillagegirlthedaughterofGuillermotheRich,shethatwandersabout thewolds44hereinthedressofashepherdess." "YoumeanMarcela?"saidone. "HerImean,"answeredthegoatherd;"andthebestofitis,hehasdirectedinhis willthatheistobeburiedinthefieldslikeaMoor,andatthefootoftherockwhere theCorktreespringis,because,asthestorygoes(andtheysayhehimselfsaidso), thatwastheplacewherehefirstsawher.Andhehasalsoleftotherdirections whichtheclergyofthevillagesayshouldnotandmustnotbeobeyedbecausethey savorofpaganism.ToallwhichhisgreatfriendAmbrosiothestudent,hewho,like him,alsowentdressedasashepherd,repliesthateverythingmustbedonewithout anyomissionaccordingtothedirectionsleftbyChrysostomo,andaboutthisthe villageisallincommotion;however,reportsaysthat,afterall,whatAmbrosioand alltheshepherdshisfriendsdesirewillbedone,andtomorrowtheyarecomingto buryhimwithgreatceremonywhereIsaid.Iamsureitwillbesomethingworth seeing;atleastIwillnotfailtogoandseeitevenifIknewIshouldnotreturntothe villagetomorrow." 44Unforestedrollingplains;amoor.

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"Wewilldothesame,"answeredthegoatherds,"andcastlotstoseewhomuststay tomindthegoatsofall." "Thousayestwell,Pedro,"saidone,"thoughtherewillbenoneedoftakingthat trouble,forIwillstaybehindforall;anddon'tsupposeitisvirtueorwantof curiosityinme;itisthatthesplinterthatranintomyfoottheotherdaywillnotlet mewalk." "Forallthat,wethankthee,"answeredPedro. DonQuixoteaskedPedrototellhimwhothedeadmanwasandwhothe shepherdess,towhichPedrorepliedthatallheknewwasthatthedeadmanwasa wealthygentlemanbelongingtoavillageinthosemountains,whohadbeena studentatSalamancaformanyyears,attheendofwhichhereturnedtohisvillage withthereputationofbeingverylearnedanddeeplyread."Aboveall,theysaid,he waslearnedinthescienceofthestarsandofwhatwentonyonderintheheavens andthesunandthemoon,forhetoldusoftheclipsofthesunandmoontoexact time." "Eclipseitiscalled,friend,notclips,thedarkeningofthosetwoluminaries,"said DonQuixote;butPedro,nottroublinghimselfwithtrifles,wentonwithhisstory, saying,"Alsoheforetoldwhentheyearwasgoingtobeoneofabundanceor estility." "Sterility,youmean,"saidDonQuixote. "Sterilityorestility,"answeredPedro,"itisallthesameintheend.AndIcantellyou thatbythishisfatherandfriendswhobelievedhimgrewveryrichbecausetheydid asheadvisedthem,biddingthem'sowbarleythisyear,notwheat;thisyearyou

70 DonQuixotedelaMancha maysowpulseandnotbarley;thenexttherewillbeafulloilcrop,andthethree followingnotadropwillbegot.'" "Thatscienceiscalledastrology,"saidDonQuixote. "Idonotknowwhatitiscalled,"repliedPedro,"butIknowthatheknewallthisand morebesides.But,tomakeanend,notmanymonthshadpassedafterhereturned fromSalamanca,whenonedayheappeareddressedasashepherdwithhiscrook andsheepskin,havingputoffthelonggownheworeasascholar;andatthesame timehisgreatfriend,Ambrosiobyname,whohadbeenhiscompanioninhis studies,tooktotheshepherd'sdresswithhim.IforgottosaythatChrysostomo, whoisdead,wasagreatmanforwritingverses,somuchsothathemadecarolsfor ChristmasEve,andplaysforCorpusChristi,whichtheyoungmenofourvillage acted,andallsaidtheywereexcellent.Whenthevillagerssawthetwoscholarsso unexpectedlyappearinginshepherd'sdress,theywerelostinwonder,andcould notguesswhathadledthemtomakesoextraordinaryachange.Aboutthistimethe fatherofourChrysostomodied,andhewasleftheirtoalargeamountofpropertyin chattelsaswellasinland,nosmallnumberofcattleandsheep,andalargesumof money,ofallofwhichtheyoungmanwasleftdissoluteowner,andindeedhewas deservingofitall,forhewasaverygoodcomrade,andkindhearted,andafriendof worthyfolk,andhadacountenancelikeabenediction.Presentlyitcametobe knownthathehadchangedhisdresswithnootherobjectthantowanderabout thesewastesafterthatshepherdessMarcelaourladmentionedawhileago,with whomthedeceasedChrysostomohadfalleninlove.AndImusttellyounow,foritis wellyoushouldknowit,whothisgirlis;perhaps,andevenwithoutanyperhaps, youwillnothaveheardanythinglikeitallthedaysofyourlife,thoughyoushould livemoreyearsthansarna45." "SaySara,"saidDonQuixote,unabletoendurethegoatherd'sconfusionofwords.

45Sarnameansitch.Olderthantheitchwasaproverbialexpression.

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"Thesarnaliveslongenough,"answeredPedro;"andif,seor,youmustgofinding faultwithwordsateverystep,weshallnotmakeanendofitthistwelvemonth." "Pardonme,friend,"saidDonQuixote;"but,asthereissuchadifferencebetween sarnaandSara,Itoldyouofit;however,youhaveansweredveryrightly,forsarna liveslongerthanSara:socontinueyourstory,andIwillnotobjectanymoreto anything." "Isaythen,mydearsir,"saidthegoatherd,"thatinourvillagetherewasafarmer evenricherthanthefatherofChrysostomo,whowasnamedGuillermo,andupon whomGodbestowed,overandabovegreatwealth,adaughteratwhosebirthher motherdied,themostrespectedwomantherewasinthisneighborhood;IfancyI canseehernowwiththatcountenancewhichhadthesunononesideandthemoon ontheother;andmoreoveractive,andkindtothepoor,forwhichItrustthatatthe presentmomenthersoulisinblisswithGodintheotherworld.Herhusband Guillermodiedofgriefatthedeathofsogoodawife,leavinghisdaughterMarcela,a childandrich,tothecareofanuncleofhers,apriestandprebendaryinourvillage. Thegirlgrewupwithsuchbeautythatitremindedusofhermother's,whichwas verygreat,andyetitwasthoughtthatthedaughter'swouldexceedit;andsowhen shereachedtheageoffourteentofifteenyearsnobodybeheldherbutblessedGod thathadmadehersobeautiful,andthegreaternumberwereinlovewithherpast redemption.Herunclekeptheringreatseclusionandretirement,butforallthatthe fameofhergreatbeautyspreadsothat,aswellforitasforhergreatwealth,her unclewasasked,solicited,andimportuned,togiveherinmarriagenotonlybythose ofourtownbutofthosemanyleaguesround,andbythepersonsofhighestquality inthem.Buthe,beingagoodChristianman,thoughhedesiredtogiveherin marriageatonce,seeinghertobeoldenough,wasunwillingtodosowithouther consent,notthathehadanyeyetothegainandprofitwhichthecustodyofthegirl's propertybroughthimwhileheputoffhermarriage;and,faith,thiswassaidin praiseofthegoodpriestinmorethanonesetinthetown.ForIwouldhaveyou

72 DonQuixotedelaMancha know,SirKnight,thatintheselittlevillageseverythingistalkedaboutand everythingiscarpedat,andrestassured,asIam,thatthepriestmustbeoverand abovegoodwhoforceshisparishionerstospeakwellofhim,especiallyinvillages." "Thatisthetruth,"saidDonQuixote;"butgoon,forthestoryisverygood,andyou, goodPedro,tellitwithverygoodgrace." "MaythatoftheLordnotbewantingtome,"saidPedro;"thatistheonetohave.To proceed;youmustknowthatthoughtheuncleputbeforehisnieceanddescribedto herthequalitiesofeachoneinparticularofthemanywhohadaskedherin marriage,begginghertomarryandmakeachoiceaccordingtoherowntaste,she nevergaveanyotheranswerthanthatshehadnodesiretomarryjustyet,andthat beingsoyoungshedidnotthinkherselffittobeartheburdenofmatrimony.At these,toallappearance,reasonableexcusesthatshemade,heruncleceasedtourge her,andwaitedtillshewassomewhatmoreadvancedinageandcouldmateherself toherownliking.For,saidheandhesaidquiterightparentsarenottosettle childreninlifeagainsttheirwill.Butwhenoneleastlookedforit,loandbehold!one daythedemureMarcelamakesherappearanceturnedshepherdess;and,inspiteof heruncleandallthoseofthetownthatstrovetodissuadeher,tooktogoingafield withtheothershepherdlassesofthevillage,andtendingherownflock.Andso, sincesheappearedinpublic,andherbeautycametobeseenopenly,Icouldnot welltellyouhowmanyrichyouths,gentlemenandpeasants,haveadoptedthe costumeofChrysostomo,andgoaboutthesefieldsmakinglovetoher.Oneofthese, ashasbeenalreadysaid,wasourdeceasedfriend,ofwhomtheysaythathedidnot lovebutadoreher.Butyoumustnotsuppose,becauseMarcelachosealifeofsuch libertyandindependence,andofsolittleorrathernoretirement,thatshehasgiven anyoccasion,oreventhesemblanceofone,fordisparagementofherpurityand modesty;onthecontrary,suchandsogreatisthevigilancewithwhichshewatches overherhonor,thatofallthosethatcourtandwoohernotonehasboasted,orcan withtruthboast,thatshehasgivenhimanyhopehoweversmallofobtaininghis desire.Foralthoughshedoesnotavoidorshunthesocietyandconversationofthe

73 shepherds,andtreatsthemcourteouslyandkindly,shouldanyoneofthemcometo declarehisintentiontoher,thoughitbeoneasproperandholyasthatof matrimony,sheflingshimfromherlikeacatapult.Andwiththiskindofdisposition shedoesmoreharminthiscountrythaniftheplaguehadgotintoit,forher affabilityandherbeautydrawontheheartsofthosethatassociatewithhertolove herandtocourther,butherscornandherfranknessbringthemtothebrinkof despair;andsotheyknownotwhattosaysavetoproclaimheraloudcrueland hardhearted,andothernamesofthesamesortwhichwelldescribethenatureof hercharacter;andifyoushouldremainhereanytime,seor,youwouldhearthese hillsandvalleysresoundingwiththelamentsoftherejectedoneswhopursueher. Notfarfromthisthereisaspotwherethereareacoupleofdozenoftallbeeches, andthereisnotoneofthembuthascarvedandwrittenonitssmoothbarkthe nameofMarcela,andabovesomeacrowncarvedonthesametreeasthoughher loverwouldsaymoreplainlythatMarcelaworeanddeservedthatofallhuman beauty.Hereoneshepherdissighing,thereanotherislamenting;therelovesongs areheard,heredespairingelegies.Onewillpassallthehoursofthenightseatedat thefootofsomeoakorrock,andthere,withouthavingclosedhisweepingeyes,the sunfindshiminthemorningbemusedandbereftofsense;andanotherwithout relieforrespitetohissighs,stretchedontheburningsandinthefullheatofthe sultrysummernoontide,makeshisappealtothecompassionateheavens,andover oneandtheother,overtheseandall,thebeautifulMarcelatriumphsfreeand careless.Andallofusthatknowherarewaitingtoseewhatherpridewillcometo, andwhoistobethehappymanthatwillsucceedintaminganaturesoformidable andgainingpossessionofabeautysosupreme.AllthatIhavetoldyoubeingsuch wellestablishedtruth,Iampersuadedthatwhattheysayofthecauseof Chrysostomo'sdeath,asourladtoldus,isthesame.AndsoIadviseyou,seor,fail nottobepresenttomorrowathisburial,whichwillbewellworthseeing,for Chrysostomohadmanyfriends,anditisnothalfaleaguefromthisplacetowhere hedirectedheshouldbeburied."

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74 DonQuixotedelaMancha "Iwillmakeapointofit,"saidDonQuixote,"andIthankyouforthepleasureyou havegivenmebyrelatingsointerestingatale." "Oh,"saidthegoatherd,"Idonotknoweventhehalfofwhathashappenedtothe loversofMarcela,butperhapstomorrowwemayfallinwithsomeshepherdonthe roadwhocantellus;andnowitwillbewellforyoutogoandsleepundercover,for thenightairmayhurtyourwound,thoughwiththeremedyIhaveappliedtoyou thereisnofearofanuntowardresult." SanchoPanza,whowaswishingthegoatherd'sloquacityatthedevil,onhispart beggedhismastertogointoPedro'shuttosleep.Hedidso,andpassedalltherest ofthenightinthinkingofhisladyDulcinea,inimitationoftheloversofMarcela. SanchoPanzasettledhimselfbetweenRocinanteandhisass,andslept,notlikea loverwhohadbeendiscarded,butlikeamanwhohadbeensoundlykicked.

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CHAPTERXIII.
INWHICHISENDEDTHESTORYOFTHESHEPHERDESSMARCELA,WITHOTHER INCIDENTS
Dayhadbarelybeguntoshowitselfthroughthebalconiesoftheeast,whenfiveof thesixgoatherdscametorouseDonQuixoteandtellhimthatifhewasstillofa mindtogoandseethefamousburialofChrysostomotheywouldbearhim company.DonQuixote,whodesirednothingbetter,roseandorderedSanchoto saddleatonce,whichhedidwithalldespatch,andwiththesametheyallsetout forthwith.Theyhadnotgoneaquarterofaleaguewhenatthemeetingoftwopaths theysawcomingtowardsthemsomesixshepherdsdressedinblacksheepskinsand withtheirheadscrownedwithgarlandsofcypressandbitteroleander.Eachofthem carriedastouthollystaffinhishand,andalongwiththemtherecametwomenof qualityonhorsebackinhandsometravelingdress,withthreeservantsonfoot accompanyingthem.Courteoussalutationswereexchangedonmeeting,and inquiringoneoftheotherwhichwayeachpartywasgoing,theylearnedthatall wereboundforthesceneoftheburial,sotheywentonalltogether. Oneofthoseonhorsebackaddressinghiscompanionsaidtohim,"Itseemstome, SeorVivaldo,thatwemayreckonaswellspentthedelayweshallincurinseeing thisremarkablefuneral,forremarkableitcannotbutbejudgingbythestrange thingstheseshepherdshavetoldus,ofboththedeadshepherdandhomicide shepherdess." "SoIthinktoo,"repliedVivaldo,"andIwoulddelaynottosayaday,butfour,forthe sakeofseeingit." DonQuixoteaskedthemwhatitwastheyhadheardofMarcelaandChrysostomo. Thetraveleransweredthatthesamemorningtheyhadmettheseshepherds,and seeingthemdressedinthismournfulfashiontheyhadaskedthemthereasonof

76 DonQuixotedelaMancha theirappearinginsuchaguise;whichoneofthemgave,describingthestrange behaviorandbeautyofashepherdesscalledMarcela,andthelovesofmanywho courtedher,togetherwiththedeathofthatChrysostomotowhoseburialtheywere going.Inshort,herepeatedallthatPedrohadrelatedtoDonQuixote. Thisconversationdropped,andanotherwascommencedbyhimwhowascalled VivaldoaskingDonQuixotewhatwasthereasonthatledhimtogoarmedinthat fashioninacountrysopeaceful.TowhichDonQuixotereplied,"Thepursuitofmy callingdoesnotalloworpermitmetogoinanyotherfashion;easylife,enjoyment, andreposewereinventedforsoftcourtiers,buttoil,unrest,andarmswereinvented andmadeforthosealonewhomtheworldcallsknightserrant,ofwhomI,though unworthy,amtheleastofall." Theinstanttheyheardthisallsethimdownasmad,andthebettertosettlethe pointanddiscoverwhatkindofmadnesshiswas,Vivaldoproceededtoaskhim whatknightserrantmeant. "Havenotyourworships,"repliedDonQuixote,"readtheannalsandhistoriesof England,inwhicharerecordedthefamousdeedsofKingArthur,whomweinour popularCastilianinvariablycallKingArtus,withregardtowhomitisanancient tradition,andcommonlyreceivedalloverthatkingdomofGreatBritain,thatthis kingdidnotdie,butwaschangedbymagicartintoaraven,andthatinprocessof timeheistoreturntoreignandrecoverhiskingdomandscepter;forwhichreason itcannotbeprovedthatfromthattimetothisanyEnglishmaneverkilledaraven? Well,then,inthetimeofthisgoodkingthatfamousorderofchivalryoftheKnights oftheRoundTablewasinstituted,andtheamourofDonLancelotoftheLakewith theQueenGuinevereoccurred,preciselyasisthererelated,thegobetweenand confidantethereinbeingthehighlyhonorabledameQuintanona,whencecamethat balladsowellknownandwidelyspreadinourSpain

DonQuixotedelaMancha Oneversurelywasthereknight Soservedbyhandofdame, AstheonetheycallSirLancelot WhenhefromBritaincame withallthesweetanddelectablecourseofhisachievementsinloveandwar. Handeddownfromthattime,then,thisorderofchivalrywentonextendingand spreadingitselfovermanyandvariouspartsoftheworld;andinit,famousand renownedfortheirdeeds,werethemightyAmadisofGaulwithallhissonsand

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descendantstothefifthgeneration,andthevaliantFelixmarteofHircania,andthe neversufficientlypraisedTiranteelBlanco,andinourowndaysalmostwehave seenandheardandtalkedwiththeinvincibleknightDonBelianisofGreece.This, then,sirs,istobeaknighterrant,andwhatIhavespokenofistheorderofhis chivalry,ofwhich,asIhavealreadysaid,I,thoughasinner,havemadeprofession, andwhattheaforesaidknightsprofessedthatsamedoIprofess,andsoIgothrough thesesolitudesandwildsseekingadventures,resolvedinsoultoopposemyarm andpersontothemostperilousthatfortunemayoffermeinaidoftheweakand needy." BythesewordsofhisthetravelerswereabletosatisfythemselvesofDonQuixote's beingoutofhissensesandoftheformofmadnessthatovermasteredhim,atwhich theyfeltthesameastonishmentthatallfeltonfirstbecomingacquaintedwithit; andVivaldo,whowasapersonofgreatshrewdnessandofalivelytemperament,in ordertobeguiletheshortjourneywhichtheysaidwasrequiredtoreachthe mountain,thesceneoftheburial,soughttogivehimanopportunityofgoingon withhisabsurdities.Sohesaidtohim,"Itseemstome,SeorKnighterrant,that yourworshiphasmadechoiceofoneofthemostaustereprofessionsintheworld, andIimagineeventhatoftheCarthusianmonksisnotsoaustere." "Asaustereitmayperhapsbe,"repliedourDonQuixote,"butsonecessaryforthe worldIamverymuchinclinedtodoubt.For,ifthetruthistobetold,thesoldier

78 DonQuixotedelaMancha whoexecuteswhathiscaptainordersdoesnolessthanthecaptainhimselfwho givestheorder.Mymeaning,is,thatchurchmeninpeaceandquietpraytoHeaven forthewelfareoftheworld,butwesoldiersandknightscarryintoeffectwhatthey prayfor,defendingitwiththemightofourarmsandtheedgeofourswords,not undershelterbutintheopenair,atargetfortheintolerableraysofthesunin summerandthepiercingfrostsofwinter.ThusareweGod'sministersonearthand thearmsbywhichhisjusticeisdonetherein.Andasthebusinessofwarandallthat relatesandbelongstoitcannotbeconductedwithoutexceedinggreatsweat,toil, andexertion,itfollowsthatthosewhomakeittheirprofessionhaveundoubtedly morelaborthanthosewhointranquilpeaceandquietareengagedinprayingto Godtohelptheweak.Idonotmeantosay,nordoesitenterintomythoughts,that theknighterrant'scallingisasgoodasthatofthemonkinhiscell;Iwouldmerely inferfromwhatIenduremyselfthatitisbeyondadoubtamorelaboriousanda morebelaboredone,ahungrierandthirstier,awretcheder,raggeder,andlousier; forthereisnoreasontodoubtthattheknightserrantofyoreenduredmuch hardshipinthecourseoftheirlives.Andifsomeofthembythemightoftheirarms didrisetobeemperors,infaithitcostthemdearinthematterofbloodandsweat; andifthosewhoattainedtothatrankhadnothadmagiciansandsagestohelpthem theywouldhavebeencompletelybaulkedintheirambitionanddisappointedin theirhopes." "Thatismyownopinion,"repliedthetraveler;"butonethingamongmanyothers seemstomeverywronginknightserrant,andthatisthatwhentheyfind themselvesabouttoengageinsomemightyandperilousadventureinwhichthere ismanifestdangeroflosingtheirlives,theyneveratthemomentofengaginginit thinkofcommendingthemselvestoGod,asisthedutyofeverygoodChristianin likeperil;insteadofwhichtheycommendthemselvestotheirladieswithasmuch devotionasiftheseweretheirgods,athingwhichseemstometosavorsomewhat ofheathenism."

DonQuixotedelaMancha "Sir,"answeredDonQuixote,"thatcannotbeonanyaccountomitted,andthe

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knighterrantwouldbedisgracedwhoactedotherwise:foritisusualandcustomary inknighterrantrythattheknighterrant,whoonengaginginanygreatfeatofarms hashisladybeforehim,shouldturnhiseyestowardshersoftlyandlovingly,as thoughwiththementreatinghertofavorandprotecthiminthehazardousventure heisabouttoundertake,andeventhoughnoonehearhim,heisboundtosay certainwordsbetweenhisteeth,commendinghimselftoherwithallhisheart,and ofthiswehaveinnumerableinstancesinthehistories.Norisittobesupposedfrom thisthattheyaretoomitcommendingthemselvestoGod,fortherewillbetimeand opportunityfordoingsowhiletheyareengagedintheirtask." "Forallthat,"answeredthetraveler,"Ifeelsomedoubtstill,becauseoftenIhave readhowwordswillarisebetweentwoknightserrant,andfromonethingto anotheritcomesaboutthattheirangerkindlesandtheywheeltheirhorsesround andtakeagoodstretchoffield,andthenwithoutanymoreadoatthetopoftheir speedtheycometothecharge,andinmidcareertheyarewonttocommend themselvestotheirladies;andwhatcommonlycomesoftheencounteristhatone fallsoverthehaunchesofhishorsepiercedthroughandthroughbyhisantagonist's lance,andasfortheother,itisonlybyholdingontothemaneofhishorsethathe canhelpfallingtotheground;butIknownothowthedeadmanhadtimeto commendhimselftoGodinthecourseofsuchrapidworkasthis;itwouldhave beenbetterifthosewordswhichhespentincommendinghimselftohisladyinthe midstofhiscareerhadbeendevotedtohisdutyandobligationasaChristian. Moreover,itismybeliefthatallknightserranthavenotladiestocommend themselvesto,fortheyarenotallinlove." "Thatisimpossible,"saidDonQuixote:"Isayitisimpossiblethattherecouldbea knighterrantwithoutalady,becausetosuchitisasnaturalandpropertobeinlove astotheheavenstohavestars:mostcertainlynohistoryhasbeenseeninwhich thereistobefoundaknighterrantwithoutanamour,andforthesimplereason thatwithoutonehewouldbeheldnolegitimateknightbutabastard,andonewho

80 DonQuixotedelaMancha hadgainedentranceintothestrongholdofthesaidknighthood,notbythedoor,but overthewalllikeathiefandarobber." "Nevertheless,"saidthetraveler,"ifIrememberrightly,IthinkIhavereadthatDon Galaor,thebrotherofthevaliantAmadisofGaul,neverhadanyspecialladyto whomhemightcommendhimself,andyethewasnotthelessesteemed,andwasa verystoutandfamousknight." TowhichourDonQuixotemadeanswer,"Sir,onesolitaryswallowdoesnotmake summer;moreover,Iknowthatknightwasinsecretverydeeplyinlove;besides which,thatwayoffallinginlovewithallthattookhisfancywasanatural propensitywhichhecouldnotcontrol.But,inshort,itisverymanifestthathehad onealonewhomhemademistressofhiswill,towhomhecommendedhimselfvery frequentlyandverysecretly,forhepridedhimselfonbeingareticentknight." "Thenifitbeessentialthateveryknighterrantshouldbeinlove,"saidthetraveler, "itmaybefairlysupposedthatyourworshipisso,asyouareoftheorder;andifyou donotprideyourselfonbeingasreticentasDonGalaor,Ientreatyouasearnestly asIcan,inthenameofallthiscompanyandinmyown,toinformusofthename, country,rank,andbeautyofyourlady,forshewillesteemherselffortunateifallthe worldknowsthatsheislovedandservedbysuchaknightasyourworshipseemsto be." AtthisDonQuixoteheavedadeepsighandsaid,"Icannotsaypositivelywhether mysweetenemyispleasedornotthattheworldshouldknowIserveher;Icanonly sayinanswertowhathasbeensocourteouslyaskedofme,thathernameis Dulcinea,hercountryElToboso,avillageofLaMancha,herrankmustbeatleast thatofaprincess,sincesheismyqueenandlady,andherbeautysuperhuman,since alltheimpossibleandfancifulattributesofbeautywhichthepoetsapplytotheir ladiesareverifiedinher;forherhairsaregold,herforeheadElysianfields,her eyebrowsrainbows,hereyessuns,hercheeksroses,herlipscoral,herteethpearls,

81 herneckalabaster,herbosommarble,herhandsivory,herfairnesssnow,andwhat modestyconcealsfromsightsuch,Ithinkandimagine,asrationalreflectioncan onlyextol,notcompare." "Weshouldliketoknowherlineage,race,andancestry,"saidVivaldo. TowhichDonQuixotereplied,"SheisnotoftheancientRomanCurtii,Caii,or Scipios,norofthemodernColonnasorOrsini,noroftheMoncadasorRequesenesof Catalonia,noryetoftheRebellasorVillanovasofValencia;Palafoxes,Nuzas, Rocabertis,Corellas,Lunas,Alagones,Urreas,Foces,orGurreasofAragon;Cerdas, Manriques,Mendozas,orGuzmansofCastile;Alencastros,Pallas,orMenesesof Portugal;butsheisofthoseofElTobosoofLaMancha,alineagethatthough modern,mayfurnishasourceofgentlebloodforthemostillustriousfamiliesofthe agesthataretocome,andthisletnonedisputewithmesaveontheconditionthat ZerbinoplacedatthefootofthetrophyofOrlando'sarms,saying, "AlthoughmineisoftheCachopinsofLaredo,"saidthetraveler,"Iwillnotventure tocompareitwiththatofElTobosoofLaMancha,though,totellthetruth,nosuch surnamehasuntilnoweverreachedmyears." "What!"saidDonQuixote,"hasthatneverreachedthem?" Therestofthepartywentalonglisteningwithgreatattentiontotheconversationof thepair,andeventheverygoatherdsandshepherdsperceivedhowexceedinglyout ofhiswitsourDonQuixotewas.SanchoPanzaalonethoughtthatwhathismaster saidwasthetruth,knowingwhohewasandhavingknownhimfromhisbirth;and 46FromLodovicoAriostosOrlandoFurioso. 'Theseletnonemove WhodarethnothismightwithRolandprove.'"46

DonQuixotedelaMancha

82 DonQuixotedelaMancha allthathefeltanydifficultyinbelievingwasthataboutthefairDulcineadelToboso, becauseneitheranysuchnamenoranysuchprincesshadevercometohis knowledgethoughhelivedsoclosetoElToboso.Theyweregoingalongconversing inthisway,whentheysawdescendingagapbetweentwohighmountainssome twentyshepherds,allcladinsheepskinsofblackwool,andcrownedwithgarlands which,asafterwardsappeared,were,someofthemofyew,someofcypress.Sixof thenumberwerecarryingabiercoveredwithagreatvarietyofflowersand branches,onseeingwhichoneofthegoatherdssaid,"Thosewhocometherearethe bearersofChrysostomo'sbody,andthefootofthatmountainistheplacewherehe orderedthemtoburyhim."Theythereforemadehastetoreachthespot,anddidso bythetimethosewhocamehadlaidthebierupontheground,andfourofthem withsharppickaxeswerediggingagravebythesideofahardrock.Theygreeted eachothercourteously,andthenDonQuixoteandthosewhoaccompaniedhim turnedtoexaminethebier,andonit,coveredwithflowers,theysawadeadbodyin thedressofashepherd,toallappearanceofonethirtyyearsofage,andshowing evenindeaththatinlifehehadbeenofcomelyfeaturesandgallantbearing.Around himonthebieritselfwerelaidsomebooks,andseveralpapersopenandfolded;and thosewhowerelookingonaswellasthosewhowereopeningthegraveandallthe otherswhoweretherepreservedastrangesilence,untiloneofthosewhohad bornethebodysaidtoanother,"Observecarefully,Ambrosioifthisistheplace Chrysostomospokeof,sinceyouareanxiousthatwhathedirectedinhiswillshould besostrictlycompliedwith." "Thisistheplace,"answeredAmbrosio"forinitmanyatimedidmypoorfriendtell methestoryofhishardfortune.Hereitwas,hetoldme,thathesawforthefirst timethatmortalenemyofthehumanrace,andhere,too,forthefirsttimehe declaredtoherhispassion,ashonorableasitwasdevoted,andhereitwasthatat lastMarcelaendedbyscorningandrejectinghimsoastobringthetragedyofhis wretchedlifetoaclose;here,inmemoryofmisfortunessogreat,hedesiredtobe laidinthebowelsofeternaloblivion."ThenturningtoDonQuixoteandthe travelershewentontosay,"Thatbody,sirs,onwhichyouarelookingwith

DonQuixotedelaMancha compassionateeyes,wastheabodeofasoulonwhichHeavenbestowedavast shareofitsriches.ThatisthebodyofChrysostomo,whowasunrivaledinwit, unequaledincourtesy,supremeingentlenessofbearing,amodeloffriendship, generouswithoutlimit,gravewithoutarrogance,gaywithoutvulgarity,and,in

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short,firstinallthatconstitutesgoodnessandsecondtononeinallthatmakesup misfortune.Heloveddeeply,hewashated;headored,hewasscorned;hewooeda wildbeast,hepleadedwithmarble,hepursuedthewind,hecriedtothewilderness, heservedingratitude,andforrewardwasmadethepreyofdeathinthemidcourse ofhislife,cutshortbyashepherdesswhomhesoughttoimmortalizeinthememory ofman,asthesepaperswhichyouseecouldfullyprove,hadhenotcommandedme toconsignthemtothefireafterhavingconsignedhisbodytotheearth." "Youwoulddealwiththemmoreharshlyandcruellythantheirownerhimself,"said Vivaldo,"foritisneitherrightnorpropertodothewillofonewhoenjoinswhatis whollyunreasonable;itwouldnothavebeenreasonableinAugustusCaesarhadhe permittedthedirectionsleftbythedivineMantuaninhiswilltobecarriedinto effect.Sothat,SeorAmbrosiowhileyouconsignyourfriend'sbodytotheearth, youshouldnotconsignhiswritingstooblivion,forifhegavetheorderinbitterness ofheart,itisnotrightthatyoushouldirrationallyobeyit.Onthecontrary,by grantinglifetothosepapers,letthecrueltyofMarcelaliveforever,toserveasa warninginagestocometoallmentoshunandavoidfallingintolikedanger;orI andallofuswhohavecomehereknowalreadythestoryofthisyourlovestricken andheartbrokenfriend,andweknow,too,yourfriendship,andthecauseofhis death,andthedirectionshegaveatthecloseofhislife;fromwhichsadstorymaybe gatheredhowgreatwasthecrueltyofMarcela,theloveofChrysostomo,andthe loyaltyofyourfriendship,togetherwiththeendawaitingthosewhopursuerashly thepaththatinsanepassionopenstotheireyes.Lastnightwelearnedthedeathof Chrysostomoandthathewastobeburiedhere,andoutofcuriosityandpityweleft ourdirectroadandresolvedtocomeandseewithoureyesthatwhichwhenheard ofhadsomovedourcompassion,andinconsiderationofthatcompassionandour desiretoproveitifwemightbycondolence,webegofyou,excellentAmbrosio,or

84 DonQuixotedelaMancha atleastIonmyownaccountentreatyou,thatinsteadofburningthosepapersyou allowmetocarryawaysomeofthem." Andwithoutwaitingfortheshepherd'sanswer,hestretchedouthishandandtook upsomeofthosethatwerenearesttohim;seeingwhichAmbrosiosaid,"Outof courtesy,seor,Iwillgrantyourrequestastothoseyouhavetaken,butitisidleto expectmetoabstainfromburningtheremainder." Vivaldo,whowaseagertoseewhatthepaperscontained,openedoneofthemat once,andsawthatitstitlewas"LayofDespair." Ambrosiohearingitsaid,"Thatisthelastpapertheunhappymanwrote;andthat youmaysee,seor,towhatanendhismisfortunesbroughthim,readitsothatyou maybeheard,foryouwillhavetimeenoughforthatwhilewearewaitingforthe gravetobedug." "Iwilldosoverywillingly,"saidVivaldo;andasallthebystanderswereequally eagertheygatheredroundhim,andhe,readinginaloudvoice,foundthatitranas follows.

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CHAPTERXIV.
WHEREINAREINSERTEDTHEDESPAIRINGVERSESOFTHEDEADSHEPHERD, TOGETHERWITHOTHERINCIDENTSNOTLOOKEDFOR
Sincethoudostinthycrueltydesire Theruthlessrigorofthytyranny Fromtonguetotongue,fromlandtolandproclaimed, TheveryHellwillIconstraintolend Thisstrickenbreastofminedeepnotesofwoe Toservemyneedoffittingutterance. AndasIstrivetobodyforththetale OfallIsuffer,allthatthouhastdone, Forthshallthedreadvoiceroll,andbearalong Shredsfrommyvitalstornforgreaterpain. Thenlisten,nottodulcetharmony, Buttoadiscordwrungbymaddespair Outofthisbosom'sdepthsofbitterness, Toeasemyheartandplantastinginthine. Thelion'sroar,thefiercewolf'ssavagehowl, Thehorridhissingofthescalysnake, Theawesomecriesofmonstersyetunnamed, Thecrow'sillbodingcroak,thehollowmoan Ofwildwindswrestlingwiththerestlesssea, Thewrathfulbellowofthevanquishedbull, Theplaintivesobbingofthewidoweddove, Theenviedowl'ssadnote,thewailofwoe ThatrisesfromthedrearychoirofHell, THELAYOFCHRYSOSTOMO

86 DonQuixotedelaMancha Commingledinonesound,confusingsense, Letallthesecometoaidmysoul'scomplaint, Forpainlikeminedemandsnewmodesofsong. Noechoesofthatdiscordshallbeheard WhereFatherTagusrolls,oronthebanks OfoliveborderedBetis;totherocks Orindeepcavernsshallmyplaintbetold, Andbyalifelesstongueinlivingwords; Orindarkvalleysoronlonelyshores, Whereneitherfootofmannorsunbeamfalls; Orinamongthepoisonbreathingswarms OfmonstersnourishedbythesluggishNile. For,thoughitbetosolitudesremote Thehoarsevagueechoesofmysorrowssound Thymatchlesscruelty,mydismalfate Shallcarrythemtoallthespaciousworld. Disdainhathpowertokill,andpatiencedies Slainbysuspicion,beitfalseortrue; Anddeadlyistheforceofjealousy; Longabsencemakesoflifeadrearyvoid; Nohopeofhappinesscangiverepose Tohimthateverfearstobeforgot; Anddeath,inevitable,waitsinhall. ButI,bysomestrangemiracle,liveon Apreytoabsence,jealousy,disdain; Rackedbysuspicionasbycertainty; Forgotten,lefttofeedmyflamealone. AndwhileIsufferthus,therecomesnoray Ofhopetogladdenmeathwartthegloom;

DonQuixotedelaMancha NordoIlookforitinmydespair; Butratherclingingtoacurelesswoe, AllhopedoIabjureforevermore. Cantherebehopewherefearis?Wereitwell, Whenfarmorecertainarethegroundsoffear? OughtItoshutmineeyestojealousy, Ifthroughathousandheartwoundsitappears? Whowouldnotgivefreeaccesstodistrust, Seeingdisdainunveiled,andbitterchange! Allhissuspicionsturnedtocertainties, Andthefairtruthtransformedintoalie? Oh,thoufiercetyrantoftherealmsoflove, Oh,Jealousy!putchainsuponthesehands, Andbindmewiththystrongestcord,Disdain. But,woeisme!triumphantoverall, Mysufferingsdrownthememoryofyou. AndnowIdie,andsincethereisnohope Ofhappinessformeinlifeordeath, StilltomyfantasyI'llfondlycling. I'llsaythatheiswisewholovethwell, Andthatthesoulmostfreeisthatmostbound InthralldomtotheancienttyrantLove. I'llsaythatshewhoismineenemy Inthatfairbodyhathasfairamind, Andthathercoldnessisbutmydesert, Andthatbyvirtueofthepainhesends Loveruleshiskingdomwithagentlesway. Thus,selfdeluding,andinbondagesore, Andwearingoutthewretchedshredoflife

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88 DonQuixotedelaMancha TowhichIamreducedbyherdisdain, I'llgivethissoulandbodytothewinds, Allhopelessofacrownofblissinstore. Thouwhoseinjusticehathsuppliedthecause ThatmakesmequitthewearylifeIloathe, Asbythiswoundedbosomthoucanstsee HowwillinglythyvictimIbecome, Letnotmydeath,ifhaplyworthatear, Cloudtheclearheaventhatdwellsinthybrighteyes; Iwouldnothavetheeexpiateinaught Thecrimeofhavingmademyheartthyprey; Butratherletthylaughtergailyring Andprovemydeathtobethyfestival. FoolthatIamtobidthee!wellIknow Thyglorygainsbymyuntimelyend. Andnowitisthetime;fromHell'sabyss ComethirstingTantalus,comeSisyphus Heavingthecruelstone,comeTityus Withvulture,andwithwheelIxioncome, Andcomethesistersoftheceaselesstoil; Andallintothisbreasttransfertheirpains, And(ifsuchtributetodespairbedue) Chantintheirdeepesttonesadolefuldirge Overacorpseunworthyofashroud. Letthethreeheadedguardianofthegate, Andallthemonstrousprogenyofhell, Thedolefulconcertjoin:aloverdead Methinkscanhavenofitterobsequies.

DonQuixotedelaMancha Layofdespair,grievenotwhenthouartgone Forthfromthissorrowingheart:mymisery Bringsfortunetothecausethatgavetheebirth; Thenbanishsadnesseveninthetomb. The"LayofChrysostomo"metwiththeapprobation47ofthelisteners,thoughthe readersaiditdidnotseemtohimtoagreewithwhathehadheardofMarcela's

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reserveandpropriety,forChrysostomocomplainedinitofjealousy,suspicion,and absence,alltotheprejudiceofthegoodnameandfameofMarcela;towhich Ambrosiorepliedasonewhoknewwellhisfriend'smostsecretthoughts,"Seor,to removethatdoubtIshouldtellyouthatwhentheunhappymanwrotethislayhe wasawayfromMarcela,fromwhomhehadvoluntarilyseparatedhimself,toseeif absencewouldactwithhimasitiswont;andaseverythingdistressesandevery fearhauntsthebanishedlover,soimaginaryjealousiesandsuspicions,dreadedasif theyweretrue,tormentedChrysostomo;andthusthetruthofwhatreportdeclares ofthevirtueofMarcelaremainsunshaken,andwithherenvyitselfshouldnotand cannotfindanyfaultsavethatofbeingcruel,somewhathaughty,andveryscornful." "Thatistrue,"saidVivaldo;andashewasabouttoreadanotherpaperofthosehe hadpreservedfromthefire,hewasstoppedbyamarvelousvision(forsuchit seemed)thatunexpectedlypresenteditselftotheireyes;foronthesummitofthe rockwheretheywerediggingthegravethereappearedtheshepherdessMarcela,so beautifulthatherbeautyexceededitsreputation.Thosewhohadnevertillthen beheldhergazeduponherinwonderandsilence,andthosewhowereaccustomed toseeherwerenotlessamazedthanthosewhohadneverseenherbefore.Butthe instantAmbrosiosawherheaddressedher,withmanifestindignation:

47Officialapproval

90 DonQuixotedelaMancha "Artthoucome,bychance,cruelbasilisk48ofthesemountains,toseeifinthy presencebloodwillflowfromthewoundsofthiswretchedbeingthycrueltyhas robbedoflife49;orisittoexultoverthecruelworkofthyhumorsthatthouart come;orlikeanotherpitilessNerotolookdownfromthatheightupontheruinof hisRomeinembers50;orinthyarrogancetotrampleonthisillfatedcorpse,asthe ungratefuldaughtertrampledonherfatherTarquinius?51Tellusquicklyforwhat thouartcome,orwhatitisthouwouldsthave,for,asIknowthethoughtsof Chrysostomoneverfailedtoobeytheeinlife,Iwillmakeallthesewhocall themselveshisfriendsobeythee,thoughhebedead." "Icomenot,Ambrosio,foranyofthepurposesthouhastnamed,"repliedMarcela, "buttodefendmyselfandtoprovehowunreasonableareallthosewhoblameme fortheirsorrowandforChrysostomo'sdeath;andthereforeIaskallofyouthatare heretogivemeyourattention,forwillnottakemuchtimeormanywordstobring thetruthhometopersonsofsense.Heavenhasmademe,soyousay,beautiful,and somuchsothatinspiteofyourselvesmybeautyleadsyoutoloveme;andforthe loveyoushowmeyousay,andevenurge,thatIamboundtoloveyou.Bythat naturalunderstandingwhichGodhasgivenmeIknowthateverythingbeautiful attractslove,butIcannotseehow,byreasonofbeingloved,thatwhichislovedfor itsbeautyisboundtolovethatwhichlovesit;besides,itmayhappenthatthelover ofthatwhichisbeautifulmaybeugly,anduglinessbeingdetestable,itisvery absurdtosay,"Ilovetheebecausethouartbeautiful,thoumustlovemethoughIbe ugly."Butsupposingthebeautyequalonbothsides,itdoesnotfollowthatthe inclinationsmustbethereforealike,foritisnoteverybeautythatexciteslove,some butpleasingtheeyewithoutwinningtheaffection;andifeverysortofbeauty 48Amythicallizardlikecreaturewhoselookscouldkill. 49Accordingtofolklore,thecorpseofamurdervictimwouldbleedinthepresence ofthemurderer. 50TheRomanemperorNerowassaidtohavewatchedwhilehiscityburnedas partofhisownplanforurbanrenewal. 51Tula,thewifeofthelastoftheearlykingsofRome;Tarquiniuswasherhusband, notherfather,butshedidlethercarriagerunoverthebodyofherfather,Servius Tullius,whomherhusbandhadkilled.

91 excitedloveandwontheheart,thewillwouldwandervaguelytoandfrounableto makechoiceofany;forasthereisaninfinityofbeautifulobjectstheremustbean infinityofinclinations,andtruelove,Ihavehearditsaid,isindivisible,andmustbe voluntaryandnotcompelled.Ifthisbeso,asIbelieveittobe,whydoyoudesireme tobendmywillbyforce,fornootherreasonbutthatyousayyouloveme?Nay tellmehadHeavenmademeugly,asithasmademebeautiful,couldIwith justicecomplainofyoufornotlovingme?Moreover,youmustrememberthatthe beautyIpossesswasnochoiceofmine,for,beitwhatitmay,Heavenofitsbounty gaveitmewithoutmyaskingorchoosingit;andastheviper,thoughitkillswithit, doesnotdeservetobeblamedforthepoisonitcarries,asitisagiftofnature, neitherdoIdeservereproachforbeingbeautiful;forbeautyinamodestwomanis likefireatadistanceorasharpsword;theonedoesnotburn,theotherdoesnot cut,thosewhodonotcometoonear.Honorandvirtuearetheornamentsofthe mind,withoutwhichthebody,thoughitbeso,hasnorighttopassforbeautiful;but ifmodestyisoneofthevirtuesthatspeciallylendagraceandcharmtomindand body,whyshouldshewhoislovedforherbeautypartwithittogratifyonewhofor hispleasurealonestriveswithallhismightandenergytorobherofit?Iwasborn free,andthatImightliveinfreedomIchosethesolitudeofthefields;inthetreesof themountainsIfindsociety,theclearwatersofthebrooksaremymirrors,andto thetreesandwatersImakeknownmythoughtsandcharms.Iamafireafaroff,a swordlaidaside.ThosewhomIhaveinspiredwithlovebylettingthemseeme,I havebywordsundeceived,andiftheirlongingsliveonhopeandIhavegiven nonetoChrysostomoortoanyotheritcannotjustlybesaidthatthedeathofany ismydoing,foritwasratherhisownobstinacythanmycrueltythatkilledhim;and ifitbemadeachargeagainstmethathiswisheswerehonorable,andthattherefore Iwasboundtoyieldtothem,Ianswerthatwhenonthisveryspotwherenowhis graveismadehedeclaredtomehispurityofpurpose,Itoldhimthatminewasto liveinperpetualsolitude,andthattheearthaloneshouldenjoythefruitsofmy retirementandthespoilsofmybeauty;andif,afterthisopenavowal,hechoseto persistagainsthopeandsteeragainstthewind,whatwonderisitthatheshould sinkinthedepthsofhisinfatuation?IfIhadencouragedhim,Ishouldbefalse;ifI

DonQuixotedelaMancha

92 DonQuixotedelaMancha hadgratifiedhim,Ishouldhaveactedagainstmyownbetterresolutionand purpose.Hewaspersistentinspiteofwarning,hedespairedwithoutbeinghated. Bethinkyounowifitbereasonablethathissufferingshouldbelaidtomycharge. Lethimwhohasbeendeceivedcomplain,lethimgivewaytodespairwhose encouragedhopeshaveprovedvain,lethimflatterhimselfwhomIshallentice,let himboastwhomIshallreceive;butletnothimcallmecruelorhomicidetowhomI makenopromise,uponwhomIpracticenodeception,whomIneitherenticenor receive.IthasnotbeensofarthewillofHeaventhatIshouldlovebyfate,andto expectmetolovebychoiceisidle.Letthisgeneraldeclarationserveforeachofmy suitorsonhisownaccount,andletitbeunderstoodfromthistimeforththatif anyonediesformeitisnotofjealousyormiseryhedies,forshewholovesnoone cangivenocauseforjealousytoany,andcandorisnottobeconfoundedwithscorn. Lethimwhocallsmewildbeastandbasilisk,leavemealoneassomethingnoxious andevil;lethimwhocallsmeungrateful,withholdhisservice;whocallsme wayward,seeknotmyacquaintance;whocallsmecruel,pursuemenot;forthis wildbeast,thisbasilisk,thisungrateful,cruel,waywardbeinghasnokindofdesire toseek,serve,know,orfollowthem.IfChrysostomo'simpatienceandviolent passionkilledhim,whyshouldmymodestbehaviorandcircumspectionbeblamed? IfIpreservemypurityinthesocietyofthetrees,whyshouldhewhowouldhaveme preserveitamongmen,seektorobmeofit?Ihave,asyouknow,wealthofmyown, andIcovetnotthatofothers;mytasteisforfreedom,andIhavenorelishfor constraint;Ineitherlovenorhateanyone;Idonotdeceivethisoneorcourtthat,or triflewithoneorplaywithanother.Themodestconverseoftheshepherdgirlsof thesehamletsandthecareofmygoatsaremyrecreations;mydesiresarebounded bythesemountains,andiftheyeverwanderhenceitistocontemplatethebeautyof theheavens,stepsbywhichthesoultravelstoitsprimevalabode." Withthesewords,andnotwaitingtohearareply,sheturnedandpassedintothe thickestpartofawoodthatwashardby,leavingallwhoweretherelostin admirationasmuchofhergoodsenseasofherbeauty.Somethosewoundedby theirresistibleshaftslaunchedbyherbrighteyesmadeasthoughtheywould

DonQuixotedelaMancha followher,heedlessofthefrankdeclarationtheyhadheard;seeingwhich,and deemingthisafittingoccasionfortheexerciseofhischivalryinaidofdistressed damsels,DonQuixote,layinghishandonthehiltofhissword,exclaimedinaloud anddistinctvoice: "Letnoone,whateverhisrankorcondition,daretofollowthebeautifulMarcela, underpainofincurringmyfierceindignation.Shehasshownbyclearand

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satisfactoryargumentsthatlittleornofaultistobefoundwithherforthedeathof Chrysostomo,andalsohowfarsheisfromyieldingtothewishesofanyofher lovers,forwhichreason,insteadofbeingfollowedandpersecuted,sheshouldin justicebehonoredandesteemedbyallthegoodpeopleoftheworld,forsheshows thatsheistheonlywomaninitthatholdstosuchavirtuousresolution." WhetheritwasbecauseofthethreatsofDonQuixote,orbecauseAmbrosiotold themtofulfilltheirdutytotheirgoodfriend,noneoftheshepherdsmovedor stirredfromthespotuntil,havingfinishedthegraveandburnedChrysostomo's papers,theylaidhisbodyinit,notwithoutmanytearsfromthosewhostoodby. TheyclosedthegravewithaheavystoneuntilaslabwasreadywhichAmbrosio saidhemeanttohaveprepared,withanepitaphwhichwastobetothiseffect: Beneaththestonebeforeyoureyes Thebodyofaloverlies; Inlifehewasashepherdswain, Indeathavictimtodisdain. Ungrateful,cruel,coy,andfair, Wasshethatdrovehimtodespair, AndLovehathmadeherhisally Forspreadingwidehistyranny. Theythenstreweduponthegraveaprofusionofflowersandbranches,andall expressingtheircondolencewithhisfriendAmbrosio;Vivaldoandhiscompanion

94 DonQuixotedelaMancha didthesame;andDonQuixotebadefarewelltohishostsandtothetravelers,who pressedhimtocomewiththemtoSeville,asbeingsuchaconvenientplacefor findingadventures,fortheypresentedthemselvesineverystreetandroundevery corneroftenerthananywhereelse.DonQuixotethankedthemfortheiradviceand forthedispositiontheyshowedtodohimafavor,andsaidthatforthepresenthe wouldnot,andmustnotgotoSevilleuntilhehadclearedallthesemountainsof highwaymenandrobbers,ofwhomreportsaidtheywerefull.Seeinghisgood intention,thetravelerswereunwillingtopresshimfurther,andoncemorebidding himfarewell,theylefthimandpursuedtheirjourney,inthecourseofwhichthey didnotfailtodiscussthestoryofMarcelaandChrysostomoaswellasthemadness ofDonQuixote.He,onhispart,resolvedtogoinquestoftheshepherdessMarcela, andmakeoffertoherofalltheservicehecouldrenderher;butthingsdidnotfall outwithhimasheexpected,accordingtowhatisrelatedinthecourseofthis veracioushistory....

DonQuixotedelaMancha

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CHAPTERXVIII
INWHICHISRELATEDTHEDISCOURSESANCHOPANZAHELDWITHHISMASTER, DONQUIXOTE,ANDOTHERADVENTURESWORTHRELATING
...DonQuixoteandhissquireweregoingalong,when,ontheroadtheywere following,DonQuixoteperceivedapproachingthemalargeandthickcloudofdust, onseeingwhichheturnedtoSanchoandsaid: "Thisistheday,Sancho,onwhichwillbeseentheboonmyfortuneisreservingfor me;this,Isay,isthedayonwhichasmuchasonanyothershallbedisplayedthe mightofmyarm,andonwhichIshalldodeedsthatshallremainwritteninthebook offameforallagestocome.Seestthouthatcloudofdustwhichrisesyonder?Well, then,allthatischurnedupbyavastarmycomposedofvariousandcountless nationsthatcomesmarchingthere." "Accordingtothattheremustbetwo,"saidSancho,"foronthisoppositesidealso thererisesjustsuchanothercloudofdust." DonQuixoteturnedtolookandfoundthatitwastrue,andrejoicingexceedingly,he concludedthattheyweretwoarmiesabouttoengageandencounterinthemidstof thatbroadplain;foratalltimesandseasonshisfancywasfullofthebattles, enchantments,adventures,crazyfeats,loves,anddefiancesthatarerecordedinthe booksofchivalry,andeverythinghesaid,thought,ordidhadreferencetosuch things.Nowthecloudofdusthehadseenwasraisedbytwogreatdrovesofsheep comingalongthesameroadinoppositedirections,which,becauseofthedust,did notbecomevisibleuntiltheydrewnear,butDonQuixoteassertedsopositivelythat theywerearmiesthatSanchowasledtobelieveitandsay,"Well,andwhatarewe todo,seor?"

96 DonQuixotedelaMancha "What?"saidDonQuixote:"giveaidandassistancetotheweakandthose whoneedit;andthoumustknow,Sancho,thatthiswhichcomesopposite tousisconductedandledbythemightyemperorAlifanfaron,lordofthe greatisleofTrapobana;thisotherthatmarchesbehindmeisthatofhis enemythekingoftheGaramantas,PentapolinoftheBareArm,forhe alwaysgoesintobattlewithhisrightarmbare." "Butwhyarethesetwolordssuchenemies?" "Theyareatenmity,"repliedDonQuixote,"becausethisAlifanfaronisafurious paganandisinlovewiththedaughterofPentapolin,whoisaverybeautifuland moreovergraciouslady,andaChristian,andherfatherisunwillingtobestowher uponthepagankingunlesshefirstabandonsthereligionofhisfalseprophet Mahomet,andadoptshisown." "Bymybeard,"saidSancho,"butPentapolindoesquiteright,andIwillhelphimas muchasIcan." "Inthatthouwiltdowhatisthyduty,Sancho,"saidDonQuixote;"fortoengagein battlesofthissortitisnotrequisitetobeadubbedknight." "ThatIcanwellunderstand,"answeredSancho;"butwhereshallweputthisass wherewemaybesuretofindhimafterthefrayisover?forIbelieveithasnotbeen thecustomsofartogointobattleonabeastofthiskind." "Thatistrue,"saidDonQuixote,"andwhatyouhadbestdowithhimistoleavehim totakehischancewhetherhebelostornot,forthehorsesweshallhavewhenwe comeoutvictorswillbesomanythatevenRocinantewillrunariskofbeing changedforanother.Butattendtomeandobserve,forIwishtogivetheesome accountofthechiefknightswhoaccompanythesetwoarmies;andthatthoumayest

97 thebetterseeandmark,letuswithdrawtothathillockwhichrisesyonder,whence botharmiesmaybeseen." Theydidso,andplacedthemselvesonarisinggroundfromwhichthetwodroves thatDonQuixotemadearmiesofmighthavebeenplainlyseenifthecloudsofdust theyraisedhadnotobscuredthemandblindedthesight;nevertheless,seeinginhis imaginationwhathedidnotseeandwhatdidnotexist,hebeganthusinaloud voice: "Thatknightwhomthouseestyonderinyellowarmor,whobearsuponhisshielda lioncrownedcrouchingatthefeetofadamsel,isthevaliantLaurcalco,lordofthe SilverBridge;thatoneinarmorwithflowersofgold,whobearsonhisshieldthree crownsargentonanazurefield,isthedreadedMicocolembo,granddukeof Quirocia;thatotherofgiganticframe,onhisrighthand,istheeverdauntless BrandabarbarandeBoliche,lordofthethreeArabias,whoforarmorwearsthat serpentskin,andhasforshieldagatewhich,accordingtotradition,isoneofthose ofthetemplethatSansonbroughttothegroundwhenbyhisdeathherevenged himselfuponhisenemies.Butturnthineeyestotheotherside,andthoushaltseein frontandinthevanofthisotherarmytheevervictoriousandnevervanquished TimonelofCarcajona,princeofNewBiscay,whocomesinarmorwitharms quarteredazure,vert,white,andyellow,andbearsonhisshieldacatoronafield tawnywithamottowhichsaysMiau,whichisthebeginningofthenameofhislady, whoaccordingtoreportisthepeerlessMiaulina,daughterofthedukeAlfeniquenof theAlgarve;theother,whoburdensandpressestheloinsofthatpowerfulcharger andbearsarmswhiteassnowandashieldblankandwithoutanydevice,isanovice knight,aFrenchmanbybirth,PierresPapinbyname,lordofthebaroniesofUtrique; thatother,whowithironshodheelsstrikestheflanksofthatnimbleparticoloured zebra,andforarmsbearsazurevair,isthemightydukeofNerbia,Espartafilardodel Bosque,whobearsfordeviceonhisshieldanasparagusplantwithamottoin

DonQuixotedelaMancha

98 DonQuixotedelaMancha Castilianthatsays,Rastreamisuerte.52"Andsohewentonnaminganumberof knightsofonesquadronortheotheroutofhisimagination,andtoallheassigned offhandtheirarms,colors,devices,andmottoes,carriedawaybytheillusionsofhis unheardofcraze;andwithoutapause,hecontinued,"Peopleofdiversnations composethissquadroninfront;herearethosethatdrinkofthesweetwatersofthe famousXanthus,thosethatscourthewoodyMassilianplains,thosethatsiftthepure finegoldofArabiaFelix,thosethatenjoythefamedcoolbanksofthecrystal Thermodon,thosethatinmanyandvariouswaysdivertthestreamsofthegolden Pactolus,theNumidians,faithlessintheirpromises,thePersiansrenownedin archery,theParthiansandtheMedesthatfightastheyfly,theArabsthatevershift theirdwellings,theScythiansascruelastheyarefair,theEthiopianswithpierced lips,andaninfinityofothernationswhosefeaturesIrecognizeanddescry,thoughI cannotrecalltheirnames.Inthisothersquadrontherecomethosethatdrinkofthe crystalstreamsoftheolivebearingBetis,thosethatmakesmooththeir countenanceswiththewateroftheeverrichandgoldenTagus,thosethatrejoicein thefertilizingflowofthedivineGenil,thosethatroamtheTartesianplains aboundinginpasture,thosethattaketheirpleasureintheElysianmeadowsofJerez, therichMancheganscrownedwithruddyearsofcorn,thewearersofiron,oldrelics oftheGothicrace,thosethatbatheinthePisuergarenownedforitsgentlecurrent, thosethatfeedtheirherdsalongthespreadingpasturesofthewindingGuadiana famedforitshiddencourse,thosethattremblewiththecoldofthepineclad PyreneesorthedazzlingsnowsoftheloftyApennine;inaword,asmanyasall Europeincludesandcontains." GoodGod!whatanumberofcountriesandnationshenamed!givingtoeachits properattributeswithmarvelousreadiness;brimfulandsaturatedwithwhathe hadreadinhislyingbooks!SanchoPanzahunguponhiswordswithoutspeaking, andfromtimetotimeturnedtotryifhecouldseetheknightsandgiantshismaster wasdescribing,andashecouldnotmakeoutoneofthemhesaidtohim: 52Themeaningisambiguous.Itcouldmean,lookintomyfate,myfatecreeps along,or,follow[thetrailof]myfate.

DonQuixotedelaMancha "Seor,deviltakeitifthere'sasignofanymanyoutalkof,knightorgiant,inthe wholething;maybeit'sallenchantment,likethephantomslastnight."

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"Howcanstthousaythat!"answeredDonQuixote;"dostthounotheartheneighing ofthesteeds,thebrayingofthetrumpets,therollofthedrums?" "Ihearnothingbutagreatbleatingofewesandsheep,"saidSancho;whichwastrue, forbythistimethetwoflockshadcomeclose. "Thefearthouartin,Sancho,"saidDonQuixote,"preventstheefromseeingor hearingcorrectly,foroneoftheeffectsoffearistoderangethesensesandmake thingsappeardifferentfromwhattheyare;ifthouartinsuchfear,withdrawtoone sideandleavemetomyself,foraloneIsufficetobringvictorytothatsidetowhichI shallgivemyaid;"andsosayinghegaveRocinantethespur,andputtingthelancein rest,shotdowntheslopelikeathunderbolt.Sanchoshoutedafterhim,crying, "Comeback,SeorDonQuixote;IvowtoGodtheyaresheepandewesyouare charging!Comeback!Unluckythefatherthatbegotme!whatmadnessisthis!Look, thereisnogiant,norknight,norcats,norarms,norshieldsquarteredorwhole,nor vairazureorbedevilled.Whatareyouabout?SinnerthatIambeforeGod!"Butnot foralltheseentreatiesdidDonQuixoteturnback;onthecontraryhewenton shoutingout,"Ho,knights,yewhofollowandfightunderthebannersofthevaliant emperorPentapolinoftheBareArm,followmeall;yeshallseehoweasilyIshall givehimhisrevengeoverhisenemyAlifanfaronoftheTrapobana." Sosaying,hedashedintothemidstofthesquadronofewes,andbeganspearing themwithasmuchspiritandintrepidityasifheweretransfixingmortalenemiesin earnest.Theshepherdsanddroversaccompanyingtheflockshoutedtohimto desist;seeingitwasnouse,theyungirttheirslingsandbegantosalutehisearswith stonesasbigasone'sfist.DonQuixotegavenoheedtothestones,but,lettingdrive rightandleftkeptsaying:

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DonQuixotedelaMancha

"Whereartthou,proudAlifanfaron?Comebeforeme;Iamasingleknightwho wouldfainprovethyprowesshandtohand,andmaketheeyieldthylifeapenalty forthewrongthoudosttothevaliantPentapolinGaramanta."Herecameasugar plumfromthebrookthatstruckhimonthesideandburiedacoupleofribsinhis body.Feelinghimselfsosmitten,heimaginedhimselfslainorbadlywoundedfor certain,andrecollectinghisliquorhedrewouthisflask,andputtingittohismouth begantopourthecontentsintohisstomach;buterehehadsucceededin swallowingwhatseemedtohimenough,therecameanotheralmondwhichstruck himonthehandandontheflasksofairlythatitsmashedittopieces,knockingthree orfourteethandgrindersoutofhismouthinitscourse,andsorelycrushingtwo fingersofhishand.Suchwastheforceofthefirstblowandofthesecond,thatthe poorknightinspiteofhimselfcamedownbackwardsoffhishorse.Theshepherds cameup,andfeltsuretheyhadkilledhim;soinallhastetheycollectedtheirflock together,tookupthedeadbeasts,ofwhichthereweremorethanseven,andmade offwithoutwaitingtoascertainanythingfurther. AllthistimeSanchostoodonthehillwatchingthecrazyfeatshismasterwas performing,andtearinghisbeardandcursingthehourandtheoccasionwhen fortunehadmadehimacquaintedwithhim.Seeinghim,then,broughttotheground, andthattheshepherdshadtakenthemselvesoff,herantohimandfoundhimin veryaverybadstate,thoughnotunconscious;andsaidhe: "DidInottellyoutocomeback,SeorDonQuixote;andthatwhatyouweregoingto attackwerenotarmiesbutdrovesofsheep?" "That'showthatthiefofasage,myenemy,canalterandfalsifythings,"answered DonQuixote;"thoumustknow,Sancho,thatitisaveryeasymatterforthoseofhis sorttomakeusbelievewhattheychoose;andthismalignantbeingwhopersecutes me,enviousofthegloryheknewIwastowininthisbattle,hasturnedthe squadronsoftheenemyintodrovesofsheep.Atanyrate,dothismuch,Ibegof

101 thee,Sancho,toundeceivethyself,andseethatwhatIsayistrue;mountthyassand followthemquietly,andthoushaltseethatwhentheyhavegonesomelittle distancefromthistheywillreturntotheiroriginalshapeand,ceasingtobesheep, becomemeninallrespectsasIdescribedthemtotheeatfirst.Butgonotjustyet, forIwantthyhelpandassistance;comehither,andseehowmanyofmyteethand grindersaremissing,forIfeelasiftherewasnotoneleftinmymouth."

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CHAPTERXXII.
OFTHEFREEDOMDONQUIXOTECONFERREDONSEVERALUNFORTUNATES WHOAGAINSTTHEIRWILLWEREBEINGCARRIEDWHERETHEYHADNOWISH TOGO
CideHameteBenengeli,theArabandManchegan53author,relatesinthismost grave,highsounding,minute,delightful,andoriginalhistorythatafterthe discussionbetweenthefamousDonQuixoteofLaManchaandhissquireSancho Panzawhichissetdownattheendofchaptertwentyone,DonQuixoteraisedhis eyesandsawcomingalongtheroadhewasfollowingsomedozenmenonfoot strungtogetherbytheneck,likebeads,onagreatironchain,andallwithmanacles ontheirhands.Withthemtherecamealsotwomenonhorsebackandtwoonfoot; thoseonhorsebackwithwheellockmuskets,thoseonfootwithjavelinsand swords,andassoonasSanchosawthemhesaid: "Thatisachainofgalleyslaves,onthewaytothegalleysbyforceoftheking's orders." "Howbyforce?"askedDonQuixote;"isitpossiblethatthekingusesforceagainst anyone?" "Idonotsaythat,"answeredSancho,"butthatthesearepeoplecondemnedfortheir crimestoservebyforceintheking'sgalleys." "Infact,"repliedDonQuixote,"howeveritmaybe,thesepeoplearegoingwhere theyaretakingthembyforce,andnotoftheirownwill." "Justso,"saidSancho. 53FromlaMancha.

DonQuixotedelaMancha "Thenifso,"saidDonQuixote,"hereisacasefortheexerciseofmyoffice,toput downforceandtosuccorandhelpthewretched." "Recollect,yourworship,"saidSancho,"Justice,whichisthekinghimself,isnot

103

usingforceordoingwrongtosuchpersons,butpunishingthemfortheircrimes." Thechainofgalleyslaveshadbythistimecomeup,andDonQuixoteinvery courteouslanguageaskedthosewhowereincustodyofittobegoodenoughtotell himthereasonorreasonsforwhichtheywereconductingthesepeopleinthis manner.Oneoftheguardsonhorsebackansweredthattheyweregalleyslaves belongingtohismajesty,thattheyweregoingtothegalleys,andthatwasallthat wastobesaidandallhehadanybusinesstoknow. "Nevertheless,"repliedDonQuixote,"Ishouldliketoknowfromeachofthem separatelythereasonofhismisfortune;"tothisheaddedmoretothesameeffectto inducethemtotellhimwhathewantedsocivillythattheothermountedguardsaid tohim: "Thoughwehaveheretheregisterandcertificateofthesentenceofeveryoneof thesewretches,thisisnotimetotakethemoutorreadthem;comeandask themselves;theycantelliftheychoose,andtheywill,forthesefellowstakea pleasureindoingandtalkingaboutrascalities." Withthispermission,whichDonQuixotewouldhavetakenevenhadtheynot grantedit,heapproachedthechainandaskedthefirstforwhatoffenceshewas nowinsuchasorrycase. Hemadeanswerthatitwasforbeingalover.

104 DonQuixotedelaMancha "Forthatonly?"repliedDonQuixote;"why,ifforbeingloverstheysendpeopleto thegalleysImighthavebeenrowinginthemlongago." "Theloveisnotthesortyourworshipisthinkingof,"saidthegalleyslave;"mine wasthatIlovedawasherwoman'sbasketofcleanlinensowell,andhelditsoclose inmyembrace,thatifthearmofthelawhadnotforceditfromme,Ishouldnever haveletitgoofmyownwilltothismoment;Iwascaughtintheact,therewasno occasionfortorture,thecasewassettled,theytreatedmetoahundredlasheson theback,andthreeyearsofgurapasbesides,andthatwastheendofit." "Whataregurapas?"askedDonQuixote. "Gurapasaregalleys,"answeredthegalleyslave,whowasayoungmanofabout fourandtwenty,andsaidhewasanativeofPiedrahita. DonQuixoteaskedthesamequestionofthesecond,whomadenoreply,so downcastandmelancholywashe;butthefirstansweredforhim,andsaid,"He,sir, goesasacanary,Imeanasamusicianandasinger." "What!"saidDonQuixote,"forbeingmusiciansandsingersarepeoplesenttothe galleystoo?" "Yes,sir,"answeredthegalleyslave,"forthereisnothingworsethansingingunder suffering." "Onthecontrary,Ihaveheardsay,"saidDonQuixote,"thathewhosingsscares awayhiswoes." "Hereitisthereverse,"saidthegalleyslave;"forhewhosingsonceweepsallhis life."

105 "Idonotunderstandit,"saidDonQuixote;butoneoftheguardssaidtohim,"Sir,to singundersufferingmeanswiththenonsancta54fraternitytoconfessunder torture;theyputthissinnertothetortureandheconfessedhiscrime,whichwas beingacuatrero,thatisacattlethief,andonhisconfessiontheysentencedhimto sixyearsinthegalleys,besidestwohundredlashesthathehasalreadyhadonthe back;andheisalwaysdejectedanddowncastbecausetheotherthievesthatwere leftbehindandthatmarchhereilltreat,andsnub,andjeer,anddespisehimfor confessingandnothavingspiritenoughtosaynay;for,saythey,'nay'hasnomore lettersinitthan'yea,'andaculpritiswelloffwhenlifeordeathwithhimdepends onhisowntongueandnotonthatofwitnessesorevidence;andtomythinkingthey arenotveryfarwrong." "AndIthinksotoo,"answeredDonQuixote;thenpassingontothethirdheasked himwhathehadaskedtheothers,andthemanansweredveryreadilyand unconcernedly,"Iamgoingforfiveyearstotheirladyshipsthegurapasforthewant oftenducats." "Iwillgivetwentywithpleasuretogetyououtofthattrouble,"saidDonQuixote. "That,"saidthegalleyslave,"islikeamanhavingmoneyatseawhenheisdyingof hungerandhasnowayofbuyingwhathewants;Isaysobecauseifattherighttime Ihadhadthosetwentyducatsthatyourworshipnowoffersme,Iwouldhave greasedthenotary'spenandfresheneduptheattorney'switwiththem,sothatto dayIshouldbeinthemiddleoftheplazaoftheZocodoveratToledo,andnotonthis roadcoupledlikeagreyhound.ButGodisgreat;patiencethere,that'senoughof it." DonQuixotepassedontothefourth,amanofvenerableaspectwithawhitebeard fallingbelowhisbreast,whoonhearinghimselfaskedthereasonofhisbeingthere 54Unholy

DonQuixotedelaMancha

106 DonQuixotedelaMancha begantoweepwithoutansweringaword,butthefifthactedashistongueandsaid, "Thisworthymanisgoingtothegalleysforfouryears,afterhavinggonetherounds inceremonyandonhorseback.55" "Thatmeans,"saidSanchoPanza,"asItakeit,tohavebeenexposedtoshamein public." "Justso,"repliedthegalleyslave,"andtheoffenceforwhichtheygavehimthat punishmentwashavingbeenanearbroker,naybodybroker;Imean,inshort,that thisgentlemangoesasapimp,andforhavingbesidesacertaintouchofthesorcerer abouthim." "Ifthattouchhadnotbeenthrownin,"saidDonQuixote,"hewouldnotdeserve,for merepimping,torowinthegalleys,butrathertocommandandbeadmiralofthem; fortheofficeofpimpisnoordinaryone,beingtheofficeofpersonsofdiscretion, oneverynecessaryinawellorderedstate,andonlytobeexercisedbypersonsof goodbirth;nay,thereoughttobeaninspectorandoverseerofthem,asinother offices,andrecognizednumber,aswiththebrokersonchange;inthiswaymanyof theevilswouldbeavoidedwhicharecausedbythisofficeandcallingbeinginthe handsofstupidandignorantpeople,suchaswomenmoreorlesssilly,andpages andjestersoflittlestandingandexperience,whoonthemosturgentoccasions,and wheningenuityofcontrivanceisneeded,letthecrumbsfreezeonthewaytotheir mouths,andknownotwhichistheirrighthand.Ishouldliketogofarther,andgive reasonstoshowthatitisadvisabletochoosethosewhoaretoholdsonecessaryan officeinthestate,butthisisnotthefitplaceforit;somedayIwillexpoundthe mattertosomeoneabletoseetoandrectifyit;allIsaynowis,thattheadditional factofhisbeingasorcererhasremovedthesorrowitgavemetoseethesewhite hairsandthisvenerablecountenanceinsopainfulapositiononaccountofhisbeing apimp;thoughIknowwelltherearenosorceriesintheworldthatcanmoveor

55Afterhavingbeenfloggedinpublic,withalltheceremonythatwentwithit.

107 compelthewillassomesimplefolkfancy,forourwillisfree,noristhereherbor charmthatcanforceit56.Allthatcertainsillywomenandquacksdoistoturnmen madwithpotionsandpoisons,pretendingthattheyhavepowertocauselove,for,as Isay,itisanimpossibilitytocompelthewill." "Itistrue,"saidthegoodoldman,"andindeed,sir,asfarasthechargeofsorcery goesIwasnotguilty;astothatofbeingapimpIcannotdenyit;butIneverthought Iwasdoinganyharmbyit,formyonlyobjectwasthatalltheworldshouldenjoy itselfandliveinpeaceandquiet,withoutquarrelsortroubles;butmygood intentionswereunavailingtosavemefromgoingwhereIneverexpecttocome backfrom,withthisweightofyearsuponmeandaurinaryailmentthatnevergives meamoment'sease;"andagainhefelltoweepingasbefore,andsuchcompassion didSanchofeelforhimthathetookoutarealoffourfromhisbosomandgaveitto himinalms. DonQuixotewentonandaskedanotherwhathiscrimewas,andthemananswered withnolessbutrathermuchmoresprightlinessthanthelastone. "IamherebecauseIcarriedthejoketoofarwithacoupleofcousinsofmine,and withacoupleofothercousinswhowerenoneofmine;inshort,Icarriedthejokeso farwiththemallthatitendedinsuchacomplicatedincreaseofkindredthatno accountantcouldmakeitclear:itwasallprovedagainstme,Igotnofavor,Ihadno money,Iwasnearhavingmyneckstretched,theysentencedmetothegalleysfor sixyears,Iacceptedmyfate,itisthepunishmentofmyfault;Iamayoungman;let lifeonlylast,andwiththatallwillcomeright.Ifyou,sir,haveanythingwherewithto helpthepoor,Godwillrepayittoyouinheaven,andweonearthwilltakecarein ourpetitionstohimtoprayforthelifeandhealthofyourworship,thattheymaybe aslongandasgoodasyouramiableappearancedeserves." 56Here,Quixotedeniestheexistenceofsorcererswhocanmakepeopleactagainst theirwill,thoughheacceptsenchantmentsandspellsaspartofhisownworldview.

DonQuixotedelaMancha

108 DonQuixotedelaMancha Thisonewasinthedressofastudent,andoneoftheguardssaidhewasagreat talkerandaveryelegantLatinscholar. Behindallthesetherecameamanofthirty,averypersonablefellow,exceptthat whenhelooked,hiseyesturnedinalittleonetowardstheother.Hewasbound differentlyfromtherest,forhehadtohislegachainsolongthatitwaswoundall roundhisbody,andtworingsonhisneck,oneattachedtothechain,theotherto whattheycalla"keepfriend"or"friend'sfoot,"fromwhichhungtwoironsreaching tohiswaistwithtwomanaclesfixedtotheminwhichhishandsweresecuredbya bigpadlock,sothathecouldneitherraisehishandstohismouthnorlowerhishead tohishands.DonQuixoteaskedwhythismancarriedsomanymorechainsthanthe others.Theguardrepliedthatitwasbecausehealonehadcommittedmorecrimes thanalltherestputtogether,andwassodaringandsuchavillain,thatthoughthey marchedhiminthatfashiontheydidnotfeelsureofhim,butwereindreadofhis makinghisescape. "Whatcrimescanhehavecommitted,"saidDonQuixote,"iftheyhavenotdeserved aheavierpunishmentthanbeingsenttothegalleys?" "Hegoesfortenyears,"repliedtheguard,"whichisthesamethingascivildeath, andallthatneedbesaidisthatthisgoodfellowisthefamousGinesdePasamonte, otherwisecalledGinesillodeParapilla." "Gently,seorcommissary,"saidthegalleyslaveatthis,"letushavenofixingof namesorsurnames;mynameisGines,notGinesillo,andmyfamilynameis Pasamonte,notParapillaasyousay;leteachonemindhisownbusiness,andhewill bedoingenough." "Speakwithlessimpertinence,masterthiefofextrameasure,"repliedthe commissary,"ifyoudon'twantmetomakeyouholdyourtongueinspiteofyour teeth."

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"Itiseasytosee,"returnedthegalleyslave,"thatmangoesasGodpleases,butsome oneshallknowsomedaywhetherIamcalledGinesillodeParapillaornot." "Don'ttheycallyouso,youliar?"saidtheguard. "Theydo,"returnedGines,"butIwillmakethemgiveovercallingmeso,orIwillbe shaved,where,Ionlysaybehindmyteeth.Ifyou,sir,haveanythingtogiveus,giveit tousatonce,andGodspeedyou,foryouarebecomingtiresomewithallthis inquisitivenessaboutthelivesofothers;ifyouwanttoknowaboutmine,letmetell youIamGinesdePasamonte,whoselifeiswrittenbythesefingers." "Hesaystrue,"saidthecommissary,"forhehashimselfwrittenhisstoryasgrandas youplease,andhasleftthebookintheprisoninpawnfortwohundredreals." "AndImeantotakeitoutofpawn,"saidGines,"thoughitwereinfortwohundred ducats." "Isitsogood?"saidDonQuixote. "Sogoodisit,"repliedGines,"thatafigforLazarillodeTormes,57andallofthatkind thathavebeenwritten,orshallbewrittencomparedwithit:allIwillsayaboutitis thatitdealswithfacts,andfactssoneatanddivertingthatnoliescouldmatch them." "Andhowisthebookentitled?"askedDonQuixote. "TheLifeofGinesdePasamonte,"repliedthesubjectofit. 57Apicaresqueorroguenovel,publishedanonymouslyaboutthemiddleofthe15th century.

110 DonQuixotedelaMancha "Andisitfinished?"askedDonQuixote. "Howcanitbefinished,"saidtheother,"whenmylifeisnotyetfinished?Allthatis writtenisfrommybirthdowntothepointwhentheysentmetothegalleysthislast time." "Thenyouhavebeentherebefore?"saidDonQuixote. "IntheserviceofGodandthekingIhavebeenthereforfouryearsbeforenow,andI knowbythistimewhatthebiscuitandcourbash58arelike,"repliedGines;"anditis nogreatgrievancetometogobacktothem,forthereIshallhavetimetofinishmy book;Ihavestillmanythingslefttosay,andinthegalleysofSpainthereismore thanenoughleisure;thoughIdonotwantmuchforwhatIhavetowrite,forIhaveit byheart." "Youseemacleverfellow,"saidDonQuixote. "Andanunfortunateone,"repliedGines,"formisfortunealwayspersecutesgood wit." "Itpersecutesrogues,"saidthecommissary. "Itoldyoualreadytogogently,mastercommissary,"saidPasamonte;"their lordshipsyondernevergaveyouthatstafftoilltreatuswretcheshere,butto conductandtakeuswherehismajestyordersyou;ifnot,bythelifeofnevermind; itmaybethatsomedaythestainsmadeintheinnwillcomeoutinthescouring;let everyoneholdhistongueandbehavewellandspeakbetter;andnowletusmarch on,forwehavehadquiteenoughofthisentertainment." 58Awhiporstrapaboutthreefeetlong,commonlyusedaspunishmentorin torture.

111 ThecommissaryliftedhisstafftostrikePasamonteinreturnforhisthreats,butDon Quixotecamebetweenthem,andbeggedhimnottoillusehim,asitwasnottoo muchtoallowonewhohadhishandstiedtohavehistongueatriflefree;and turningtothewholechainofthemhesaid: "Fromallyouhavetoldme,dearbrethren,makeoutclearlythatthoughtheyhave punishedyouforyourfaults,thepunishmentsyouareabouttoenduredonotgive youmuchpleasure,andthatyougotothemverymuchagainstthegrainandagainst yourwill,andthatperhapsthisone'swantofcourageundertorture,thatone'swant ofmoney,theother'swantofadvocacy,andlastlythepervertedjudgmentofthe judgemayhavebeenthecauseofyourruinandofyourfailuretoobtainthejustice youhadonyourside.Allwhichpresentsitselfnowtomymind,urging,persuading, andevencompellingmetodemonstrateinyourcasethepurposeforwhichHeaven sentmeintotheworldandcausedmetomakeprofessionoftheorderofchivalryto whichIbelong,andthevowItookthereintogiveaidtothoseinneedandunderthe oppressionofthestrong.ButasIknowthatitisamarkofprudencenottodoby foulmeanswhatmaybedonebyfair,Iwillaskthesegentlemen,theguardsand commissary,tobesogoodastoreleaseyouandletyougoinpeace,astherewillbe nolackofotherstoservethekingundermorefavorablecircumstances;foritseems tomeahardcasetomakeslavesofthosewhomGodandnaturehavemadefree. Moreover,sirsoftheguard,"addedDonQuixote,"thesepoorfellowshavedone nothingtoyou;leteachanswerforhisownsinsyonder;thereisaGodinHeaven whowillnotforgettopunishthewickedorrewardthegood;anditisnotfittingthat honestmenshouldbetheinstrumentsofpunishmenttoothers,theybeingtherein nowayconcerned.ThisrequestImakethusgentlyandquietly,that,ifyoucomply withit,Imayhavereasonforthankingyou;and,ifyouwillnotvoluntarily,this lanceandswordtogetherwiththemightofmyarmshallcompelyoutocomplywith itbyforce." "Nicenonsense!"saidthecommissary;"afinepieceofpleasantryhehascomeout withatlast!Hewantsustolettheking'sprisonersgo,asifwehadanyauthorityto

DonQuixotedelaMancha

112 DonQuixotedelaMancha releasethem,orhetoorderustodoso!Goyourway,sir,andgoodlucktoyou;put thatbasin59straightthatyou'vegotonyourhead,anddon'tgolookingforthreefeet onacat.60" "'Tisyouthatarethecat,rat,andrascal,"repliedDonQuixote,andactingonthe wordhefelluponhimsosuddenlythatwithoutgivinghimtimetodefendhimselfhe broughthimtothegroundsorelywoundedwithalancethrust;andluckyitwasfor himthatitwastheonethathadthemusket.Theotherguardsstoodthunderstruck andamazedatthisunexpectedevent,butrecoveringpresenceofmind,thoseon horsebackseizedtheirswords,andthoseonfoottheirjavelins,andattackedDon Quixote,whowaswaitingforthemwithgreatcalmness;andnodoubtitwouldhave gonebadlywithhimifthegalleyslaves,seeingthechancebeforethemofliberating themselves,hadnoteffecteditbycontrivingtobreakthechainonwhichtheywere strung.Suchwastheconfusion,thattheguards,nowrushingatthegalleyslaves whowerebreakingloose,nowtoattackDonQuixotewhowaswaitingforthem,did nothingatallthatwasofanyuse.Sancho,onhispart,gaveahelpinghandtorelease GinesdePasamonte,whowasthefirsttoleapforthupontheplainfreeand unfettered,andwho,attackingtheprostratecommissary,tookfromhimhissword andthemusket,withwhich,aimingatoneandlevelingatanother,he,withoutever dischargingit,droveeveryoneoftheguardsoffthefield,fortheytooktoflight,as welltoescapePasamonte'smusket,astheshowersofstonesthenowreleased galleyslaveswereraininguponthem.Sanchowasgreatlygrievedattheaffair, becauseheanticipatedthatthosewhohadfledwouldreportthemattertotheHoly Brotherhood,whoatthesummonsofthealarmbellwouldatoncesallyforthin questoftheoffenders;andhesaidsotohismaster,andentreatedhimtoleavethe placeatonce,andgointohidinginthesierrathatwascloseby.

59Ashavingbasin,whichDonQuixotehasappropriatedforahelmet,thinkingitto bethefamousenchantedhelmetofMambrino. 60Themoreusualformoftheproverbisfivefeetonacat.

113 "Thatisallverywell,"saidDonQuixote,"butIknowwhatmustbedonenow;"and callingtogetherallthegalleyslaves,whowerenowrunningriot,andhadstripped thecommissarytotheskin,hecollectedthemroundhimtohearwhathehadtosay, andaddressedthemasfollows:"Tobegratefulforbenefitsreceivedisthepartof personsofgoodbirth,andoneofthesinsmostoffensivetoGodisingratitude;Isay sobecause,sirs,yehavealreadyseenbymanifestproofthebenefityehavereceived ofme;inreturnforwhichIdesire,anditismygoodpleasurethat,ladenwiththat chainwhichIhavetakenoffyournecks,yeatoncesetoutandproceedtothecityof ElToboso,andtherepresentyourselvesbeforetheladyDulcineadelToboso,and saytoherthatherknight,heoftheMournfulCountenance,sendstocommend himselftoher;andthatyerecounttoherinfulldetailalltheparticularsofthis notableadventure,uptotherecoveryofyourlongedforliberty;andthisdoneye maygowhereyewill,andgoodfortuneattendyou." GinesdePasamontemadeanswerforall,saying,"Thatwhichyou,sir,ourdeliverer, demandofus,isofallimpossibilitiesthemostimpossibletocomplywith,because wecannotgotogetheralongtheroads,butonlysinglyandseparate,andeachone hisownway,endeavoringtohideourselvesinthebowelsoftheearthtoescapethe HolyBrotherhood,which,nodoubt,willcomeoutinsearchofus.Whatyour worshipmaydo,andfairlydo,istochangethisserviceandtributeasregardsthe ladyDulcineadelTobosoforacertainquantityofavemariasandcredoswhichwe willsayforyourworship'sintention,andthisisaconditionthatcanbecomplied withbynightasbyday,runningorresting,inpeaceorinwar;buttoimaginethat wearegoingnowtoreturntothefleshpotsofEgypt,Imeantotakeupourchain andsetoutforElToboso,istoimaginethatitisnownight,thoughitisnotyettenin themorning,andtoaskthisofusislikeaskingpearsoftheelmtree." "Thenbyallthat'sgood,"saidDonQuixote(nowstirredtowrath),"Donsonofa bitch,DonGinesillodeParopillo,orwhateveryournameis,youwillhavetogo yourselfalone,withyourtailbetweenyourlegsandthewholechainonyourback."

DonQuixotedelaMancha

114 DonQuixotedelaMancha Pasamonte,whowasanythingbutmeek(beingbythistimethoroughlyconvinced thatDonQuixotewasnotquiterightinhisheadashehadcommittedsuchavagary astosetthemfree),findinghimselfabusedinthisfashion,gavethewinktohis companions,andfallingbacktheybegantoshowerstonesonDonQuixoteatsucha ratethathewasquiteunabletoprotecthimselfwithhisbuckler,andpoor Rocinantenomoreheededthespurthanifhehadbeenmadeofbrass.Sancho plantedhimselfbehindhisass,andwithhimshelteredhimselffromthehailstorm thatpouredonbothofthem.DonQuixotewasunabletoshieldhimselfsowellbut thatmorepebblesthanIcouldcountstruckhimfullonthebodywithsuchforce thattheybroughthimtotheground;andtheinstanthefellthestudentpounced uponhim,snatchedthebasinfromhishead,andwithitstruckthreeorfourblows onhisshoulders,andasmanymoreontheground,knockingitalmosttopieces. Theythenstrippedhimofajacketthatheworeoverhisarmor,andtheywouldhave strippedoffhisstockingsifhisgreaveshadnotpreventedthem.FromSanchothey tookhiscoat,leavinghiminhisshirtsleeves;anddividingamongthemselvesthe remainingspoilsofthebattle,theywenteachonehisownway,moresolicitous aboutkeepingclearoftheHolyBrotherhoodtheydreaded,thanaboutburdening themselveswiththechain,orgoingtopresentthemselvesbeforetheladyDulcinea delToboso.TheassandRocinante,SanchoandDonQuixote,wereallthatwereleft uponthespot;theasswithdroopinghead,serious,shakinghisearsfromtimeto timeasifhethoughtthestormofstonesthatassailedthemwasnotyetover; Rocinantestretchedbesidehismaster,forhetoohadbeenbroughttothegroundby astone;Sanchostripped,andtremblingwithfearoftheHolyBrotherhood;andDon Quixotefumingtofindhimselfsoservedbytheverypersonsforwhomhehaddone somuch.

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CHAPTERLII61
OFTHEQUARRELTHATDONQUIXOTEHADWITHTHEGOATHERD,TOGETHER WITHTHERAREADVENTUREOFTHEPENITENTS,WHICHWITHAN EXPENDITUREOFSWEATHEBROUGHTTOAHAPPYCONCLUSION
Thegoatherd'stalegavegreatsatisfactiontoallthehearers,andthecanon62 especiallyenjoyedit,forhehadremarkedwithparticularattentionthemannerin whichithadbeentold,whichwasasunlikethemannerofaclownishgoatherdasit waslikethatofapolishedcitywit;andheobservedthatthecuratehadbeenquite rightinsayingthatthewoodsbredmenoflearning.Theyallofferedtheirservices toEugeniobuthewhoshowedhimselfmostliberalinthiswaywasDonQuixote, whosaidtohim,"Mostassuredly,brothergoatherd,ifIfoundmyselfinapositionto attemptanyadventure,Iwould,thisveryinstant,setoutonyourbehalf,andwould rescueLeandrafromthatconvent(wherenodoubtsheiskeptagainstherwill),in spiteoftheabbessandallwhomighttrytopreventme,andwouldplaceherinyour handstodealwithheraccordingtoyourwillandpleasure,observing,however,the lawsofchivalrywhichlaydownthatnoviolenceofanykindistobeofferedtoany damsel.ButItrustinGodourLordthatthemightofonemalignantenchantermay notprovesogreatbutthatthepowerofanotherbetterdisposedmayprove superiortoit,andthenIpromiseyoumysupportandassistance,asIamboundto dobymyprofession,whichisnoneotherthantogiveaidtotheweakandneedy."

61ThelastchapterofPartOne.Throughvariousdevices,includingtheuseofDon

Quixotesownbeliefinenchantmentsandspells,thecurateandthebarberhave persuadedtheknighttolethimselfbetakenhomeinanoxcart. 62AcanonfromToledowhohasjoinedDonQuixoteandhisguardiansontheway; conversingaboutchivalrywiththeknight,hehashadcausetobeastonishedatDon Quixoteswellreasonednonsense.

116 DonQuixotedelaMancha Thegoatherdeyedhim,andnoticingDonQuixote'ssorryappearanceandlooks,he wasfilledwithwonder,andaskedthebarber,whowasnexthim,"Seor,whoisthis manwhomakessuchafigureandtalksinsuchastrain?" "Whoshoulditbe,"saidthebarber,"butthefamousDonQuixoteofLaMancha,the undoerofinjustice,therighterofwrongs,theprotectorofdamsels,theterrorof giants,andthewinnerofbattles?" "That,"saidthegoatherd,"soundslikewhatonereadsinthebooksoftheknights errant,whodidallthatyousaythismandoes;thoughitismybeliefthateitheryou arejoking,orelsethisgentlemanhasemptylodgingsinhishead." "Youareagreatscoundrel,"saidDonQuixote,"anditisyouwhoareemptyanda fool.Iamfullerthaneverwasthewhoresonbitchthatboreyou;"andpassingfrom wordstodeeds,hecaughtupaloafthatwasnearhimandsentitfullinthe goatherd'sface,withsuchforcethatheflattenedhisnose;butthegoatherd,whodid notunderstandjokes,andfoundhimselfroughlyhandledinsuchgoodearnest, payingnorespecttocarpet,tablecloth,ordiners,spranguponDonQuixote,and seizinghimbythethroatwithbothhandswouldnodoubthavethrottledhim,had notSanchoPanzathatinstantcometotherescue,andgraspinghimbythe shouldersflunghimdownonthetable,smashingplates,breakingglasses,and upsettingandscatteringeverythingonit.DonQuixote,findinghimselffree,stroveto getontopofthegoatherd,who,withhisfacecoveredwithblood,andsoundly kickedbySancho,wasonallfoursfeelingaboutforoneofthetableknivestotakea bloodyrevengewith.Thecanonandthecurate,however,preventedhim,butthe barbersocontriveditthathegotDonQuixoteunderhim,andraineddownupon himsuchashoweroffisticuffsthatthepoorknight'sfacestreamedwithbloodas freelyashisown.Thecanonandthecuratewereburstingwithlaughter,the officers63werecaperingwithdelight,andboththeoneandtheotherhissedthemon 63LawofficersfromtheHolyBrotherhood.TheyhadwantedtoarrestDonQuixote

117 astheydodogsthatareworryingoneanotherinafight.Sanchoalonewasfrantic, forhecouldnotfreehimselffromthegraspofoneofthecanon'sservants,whokept himfromgoingtohismaster'sassistance. Atlast,whiletheywereall,withtheexceptionofthetwobruiserswhowere maulingeachother,inhighgleeandenjoyment,theyheardatrumpetsoundanote sodolefulthatitmadethemalllookinthedirectionwhencethesoundseemedto come.ButtheonethatwasmostexcitedbyhearingitwasDonQuixote,whothough sorelyagainsthiswillhewasunderthegoatherd,andsomethingmorethanpretty wellpummeled,saidtohim,"Brotherdevil(foritisimpossiblebutthatthoumust beonesincethouhasthadmightandstrengthenoughtoovercomemine),Iaskthee toagreetoatruceforbutonehourforthesolemnnoteofyondertrumpetthatfalls onourearsseemstometosummonmetosomenewadventure."Thegoatherd,who wasbythistimetiredofpummelingandbeingpummeled,releasedhimatonce,and DonQuixoterisingtohisfeetandturninghiseyestothequarterwherethesound hadbeenheard,suddenlysawcomingdowntheslopeofahillseveralmencladin whitelikepenitents. Thefactwasthatthecloudshadthatyearwithheldtheirmoisturefromtheearth, andinallthevillagesofthedistricttheywereorganizingprocessions,rogations,and penances,imploringGodtoopenthehandsofhismercyandsendtherain;andto thisendthepeopleofavillagethatwashardbyweregoinginprocessiontoaholy hermitagetherewasononesideofthatvalley.DonQuixotewhenhesawthe strangegarbofthepenitents,withoutreflectinghowoftenhehadseenitbefore, tookitintohisheadthatthiswasacaseofadventure,andthatitfelltohimaloneas aknighterranttoengageinit;andhewasallthemoreconfirmedinthisnotion,by theideathatanimagedrapedinblacktheyhadwiththemwassomeillustriouslady thatthesevillainsanddiscourteousthieveswerecarryingoffbyforce.Assoonas thisoccurredtohimheranwithallspeedtoRocinantewhowasgrazingatlarge, fortryingtofreethegalleyslavesbuthadbeenpersuadedtolethimgo,duetohis insanity.

DonQuixotedelaMancha

118 DonQuixotedelaMancha andtakingthebridleandthebucklerfromthesaddlebow,hehadhimbridledinan instant,andcallingtoSanchoforhisswordhemountedRocinante,bracedhis buckleronhisarm,andinaloudvoiceexclaimedtothosewhostoodby,"Now, noblecompany,yeshallseehowimportantitisthatthereshouldbeknightsinthe worldprofessingtheofknighterrantry;now,Isay,yeshallsee,bythedeliverance ofthatworthyladywhoisbornecaptivethere,whetherknightserrantdeserveto beheldinestimation,"andsosayinghebroughthislegstobearonRocinantefor hehadnospursandatafullcanter(forinallthisveracioushistoryweneverread ofRocinantefairlygalloping)setofftoencounterthepenitents,thoughthecurate, thecanon,andthebarberrantopreventhim.Butitwasoutoftheirpower,nordid heevenstopfortheshoutsofSanchocallingafterhim,"Whereareyougoing,Seor DonQuixote?WhatdevilshavepossessedyoutosetyouonagainstourCatholic faith?Plaguetakeme!mind,thatisaprocessionofpenitents,andtheladytheyare carryingonthatstandthereistheblessedimageoftheimmaculateVirgin.Takecare whatyouaredoing,seor,forthistimeitmaybesafelysaidyoudon'tknowwhat youareabout."Sancholaboredinvain,forhismasterwassobentoncomingto quarterswiththesesheetedfiguresandreleasingtheladyinblackthathedidnot hearaword;andevenhadheheard,hewouldnothaveturnedbackifthekinghad orderedhim.HecameupwiththeprocessionandreinedinRocinante,whowas alreadyanxiousenoughtoslackenspeedalittle,andinahoarse,excitedvoicehe exclaimed,"Youwhohideyourfaces,perhapsbecauseyouarenotgoodsubjects, payattentionandlistentowhatIamabouttosaytoyou."Thefirsttohaltwere thosewhowerecarryingtheimage,andoneofthefourecclesiasticswhowere chantingtheLitany,struckbythestrangefigureofDonQuixote,theleannessof Rocinante,andtheotherludicrouspeculiaritiesheobserved,saidinreplytohim, "Brother,ifyouhaveanythingtosaytoussayitquickly,forthesebrethrenare whippingthemselves,andwecannotstop,norisitreasonableweshouldstopto hearanything,unlessindeeditisshortenoughtobesaidintwowords." "Iwillsayitinone,"repliedDonQuixote,"anditisthis;thatatonce,thisvery instant,yereleasethatfairladywhosetearsandsadaspectshowplainlythatyeare

DonQuixotedelaMancha carryingheroffagainstherwill,andthatyehavecommittedsomescandalous outrageagainsther;andI,whowasbornintotheworldtoredressallsuchlike

119

wrongs,willnotpermityoutoadvanceanotherstepuntilyouhaverestoredtoher thelibertyshepinesforanddeserves." Fromthesewordsallthehearersconcludedthathemustbeamadman,andbegan tolaughheartily,andtheirlaughteractedlikegunpowderonDonQuixote'sfury,for drawinghisswordwithoutanotherwordhemadearushatthestand.Oneofthose whosupportedit,leavingtheburdentohiscomrades,advancedtomeethim, flourishingaforkedstickthathehadforproppingupthestandwhenresting,and withthishecaughtamightycutDonQuixotemadeathimthatsevereditintwo;but withtheportionthatremainedinhishandhedealtsuchathwackontheshoulderof DonQuixote'sswordarm(whichthebucklercouldnotprotectagainsttheclownish assault)thatpoorDonQuixotecametothegroundinasadplight. SanchoPanza,whowascomingonclosebehindpuffingandblowing,seeinghimfall, criedouttohisassailantnottostrikehimagain,forhewaspoorenchantedknight, whohadneverharmedanyoneallthedaysofhislife;butwhatcheckedtheclown was,notSancho'sshouting,butseeingthatDonQuixotedidnotstirhandorfoot; andso,fancyinghehadkilledhim,hehastilyhitcheduphistunicunderhisgirdle andtooktohisheelsacrossthecountrylikeadeer. BythistimeallDonQuixote'scompanionshadcomeuptowherehelay;butthe processionistsseeingthemcomerunning,andwiththemtheofficersofthe Brotherhoodwiththeircrossbows,apprehendedmischief,andclusteringroundthe image,raisedtheirhoods,andgraspedtheirscourges,asthepriestsdidtheirtapers, andawaitedtheattack,resolvedtodefendthemselvesandeventotaketheoffensive againsttheirassailantsiftheycould.Fortune,however,arrangedthematterbetter thantheyexpected,forallSanchodidwastoflinghimselfonhismaster'sbody, raisingoverhimthemostdolefulandlaughablelamentationthateverwasheard, forhebelievedhewasdead.Thecuratewasknowntoanothercuratewhowalkedin

120 DonQuixotedelaMancha theprocession,andtheirrecognitionofoneanothersetatresttheapprehensionsof bothparties;thefirstthentoldtheotherintwowordswhoDonQuixotewas,andhe andthewholetroopofpenitentswenttoseeifthepoorgentlemanwasdead,and heardSanchoPanzasaying,withtearsinhiseyes,"Ohflowerofchivalry,64thatwith oneblowofastickhastendedthecourseofthywellspentlife!Ohprideofthyrace, honorandgloryofallLaMancha,nay,ofalltheworld,thatforwantoftheewillbe fullofevildoers,nolongerinfearofpunishmentfortheirmisdeeds!Ohthou, generousabovealltheAlexanders,sinceforonlyeightmonthsofservicethouhast givenmethebestislandtheseagirdsorsurrounds!Humblewiththeproud, haughtywiththehumble,encountererofdangers,endurerofoutrages,enamored withoutreason,imitatorofthegood,scourgeofthewicked,enemyofthemean,in short,knighterrant,whichisallthatcanbesaid!" AtthecriesandmoansofSancho,DonQuixotecametohimself,andthefirstword hesaidwas,"Hewholivesseparatedfromyou,sweetestDulcinea,hasgreater miseriestoendurethanthese.Aidme,friendSancho,tomounttheenchantedcart, forIamnotinaconditiontopressthesaddleofRocinante,asthisshoulderisall knockedtopieces." "ThatIwilldowithallmyheart,seor,"saidSancho;"andletusreturntoourvillage withthesegentlemen,whoseekyourgood,andtherewewillprepareformaking anothersally,whichmayturnoutmoreprofitableandcreditabletous." "Thouartright,Sancho,"returnedDonQuixote;"Itwillbewisetoletthemalign influenceofthestarswhichnowprevailspassoff." Thecanon,thecurate,andthebarbertoldhimhewouldactverywiselyindoingas hesaid;andso,highlyamusedatSanchoPanza'ssimplicities,theyplacedDon Quixoteinthecartasbefore.Theprocessiononcemoreformeditselfinorderand 64NotethatbythistimeSanchohasabsorbedsomeofhismasterscourtlyspeech.

121 proceededonitsroad;thegoatherdtookhisleaveoftheparty;theofficersofthe Brotherhooddeclinedtogoanyfarther,andthecuratepaidthemwhatwasdueto them;thecanonbeggedthecuratetolethimknowhowDonQuixotedid,whether hewascuredofhismadnessorstillsufferedfromit,andthenbeggedleaveto continuehisjourney;inshort,theyallseparatedandwenttheirways,leavingto themselvesthecurateandthebarber,DonQuixote,SanchoPanza,andthegood Rocinante,whoregardedeverythingwithasgreatresignationashismaster.The carteryokedhisoxenandmadeDonQuixotecomfortableonatrussofhay,andat hisusualdeliberatepacetooktheroadthecuratedirected,andattheendofsixdays theyreachedDonQuixote'svillage,andentereditaboutthemiddleoftheday, whichitsohappenedwasaSunday,andthepeoplewereallintheplaza,through whichDonQuixote'scartpassed.Theyallflockedtoseewhatwasinthecart,and whentheyrecognizedtheirtownsmantheywerefilledwithamazement,andaboy ranofftobringthenewstohishousekeeperandhisniecethattheirmasterand unclehadcomebackallleanandyellowandstretchedonatrussofhayonanox cart.Itwaspiteoustohearthecriesthetwogoodladiesraised,howtheybeattheir breastsandpouredoutfreshmaledictionsonthoseaccursedbooksofchivalry;all whichwasrenewedwhentheysawDonQuixotecominginatthegate. AtthenewsofDonQuixote'sarrivalSanchoPanza'swifecamerunning,forsheby thistimeknewthatherhusbandhadgoneawaywithhimashissquire,andon seeingSancho,thefirstthingsheaskedhimwasiftheasswaswell.Sanchoreplied thathewas,betterthanhismasterwas. "ThanksbetoGod,"saidshe,"forbeingsogoodtome;butnowtellme,myfriend, whathaveyoumadebyyoursquirings?Whatgownhaveyoubroughtmeback? Whatshoesforyourchildren?" "Ibringnothingofthatsort,wife,"saidSancho;"thoughIbringotherthingsofmore consequenceandvalue."

DonQuixotedelaMancha

122 DonQuixotedelaMancha "Iamverygladofthat,"returnedhiswife;"showmethesethingsofmorevalueand consequence,myfriend;forIwanttoseethemtocheermyheartthathasbeenso sadandheavyalltheseagesthatyouhavebeenaway." "Iwillshowthemtoyouathome,wife,"saidSancho;"becontentforthepresent;for ifitpleaseGodthatweshouldagaingoonourtravelsinsearchofadventures,you willsoonseemeacount,orgovernorofanisland,andthatnotoneofthose everydayones,butthebestthatistobehad." "Heavengrantit,husband,"saidshe,"forindeedwehaveneedofit.Buttellme, what'sthisaboutislands,forIdon'tunderstandit?" "Honeyisnotforthemouthoftheass,"returnedSancho;"allingoodtimethoushalt see,wifenay,thouwiltbesurprisedtohearthyselfcalled'yourladyship'byall thyvassals." "Whatareyoutalkingabout,Sancho,withyourladyships,islands,andvassals?" returnedTeresaPanzaforsoSancho'swifewascalled,thoughtheywerenot relations,forinLaManchaitiscustomaryforwivestotaketheirhusbands' surnames. "Don'tbeinsuchahurrytoknowallthis,Teresa,"saidSancho;"itisenoughthatI amtellingyouthetruth,soshutyourmouth.ButImaytellyouthismuchbythe way,thatthereisnothingintheworldmoredelightfulthantobeapersonof consideration,squiretoaknighterrant,andaseekerofadventures.Tobesuremost ofthoseonefindsdonotendaspleasantlyasonecouldwish,foroutofahundred, ninetyninewillturnoutcrossandcontrary.Iknowitbyexperience,foroutofsome Icameblanketed,andoutofothersbelabored.Still,forallthat,itisafinethingtobe onthelookoutforwhatmayhappen,crossingmountains,searchingwoods, climbingrocks,visitingcastles,puttingupatinns,allatfreequarters,anddeviltake themaraveditopay."

DonQuixotedelaMancha

123

WhilethisconversationpassedbetweenSanchoPanzaandhiswife,DonQuixote's housekeeperandniecetookhiminandundressedhimandlaidhiminhisoldbed. Heeyedthemaskance,andcouldnotmakeoutwherehewas.Thecuratecharged hisniecetobeverycarefultomakeherunclecomfortableandtokeepawatchover himlestheshouldmakehisescapefromthemagain,tellingherwhattheyhadbeen obligedtodotobringhimhome.Onthisthepaironcemorelifteduptheirvoices andrenewedtheirmaledictionsuponthebooksofchivalry,andimploredheavento plungetheauthorsofsuchliesandnonsenseintothemidstofthebottomlesspit. Theywere,inshort,keptinanxietyanddreadlesttheiruncleandmastershould givethemtheslipthemomenthefoundhimselfsomewhatbetter,andasthey fearedsoitfellout.

124

DonQuixotedelaMancha

VOLUMEII
CHAPTERI

OFTHEINTERVIEWTHECURATEANDTHEBARBERHADWITHDONQUIXOTE ABOUTHISMALADY
CideHameteBenengeli,intheSecondPartofthishistory,andthirdsallyofDon Quixote,saysthatthecurateandthebarberremainednearlyamonthwithout seeinghim,lesttheyshouldrecallorbringbacktohisrecollectionwhathadtaken place.Theydidnot,however,omittovisithisnieceandhousekeeper,andcharge themtobecarefultotreathimwithattention,andgivehimcomfortingthingstoeat, andsuchasweregoodfortheheartandthebrain,whence,itwasplaintosee,allhis misfortuneproceeded.Thenieceandhousekeeperrepliedthattheydidso,and meanttodosowithallpossiblecareandassiduity,fortheycouldperceivethattheir masterwasnowandthenbeginningtoshowsignsofbeinginhisrightmind.This gavegreatsatisfactiontothecurateandthebarber,fortheyconcludedtheyhad takentherightcourseincarryinghimoffenchantedontheoxcart,ashasbeen describedintheFirstPartofthisgreataswellasaccuratehistory,inthelastchapter thereof.Sotheyresolvedtopayhimavisitandtesttheimprovementinhis condition,althoughtheythoughtitalmostimpossiblethattherecouldbeany;and theyagreednottotouchuponanypointconnectedwithknighterrantrysoasnotto runtheriskofreopeningwoundswhichwerestillsotender. Theycametoseehimconsequently,andfoundhimsittingupinbedinagreenbaize waistcoatandaredToledocap,andsowitheredanddriedupthathelookedasifhe hadbeenturnedintoamummy.Theywereverycordiallyreceivedbyhim;they askedhimafterhishealth,andhetalkedtothemabouthimselfverynaturallyandin verywellchosenlanguage.Inthecourseoftheirconversationtheyfelltodiscussing

DonQuixotedelaMancha whattheycallStatecraftandsystemsofgovernment,correctingthisabuseand

125

condemningthat,reformingonepracticeandabolishinganother,eachofthethree settingupforanewlegislator,amodernLycurgus1,orabrandnewSolon2;andso completelydidtheyremodeltheState,thattheyseemedtohavethrustitintoa furnaceandtakenoutsomethingquitedifferentfromwhattheyhadputin;andon allthesubjectstheydealtwith,DonQuixotespokewithsuchgoodsensethatthe pairofexaminerswerefullyconvincedthathewasquiterecoveredandinhisfull senses. Thenieceandhousekeeperwerepresentattheconversationandcouldnotfind wordsenoughtoexpresstheirthankstoGodatseeingtheirmastersoclearinhis mind;thecurate,however,changinghisoriginalplan,whichwastoavoidtouching uponmattersofchivalry,resolvedtotestDonQuixote'srecoverythoroughly,and seewhetheritweregenuineornot;andso,fromonesubjecttoanother,hecameat lasttotalkofthenewsthathadcomefromthecapital,and,amongotherthings,he saiditwasconsideredcertainthattheTurk3wascomingdownwithapowerful fleet,andthatnooneknewwhathispurposewas,orwhenthegreatstormwould burst;andthatallChristendomwasinapprehensionofthis,whichalmostevery yearcallsustoarms,andthathisMajestyhadmadeprovisionforthesecurityofthe coastsofNaplesandSicilyandtheislandofMalta. TothisDonQuixotereplied,"HisMajestyhasactedlikeaprudentwarriorin providingforthesafetyofhisrealmsintime,sothattheenemymaynotfindhim unprepared;butifmyadviceweretakenIwouldrecommendhimtoadopta measurewhichatpresent,nodoubt,hisMajestyisveryfarfromthinkingof."

1ASpartanlawgiver. 2Athenianstatesman,lawmakerandpoet. 3TheTurkisharmy.

126 DonQuixotedelaMancha Themomentthecurateheardthishesaidtohimself,"Godkeeptheeinhishand, poorDonQuixote,foritseemstomethouartprecipitatingthyselffromtheheightof thymadnessintotheprofoundabyssofthysimplicity." Butthebarber,whohadthesamesuspicionasthecurate,askedDonQuixotewhat wouldbehisadviceastothemeasuresthathesaidoughttobeadopted;forperhaps itmightprovetobeonethatwouldhavetobeaddedtothelistofthemany impertinentsuggestionsthatpeoplewereinthehabitofofferingtoprinces. "Mine,mastershaver,"saidDonQuixote,"willnotbeimpertinent,but,onthe contrary,pertinent." "Idon'tmeanthat,"saidthebarber,"butthatexperiencehasshownthatallormost oftheexpedientswhichareproposedtohisMajestyareeitherimpossible,or absurd,orinjurioustotheKingandtothekingdom." "Mine,however,"repliedDonQuixote,"isneitherimpossiblenorabsurd,butthe easiest,themostreasonable,thereadiestandmostexpeditiousthatcouldsuggest itselftoanyprojector'smind." "Youtakealongtimetotellit,SeorDonQuixote,"saidthecurate. "Idon'tchoosetotellithere,now,"saidDonQuixote,"andhaveitreachtheearsof thelordsofthecounciltomorrowmorning,andsomeothercarryoffthethanksand rewardsofmytrouble." "Formypart,"saidthebarber,"IgivemywordhereandbeforeGodthatIwillnot repeatwhatyourworshipsays,toKing,RookorearthlymananoathIlearned fromtheballadofthecurate,who,intheprelude,toldthekingofthethiefwhohad robbedhimofthehundredgoldcrownsandhispacingmule."

127 "Iamnotversedinstories,"saidDonQuixote;"butIknowtheoathisagoodone, becauseIknowthebarbertobeanhonestfellow." "Evenifhewerenot,"saidthecurate,"Iwillgobailandanswerforhimthatinthis matterhewillbeassilentasadummy,underpainofpayinganypenaltythatmaybe pronounced." "Andwhowillbesecurityforyou,seorcurate?"saidDonQuixote. "Myprofession,"repliedthecurate,"whichistokeepsecrets." "Odsbody!"saidDonQuixoteatthis,"whatmorehashisMajestytodobutto command,bypublicproclamation,alltheknightserrantthatarescatteredover Spaintoassembleonafixeddayinthecapital,forevenifnomorethanhalfadozen come,theremaybeoneamongthemwhoalonewillsufficetodestroytheentire mightoftheTurk.Givemeyourattentionandfollowme.Isit,pray,anynewthing forasingleknighterranttodemolishanarmyoftwohundredthousandmen,asif theyallhadbutonethroatorweremadeofsugarpaste?Nay,tellme,howmany historiesaretherefilledwiththesemarvels?Ifonly(inanevilhourforme:Idon't speakforanyoneelse)thefamousDonBelianiswerealivenow,oranyoneofthe innumerableprogenyofAmadisofGaul!Ifanythesewerealivetoday,andwereto comefacetofacewiththeTurk,bymyfaith,IwouldnotgivemuchfortheTurk's chance.ButGodwillhaveregardforhispeople,andwillprovidesomeone,who,if notsovaliantastheknightserrantofyore,atleastwillnotbeinferiortothemin spirit;butGodknowswhatImean,andIsaynomore." "Alas!"exclaimedthenieceatthis,"mayIdieifmymasterdoesnotwanttoturn knighterrantagain;"towhichDonQuixotereplied,"AknighterrantIshalldie,and lettheTurkcomedownorgoupwhenhelikes,andinasstrongforceashecan, oncemoreIsay,GodknowswhatImean."Butherethebarbersaid,"Iaskyour worshipstogivemeleavetotellashortstoryofsomethingthathappenedinSeville,

DonQuixotedelaMancha

128 DonQuixotedelaMancha whichcomessopattothepurposejustnowthatIshouldlikegreatlytotellit."Don Quixotegavehimleave,andtherestpreparedtolisten,andhebeganthus: "InthemadhouseatSevilletherewasamanwhomhisrelationshadplacedthereas beingoutofhismind.HewasagraduateofOsuna4incanonlaw;butevenifhehad beenofSalamanca5,itwastheopinionofmostpeoplethathewouldhavebeenmad allthesame.Thisgraduate,aftersomeyearsofconfinement,tookitintohishead thathewassaneandinhisfullsenses,andunderthisimpressionwrotetothe Archbishop,entreatinghimearnestly,andinverycorrectlanguage,tohavehim releasedfromthemiseryinwhichhewasliving;forbyGod'smercyhehadnow recoveredhislostreason,thoughhisrelations,inordertoenjoyhisproperty,kept himthere,and,inspiteofthetruth,wouldmakehimouttobemaduntilhisdying day.TheArchbishop,movedbyrepeatedsensible,wellwrittenletters,directedone ofhischaplainstomakeinquiryofthemadhouseastothetruthofthelicentiate's6 statements,andtohaveaninterviewwiththemadmanhimself,and,ifitshould appearthathewasinhissenses,totakehimoutandrestorehimtoliberty.The chaplaindidso,andthegovernorassuredhimthatthemanwasstillmad,andthat thoughheoftenspokelikeahighlyintelligentperson,hewouldintheendbreakout intononsensethatinquantityandqualitycounterbalancedallthesensiblethingshe hadsaidbefore,asmightbeeasilytestedbytalkingtohim.Thechaplainresolvedto trytheexperiment,andobtainingaccesstothemadmanconversedwithhimforan hourormore,duringthewholeofwhichtimeheneverutteredawordthatwas incoherentorabsurd,but,onthecontrary,spokesorationallythatthechaplainwas compelledtobelievehimtobesane.Amongotherthings,hesaidthegovernorwas againsthim,nottolosethepresentshisrelationsmadehimforreportinghimstill madbutwithlucidintervals;andthattheworstfoehehadinhismisfortunewashis largeproperty;forinordertoenjoyithisenemiesdisparagedandthrewdoubts uponthemercyourLordhadshownhiminturninghimfromabrutebeastintoa 4TheuniversityofOsuna,locatedinthattown. 5Amoreprestigiousuniversity. 6Alicensedone:i.e.,auniversitygraduate.

129 man.Inshort,hespokeinsuchawaythathecastsuspiciononthegovernor,and madehisrelationsappearcovetousandheartless,andhimselfsorationalthatthe chaplaindeterminedtotakehimawaywithhimthattheArchbishopmightseehim, andascertainforhimselfthetruthofthematter.Yieldingtothisconviction,the worthychaplainbeggedthegovernortohavetheclothesinwhichthelicentiatehad enteredthehousegiventohim.Thegovernoragainbadehimbewareofwhathe wasdoing,asthelicentiatewasbeyondadoubtstillmad;butallhiscautionsand warningswereunavailingtodissuadethechaplainfromtakinghimaway.The governor,seeingthatitwastheorderoftheArchbishop,obeyed,andtheydressed thelicentiateinhisownclothes,whichwerenewanddecent.He,assoonashesaw himselfclothedlikeoneinhissenses,anddivestedoftheappearanceofamadman, entreatedthechaplaintopermithimincharitytogoandtakeleaveofhiscomrades themadmen.Thechaplainsaidhewouldgowithhimtoseewhatmadmenthere wereinthehouse;sotheywentupstairs,andwiththemsomeofthosewhowere present.Approachingacageinwhichtherewasafuriousmadman,thoughjustat thatmomentcalmandquiet,thelicentiatesaidtohim,'Brother,thinkifyouhave anycommandsforme,forIamgoinghome,asGodhasbeenpleased,inhisinfinite goodnessandmercy,withoutanymeritofmine,torestorememyreason.Iamnow curedandinmysenses,forwithGod'spowernothingisimpossible.Havestrong hopeandtrustinhim,forashehasrestoredmetomyoriginalcondition,solikewise hewillrestoreyouifyoutrustinhim.Iwilltakecaretosendyousomegoodthings toeat;andbesureyoueatthem;forIwouldhaveyouknowIamconvinced,asone whohasgonethroughit,thatallthismadnessofourscomesofhavingthestomach emptyandthebrainsfullofwind.Takecourage!takecourage!fordespondencyin misfortunebreaksdownhealthandbringsondeath.' "Toallthesewordsofthelicentiateanothermadmaninacageoppositethatofthe furiousonewaslistening;andraisinghimselfupfromanoldmatonwhichhelay starknaked,heaskedinaloudvoicewhoitwasthatwasgoingawaycuredandin hissenses.Thelicentiateanswered,'ItisI,brother,whoamgoing;Ihavenowno

DonQuixotedelaMancha

130 DonQuixotedelaMancha needtoremainhereanylonger,forwhichIreturninfinitethankstoHeaventhathas hadsogreatmercyuponme.' "'Mindwhatyouaresaying,licentiate;don'tletthedevildeceiveyou,'repliedthe madman.'Keepquiet,staywhereyouare,andyouwillsaveyourselfthetroubleof comingback.' "'IknowIamcured,'returnedthelicentiate,'andthatIshallnothavetogostations again.' "'Youcured!'saidthemadman;'well,weshallsee;Godbewithyou;butIswearto youbyJupiter,whosemajestyIrepresentonearth,thatforthiscrimealone,which Sevilleiscommittingtodayinreleasingyoufromthishouse,andtreatingyouasif youwereinyoursenses,Ishallhavetoinflictsuchapunishmentonitaswillbe rememberedforagesandages,amen.Dostthounotknow,thoumiserablelittle licentiate,thatIcandoit,being,asIsay,JupitertheThunderer,whoholdinmy handsthefieryboltswithwhichIamableandamwonttothreatenandlaywaste theworld?ButinonewayonlywillIpunishthisignoranttown,andthatisbynot raininguponit,noronanypartofitsdistrictorterritory,forthreewholeyears,to bereckonedfromthedayandmomentwhenthisthreatispronounced.Thoufree, thoucured,thouinthysenses!andImad,Idisordered,Ibound!Iwillassoonthink ofsendingrainasofhangingmyself. "Thosepresentstoodlisteningtothewordsandexclamationsofthemadman;but ourlicentiate,turningtothechaplainandseizinghimbythehands,saidtohim,'Be notuneasy,seor;attachnoimportancetowhatthismadmanhassaid;forifheis Jupiterandwillnotsendrain,I,whoamNeptune,thefatherandgodofthewaters, willrainasoftenasitpleasesmeandmaybeneedful.' "Thegovernorandthebystanderslaughed,andattheirlaughterthechaplainwas halfashamed,andhereplied,'Forallthat,SeorNeptune,itwillnotdotovexSeor

DonQuixotedelaMancha Jupiter;remainwhereyouare,andsomeotherday,whenthereisabetter opportunityandmoretime,wewillcomebackforyou.'Sotheystrippedthe licentiate,andhewasleftwherehewas;andthat'stheendofthestory."

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"Sothat'sthestory,masterbarber,"saidDonQuixote,"whichcameinsopattothe purposethatyoucouldnothelptellingit?Mastershaver,mastershaver!howblind ishewhocannotseethroughasieve.Isitpossiblethatyoudonotknowthat comparisonsofwitwithwit,valorwithvalor,beautywithbeauty,birthwithbirth, arealwaysodiousandunwelcome?I,masterbarber,amnotNeptune,thegodofthe waters,nordoItrytomakeanyonetakemeforanastuteman,forIamnotone.My onlyendeavoristoconvincetheworldofthemistakeitmakesinnotrevivingin itselfthehappytimewhentheorderofknighterrantrywasinthefield.Butour depravedagedoesnotdeservetoenjoysuchablessingasthoseagesenjoyedwhen knightserranttookupontheirshouldersthedefenseofkingdoms,theprotectionof damsels,thesuccouroforphansandminors,thechastisementoftheproud,andthe recompenseofthehumble.Withtheknightsofthesedays,forthemostpart,itisthe damask,brocade,andrichstuffstheywear,thatrustleastheygo,notthechainmail oftheirarmor;noknightnowadayssleepsintheopenfieldexposedtothe inclemencyofheaven,andinfullpanoplyfromheadtofoot;noonenowtakesanap, astheycallit,withoutdrawinghisfeetoutofthestirrups,andleaninguponhis lance,astheknightserrantusedtodo;noonenow,issuingfromthewood, penetratesyondermountains,andthentreadsthebarren,lonelyshoreofthesea mostlyatempestuousandstormyoneandfindingonthebeachalittlebark withoutoars,sail,mast,ortacklingofanykind,intheintrepidityofhisheartflings himselfintoitandcommitshimselftothewrathfulbillowsofthedeepsea,thatone momentlifthimuptoheavenandthenextplungehimintothedepths;and opposinghisbreasttotheirresistiblegale,findshimself,whenheleastexpectsit, threethousandleaguesandmoreawayfromtheplacewhereheembarked;and leapingashoreinaremoteandunknownlandhasadventuresthatdeservetobe written,notonparchment,butonbrass.Butnowslothtriumphsoverenergy, indolenceoverexertion,viceovervirtue,arroganceovercourage,andtheoryover

132 DonQuixotedelaMancha practiceinarms,whichflourishedandshoneonlyinthegoldenagesandinknights errant.Fortellme,whowasmorevirtuousandmorevaliantthanthefamous AmadisofGaul?WhomorediscreetthanPalmerinofEngland?Whomoregracious andeasythanTiranteelBlanco?WhomorecourtlythanLisuarteofGreece?Who moreslashedorslashingthanDonBelianis?WhomoreintrepidthanPerionofGaul? WhomorereadytofacedangerthanFelixmarteofHircania?Whomoresincerethan Esplandian?WhomoreimpetuousthanDonCirongilioofThrace?Whomorebold thanRodamonte?WhomoreprudentthanKingSobrino?Whomoredaringthan Reinaldos?WhomoreinvinciblethanRoland?andwhomoregallantandcourteous thanRuggiero,fromwhomthedukesofFerraraofthepresentdayaredescended, accordingtoTurpininhis'Cosmography.'Alltheseknights,andmanymorethatI couldname,seorcurate,wereknightserrant,thelightandgloryofchivalry.These, orsuchasthese,Iwouldhavetocarryoutmyplan,andinthatcasehisMajesty wouldfindhimselfwellservedandwouldsavegreatexpense,andtheTurkwould belefttearinghisbeard.AndsoIwillstaywhereIam,asthechaplaindoesnottake meaway;andifJupiter,asthebarberhastoldus,willnotsendrain,hereamI,andI willrainwhenIplease.IsaythisthatMasterBasin7mayknowthatIunderstand him." "Indeed,SeorDonQuixote,"saidthebarber,"Ididnotmeanitinthatway,and,so helpmeGod,myintentionwasgood,andyourworshipoughtnottobevexed." "AstowhetherIoughttobevexedornot,"returnedDonQuixote,"Imyselfamthe bestjudge." Hereuponthecurateobserved,"Ihavehardlysaidawordasyet;andIwouldgladly berelievedofadoubt,arisingfromwhatDonQuixotehassaid,thatworriesand worksmyconscience." 7Thebarber.

133 "Theseorcuratehasleaveformorethanthat,"returnedDonQuixote,"sohemay declarehisdoubt,foritisnotpleasanttohaveadoubtonone'sconscience." "Wellthen,withthatpermission,"saidthecurate,"Isaymydoubtisthat,allIcan do,Icannotpersuademyselfthatthewholepackofknightserrantyou,SeorDon Quixote,havementioned,werereallyandtrulypersonsoffleshandblood,thatever livedintheworld;onthecontrary,Isuspectittobeallfiction,fable,andfalsehood, anddreamstoldbymenawakenedfromsleep,orratherstillhalfasleep." "Thatisanothermistake,"repliedDonQuixote,"intowhichmanyhavefallenwho donotbelievethatthereeverweresuchknightsintheworld,andIhaveoften,with diverspeopleandondiversoccasions,triedtoexposethisalmostuniversalerrorto thelightoftruth.SometimesIhavenotbeensuccessfulinmypurpose,sometimesI have,supportingitupontheshouldersofthetruth;whichtruthissoclearthatIcan almostsayIhavewithmyowneyesseenAmadisofGaul,whowasamanoflofty stature,faircomplexion,withahandsomethoughblackbeard,ofacountenance betweengentleandsterninexpression,sparingofwords,slowtoanger,andquick toputitawayfromhim;andasIhavedepictedAmadis,soIcould,Ithink,portray anddescribealltheknightserrantthatareinallthehistoriesintheworld;forby theperceptionIhavethattheywerewhattheirhistoriesdescribe,andbythedeeds theydidandthedispositionstheydisplayed,itispossible,withtheaidofsound philosophy,todeducetheirfeatures,complexion,andstature." "Howbig,inyourworship'sopinion,maythegiantMorgantehavebeen,SeorDon Quixote?"askedthebarber. "Withregardtogiants,"repliedDonQuixote,"opinionsdifferastowhetherthere everwereanyornotintheworld;buttheHolyScripture,whichcannoterrbyajot fromthetruth,showsusthattherewere,whenitgivesusthehistoryofthatbig Philistine,Goliath,whowassevencubitsandahalfinheight,whichisahugesize. Likewise,intheislandofSicily,therehavebeenfoundlegbonesandarmbonesso

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134 DonQuixotedelaMancha largethattheirsizemakesitplainthattheirownersweregiants,andastallasgreat towers;geometryputsthisfactbeyondadoubt.But,forallthat,Icannotspeakwith certaintyastothesizeofMorgante,thoughIsuspecthecannothavebeenverytall; andIaminclinedtobeofthisopinionbecauseIfindinthehistoryinwhichhis deedsareparticularlymentioned,thathefrequentlysleptunderaroofandashe foundhousestocontainhim,itisclearthathisbulkcouldnothavebeenanything excessive." "Thatistrue,"saidthecurate,andyieldingtotheenjoymentofhearingsuch nonsense,heaskedhimwhatwashisnotionofthefeaturesofReinaldosof Montalban,andDonRolandandtherestoftheTwelvePeersofFrance,forthey wereallknightserrant. "AsforReinaldos,"repliedDonQuixote,"Iventuretosaythathewasbroadfaced,of ruddycomplexion,withroguishandsomewhatprominenteyes,excessively punctiliousandtouchy,andgiventothesocietyofthievesandscapegraces.With regardtoRoland,orRotolando,orOrlando(forthehistoriescallhimbyallthese names),Iamofopinion,andhold,thathewasofmiddleheight,broadshouldered, ratherbowlegged,swarthycomplexioned,redbearded,withahairybodyanda severeexpressionofcountenance,amanoffewwords,butverypoliteandwell bred." "IfRolandwasnotamoregracefulpersonthanyourworshiphasdescribed,"said thecurate,"itisnowonderthatthefairLadyAngelicarejectedhimandlefthimfor thegaiety,liveliness,andgraceofthatbuddingbeardedlittleMoortowhomshe surrenderedherself;andsheshowedhersenseinfallinginlovewiththegentle softnessofMedororatherthantheroughnessofRoland." "ThatAngelica,seorcurate,"returnedDonQuixote,"wasagiddydamsel,flighty andsomewhatwanton,andshelefttheworldasfullofhervagariesasofthefameof herbeauty.Shetreatedwithscornathousandgentlemen,menofvalourand

135 wisdom,andtookupwithasmoothfacedsprigofapage,withoutfortuneorfame, exceptsuchreputationforgratitudeastheaffectionheborehisfriendgotforhim. Thegreatpoetwhosangherbeauty,thefamousAriosto,notcaringtosingher adventuresafterhercontemptiblesurrender(whichprobablywerenotoverand abovecreditable),droppedherwherehesays: HowshereceivedthescepterofCathay, Somebardofdefterquillmaysingsomeday; andthiswasnodoubtakindofprophecy,forpoetsarealsocalledvates,thatisto saydiviners;anditstruthwasmadeplain;forsincethenafamousAndalusianpoet haslamentedandsunghertears,andanotherfamousandrarepoet,aCastilian,has sungherbeauty." "Tellme,SeorDonQuixote,"saidthebarberhere,"amongallthosewhopraised her,hastherebeennopoettowriteasatireonthisLadyAngelica?" "Icanwellbelieve,"repliedDonQuixote,"thatifSacripanteorRolandhadbeen poetstheywouldhavegiventhedamselatrimming;foritisnaturallythewaywith poetswhohavebeenscornedandrejectedbytheirladies,whetherfictitiousornot, inshortbythosewhomtheyselectastheladiesoftheirthoughts,toavenge themselvesinsatiresandlibelsavengeance,tobesure,unworthyofgenerous hearts;butuptothepresentIhavenotheardofanydefamatoryverseagainstthe LadyAngelica,whoturnedtheworldupsidedown." "Strange,"saidthecurate;butatthismomenttheyheardthehousekeeperandthe niece,whohadpreviouslywithdrawnfromtheconversation,exclaimingaloudin thecourtyard,andatthenoisetheyallranout.

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CHAPTERII
WHICHTREATSOFTHENOTABLEALTERCATIONWHICHSANCHOPANZAHAD WITHDONQUIXOTE'SNIECE,ANDHOUSEKEEPER,TOGETHERWITHOTHER DROLLMATTERS
ThehistoryrelatesthattheoutcryDonQuixote,thecurate,andthebarberheard camefromthenieceandthehousekeeperexclaimingtoSancho,whowasstrivingto forcehiswayintoseeDonQuixotewhiletheyheldthedooragainsthim,"What doesthevagabondwantinthishouse?Beofftoyourown,brother,foritisyou,and nooneelse,thatdeludemymaster,andleadhimastray,andtakehimtramping aboutthecountry." TowhichSanchoreplied,"Devil'sownhousekeeper!itisIwhoamdeluded,andled astray,andtakentrampingaboutthecountry,andnotthymaster!Hehascarried meallovertheworld,andyouaremightilymistaken.Heenticedmeawayfrom homebyatrick,promisingmeanisland,whichIamstillwaitingfor." "Mayevilislandschokethee,thoudetestableSancho,"saidtheniece;"Whatare islands?Isitsomethingtoeat,gluttonandgormandiserthatthouart?" "Itisnotsomethingtoeat,"repliedSancho,"butsomethingtogovernandrule,and betterthanfourcitiesorfourjudgeshipsatcourt." "Forallthat,"saidthehousekeeper,"youdon'tenterhere,youbagofmischiefand sackofknavery;gogovernyourhouseanddigyourseedpatch,andgiveover lookingforislandsorshylands." Thecurateandthebarberlistenedwithgreatamusementtothewordsofthethree; butDonQuixote,uneasylestSanchoshouldblabandblurtoutawholeheapof mischievousstupidities,andtouchuponpointsthatmightnotbealtogethertohis

137 credit,calledtohimandmadetheothertwoholdtheirtonguesandlethimcomein. Sanchoentered,andthecurateandthebarbertooktheirleaveofDonQuixote,of whoserecoverytheydespairedwhentheysawhowweddedhewastohiscrazy ideas,andhowsaturatedwiththenonsenseofhisunluckychivalry;andsaidthe curatetothebarber,"Youwillsee,gossip,thatwhenweareleastthinkingofit,our gentlemanwillbeoffoncemoreforanotherflight." "Ihavenodoubtofit,"returnedthebarber;"butIdonotwondersomuchatthe madnessoftheknightasatthesimplicityofthesquire,whohassuchafirmbeliefin allthatabouttheisland,thatIsupposealltheexposuresthatcouldbeimagined wouldnotgetitoutofhishead." "Godhelpthem,"saidthecurate;"andletusbeonthelookouttoseewhatcomesof alltheseabsurditiesoftheknightandsquire,foritseemsasiftheyhadbothbeen castinthesamemould,andthemadnessofthemasterwithoutthesimplicityofthe manwouldnotbeworthafarthing." "Thatistrue,"saidthebarber,"andIshouldlikeverymuchtoknowwhatthepair aretalkingaboutatthismoment." "Ipromiseyou,"saidthecurate,"thenieceorthehousekeeperwilltellusbyandby, fortheyarenottheonestoforgettolisten." MeanwhileDonQuixoteshuthimselfupinhisroomwithSancho,andwhenthey werealonehesaidtohim,"Itgrievesmegreatly,Sancho,thatthoushouldsthave said,andsayest,thatItooktheeoutofthycottage,whenthouknowestIdidnot remaininmyhouse.Wesalliedforthtogether,wetooktheroadtogether,we wanderedabroadtogether;wehavehadthesamefortuneandthesameluck;ifthey blanketedtheeonce,theybelaboredmeahundredtimes,andthatistheonly advantageIhaveofthee."

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138 DonQuixotedelaMancha "Thatwasonlyreasonable,"repliedSancho,"for,bywhatyourworshipsays, misfortunesbelongmoreproperlytoknightserrantthantotheirsquires." "Thouartmistaken,Sancho,"saidDonQuixote,"accordingtothemaximquando caputdolet,etc."8 "Idon'tunderstandanylanguagebutmyown,"saidSancho. "Imeantosay,"saidDonQuixote,"thatwhentheheadsuffersallthemembers suffer;andso,beingthylordandmaster,Iamthyhead,andthouapartofmeas thouartmyservant;andthereforeanyevilthataffectsorshallaffectmeshouldgive theepain,andwhataffectstheegivepaintome." "Itshouldbeso,"saidSancho;"butwhenIwasblanketedasamember,myheadwas ontheothersideofthewall,lookingonwhileIwasflyingthroughtheair,anddid notfeelanypainwhatever;andifthemembersareobligedtofeelthesufferingof thehead,itshouldbeobligedtofeeltheirsufferings." "Dostthoumeantosaynow,Sancho,"saidDonQuixote,"thatIdidnotfeelwhen theywereblanketingthee?Ifthoudost,thoumustnotsaysoorthinkso,forIfelt morepaintheninspiritthanthoudidstinbody.Butletusputthatasideforthe present,forweshallhaveopportunitiesenoughforconsideringandsettlingthe point;tellme,Sanchomyfriend,whatdotheysayaboutmeinthevillagehere? Whatdothecommonpeoplethinkofme?Whatdothehidalgos?Whatdothe caballeros?Whatdotheysayofmyvalor;ofmyachievements;ofmycourtesy?How dotheytreatthetaskIhaveundertakeninrevivingandrestoringtotheworldthe nowforgottenorderofchivalry?Inshort,Sancho,Iwouldhavetheetellmeallthat hascometothineearsonthissubject;andthouarttotellme,withoutadding anythingtothegoodortakingawayanythingfromthebad;foritisthedutyofloyal

8Whentheheadaches,thesayinggoes,thebodylanguishes.

DonQuixotedelaMancha vassalstotellthetruthtotheirlordsjustasitisandinitspropershape,not

139

allowingflatterytoaddtoitoranyidledeferencetolessenit.AndIwouldhavethee know,Sancho,thatifthenakedtruth,undisguisedbyflattery,cametotheearsof princes,timeswouldbedifferent,andotherageswouldbereckonedironagesmore thanours,whichIholdtobethegoldenoftheselatterdays.Profitbythisadvice, Sancho,andreporttomeclearlyandfaithfullythetruthofwhatthouknowest touchingwhatIhavedemandedofthee." "ThatIwilldowithallmyheart,master,"repliedSancho,"providedyourworship willnotbevexedatwhatIsay,asyouwishmetosayitoutinallitsnakedness, withoutputtinganymoreclothesonitthanitcametomyknowledgein." "Iwillnotbevexedatall,"returnedDonQuixote;"thoumayestspeakfreely,Sancho, andwithoutanybeatingaboutthebush." "Wellthen,"saidhe,"firstofall,Ihavetotellyouthatthecommonpeopleconsider yourworshipamightygreatmadman,andmenolessafool.Thehidalgossaythat, notkeepingwithintheboundsofyourqualityofgentleman,youhaveassumedthe 'Don,'andmadeaknightofyourselfatajump,withfourvinestocksandacoupleof acresofland,andneverashirttoyourback.Thecaballerossaytheydonotwantto havehidalgossettingupinoppositiontothem,particularlysquirehidalgoswho polishtheirownshoesanddarntheirblackstockingswithgreensilk." "That,"saidDonQuixote,"doesnotapplytome,forIalwaysgowelldressedand neverpatched;raggedImaybe,butraggedmorefromthewearandtearofarms thanoftime." "Astoyourworship'svalor,courtesy,accomplishments,andtask,thereisavariety ofopinions.Somesay,'madbutdroll;'others,'valiantbutunlucky;'others, 'courteousbutmeddling,'andthentheygointosuchanumberofthingsthatthey don'tleaveawholeboneeitherinyourworshiporinmyself."

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"Recollect,Sancho,"saidDonQuixote,"thatwherevervirtueexistsinaneminent degreeitispersecuted.Fewornoneofthefamousmenthathavelivedescaped beingcalumniatedbymalice.JuliusCaesar,theboldest,wisest,andbravestof captains,waschargedwithbeingambitious,andnotparticularlycleanlyinhis dress,orpureinhismorals.OfAlexander,whosedeedswonhimthenameofGreat, theysaythathewassomewhatofadrunkard.OfHercules,himofthemanylabors,it issaidthathewaslewdandluxurious.OfDonGalaor,thebrotherofAmadisofGaul, itwaswhisperedthathewasoverquarrelsome,andofhisbrotherthathewas lachrymose.Sothat,Sancho,amongstallthesecalumniesagainstgoodmen,mine maybeletpass,sincetheyarenomorethanthouhastsaid." "That'sjustwhereitis,bodyofmyfather!" "Istheremore,then?"askedDonQuixote. "There'sthetailtobeskinnedyet,"saidSancho;"allsofariscakesandfancybread; butifyourworshipwantstoknowallaboutthecalumniestheybringagainstyou,I willfetchyouonethisinstantwhocantellyouthewholeofthemwithoutmissing anatom;forlastnightthesonofBartholomewCarrasco,whohasbeenstudyingat Salamanca,camehomeafterhavingbeenmadeabachelor9,andwhenIwentto welcomehim,hetoldmethatyourworship'shistoryisalreadyabroadinbooks, withthetitleoftheIngeniousGentlemanDonQuixoteofLaMancha;andhesaysthey mentionmeinitbymyownnameofSanchoPanza,andtheladyDulcineadel Tobosotoo,anddiversthingsthathappenedtouswhenwewerealone;sothatI crossedmyselfinmywonderhowthehistorianwhowrotethemdowncouldhave knownthem."

9HavingbeengrantedaBachelorsdegree.

141 "Ipromisethee,Sancho,"saidDonQuixote,"theauthorofourhistorywillbesome sageenchanter;fortosuch,nothingthattheychoosetowriteaboutishidden." "What!"saidSancho,"asageandanenchanter!Why,thebachelorSansonCarrasco (thatisthenameofhimIspokeof)saystheauthorofthehistoryiscalledCide HameteBerengena." "ThatisaMoorishname,"saidDonQuixote. "Maybeso,"repliedSancho;"forIhaveheardsaythattheMoorsaremostlygreat loversofberengenas."10 "Thoumusthavemistakenthesurnameofthis'Cide'whichmeansinArabic'Lord' Sancho,"observedDonQuixote. "Verylikely,"repliedSancho,"butifyourworshipwishesmetofetchthebachelorI willgoforhiminatwinkling." "Thouwiltdomeagreatpleasure,myfriend,"saidDonQuixote,"forwhatthouhast toldmehasamazedme,andIshallnoteatamorselthatwillagreewithmeuntilI haveheardallaboutit." "ThenIamoffforhim,"saidSancho;andleavinghismasterhewentinquestofthe bachelor,withwhomhereturnedinashorttime,and,allthreetogether,theyhada verydrollcolloquy.

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10Anothernameforeggplant.

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CHAPTERIII
OFTHELAUGHABLECONVERSATIONTHATPASSEDBETWEENDONQUIXOTE, SANCHOPANZA,ANDTHEBACHELORSANSONCARRASCO
DonQuixoteremainedverydeepinthought,waitingforthebachelorCarrasco,from whomhewastohearhowhehimselfhadbeenputintoabookasSanchosaid;and hecouldnotpersuadehimselfthatanysuchhistorycouldbeinexistence,forthe bloodoftheenemieshehadslainwasnotyetdryonthebladeofhissword,and nowtheywantedtomakeoutthathismightyachievementsweregoingaboutin print.Forallthat,hefanciedsomesage,eitherafriendoranenemy,might,bythe aidofmagic,havegiventhemtothepress;ifafriend,inordertomagnifyandexalt themabovethemostfamouseverachievedbyanyknighterrant;ifanenemy,to bringthemtonaughtanddegradethembelowthemeanesteverrecordedofany lowsquire,thoughashesaidtohimself,theachievementsofsquiresneverwere recorded.If,however,itwerethefactthatsuchahistorywereinexistence,itmust necessarily,beingthestoryofaknighterrant,begrandiloquent,lofty,imposing, grandandtrue.Withthishecomfortedhimselfsomewhat,thoughitmadehim uncomfortabletothinkthattheauthorwasaMoor,judgingbythetitleof"Cide;" andthatnotruthwastobelookedforfromMoors,astheyareallimpostors,cheats, andschemers.Hewasafraidhemighthavedealtwithhisloveaffairsinsome indecorousfashion,thatmighttendtothediscreditandprejudiceofthepurityofhis ladyDulcineadelToboso;hewouldhavehadhimsetforththefidelityandrespect hehadalwaysobservedtowardsher,spurningqueens,empresses,anddamselsof allsorts,andkeepinginchecktheimpetuosityofhisnaturalimpulses.Absorbedand wrappedupintheseanddiversothercogitations,hewasfoundbySanchoand Carrasco,whomDonQuixotereceivedwithgreatcourtesy. Thebachelor,thoughhewascalledSanson,wasofnogreatbodilysize,buthewasa verygreatwag;hewasofasallowcomplexion,butverysharpwitted,somewhere aboutfourandtwentyyearsofage,witharoundface,aflatnose,andalargemouth,

143 allindicationsofamischievousdispositionandaloveoffunandjokes;andofthishe gaveasampleassoonashesawDonQuixote,byfallingonhiskneesbeforehimand saying,"Letmekissyourmightiness'shand,SeorDonQuixoteofLaMancha,for,by thehabitofSt.PeterthatIwear11,thoughIhavenomorethanthefirstfourorders, yourworshipisoneofthemostfamousknightserrantthathaveeverbeen,orwill be,alltheworldover.AblessingonCideHameteBenengeli,whohaswrittenthe historyofyourgreatdeeds,andadoubleblessingonthatconnoisseurwhotookthe troubleofhavingittranslatedoutoftheArabicintoourCastilianvulgartonguefor theuniversalentertainmentofthepeople!" DonQuixotemadehimrise,andsaid,"So,then,itistruethatthereisahistoryofme, andthatitwasaMoorandasagewhowroteit?" "Sotrueisit,seor,"saidSanson,"thatmybeliefistherearemorethantwelve thousandvolumesofthesaidhistoryinprintthisveryday.OnlyaskPortugal, Barcelona,andValencia,wheretheyhavebeenprinted,andmoreoverthereisa reportthatitisbeingprintedatAntwerp,andIampersuadedtherewillnotbea countryorlanguageinwhichtherewillnotbeatranslationofit." "Oneofthethings,"hereobservedDonQuixote,"thatoughttogivemostpleasureto avirtuousandeminentmanistofindhimselfinhislifetimeinprintandintype, familiarinpeople'smouthswithagoodname;Isaywithagoodname,forifitbethe opposite,thenthereisnodeathtobecomparedtoit." "Ifitgoesbygoodnameandfame,"saidthebachelor,"yourworshipalonebears awaythepalmfromalltheknightserrant;fortheMoorinhisownlanguage,andthe Christianinhis,havetakencaretosetbeforeusyourgallantry,yourhighcouragein encounteringdangers,yourfortitudeinadversity,yourpatienceundermisfortunes

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11Thedressofoneoftheminorclericalorders.

144 DonQuixotedelaMancha aswellaswounds,thepurityandcontinenceoftheplatoniclovesofyourworship andmyladyDoaDulcineadelToboso" "IneverheardmyladyDulcineacalledDoa,"observedSanchohere;"nothingmore thantheladyDulcineadelToboso;soherealreadythehistoryiswrong." "Thatisnotanobjectionofanyimportance,"repliedCarrasco. "Certainlynot,"saidDonQuixote;"buttellme,seorbachelor,whatdeedsofmine aretheythataremademostofinthishistory?" "Onthatpoint,"repliedthebachelor,"opinionsdiffer,astastesdo;someswearby theadventureofthewindmillsthatyourworshiptooktobeBriareusesandgiants; othersbythatofthefullingmills;onecriesupthedescriptionofthetwoarmiesthat afterwardstooktheappearanceoftwodrovesofsheep;anotherthatofthedead bodyonitswaytobeburiedatSegovia;athirdsaystheliberationofthegalley slavesisthebestofall,andafourththatnothingcomesuptotheaffairwiththe Benedictinegiants,andthebattlewiththevaliantBiscayan." "Tellme,seorbachelor,"saidSanchoatthispoint,"doestheadventurewiththe Yanguesanscomein,whenourgoodRocinantewenthankeringafterdainties?"12 "Thesagehasleftnothingintheinkbottle,"repliedSanson;"hetellsallandsets downeverything,eventothecapersthatworthySanchocutintheblanket."13 12YanguesansinhabitantsofthesmalltownofYanguas,intheprovinceofSoria; theywerepasturingaherdofmaresthatcaughttheeyeofRosinante;whenhetried toapproachthemwithamorousintent,theYanguensansbeat,himfirst,andthen QuixoteandSanchowhentheytriedtocometohisrescue. 13SanchoandQuixotestayedthenightataninn,whichQuixote,ofcourse,tookfora castle.Thefollowingmorning,theinnkeeperdemandedpayment,explainingthat thiswas,infact,aninn.Quixote,citingchivalrictradition,refusedtopayandrode off,leavingSanchoatthemercyoffourSegovianwoolcarders,who,aspunishment andamusement,tossedhiminablanket,whileQuixote,nowunabletorescuehim,

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"Icutnocapersintheblanket,"returnedSancho;"intheairIdid,andmoreofthem thanIliked." "Thereisnohumanhistoryintheworld,Isuppose,"saidDonQuixote,"thathasnot itsupsanddowns,butmorethanotherssuchasdealwithchivalry,fortheycan neverbeentirelymadeupofprosperousadventures." "Forallthat,"repliedthebachelor,"therearethosewhohavereadthehistorywho saytheywouldhavebeengladiftheauthorhadleftoutsomeofthecountless cudgellingsthatwereinflictedonSeorDonQuixoteinvariousencounters." "That'swherethetruthofthehistorycomesin,"saidSancho. "Atthesametimetheymightfairlyhavepassedthemoverinsilence,"observedDon Quixote;"forthereisnoneedofrecordingeventswhichdonotchangeoraffectthe truthofahistory,iftheytendtobringtheheroofitintocontempt.Aeneaswasnot intruthandearnestsopiousasVirgilrepresentshim,norUlyssessowiseasHomer describeshim." "Thatistrue,"saidSanson;"butitisonethingtowriteasapoet,anothertowriteas ahistorian;thepoetmaydescribeorsingthings,notastheywere,butastheyought tohavebeen;butthehistorianhastowritethemdown,notastheyoughttohave been,butastheywere,withoutaddinganythingtothetruthortakinganythingfrom it." "Wellthen,"saidSancho,"ifthisseorMoorgoesinfortellingthetruth,nodoubt amongmymaster'sdrubbingsminearetobefound;fortheynevertookthe measureofhisworship'sshoulderswithoutdoingthesameformywholebody;but wasleftwithnorecoursebuttoyellmalidictionsandobdurationsatthemuntil theyfinallyletSanchogo.

146 DonQuixotedelaMancha Ihavenorighttowonderatthat,for,asmymasterhimselfsays,themembersmust sharethepainofthehead." "Youareaslydog,Sancho,"saidDonQuixote;"i'faith,youhavenowantofmemory whenyouchoosetoremember." "IfIweretotrytoforgetthethwackstheygaveme,"saidSancho,"myweltswould notletme,fortheyarestillfreshonmyribs." "Hush,Sancho,"saidDonQuixote,"anddon'tinterruptthebachelor,whomIentreat togoonandtellallthatissaidaboutmeinthishistory." "Andaboutme,"saidSancho,"fortheysay,too,thatIamoneoftheprincipal presonagesinit." "Personages,notpresonages,friendSancho,"saidSanson. "What!Anotherwordcatcher!"saidSancho;"ifthat'stobethewayweshallnot makeanendinalifetime." "MayGodshortenmine,Sancho,"returnedthebachelor,"ifyouarenotthesecond personinthehistory,andthereareevensomewhowouldratherhearyoutalkthan thecleverestinthewholebook;thoughtherearesome,too,whosayyoushowed yourselfovercredulousinbelievingtherewasanypossibilityinthegovernmentof thatislandofferedyoubySeorDonQuixote." "Thereisstillsunshineonthewall,"saidDonQuixote;"andwhenSanchois somewhatmoreadvancedinlife,withtheexperiencethatyearsbring,hewillbe fitterandbetterqualifiedforbeingagovernorthanheisatpresent."

147 "ByGod,master,"saidSancho,"theislandthatIcannotgovernwiththeyearsIhave, I'llnotbeabletogovernwiththeyearsofMethuselah;thedifficultyisthatthesaid islandkeepsitsdistancesomewhere,Iknownotwhere;andnotthatthereisany wantofheadinmetogovernit." "LeaveittoGod,Sancho,"saidDonQuixote,"forallwillbeandperhapsbetterthan youthink;noleafonthetreestirsbutbyGod'swill." "Thatistrue,"saidSanson;"andifitbeGod'swill,therewillnotbeanywantofa thousandislands,muchlessone,forSanchotogovern." "Ihaveseengovernorsintheseparts,"saidSancho,"thatarenottobecomparedto myshoesole;andforallthattheyarecalled'yourlordship'andservedonsilver." "Thosearenotgovernorsofislands,"observedSanson,"butofothergovernmentsof aneasierkind:thosethatgovernislandsmustatleastknowgrammar." "Icouldmanagethegramwellenough,"saidSancho;"butforthemarIhaveneither leaningnorliking,forIdon'tknowwhatitis;butleavingthismatterofthe governmentinGod'shands,tosendmewhereveritmaybemosttohisservice,I maytellyou,seorbachelorSansonCarrasco,ithaspleasedmebeyondmeasure thattheauthorofthishistoryshouldhavespokenofmeinsuchawaythatwhatis saidofmegivesnooffence;for,onthefaithofatruesquire,ifhehadsaidanything aboutmethatwasatallunbecominganoldChristian,suchasIam,thedeafwould haveheardofit." "Thatwouldbeworkingmiracles,"saidSanson. "Miraclesornomiracles,"saidSancho,"leteveryonemindhowhespeaksorwrites aboutpeople,andnotsetdownatrandomthefirstthingthatcomesintohishead."

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148 DonQuixotedelaMancha "Oneofthefaultstheyfindwiththishistory,"saidthebachelor,"isthatitsauthor insertedinitanovelcalled'TheIlladvisedCuriosity;'14notthatitisbadorilltold, butthatitisoutofplaceandhasnothingtodowiththehistoryofhisworshipSeor DonQuixote." "Iwillbetthesonofadoghasmixedthecabbagesandthebaskets,"15saidSancho. "Then,Isay,"saidDonQuixote,"theauthorofmyhistorywasnosage,butsome ignorantchatterer,who,inahaphazardandheedlessway,setaboutwritingit,letit turnoutasitmight,justasOrbaneja,16thepainterofUbeda,usedtodo,who,when theyaskedhimwhathewaspainting,answered,'Whatitmayturnout.'Sometimes hewouldpaintacockinsuchafashion,andsounlike,thathehadtowritealongside ofitinGothicletters,'Thisisacock;andsoitwillbewithmyhistory,whichwill requireacommentarytomakeitintelligible." "Nofearofthat,"returnedSanson,"foritissoplainthatthereisnothinginitto puzzleover;thechildrenturnitsleaves,theyoungpeoplereadit,thegrownmen understandit,theoldfolkpraiseit;inaword,itissothumbed,andread,andgotby heartbypeopleofallsorts,thattheinstanttheyseeanyleanhack,theysay,'There goesRocinante.'Andthosethataremostgiventoreadingitarethepages,forthere isnotalord'santechamberwherethereisnota'DonQuixote'tobefound;one takesitupifanotherlaysitdown;thisonepouncesuponit,andthatbegsforit.In short,thesaidhistoryisthemostdelightfulandleastinjuriousentertainmentthat hasbeenhithertoseen,forthereisnottobefoundinthewholeofiteventhe semblanceofanimmodestword,orathoughtthatisotherthanCatholic."

HereCervantesechoescriticismcurrentlyaimedathisbook. 15Jumbledtogetherthingsofdifferentkinds. 16ThispainterisunknownexceptforthisallusioninDonQuixote.


14Thisstory,atragictaleofajealoushusband,occupiesseveralchaptersofPartI.

DonQuixotedelaMancha "Towriteinanyotherway,"saidDonQuixote,"wouldnotbetowritetruth,but

149

falsehood,andhistorianswhohaverecoursetofalsehoodoughttobeburned,like thosewhocoinfalsemoney;andIknownotwhatcouldhaveledtheauthortohave recoursetonovelsandirrelevantstories,whenhehadsomuchtowriteaboutin mine;nodoubthemusthavegonebytheproverb'withstraworwithhay,17etc,'for bymerelysettingforthmythoughts,mysighs,mytears,myloftypurposes,my enterprises,hemighthavemadeavolumeaslarge,orlargerthanalltheworksofEl Tostadowouldmakeup.Infact,theconclusionIarriveat,seorbachelor,is,thatto writehistories,orbooksofanykind,thereisneedofgreatjudgmentandaripe understanding.Togiveexpressiontohumor,andwriteinastrainofgraceful pleasantry,isthegiftofgreatgeniuses.Thecleverestcharacterincomedyisthe clown,forhewhowouldmakepeopletakehimforafool,mustnotbeone.Historyis inameasureasacredthing,foritshouldbetrue,andwherethetruthis,thereGod is;butnotwithstandingthis,therearesomewhowriteandflingbooksbroadcaston theworldasiftheywerefritters." "Thereisnobooksobadbutithassomethinggoodinit,"saidthebachelor. "Nodoubtofthat,"repliedDonQuixote;"butitoftenhappensthatthosewhohave acquiredandattainedawelldeservedreputationbytheirwritings,loseitentirely, ordamageitinsomedegree,whentheygivethemtothepress." "Thereasonofthat,"saidSanson,"is,thatasprintedworksareexaminedleisurely, theirfaultsareeasilyseen;andthegreaterthefameofthewriter,themoreclosely aretheyscrutinized.Menfamousfortheirgenius,greatpoets,illustrioushistorians, arealways,ormostcommonly,enviedbythosewhotakeaparticulardelightand pleasureincriticizingthewritingsofothers,withouthavingproducedanyoftheir own." 17Theproverbconcludes:themattressisfilled.

150 DonQuixotedelaMancha "Thatisnowonder,"saidDonQuixote;"fortherearemanydivineswhoarenogood forthepulpit,butexcellentindetectingthedefectsorexcessesofthosewho preach." "Allthatistrue,SeorDonQuixote,"saidCarrasco;"butIwishsuchfaultfinders weremorelenientandlessexacting,anddidnotpaysomuchattentiontothespots onthebrightsunoftheworktheygrumbleat;forifaliquandobonusdormitat Homerus,18theyshouldrememberhowlongheremainedawaketoshedthelightof hisworkwithaslittleshadeaspossible;andperhapsitmaybethatwhattheyfind faultwithmaybemoles,thatsometimesheightenthebeautyofthefacethatbears them;andsoIsayverygreatistherisktowhichhewhoprintsabookexposes himself,forofallimpossibilitiesthegreatestistowriteonethatwillsatisfyand pleaseallreaders." "Thatwhichtreatsofmemusthavepleasedfew,"saidDonQuixote. "Quitethecontrary,"saidthebachelor;"for,asstultoruminfinitumestnumerus,19 innumerablearethosewhohaverelishedthesaidhistory;butsomehavebroughta chargeagainsttheauthor'smemory,inasmuchasheforgottosaywhothethiefwas whostoleSancho'sDapple;foritisnotstatedthere,butonlytobeinferredfrom whatissetdown,thathewasstolen,andalittlefartheronweseeSanchomounted onthesameass,withoutanyreappearanceofit.Theysay,too,thatheforgottostate whatSanchodidwiththosehundredcrownsthathefoundinthevaliseintheSierra Morena,asheneveralludestothemagain,andtherearemanywhowouldbegladto knowwhathedidwiththem,orwhathespentthemon,foritisoneoftheserious omissionsofthework." "SeorSanson,Iamnotinahumornowforgoingintoaccountsorexplanations," saidSancho;"forthere'sasinkingofthestomachcomeoverme,andunlessIdoctor 18EvengoodHomersometimesnodsoff. 19Infiniteisthenumberoffools.(Ecclesiastes1:15)

151 20I itwithacoupleofsupsoftheoldstuff,itwillputmeonthethornofSantaLucia. haveitathome,andmyoldwomaniswaitingforme;afterdinnerI'llcomeback, andwillansweryouandalltheworldeveryquestionyoumaychoosetoask,aswell aboutthelossoftheassasaboutthespendingofthehundredcrowns;"andwithout anotherwordorwaitingforareplyhemadeoffhome. DonQuixotebeggedandentreatedthebachelortostayanddopenancewithhim. Thebacheloracceptedtheinvitationandremained,acoupleofyoungpigeonswere addedtotheordinaryfare,atdinnertheytalkedchivalry,Carrascofellinwithhis host'shumor,thebanquetcametoanend,theytooktheirafternoonsleep,Sancho returned,andtheirconversationwasresumed.

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20Itwillmakemeweakandexhausted.

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CHAPTERXII
OFTHESTRANGEADVENTUREWHICHBEFELLTHEVALIANTDONQUIXOTE WITHTHEBOLDKNIGHTOFTHEMIRRORS21
ThenightsucceedingthedayoftheencounterwithDeath,DonQuixoteandhis squirepassedundersometallshadytrees22,andDonQuixoteatSancho's persuasionatealittlefromthestorecarriedbytheDapple,andovertheirsupper Sanchosaidtohismaster,"Seor,whatafoolIshouldhavelookedifIhadchosen formyrewardthespoilsofthefirstadventureyourworshipachieved,insteadofthe foalsofthethreemares.Afterall,'asparrowinthehandisbetterthanavultureon thewing.'"23 "Atthesametime,Sancho,"repliedDonQuixote,"ifthouhadstletmeattackthemas Iwanted,attheveryleasttheemperor'sgoldcrownandCupid'spaintedwings wouldhavefallentotheeasspoils,forIshouldhavetakenthembyforceandgiven themintothyhands."24 "Thesceptersandcrownsofthoseplayactoremperors,"saidSancho,"werenever yetpuregold,butonlybrassfoilortin." theWood. 22QuixoteandSanchoarenotinthewoodedareaaroundElToboso,whereDulcinea lives.Sanchowassenttolookforherandhassavedthedaybypretendingtosee thebeautifuldamselinavillagewench.Butbyhisimaginativeliehehastriggered Quixotesbeliefsinmagicspellsandenemysorcerers,who,enviousofhim,have hiddenhisladysbeautyonlyfromhim.Whilestillreelingfromthisinsight,the twothenmetagroupofitinerantplayersdressedincostumesforareligiousplay, TheParliamentofDeath. 23ArewardforbringingQuixotenewsofDulcinea;theproverbcorresponds,more orless,toabirdinthehandisworthtwointhebush. 24TheemperorandCupidwereamongthecharactersinTheParliamentofDeath.
21HewillearnthistitleinChapter15;meanwhileheisreferredtoastheKnightof

153 "Thatistrue,"saidDonQuixote,"foritwouldnotberightthattheaccessoriesofthe dramashouldbereal,insteadofbeingmerefictionsandsemblances,likethedrama itself;towardswhich,Sanchoand,asanecessaryconsequence,towardsthosewho representandproduceitIwouldthatthouwertfavorablydisposed,fortheyare allinstrumentsofgreatgoodtotheState,placingbeforeusateverystepamirrorin whichwemayseevividlydisplayedwhatgoesoninhumanlife;noristhereany similitudethatshowsusmorefaithfullywhatweareandoughttobethantheplay andtheplayers.Come,tellme,hastthounotseenaplayactedinwhichkings, emperors,pontiffs,knights,ladies,anddiversotherpersonageswereintroduced? Oneplaysthevillain,anothertheknave,thisonethemerchant,thatthesoldier,one thesharpwittedfool,anotherthefoolishlover;andwhentheplayisover,andthey haveputoffthecostumestheyworeinit,alltheactorsbecomeequal." "Yes,Ihaveseenthat,"saidSancho. "Wellthen,"saidDonQuixote,"thesamethinghappensinthecomedyandlifeof thisworld,wheresomeplayemperors,otherspopes,and,inshort,allthecharacters thatcanbebroughtintoaplay;butwhenitisover,thatistosaywhenlifeends, deathstripsthemallofthegarmentsthatdistinguishonefromtheother,andallare equalinthegrave." "Afinecomparison!"saidSancho;"thoughnotsonewbutthatIhavehearditmany andmanyatime,aswellasthatotheroneofthegameofchess;how,solongasthe gamelasts,eachpiecehasitsownparticularoffice,andwhenthegameisfinished theyareallmixed,jumbledupandshakentogether,andstowedawayinthebag, whichismuchlikeendinglifeinthegrave." "Thouartgrowinglessdoltishandmoreshrewdeveryday,Sancho,"saidDon Quixote.

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154 DonQuixotedelaMancha "Ay,"saidSancho;"itmustbethatsomeofyourworship'sshrewdnessstickstome; landthat,ofitself,isbarrenanddry,willcometoyieldgoodfruitifyoufertilizeit andtillit;whatImeanisthatyourworship'sconversationhasbeenthemanurethat hasfallenonthebarrensoilofmydrywit,andthetimeIhavebeeninyourservice andsocietyhasbeenthetilling;andwiththehelpofthisIhopetoyieldfruitin abundancethatwillnotfallawayorslidefromthosepathsofgoodbreedingthat yourworshiphasmadeinmyparchedunderstanding." DonQuixotelaughedatSancho'saffectedphraseology,andperceivedthatwhathe saidabouthisimprovementwastrue,fornowandthenhespokeinawaythat surprisedhim;thoughalways,ormostly,whenSanchotriedtotalkfineand attemptedpolitelanguage,hewoundupbytopplingoverfromthesummitofhis simplicityintotheabyssofhisignorance;andwhereheshowedhiscultureandhis memorytothegreatestadvantagewasindragginginproverbs,nomatterwhether theyhadanybearingornotuponthesubjectinhand,asmayhavebeenseen alreadyandwillbenoticedinthecourseofthishistory. Inconversationofthiskindtheypassedagoodpartofthenight,butSanchofelta desiretoletdownthecurtainsofhiseyes,asheusedtosaywhenhewantedtogoto sleep;andstrippingtheDapplehelefthimatlibertytograzehisfill.Hedidnot removeRocinante'ssaddle,ashismaster'sexpressorderswere,thatsolongasthey wereinthefieldornotsleepingunderaroofRocinantewasnottobestrippedthe ancientusageestablishedandobservedbyknightserrantbeingtotakeoffthe bridleandhangitonthesaddlebow,buttoremovethesaddlefromthehorse never!Sanchoactedaccordingly,andgavehimthesamelibertyhehadgiventhe Dapple,betweenwhomandRocinantetherewasafriendshipsounequalledandso strong,thatitishandeddownbytraditionfromfathertoson,thattheauthorofthis veracioushistorydevotedsomespecialchapterstoit,which,inordertopreserve theproprietyanddecorumduetoahistorysoheroic,hedidnotinserttherein; althoughattimesheforgetsthisresolutionofhisanddescribeshoweagerlythetwo beastswouldscratchoneanotherwhentheyweretogetherandhow,whenthey

155 weretiredorfull,RocinantewouldlayhisneckacrosstheDapple's,stretchinghalfa yardormoreontheotherside,andthepairwouldstandthus,gazingthoughtfully ontheground,forthreedays,oratleastsolongastheywereleftalone,orhunger didnotdrivethemtogoandlookforfood.Imayaddthattheysaytheauthorleftit onrecordthathelikenedtheirfriendshiptothatofNisusandEuryalus,andPylades andOrestes;25andifthatbeso,itmaybeperceived,totheadmirationofmankind, howfirmthefriendshipmusthavebeenbetweenthesetwopeacefulanimals, shamingmen,whopreservefriendshipswithoneanothersobadly.Thiswaswhyit wassaid Forfriendnolongeristherefriend; Thereedsturnlancesnow.26 Andsomeoneelsehassung Friendtofriendthebug,etc.27 Andletnoonefancythattheauthorwasatallastraywhenhecomparedthe friendshipoftheseanimalstothatofmen;formenhavereceivedmanylessonsfrom beasts,andlearnedmanyimportantthings,as,forexample,theclysterfromthe stork,vomitandgratitudefromthedog,watchfulnessfromthecrane,foresightfrom theant,modestyfromtheelephant,andloyaltyfromthehorse.28 Sanchoatlastfellasleepatthefootofacorktree,whileDonQuixotedozedatthatof asturdyoak;butashorttimeonlyhadelapsedwhenanoiseheheardbehindhim awokehim,andrisingupstartled,helistenedandlookedinthedirectionthenoise camefrom,andperceivedtwomenonhorseback,oneofwhom,lettinghimselfdrop fromthesaddle,saidtotheother,"Dismount,myfriend,andtakethebridlesoffthe horses,for,sofarasIcansee,thisplacewillfurnishgrassforthem,andthesolitude
25FamousfriendshipsinVirgilsAeneidandinGreektraditionanddrama. 26Fromapopularballad. 27abugintheeyeimplieskeepinganeyeonsomebody. 28Folkloricbeliefsaboutthevirtuesofanimals.

DonQuixotedelaMancha

156 DonQuixotedelaMancha andsilencemylovesickthoughtsneedof."Ashesaidthishestretchedhimselfupon theground,andasheflunghimselfdown,theamourinwhichhewascladrattled, wherebyDonQuixoteperceivedthathemustbeaknighterrant;andgoingoverto Sancho,whowasasleep,heshookhimbythearmandwithnosmalldifficulty broughthimbacktohissenses,andsaidinalowvoicetohim,"BrotherSancho,we havegotanadventure." "Godsendusagoodone,"saidSancho;"andwheremayherladyshiptheadventure be?" "Where,Sancho?"repliedDonQuixote;"turnthineeyesandlook,andthouwiltsee stretchedthereaknighterrant,who,itstrikesme,isnotoverandabovehappy,forI sawhimflinghimselfoffhishorseandthrowhimselfonthegroundwithacertain airofdejection,andhisarmorrattledashefell." "Well,"saidSancho,"howdoesyourworshipmakeoutthattobeanadventure?" "Idonotmeantosay,"returnedDonQuixote,"thatitisacompleteadventure,but thatitisthebeginningofone,foritisinthiswayadventuresbegin.Butlisten,forit seemsheistuningaluteorguitar,andfromthewayheisspittingandclearinghis chesthemustbegettingreadytosingsomething." "Faith,youareright,"saidSancho,"andnodoubtheissomeenamoredknight." "Thereisnoknighterrantthatisnot,"saidDonQuixote;"butletuslistentohim, for,ifhesings,bythatthreadweshallextracttheballofhisthoughts;becauseoutof theabundanceoftheheartthemouthspeaketh." Sanchowasabouttoreplytohismaster,buttheKnightoftheWood'svoice,which wasneitherverybadnorverygood,stoppedhim,andlisteningattentivelythepair heardhimsingthis:

DonQuixotedelaMancha SONNET Yourpleasure,prithee,ladymine,unfold; DeclarethetermsthatIamtoobey; MywilltoyourssubmissivelyImould, Andfromyourlawmyfeetshallneverstray. WouldyouIdie,tosilentgriefaprey? Thencountmeevennowasdeadandcold; WouldyouItellmywoesinsomenewway? ThenshallmytalebyLoveitselfbetold. Theunisonofoppositestoprove, OfthesoftwaxanddiamondhardamI; Butstill,obedienttothelawsoflove, Here,hardorsoft,Iofferyoumybreast, Whate'eryougraveorstampthereonshallrest Indelibleforalleternity.29

157

Withan"Ahme!"thatseemedtobedrawnfromtheinmostrecessesofhisheart,the KnightoftheWoodbroughthislaytoanend,andshortlyafterwardsexclaimedina melancholyandpiteousvoice,"Ofairestandmostungratefulwomanonearth! What!canitbe,mostsereneCasildeadeVandalia,30thatthouwiltsufferthisthy captiveknighttowasteawayandperishinceaselesswanderingsandrudeand arduoustoils?ItisnotenoughthatIhavecompelledalltheknightsofNavarre,all theLeonese,alltheTartesians,alltheCastilians,andfinallyalltheknightsofLa Mancha,toconfesstheethemostbeautifulintheworld?" "Notso,"saidDonQuixoteatthis,"forIamofLaMancha,andIhavenever confessedanythingofthesort,norcouldInorshouldIconfessathingsomuchto 29Thepoemintentionallyfollowstheaffectedconventionsofthetime. 30TheKnightoftheWoodsliegelady,counterparttoDulcinea.

158 DonQuixotedelaMancha theprejudiceofmylady'sbeauty;thouseesthowthisknightisraving,Sancho.But letuslisten,perhapshewilltellusmoreabouthimself." "Thathewill,"returnedSancho,"forheseemsinamoodtobewailhimselffora monthatastretch." Butthiswasnotthecase,fortheKnightoftheWood,hearingvoicesnearhim, insteadofcontinuinghislamentation,stoodupandexclaimedinadistinctbut courteoustone,"Whogoesthere?Whatareyou?Doyoubelongtothenumberofthe happyorofthemiserable?"31 "Ofthemiserable,"answeredDonQuixote. "Thencometome,"saidheoftheWood,"andrestassuredthatitistowoeitselfand afflictionitselfyoucome." DonQuixote,findinghimselfansweredinsuchasoftandcourteousmanner,went overtohim,andsodidSancho. ThedolefulknighttookDonQuixotebythearm,saying,"Sitdownhere,sirknight; for,thatyouareone,andofthosethatprofessknighterrantry,itistomeasufficient prooftohavefoundyouinthisplace,wheresolitudeandnight,thenaturalcouch andproperretreatofknightserrant,keepyoucompany."TowhichtheDonmade answer,"AknightIamoftheprofessionyoumention,andthoughsorrows, misfortunes,andcalamitieshavemademyhearttheirabode,thecompassionIfeel forthemisfortunesofothershasnotbeentherebybanishedfromit.Fromwhatyou havejustnowsungIgatherthatyoursspringfromlove,Imeanfromtheloveyou bearthatfairingrateyounamedinyourlament."

31Areyouhappy,orareyoulovesick?

159 Inthemeantime,theyhadseatedthemselvestogetheronthehardgroundpeaceably andsociably,justasif,assoonasdaybroke,theywerenotgoingtobreakone another'sheads. "Areyou,sirknight,inloveperchance?"askedheoftheWoodofDonQuixote. "BymischanceIam,"repliedDonQuixote;"thoughtheillsarisingfromwell bestowedaffectionsshouldbeesteemedfavorsratherthanmisfortunes." "Thatistrue,"returnedheoftheWood,"ifscorndidnotunsettleourreasonand understanding,forifitbeexcessiveitlookslikerevenge." "Iwasneverscornedbymylady,"saidDonQuixote. "Certainlynot,"saidSancho,whostoodcloseby,"formyladyisasalamb,andsofter thanarollofbutter." "Isthisyoursquire?"askedheoftheWood. "Heis,"saidDonQuixote. "Ineveryetsawasquire,"saidheoftheWood,"whoventuredtospeakwhenhis masterwasspeaking;atleast,thereismine,whoisasbigashisfather,anditcannot beprovedthathehaseveropenedhislipswhenIamspeaking." "Bymyfaiththen,"saidSancho,"Ihavespoken,andamfittospeak,inthepresence ofoneasmuch,orevenbutneverminditonlymakesitworsetostirit." ThesquireoftheWoodtookSanchobythearm,sayingtohim,"Letustwogowhere wecantalkinsquirestyleasmuchasweplease,andleavethesegentlemenour

DonQuixotedelaMancha

160 DonQuixotedelaMancha masterstofightitoutoverthestoryoftheirloves;and,dependuponit,daybreak willfindthematitwithouthavingmadeanendofit." "Sobeitbyallmeans,"saidSancho;"andIwilltellyourworshipwhoIam,thatyou mayseewhetherIamtobereckonedamongthenumberofthemosttalkative squires." Withthisthetwosquireswithdrewtooneside,andbetweenthemtherepasseda conversationasdrollasthatwhichpassedbetweentheirmasterswasserious.

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161

CHAPTERXIII.
INWHICHISCONTINUEDTHEADVENTUREOFTHEKNIGHTOFTHEWOOD, TOGETHERWITHTHESENSIBLE,ORIGINAL,ANDTRANQUILCOLLOQUYTHAT PASSEDBETWEENTHETWOSQUIRES
Theknightsandthesquiresmadetwoparties,thesetellingthestoryoftheirlives, theothersthestoryoftheirloves;butthehistoryrelatesfirstofalltheconversation oftheservants,andafterwardstakesupthatofthemasters;anditsaysthat, withdrawingalittlefromtheothers,heoftheWoodsaidtoSancho,"Ahardlifeitis weleadandlive,seor,wethataresquirestoknightserrant;verily,weeatour breadinthesweatofourfaces,whichisoneofthecursesGodlaidonourfirst parents."32 "Itmaybesaid,too,"addedSancho,"thatweeatitinthechillofourbodies;forwho getsmoreheatandcoldthanthemiserablesquiresofknighterrantry?Evensoit wouldnotbesobadifwehadsomethingtoeat,forwoesarelighterifthere'sbread; butsometimeswegoadayortwowithoutbreakingourfast,exceptwiththewind thatblows." "Allthat,"saidheoftheWood,"maybeenduredandputupwithwhenwehave hopesofreward;for,unlesstheknighterrantheservesisexcessivelyunlucky,after afewturnsthesquirewillatleastfindhimselfrewardedwithafinegovernmentof someislandorsomefaircounty." "I,"saidSancho,"havealreadytoldmymasterthatIshallbecontentwiththe governmentofsomeisland,andheissonobleandgenerousthathehaspromisedit tomeeversomanytimes." 32Cf.Genesis3:19

162 DonQuixotedelaMancha "I,"saidheoftheWood,"shallbesatisfiedwithacanonryformyservices,andmy masterhasalreadyassignedmeone." "Yourmaster,"saidSancho,"nodoubtisaknightintheChurchline,andcanbestow rewardsofthatsortonhisgoodsquire;butmineisonlyalayman;thoughI remembersomeclever,but,tomymind,designingpeople,strovetopersuadehim totryandbecomeanarchbishop.He,however,wouldnotbeanythingbutan emperor;butIwastremblingallthetimelestheshouldtakeafancytogointothe Church,notfindingmyselffittoholdofficeinit;forImaytellyou,thoughIseema man,IamnobetterthanabeastfortheChurch." "Well,then,youarewrongthere,"saidheoftheWood;"forthoseisland governmentsarenotallsatisfactory;someareawkward,somearepoor,someare dull,and,inshort,thehighestandchoicestbringswithitaheavyburdenofcares andtroubleswhichtheunhappywighttowhoselotithasfallenbearsuponhis shoulders.Farbetterwoulditbeforuswhohaveadoptedthisaccursedserviceto gobacktoourownhouses,andthereemployourselvesinpleasanteroccupations inhuntingorfishing,forinstance;forwhatsquireintheworldistheresopooras nottohaveahackandacoupleofgreyhoundsandafishingrodtoamusehimself withinhisownvillage?" "Iamnotinwantofanyofthosethings,"saidSancho;"tobesureIhavenohack,but Ihaveanassthatisworthmymaster'shorsetwiceover;GodsendmeabadEaster, andthatthenextoneIamtosee,ifIwouldswap,evenifIgotfourbushelsofbarley toboot.YouwilllaughatthevalueIputonmyDapplefordappleisthecolorofmy beast.Astogreyhounds,Ican'twantforthem,forthereareenoughandtosparein mytown;and,moreover,thereismorepleasureinsportwhenitisatotherpeople's expense."

163 "Intruthandearnest,sirsquire,"saidheoftheWood,"Ihavemadeupmymindand determinedtohavedonewiththesedrunkenvagariesoftheseknights,andgoback tomyvillage,andbringupmychildren;forIhavethree,likethreeOrientalpearls." "Ihavetwo,"saidSancho,"thatmightbepresentedbeforethePopehimself, especiallyagirlwhomIambreedingupforacountess,pleaseGod,thoughinspite ofhermother." "Andhowoldisthisladythatisbeingbredupforacountess?"askedheofthe Wood. "Fifteen,acoupleofyearsmoreorless,"answeredSancho;"butsheisastallasa lance,andasfreshasanAprilmorning,andasstrongasaporter." "Thosearegiftstofithertobenotonlyacountessbutanymphofthegreenwood," saidheoftheWood;"whoresonstrumpet!whatpiththeroguemusthave!" TowhichSanchomadeanswer,somewhatsulkily,"She'snostrumpet,norwasher mother,norwilleitherofthembe,pleaseGod,whileIlive;speakmorecivilly;for onebredupamongknightserrant,whoarecourtesyitself,yourwordsdon'tseem tometobeverybecoming." "Ohowlittleyouknowaboutcompliments,sirsquire,"returnedheoftheWood. "What!don'tyouknowthatwhenahorsemandeliversagoodlancethrustatthe bullintheplaza,orwhenanyonedoesanythingverywell,thepeoplearewontto say,'Ha,whoresonrip!howwellhehasdoneit!'andthatwhatseemstobeabusein theexpressionishighpraise?Disownsonsanddaughters,seor,whodon'tdowhat deservesthatcomplimentsofthissortshouldbepaidtotheirparents." "Idodisownthem,"repliedSancho,"andinthisway,andbythesamereasoning, youmightcallmeandmychildrenandmywifeallthestrumpetsintheworld,forall

DonQuixotedelaMancha

164 DonQuixotedelaMancha theydoandsayisofakindthatinthehighestdegreedeservesthesamepraise;and toseethemagainIprayGodtodelivermefrommortalsin,or,whatcomestothe samething,todelivermefromthisperilouscallingofsquireintowhichIhavefallen asecondtime,decayedandbeguiledbyapursewithahundredducatsthatIfound onedayintheheartoftheSierraMorena33;andthedevilisalwaysputtingabagfull ofdoubloonsbeforemyeyes,here,there,everywhere,untilIfancyateverystopI amputtingmyhandonit,andhuggingit,andcarryingithomewithme,andmaking investments,andgettinginterest,andlivinglikeaprince;andsolongasIthinkof thisImakelightofallthehardshipsIendurewiththissimpletonofamasterof mine,who,Iwellknow,ismoreofamadmanthanaknight." "There'swhytheysaythat'covetousnessburststhebag,'"saidheoftheWood;"but ifyoucometotalkofthatsort,thereisnotagreateroneintheworldthanmy master,forheisoneofthoseofwhomtheysay,'thecaresofotherskilltheass;'for, inorderthatanotherknightmayrecoverthesenseshehaslost,hemakesa madmanofhimselfandgoeslookingforwhat,whenfound,may,forallIknow,flyin hisownface." "Andisheinloveperchance?"askedSancho. "Heis,"saidoftheWood,"withoneCasildeadeVandalia,therawest34andbest roastedladythewholeworldcouldproduce;butthatrawnessisnottheonlyfoothe limpson,forhehasgreaterschemesrumblinginhisbowels,aswillbeseenbefore manyhoursareover." "There'snoroadsosmoothbutithassomeholeorhindranceinit,"saidSancho;"in otherhousestheycookbeans,butinmineit'sbythepotfull;madnesswillhave morefollowersandhangersonthansoundsense;butiftherebeanytruthinthe
33WhenDonQuixoteretiredthereinPartI,Chapter23. 34Theoriginalisapunonthewordcrudo,whichmeansbothrawandcruel.

DonQuixotedelaMancha commonsaying,thattohavecompanionsintroublegivessomerelief,Imaytake consolationfromyou,inasmuchasyouserveamasterascrazyasmyown." "Crazybutvaliant,"repliedheoftheWood,"andmoreofaroguethananything else.

165

"Mineisnotthat,"saidSancho;"Imeanhehasnothingoftherogueinhim;onthe contrary,heisasopenandaboveboardasawinepitcher;hehasnothoughtofdoing harmtoanyone,onlygoodtoall,norhasheanymalicewhateverinhim;achild mightpersuadehimthatitisnightatnoonday;andforthissimplicityIlovehim withallmyheart,andIcan'tbringmyselftoleavehim,lethimdoeversuchfoolish things." "Forallthat,brotherandseor,"saidheoftheWood,"iftheblindleadtheblind, bothareindangeroffallingintothepit.Itisbetterforustobeataquietretreatand getbacktoourownquarters;forthosewhoseekadventuresdon'talwaysfindgood ones." Sanchokeptspittingfromtimetotime,andhisspittleseemedsomewhatropyand dry,observingwhichthecompassionatesquireoftheWoodsaid,"Itseemstome thatwithallthistalkofoursourtonguesarestickingtotheroofsofourmouths;but Ihaveaprettygoodloosenerhangingfromthesaddlebowofmyhorse,"and gettinguphecamebackthenextminutewithalargebotaofwineandapastyhalfa yardacross;andthisisnoexaggeration,foritwasmadeofahouserabbitsobigthat Sancho,ashehandledit,tookittobemadeofagoat,nottosayakid,andlookingat ithesaid,"Anddoyoucarrythiswithyou,seor?" "Why,whatareyouthinkingabout?"saidtheother;"doyoutakemeforsomepaltry squire?Icarryabetterlarderonmyhorse'scroupthanageneraltakeswithhim whenhegoesonamarch."

166 DonQuixotedelaMancha Sanchoatewithoutrequiringtobepressed,andinthedarkboltedmouthfulslike theknotsonatether,andsaidhe,"Youareapropertrustysquire,oneoftheright sort,sumptuousandgrand,asthisbanquetshows,which,ifithasnotcomehereby magicart,atanyratehasthelookofit;notlikeme,unluckybeggar,thathave nothingmoreinmyalforjasthanascrapofcheese,sohardthatonemightbraina giantwithit,and,tokeepitcompany,afewdozencarobsandasmanymorefilberts andwalnuts;thankstotheausterityofmymaster,andtheideahehasandtherule hefollows,thatknightserrantmustnotliveorsustainthemselvesonanything exceptdriedfruitsandtheherbsofthefield." "Bymyfaith,brother,"saidheoftheWood,"mystomachisnotmadeforthistles,or wildpears,orrootsofthewoods;letourmastersdoastheylike,withtheirchivalry notionsandlaws,andeatwhatthoseenjoin;Icarrymybasketandthisbotahanging tothesaddlebow,whatevertheymaysay;anditissuchanobjectofworshipwith me,andIloveitso,thatthereishardlyamomentbutIamkissingandembracingit overandoveragain;"andsosayinghethrustitintoSancho'shands,whoraisingit aloftpointedtohismouth,gazedatthestarsforaquarterofanhour;andwhenhe haddonedrinkinglethisheadfallononeside,andgivingadeepsigh,exclaimed, "Ah,whoresonrogue,howcatholicitis!" "There,yousee,"saidheoftheWood,hearingSancho'sexclamation,"howyouhave calledthiswinewhoresonbywayofpraise." "Well,"saidSancho,"Iownit,andIgrantitisnodishonortocallanyonewhoreson whenitistobeunderstoodaspraise.Buttellme,seor,bywhatyoulovebest,is thisCiudadReal35wine?" "Orarewinetaster!"saidheoftheWood;"nowhereelseindeeddoesitcomefrom, andithassomeyears'agetoo." 35ThemaintowninLaManchaandthecenterofawineregion.

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"Leavemealoneforthat,"saidSancho;"neverfearbutI'llhitupontheplaceitcame fromsomehow.Whatwouldyousay,sirsquire,tomyhavingsuchagreatnatural instinctinjudgingwinesthatyouhaveonlytoletmesmelloneandIcantell positivelyitscountry,itskind,itsflavorandsoundness,thechangesitwillundergo, andeverythingthatappertainstoawine?Butitisnowonder,forIhavehadinmy family,onmyfather'sside,thetwobestwinetastersthathavebeenknowninLa Manchaformanyalongyear,andtoproveitI'lltellyounowathingthathappened them.Theygavethetwoofthemsomewineoutofacask,totry,askingtheir opinionastothecondition,quality,goodnessorbadnessofthewine.Oneofthem trieditwiththetipofhistongue,theotherdidnomorethanbringittohisnose.The firstsaidthewinehadaflavorofiron,thesecondsaidithadastrongerflavorof cordovan.Theownersaidthecaskwasclean,andthatnothinghadbeenaddedto thewinefromwhichitcouldhavegotaflavorofeitherironorleather.Nevertheless, thesetwogreatwinetastersheldtowhattheyhadsaid.Timewentby,thewinewas sold,andwhentheycametocleanoutthecask,theyfoundinitasmallkeyhanging toathongofcordovan;seenowifonewhocomesofthesamestockhasnotaright togivehisopinioninsuchlikecases." "Therefore,Isay,"saidheoftheWood,"letusgiveupgoinginquestofadventures, andaswehaveloavesletusnotgolookingforcakes,butreturntoourcribs,forGod willfindusthereifitbehiswill." "UntilmymasterreachesSaragossa,"saidSancho,"I'llremaininhisservice;after thatwe'llsee." Theendofitwasthatthetwosquirestalkedsomuchanddranksomuchthatsleep hadtotietheirtonguesandmoderatetheirthirst,fortoquenchitwasimpossible; andsothepairofthemfellasleepclingingtothenownearlyemptybotaandwith halfchewedmorselsintheirmouths;andtherewewillleavethemforthepresent,

168 DonQuixotedelaMancha torelatewhatpassedbetweentheKnightoftheWoodandhimoftheMournful Countenance.

DonQuixotedelaMancha

169

CHAPTERXIV.
WHEREINISCONTINUEDTHEADVENTUREOFTHEKNIGHTOFTHEWOOD
AmongthethingsthatpassedbetweenDonQuixoteandtheKnightoftheWood,the historytellsusheoftheWoodsaidtoDonQuixote,"Infine,sirknight,Iwouldhave youknowthatmydestiny,or,moreproperlyspeaking,mychoiceledmetofallin lovewiththepeerlessCasildeadeVandalia.Icallherpeerlessbecauseshehasno peer,whetheritbeinbodilystatureorinthesupremacyofrankandbeauty.This sameCasildea,then,thatIspeakof,requitedmyhonorablepassionandgentle aspirationsbycompellingme,ashisstepmotherdidHercules,toengageinmany perilsofvarioussorts36,attheendofeachpromisingmethat,withtheendofthe next,theobjectofmyhopesshouldbeattained;butmylaborshavegoneon increasinglinkbylinkuntiltheyarepastcounting,nordoIknowwhatwillbethe lastonethatistobethebeginningoftheaccomplishmentofmychastedesires.On oneoccasionshebademegoandchallengethefamousgiantessofSeville,La Giralda37byname,whoisasmightyandstrongasifmadeofbrass,andthough neverstirringfromonespot,isthemostrestlessandchangeablewomaninthe world.Icame,Isaw,Iconquered,andImadeherstayquietandbehaveherself,for nothingbutnorthwindsblewformorethanaweek.AnothertimeIwasorderedto liftthoseancientstones,themightybullsofGuisando38,anenterprisethatmight morefitlybeentrustedtoportersthantoknights.Again,shebademeflingmyself intothecavernofCabra39anunparalleledandawfulperilandbringheraminute accountofallthatisconcealedinthosegloomydepths.Istoppedthemotionofthe Giralda,IliftedthebullsofGuisando,Iflungmyselfintothecavernandbroughtto lightthesecretsofitsabyss;andmyhopesareasdeadasdeadcanbe,andherscorn
36ThesonofZeusandAlcmena,HerculeswaspersecutedbyZeusswifeHera. 37Actually,abrassstatueontheMoorishbelfryofthecathedralatSeville. 38Morestatuestheserepresentinganimalsandsupposedlymarkingaplacewhere

CesardefeatedPompey. 39PossiblyanancientmineshaftintheSierradeCabranearCordova.

170 DonQuixotedelaMancha andhercommandsaslivelyasever.Tobebrief,lastofallshehascommandedmeto gothroughalltheprovincesofSpainandcompelalltheknightserrantwandering thereintoconfessthatshesurpassesallwomenalivetodayinbeauty,andthatIam themostvaliantandthemostdeeplyenamoredknightonearth;insupportofwhich claimIhavealreadytravelledoverthegreaterpartofSpain,andhavethere vanquishedseveralknightswhohavedaredtocontradictme;butwhatImost plumeandpridemyselfuponishavingvanquishedinsinglecombatthatsofamous knightDonQuixoteofLaMancha,andmadehimconfessthatmyCasildeaismore beautifulthanhisDulcinea;andinthisonevictoryIholdmyselftohaveconquered alltheknightsintheworld;forthisDonQuixotethatIspeakofhasvanquished themall,andIhavingvanquishedhim,hisglory,hisfame,andhishonorhave passedandaretransferredtomyperson;for Themorethevanquishedhathoffairrenown, Thegreaterglorygildsthevictor'scrown.40 ThustheinnumerableachievementsofthesaidDonQuixotearenowsetdownto myaccountandhavebecomemine." DonQuixotewasamazedwhenheheardtheKnightoftheWood,andwasa thousandtimesonthepointoftellinghimhelied,andhadtheliedirectalreadyon thetipofhistongue;butherestrainedhimselfaswellashecould,inordertoforce himtoconfesstheliewithhisownlips;sohesaidtohimquietly,"Astowhatyou say,sirknight,abouthavingvanquishedmostoftheknightsofSpain,orevenofthe wholeworld,Isaynothing;butthatyouhavevanquishedDonQuixoteofLaMancha Iconsiderdoubtful;itmayhavebeensomeotherthatresembledhim,although therearefewlikehim." 40FromtheAraucana,apoembyAlonzodeErcillayZigaontheSpanishstruggle againsttheAraucanianIndiansofChile.

DonQuixotedelaMancha "How!notvanquished?"saidheoftheWood;"bytheheaventhatisaboveusI

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foughtDonQuixoteandovercamehimandmadehimyield;andheisamanoftall stature,gauntfeatures,long,lanklimbs,withhairturninggrey,anaquilinenose ratherhooked,andlargeblackdroopingmoustaches;hedoesbattleunderthename of'TheKnightoftheMournfulCountenance,'andhehasforsquireapeasantcalled SanchoPanza;hepressestheloinsandrulesthereinsofafamoussteedcalled Rocinante;andlastly,hehasforthemistressofhiswillacertainDulcineadel Toboso,onceuponatimecalledAldonzaLorenzo,justasIcallmineCasildeade VandaliabecausehernameisCasildaandsheisofAndalusia.Ifallthesetokensare notenoughtovindicatethetruthofwhatIsay,hereismysword,thatwillcompel incredulityitselftogivecredencetoit." "Calmyourself,sirknight,"saidDonQuixote,"andgiveeartowhatIamabouttosay toyou.IwouldhaveyouknowthatthisDonQuixoteyouspeakofisthegreatest friendIhaveintheworld;somuchsothatImaysayIregardhiminthesamelight asmyownperson;andfromthepreciseandclearindicationsyouhavegivenI cannotbutthinkthathemustbetheveryoneyouhavevanquished.Ontheother hand,Iseewithmyeyesandfeelwithmyhandsthatitisimpossibleitcanhave beenthesame;unlessindeeditbethat,ashehasmanyenemieswhoare enchanters,andoneinparticularwhoisalwayspersecutinghim,someoneofthese mayhavetakenhisshapeinordertoallowhimselftobevanquished,soasto defraudhimofthefamethathisexaltedachievementsasaknighthaveearnedand acquiredforhimthroughouttheknownworld.Andinconfirmationofthis,Imust tellyou,too,thatitisbuttenhourssincethesesaidenchantershisenemies transformedtheshapeandpersonofthefairDulcineadelTobosointoafouland meanvillagelass,andinthesamewaytheymusthavetransformedDonQuixote; andifallthisdoesnotsufficetoconvinceyouofthetruthofwhatIsay,hereisDon Quixotehimself,whowillmaintainitbyarms,onfootoronhorsebackorinanyway youplease."

172 DonQuixotedelaMancha Andsosayinghestoodupandlaidhishandonhissword,waitingtoseewhatthe KnightoftheWoodwoulddo,whoinanequallycalmvoicesaidinreply,"Pledges don'tdistressagoodpayer;hewhohassucceededinvanquishingyouoncewhen transformed,SirDonQuixote,mayfairlyhopetosubdueyouinyourownproper shape;butasitisnotbecomingforknightstoperformtheirfeatsofarmsinthe dark,likehighwaymenandbullies,letuswaittilldaylight,thatthesunmaybehold ourdeeds;andtheconditionsofourcombatshallbethatthevanquishedshallbeat thevictor'sdisposal,todoallthathemayenjoin,providedtheinjunctionbesuchas shallbebecomingaknight." "Iammorethansatisfiedwiththeseconditionsandterms,"repliedDonQuixote; andsosaying,theybetookthemselvestowheretheirsquireslay,andfoundthem snoring,andinthesameposturetheywereinwhensleepfelluponthem.They rousedthemup,andbadethemgetthehorsesready,asatsunrisetheywereto engageinabloodyandarduoussinglecombat;atwhichintelligenceSanchowas aghastandthunderstruck,tremblingforthesafetyofhismasterbecauseofthe mightydeedshehadheardthesquireoftheWoodascribetohis;butwithouta wordthetwosquireswentinquestoftheircattle;forbythistimethethreehorses andtheasshadsmeltoneanotherout,andwerealltogether. Ontheway,heoftheWoodsaidtoSancho,"Youmustknow,brother,thatitisthe customwiththefightingmenofAndalusia,whentheyaregodfathersinanyquarrel, nottostandidlewithfoldedarmswhiletheirgodsonsfight;Isaysotoremindyou thatwhileourmastersarefighting,we,too,havetofight,andknockoneanotherto shivers." "Thatcustom,sirsquire,"repliedSancho,"mayholdgoodamongthosebulliesand fightingmenyoutalkof,butcertainlynotamongthesquiresofknightserrant;at least,Ihaveneverheardmymasterspeakofanycustomofthesort,andheknows allthelawsofknighterrantrybyheart;butgrantingittruethatthereisanexpress lawthatsquiresaretofightwhiletheirmastersarefighting,Idon'tmeantoobeyit,

173 buttopaythepenaltythatmaybelaidonpeacefullymindedsquireslikemyself;for Iamsureitcannotbemorethantwopoundsofwax41,andIwouldratherpaythat, forIknowitwillcostmelessthanthebandagesIwillneedtomyhead,whichIlook uponasbrokenandsplitalready;there'sanotherthingthatmakesitimpossiblefor metofight,thatIhavenosword,forInevercarriedoneinmylife." "Iknowagoodremedyforthat,"saidheoftheWood;"Ihaveheretwolinenbagsof thesamesize;youshalltakeone,andItheother,andwewillfightatbagblowswith equalarms." "Ifthat'stheway,sobeitwithallmyheart,"saidSancho,"forthatsortofbattlewill servetoknockthedustoutofusinsteadofhurtingus." "Thatwillnotdo,"saidtheother,"forwemustputintothebags,tokeepthewind fromblowingthemaway,halfadozennicesmoothpebbles,allofthesameweight; andinthiswayweshallbeabletobasteoneanotherwithoutdoingourselvesany harmormischief." "Bodyofmyfather!"saidSancho,"seewhatmartenandsable,andpadsofcarded cottonheisputtingintothebags,thatourheadsmaynotbebrokenandourbones beatentojelly!Buteveniftheyarefilledwithtosssilk,Icantellyou,seor,Iamnot goingtofight;letourmastersfight,that'stheirlookout,andletusdrinkandlive;for timewilltakecaretoeaseusofourlives,withoutourgoingtolookforfillipssothat theymaybefinishedoffbeforetheirpropertimecomesandtheydropfrom ripeness." "Still,"returnedheoftheWood,"wemustfight,ifitbeonlyforhalfanhour." candles.
41Insomeconfraternities,penaltieswerepaidinwax,presumablytomakechurch

DonQuixotedelaMancha

174 DonQuixotedelaMancha "Bynomeans,"saidSancho;"Iamnotgoingtobesodiscourteousorsoungrateful astohaveanyquarrel,beiteversosmall,withoneIhaveeatenanddrunkwith; besides,whothedevilcouldbringhimselftofightincoldblood,withoutangeror provocation?" "Icanremedythatentirely,"saidheoftheWood,"andinthisway:beforewebegin thebattle,Iwillcomeuptoyourworshipfairandsoftly,andgiveyouthreeorfour buffets,withwhichIshallstretchyouatmyfeetandrouseyouranger,thoughit weresleepingsounderthanadormouse." "Tomatchthatplan,"saidSancho,"Ihaveanotherthatisnotawhitbehindit;Iwill takeacudgel,andbeforeyourworshipcomesnearenoughtowakenmyangerIwill sendyourssosoundtosleepwithwhacks,thatitwon'twakenunlessitbeinthe otherworld,whereitisknownthatIamnotamantoletmyfacebehandledby anyone;leteachlookoutforthearrow42thoughthesurerwaywouldbetolet everyone'sangersleep,fornobodyknowstheheartofanyone,andamanmaycome forwoolandgobackshorn;Godgavehisblessingtopeaceandhiscursetoquarrels; ifahuntedcat,surroundedandhardpressed,turnsintoalion,GodknowswhatI, whoamaman,mayturninto;andsofromthistimeforthIwarnyou,sirsquire,that alltheharmandmischiefthatmaycomeofourquarrelwillbeputdowntoyour account." "Verygood,"saidheoftheWood;"Godwillsendthedawnandweshallbeallright." Andnowgayplumagedbirdsofallsortsbegantowarbleinthetrees,andwiththeir variedandgladsomenotesseemedtowelcomeandsalutethefreshmornthatwas beginningtoshowthebeautyofhercountenanceatthegatesandbalconiesofthe east,shakingfromherlocksaprofusionofliquidpearls;inwhichdulcetmoisture bathed,theplants,too,seemedtoshedandshowerdownapearlyspray,thewillows 42Aproverbialexpressionfromarchery,leteachonetakecareofhisownarrow. Otherclearlyproverbialexpressionsfollow,typicalofSanchosspeech.

DonQuixotedelaMancha distilledsweetmanna,thefountainslaughed,thebrooksbabbled,thewoods

175

rejoiced,andthemeadowsarrayedthemselvesinalltheirgloryathercoming.But hardlyhadthelightofdaymadeitpossibletoseeanddistinguishthings,whenthe firstobjectthatpresenteditselftotheeyesofSanchoPanzawasthesquireofthe Wood'snose,whichwassobigthatitalmostovershadowedhiswholebody.Itis,in fact,stated,thatitwasofenormoussize,hookedinthemiddle,coveredwithwarts, andofamulberrycolorlikeaneggplant;ithungdowntwofingers'lengthbelowhis mouth,andthesize,thecolor,thewarts,andthebendofit,madehisfaceso hideous,thatSancho,ashelookedathim,begantotremblehandandfootlikea childinconvulsions,andhevowedinhishearttolethimselfbegiventwohundred buffets,soonerthanbeprovokedtofightthatmonster.DonQuixoteexaminedhis adversary,andfoundthathealreadyhadhishelmetonandvisorlowered,sothathe couldnotseehisface;heobserved,however,thathewasasturdilybuiltman,but notverytallinstature.Overhisarmorheworeasurcoatorcassockofwhatseemed tobethefinestclothofgold,allbespangledwithglitteringmirrorslikelittlemoons, whichgavehimanextremelygallantandsplendidappearance;abovehishelmet flutteredagreatquantityofplumes,green,yellow,andwhite,andhislance,which wasleaningagainstatree,wasverylongandstout,andhadasteelpointmorethan apalminlength. DonQuixoteobservedall,andtooknoteofall,andfromwhathesawandobserved heconcludedthatthesaidknightmustbeamanofgreatstrength,buthedidnotfor allthatgivewaytofear,likeSanchoPanza;onthecontrary,withacomposedand dauntlessair,hesaidtotheKnightoftheMirrors,43"If,sirknight,yourgreat eagernesstofighthasnotbanishedyourcourtesy,byitIwouldentreatyoutoraise yourvisoralittle,inorderthatImayseeifthecomelinessofyourcountenance correspondswiththatofyourequipment."

43TheKnightoftheWood,nowrenamedinkeepingwithhisattire.

176 DonQuixotedelaMancha "Whetheryoucomevictoriousorvanquishedoutofthisemprise,sirknight,"replied heoftheMirrors,"youwillhavemorethanenoughtimeandleisuretoseeme;andif nowIdonotcomplywithyourrequest,itisbecauseitseemstomeIshoulddoa seriouswrongtothefairCasildeadeVandaliainwastingtimewhileIstoppedto raisemyvisorbeforecompellingyoutoconfesswhatyouarealreadyawareI maintain." "Wellthen,"saidDonQuixote,"whilewearemountingyoucanatleasttellmeifI amthatDonQuixotewhomyousaidyouvanquished." "Tothatweansweryou,"saidheoftheMirrors,"thatyouareasliketheveryknight Ivanquishedasoneeggislikeanother,butasyousaythatenchanterspersecute you,Iwillnotventuretosaypositivelywhetheryouarethesaidpersonornot." "That,"saidDonQuixote,"isenoughtoconvincemethatyouareunderadeception; however,entirelytorelieveyouofit,letourhorsesbebrought,andinlesstimethan itwouldtakeyoutoraiseyourvisor,ifGod,mylady,andmyarmstandmeingood stead,Ishallseeyourface,andyoushallseethatIamnotthevanquishedDon Quixoteyoutakemetobe." Withthis,cuttingshortthecolloquy,theymounted,andDonQuixotewheeled Rocinanteroundinordertotakeaproperdistancetochargebackuponhis adversary,andheoftheMirrorsdidthesame;butDonQuixotehadnotmovedaway twentypaceswhenheheardhimselfcalledbytheother,and,eachreturninghalf way,heoftheMirrorssaidtohim,"Remember,sirknight,thatthetermsofour combatare,thatthevanquished,asIsaidbefore,shallbeatthevictor'sdisposal." "Iamawareofitalready,"saidDonQuixote;"providedwhatiscommandedand imposeduponthevanquishedbethingsthatdonottransgressthelimitsof chivalry."

DonQuixotedelaMancha "Thatisunderstood,"repliedheoftheMirrors. AtthismomenttheextraordinarynoseofthesquirepresenteditselftoDon

177

Quixote'sview,andhewasnolessamazedthanSanchoatthesight;insomuchthat hesethimdownasamonsterofsomekind,orahumanbeingofsomenewspecies orunearthlybreed.Sancho,seeinghismasterretiringtorunhiscourse,didnotlike tobeleftalonewiththenosyman,fearingthatwithoneflapofthatnoseonhisown, thebattlewouldbealloverforhimandhewouldbeleftstretchedontheground, eitherbythebloworwithfright;soheranafterhismaster,holdingonto Rocinante'sstirrupleather,andwhenitseemedtohimtimetoturnabout,hesaid, "Iimploreofyourworship,seor,beforeyouturntocharge,tohelpmeupintothis corktree,fromwhichIwillbeabletowitnessthegallantencounteryourworshipis goingtohavewiththisknight,moretomytasteandbetterthanfromtheground." "Itseemstomerather,Sancho,"saidDonQuixote,"thatthouwouldstmounta scaffoldinordertoseethebullswithoutdanger." "Totellthetruth,"returnedSancho,"themonstrousnoseofthatsquirehasfilledme withfearandterror,andIdarenotstaynearhim." "Itis,"saidDonQuixote,"suchaonethatwereInotwhoIamitwouldterrifyme too;so,come,Iwillhelptheeupwherethouwilt." WhileDonQuixotewaitedforSanchotomountintothecorktreeheoftheMirrors tookasmuchgroundasheconsideredrequisite,and,supposingDonQuixoteto havedonethesame,withoutwaitingforanysoundoftrumpetorothersignalto directthem,hewheeledhishorse,whichwasnotmoreagileorbetterlookingthan Rocinante,andathistopspeed,whichwasaneasytrot,heproceededtochargehis enemy;seeinghim,however,engagedinputtingSanchoup,hedrewrein,andhalted inmidcareer,forwhichhishorsewasverygrateful,ashewasalreadyunabletogo. DonQuixote,fancyingthathisfoewascomingdownuponhimflying,drovehis

178 DonQuixotedelaMancha spursvigorouslyintoRocinante'sleanflanksandmadehimscudalonginsuchstyle thatthehistorytellsusthatonthisoccasiononlywasheknowntobreakinto somethinglikeagallop,foronallothersitwasasimpletrotwithhim;andwiththis unparalleledfuryheboredownwhereheoftheMirrorsstooddigginghisspursinto hishorseuptobuttons,withoutbeingabletomakehimstirafinger'slengthfrom thespotwherehehadcometoastandstillinhiscourse.Atthisluckymomentand crisis,DonQuixotecameuponhisadversary,introublewithhishorse,and embarrassedwithhislance,whichheeithercouldnotmanage,orhadnotimetolay inrest.DonQuixote,however,paidnoattentiontothesedifficulties,andinperfect safetytohimselfandwithoutanyriskencounteredhimoftheMirrorswithsuch forcethathebroughthimtothegroundinspiteofhimselfoverthehaunchesofhis horse,andwithsoheavyafallthathelaytoallappearancedead,notstirringhand orfoot.TheinstantSanchosawhimfallhesliddownfromthecorktree,andmade allhastetowherehismasterwas,who,dismountingfromRocinante,wentand stoodoverhimoftheMirrors,andunlacinghishelmettoseeifhewasdead,andto givehimairifheshouldhappentobealive,hesawwhocansaywhathesaw, withoutfillingallwhohearitwithastonishment,wonder,andawe?Hesaw,the historysays,theverycountenance,theveryface,theverylook,thevery physiognomy,theveryeffigy,theveryimageofthebachelorSansonCarrasco!As soonashesawithecalledoutinaloudvoice,"Makehastehere,Sancho,andbehold whatthouarttoseebutnottobelieve;quick,myson,andlearnwhatmagiccando, andwizardsandenchantersarecapableof." Sanchocameup,andwhenhesawthecountenanceofthebachelorCarrasco,hefell tocrossinghimselfathousandtimes,andblessinghimselfasmanymore.Allthis timetheprostrateknightshowednosignsoflife,andSanchosaidtoDonQuixote,"It ismyopinion,seor,thatinanycaseyourworshipshouldtakeandthrustyour sworddownthethroatofthisoneherethatlookslikethebachelorSansonCarrasco; perhapsinhimyouwillkilloneofyourenemies,theenchanters."

179 "Thyadviceisnotbad,"saidDonQuixote,"forofenemiesthefewerthebetter;"and hewasdrawinghisswordtocarryintoeffectSancho'scounselandsuggestion, whenthesquireoftheMirrorscameup,nowwithoutthenosewhichhadmadehim sohideous,andcriedoutinaloudvoice,"Mindwhatyouareabout,SeorDon Quixote;thatisyourfriend,thebachelorSansonCarrasco,youhaveatyourfeet,and Iamhissquire." "Andthenose?"saidSancho,seeinghimwithoutthehideousfeaturehehadbefore; towhichhereplied,"Ihaveithereinmypocket,"andputtinghishandintohisright pocket,hepulledoutafalsenoseofvarnishedpasteboardofthemakealready described;andSancho,examininghimmoreandmoreclosely,exclaimedaloudina voiceofamazement,"HolyMarybegoodtome!Isn'titTomCecial,myneighbor andgossip?" "Why,tobesureIam!"returnedthenowunnosedsquire;"TomCecialIam,gossip andfriendSanchoPanza;andI'lltellyoupresentlythemeansandtricksand falsehoodsbywhichIhavebeenbroughthere;butinthemeantime,begandentreat ofyourmasternottotouch,maltreat,wound,orslaytheKnightoftheMirrors whomhehasathisfeet;because,beyondalldispute,itistherashandilladvised bachelorSansonCarrasco,ourfellowtownsman." AtthismomentheoftheMirrorscametohimself,andDonQuixoteperceivingit, heldthenakedpointofhisswordoverhisface,andsaidtohim,"Youareadead man,knight,unlessyouconfessthatthepeerlessDulcineadelTobosoexcelsyour CasildeadeVandaliainbeauty;andinadditiontothisyoumustpromise,ifyou shouldsurvivethisencounter,togotothecityofElTobosoandpresentyourself beforeheronmybehalf,thatshedealwithyouaccordingtohergoodpleasure;and ifsheleavesyoufreetodoyours,youareinlikemannertoreturnandseekmeout (forthetrailofmymightydeedswillserveyouasaguidetoleadyoutowhereImay be),andtellmewhatmayhavepassedbetweenyouandherconditionswhich,in

DonQuixotedelaMancha

180 DonQuixotedelaMancha accordancewithwhatwestipulatedbeforeourcombat,donottransgressthejust limitsofknighterrantry." "Iconfess,"saidthefallenknight,"thatthedirtytatteredshoeoftheladyDulcinea delTobosoisbetterthantheillcombedthoughcleanbeardofCasildea;andI promisetogoandtoreturnfromherpresencetoyours,andtogiveyouafulland particularaccountofallyoudemandofme." "Youmustalsoconfessandbelieve,"addedDonQuixote,"thattheknightyou vanquishedwasnotandcouldnotbeDonQuixoteofLaMancha,butsomeoneelse inhislikeness,justasIconfessandbelievethatyou,thoughyouseemtobethe bachelorSansonCarrasco,arenotso,butsomeotherresemblinghim,whommy enemieshavehereputbeforemeinhisshape,inorderthatImayrestrainand moderatethevehemenceofmywrath,andmakeagentleuseofthegloryofmy victory." "Iconfess,think,andfeeleverythingthatyoufeel,think,andbelieve,"saidthe crippledknight;"letmerise,Ientreatyou;if,indeed,theshockofmyfallwillallow me,forIaminverybadshape." DonQuixotehelpedhimtorise,withtheassistanceofhissquireTomCecial;from whomSanchonevertookhiseyes,andtowhomheputquestions,therepliesto whichfurnishedclearproofthathewasreallyandtrulytheTomCecialhesaid;but theimpressionmadeonSancho'smindbywhathismastersaidaboutthe enchantershavingchangedthefaceoftheKnightoftheMirrorsintothatofthe bachelorSansonCarrasco,wouldnotpermithimtobelievewhathesawwithhis eyes.Infine,bothmasterandmanremainedunderthedelusion;and,downinthe mouth,andoutofluck,heoftheMirrorsandhissquirepartedfromDonQuixote andSancho,hemeaningtogolookforsomevillagewherehecouldplasterandstrap hisribs.DonQuixoteandSanchoresumedtheirjourneytoSaragossa,andonitthe

181 historyleavestheminorderthatitmaytellwhotheKnightoftheMirrorsandhis longnosedsquirewere.

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CHAPTERXV.
WHEREINITISTOLDANDKNOWNWHOTHEKNIGHTOFTHEMIRRORSANDHIS SQUIREWERE
DonQuixotewentoffsatisfied,elated,andvaingloriousinthehighestdegreeat havingwonavictoryoversuchavaliantknightashefanciedhimoftheMirrorsto be,andonefromwhoseknightlywordheexpectedtolearnwhetherthe enchantmentofhisladystillcontinued;inasmuchasthesaidvanquishedknightwas bound,underthepenaltyofceasingtobeone,toreturnandrenderhimanaccount ofwhattookplacebetweenhimandher.ButDonQuixotewasofonemind,heofthe Mirrorsofanother,forhejustthenhadnothoughtofanythingbutfindingsome villagewherehecouldplasterhimself,ashasbeenstatedalready. Thehistorygoesontosay,then,thatwhenthebachelorSansonCarrascosuggested toDonQuixotethatheresumehisknighterrantrywhichhehadlaidaside,itwasas aresultofhavingpreviouslymetwiththecurateandthebarbertodecidehowbest toinduceDonQuixotetostayathomeinpeacewithoutworryinghimselfwithhis illstarredadventures.Atthisconsultationitwasdecidedbytheunanimousvoteof all,andonthespecialadviceofCarrasco,thatDonQuixoteshouldbeallowedtogo, asitseemedimpossibletorestrainhim,andthatSansonshouldsallyforthtomeet himasaknighterrant,anddobattlewithhim,fortherewouldbenodifficultyin findingacause,andvanquishhimthatbeinglookeduponasaneasymatter;and thatitshouldbeagreedandsettledthatthevanquishedwastobeatthemercyof thevictor.Then,DonQuixotebeingvanquished,thebachelorknightwasto commandhimtoreturntohisvillageandhishouse,andnotquititfortwoyears,or untilhereceivedfurtherordersfromhim.AnditwasassumedthatDonQuixote wouldunhesitatinglyobey,ratherthancontraveneorfailtoobservethelawsof chivalry;andduringtheperiodofhisseclusionhemightperhapsforgethisfolly,or theremightbeanopportunityofdiscoveringsomeremedyforhismadness. Carrascoundertookthetask,andTomCecial,agossipandneighborofSancho

DonQuixotedelaMancha Panza's,alively,featherheadedfellow,offeredhimselfashissquire.Carrasco armedhimselfinthefashiondescribed,andTomCecial,thathemightnotbe

183

knownbyhisgossipwhentheymet,fittedonoverhisownnaturalnosethefalse onethathasbeenmentioned;andsotheyfollowedthesamerouteDonQuixote took,andalmostcameupwithhimintimetobepresentattheadventureofthecart ofDeathandfinallyencounteredthemintheWood,whereallthatthesagacious readerhasbeenreadingabouttookplace;andhaditnotbeenfortheextraordinary fanciesofDonQuixote,andhisconvictionthatthebachelorwasnotthebachelor, seorbachelorwouldhavebeenincapacitatedforeverfromtakinghisdegreeof licentiate,allthroughnotfindingnestswherehethoughttofindbirds. TomCecial,seeinghowilltheyhadsucceeded,andwhatasorryendtheir expeditionhadcometo,saidtothebachelor,"Surely,SeorSansonCarrasco,weare servedright;itiseasyenoughtoplanandsetaboutanenterprise,butitisoftena difficultmattertomakeitcomeoutwell.DonQuixoteamadman,andwesane;he goesofflaughing,safe,andsound,andyouareleftsoreandsorry!I'dliketoknow nowwhichisthecrazier,hewhoiscrazybecausehecannothelpit,orhewhoturns crazyofhisownfreewill?" TowhichSansonreplied,"Thedifferencebetweenthetwoliesinthis:thathewho cannothelpbeingcrazywillalwaysbeso,whereastheonewhoiscrazybychoice canleaveoffbeingcrazywheneverhelikes." "Inthatcase,"saidTomCecial,"IwasamadmanofmyownfreewillwhenI volunteeredtobecomeyoursquire,andnow,ofmyownfreewill,I'llleaveoffbeing oneandgohome." "That'syouraffair,"returnedSanson,"buttosupposethatIamgoinghomeuntilI havegivenDonQuixoteathrashingisabsurd;andwhatwillurgemeonnowisnot anydesiretoseehimrecoverhiswits,butratherathirstforvengeance,forthesore paininmyribswon'tletmeentertainanymorecharitablethoughts."

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Thusdiscoursing,thepairproceededuntiltheyreachedatownwhereitwastheir goodlucktofindabonesetter,withwhosehelptheunfortunateSansonwascured. TomCeciallefthimandwenthome,whilehestayedbehindmeditatingvengeance; andthehistorywillreturntohimagainatthepropertime,soasnottoomitmaking merrywithDonQuixotenow.

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CHAPTERXVI.
OFWHATBEFELLDONQUIXOTEWITHADISCREETGENTLEMANOFLAMANCHA
DonQuixotepursuedhisjourneyinthehighspirits,satisfaction,andself complacencyalreadydescribed,fancyinghimselfthemostvalorousknighterrantof theageintheworldbecauseofhislatevictory.Alltheadventuresthatcouldbefall himfromthattimeforthheregardedasalreadydoneandbroughttoahappyissue; hemadelightofenchantmentsandenchanters;hethoughtnomoreofthecountless drubbingsthathadbeenadministeredtohiminthecourseofhisknighterrantry, norofthevolleyofstonesthathadleveledhalfhisteeth,noroftheingratitudeofthe galleyslaves,noroftheaudacityoftheYanguesansandtheshowerofstakesthat felluponhim;inshort,hesaidtohimselfthatcouldhediscoveranymeans,mode,or wayofdisenchantinghisladyDulcinea,hewouldnotenvythehighestfortunethat themostfortunateknighterrantofyoreeverreachedorcouldreach. Hewasgoingalongentirelyabsorbedinthesefancies,whenSanchosaidtohim, "Isn'titodd,seor,thatIhavestillbeforemyeyesthatmonstrousenormousnoseof mygossip,TomCecial?" "Anddostthou,then,believe,Sancho,"saidDonQuixote,"thattheKnightofthe MirrorswasthebachelorCarrasco,andhissquireTomCecialthygossip?" "Idon'tknowwhattosaytothat,"repliedSancho;"allIknowisthatthetokenshe gavemeaboutmyownhouse,wifeandchildren,nobodyelsebuthimselfcouldhave givenme;andtheface,oncethenosewasoff,wastheveryfaceofTomCecial,asI haveseenitmanyatimeinmytownandnextdoortomyownhouse;andthesound ofthevoicewasjustthesame."

186 DonQuixotedelaMancha "Letusreasonthematter,Sancho,"saidDonQuixote."Comenow,bywhatprocess ofthinkingcanitbesupposedthatthebachelorSansonCarrascowouldcomeasa knighterrant,inarmsoffensiveanddefensive,tofightwithme?HaveIeverbeenby anychancehisenemy?HaveIevergivenhimanyoccasiontoowemeagrudge?Am Ihisrival,ordoesheprofessarms,thatheshouldenvythefameIhaveacquiredin them?" "Well,butwhatarewetosay,seor,"returnedSancho,"aboutthatknight,whoever heis,beingsolikethebachelorCarrasco,andhissquiresolikemygossip,Tom Cecial?Andifthatbeenchantment,asyourworshipsays,wastherenootherpairin theworldforthemtotakethelikenessof?" "Itisall,"saidDonQuixote,"aschemeandplotofthemalignantsorcerersthat persecuteme,who,foreseeingthatIwastobevictoriousintheconflict,arranged thatthevanquishedknightshoulddisplaythecountenanceofmyfriendthe bachelor,inorderthatthefriendshipIbearhimshouldinterposetostaytheedgeof myswordandmightofmyarm,andtemperthejustwrathofmyheart;sothathe whosoughttotakemylifebyfraudandfalsehoodshouldsavehisown.Andto proveit,thouknowestalready,Sancho,byexperiencewhichcannotlieordeceive, howeasyitisforenchanterstochangeonecountenanceintoanother,turningfair intofoul,andfoulintofair;foritisnottwodayssincethousawestwiththineown eyesthebeautyandeleganceofthepeerlessDulcineainallitsperfectionand naturalharmony,whileIsawherintherepulsiveandmeanformofacoarse countrywench,withcataractsinhereyesandafoulsmellinhermouth;andwhen theperverseenchanterventuredtoeffectsowickedatransformation,itisno wonderifheeffectedthatofSansonCarrascoandthygossipinordertosnatchthe gloryofvictoryoutofmygrasp.Forallthat,however,Iconsolemyself,because, afterall,inwhatevershapehemayhavebeen,Ihavebeenvictoriousovermy enemy."

187 "Godknowswhat'sthetruthofitall,"saidSancho;andknowingashedidthatthe transformationofDulcineahadbeenadeviceandimpositionofhisown,his master'sillusionswerenotsatisfactorytohim;buthedidnotliketoreplylesthe shouldsaysomethingthatmightdisclosehistrickery. Astheywereengagedinthisconversationtheywereovertakenbyamanwhowas followingthesameroadbehindthem,mountedonaveryhandsomefleabitten mare,anddressedinagaban44offinegreencloth,trimmedwithtawnyvelvet facings,andamontera45ofthesamevelvet.Thesaddleofthemarewasofthejineta fashion,46andofmulberrycolorandgreen.HecarriedaMoorishcutlasshanging fromabroadgreenandgoldbaldric;thebuskinswereofthesamemakeasthe baldric;thespurswerenotgilt,butlacqueredgreen,andsobrightlypolishedthat, matchingastheydidtherestofhisapparel,theylookedbetterthaniftheyhadbeen ofpuregold. Whenthetravelercameupwiththemhesalutedthemcourteously,andspurringhis marewaspassingthemwithoutstopping,butDonQuixotecalledouttohim, "Gallantsir,ifsobeyourworshipisgoingourroad,andhasnooccasionforspeed,it wouldbeapleasuretomeifweweretojoincompany." "Intruth,"repliedheonthemare,"Iwouldnotpassyousohastilybutforfearthat horsemightturnrestiveinthecompanyofmymare." "Youmaysafelyholdinyourmare,seor,"saidSanchoinreplytothis,"forour horseisthemostvirtuousandwellbehavedhorseintheworld;heneverdoes anythingwrongonsuchoccasions,andtheonlytimehemisbehaved,mymasterand Isufferedforitsevenfold;Isayagainyourworshipmaypullupifyoulike;forifshe wasofferedtohimbetweentwoplatesthehorsewouldnothankerafterher." 44Anovercoat. 45Akindofcapmadeofcloth. 46Asaddlewithahighpommelandshortstirrups.

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Thetravelerdrewrein,amazedatthetrimandfeaturesofDonQuixote,whorode withouthishelmet,whichSanchocarriedlikeavaliseinfrontoftheDapple'spack saddle;andifthemaningreenexaminedDonQuixoteclosely,stillmorecloselydid DonQuixoteexaminethemaningreen,whostruckhimasbeingamanof intelligence.Inappearancehewasaboutfiftyyearsofage,withbutfewgreyhairs, anaquilinecastoffeatures,andanexpressionbetweengraveandgay;andhisdress andaccoutrementsshowedhimtobeamanofgoodcondition.Whatheingreen thoughtofDonQuixoteofLaManchawasthatamanofthatsortandshapehehad neveryetseen;hemarveledatthelengthofhishair,hisloftystature,thelankness andsallownessofhiscountenance,hisarmor,hisbearingandhisgravityafigure andpicturesuchashadnotbeenseeninthoseregionsformanyalongday. DonQuixotesawveryplainlytheattentionwithwhichthetravelerwasregarding him,andreadhiscuriosityinhisastonishment;andcourteousashewasandready topleaseeverybody,beforetheothercouldaskhimanyquestionheanticipatedhim bysaying,"TheappearanceIpresenttoyourworshipbeingsostrangeandsooutof thecommon,Ishouldnotbesurprisedifitfilledyouwithwonder;butyouwill ceasetowonderwhenItellyou,asIdo,thatIamoneofthoseknightswho,as peoplesay,goseekingadventures.Ihaveleftmyhome,Ihavemortgagedmyestate, Ihavegivenupmycomforts,andcommittedmyselftothearmsofFortune,tobear mewhithersoevershemayplease.Mydesirewastobringtolifeagainknight errantry,nowdead,andforsometimepast,stumblinghere,fallingthere,now comingdownheadlong,nowraisingmyselfupagain,Ihavecarriedoutagreat portionofmydesign,succoringwidows,protectingmaidens,andgivingaidto wives,orphans,andminors,theproperandnaturaldutyofknightserrant;and, therefore,becauseofmymanyvaliantandChristianachievements,Ihavebeen alreadyfoundworthytomakemywayinprinttowellnighall,ormost,ofthe nationsoftheearth.Thirtythousandvolumesofmyhistoryhavebeenprinted,and itisonthehighroadtobeprintedthirtythousandthousandsoftimes,ifheaven doesnotputastoptoit.Inshort,tosumupallinafewwords,orinasingleone,I

DonQuixotedelaMancha maytellyouIamDonQuixoteofLaMancha,otherwisecalled'TheKnightofthe

189

MournfulCountenance;'forthoughselfpraiseisdegrading,Imustperforcesound myownhornsometimes,thatistosay,whenthereisnooneathandtodoitforme. Sothat,gentlesir,neitherthishorse,northislance,northisshield,northissquire, norallthesearmsputtogether,northesallownessofmycountenance,normy gauntleanness,willhenceforthastonishyou,nowthatyouknowwhoIamandwhat professionIfollow." WiththesewordsDonQuixoteheldhispeace,and,fromthetimehetooktoanswer, themaningreenseemedtobeatalossforareply;afteralongpause,however,he saidtohim,"Youwererightwhenyousawcuriosityinmyamazement,sirknight; butyouhavenotsucceededinremovingtheastonishmentIfeelatseeingyou;for althoughyousay,seor,thatknowingwhoyouareoughttoremoveit,ithasnot doneso;onthecontrary,nowthatIknow,Iamleftmoreamazedandastonished thanbefore.What!isitpossiblethatthereareknightserrantintheworldinthese days,andhistoriesofrealchivalryprinted?Icannotrealizethefactthattherecanbe anyoneonearthnowadayswhoaidswidows,orprotectsmaidens,ordefendswives, orsuccorsorphans;norshouldIbelieveithadInotseenitinyourworshipwithmy owneyes.Blessedbeheaven!forbymeansofthishistoryofyournobleandgenuine chivalrousdeeds,whichyousayhasbeenprinted,thecountlessstoriesoffictitious knightserrantwithwhichtheworldisfilled,somuchtotheinjuryofmoralityand theprejudiceanddiscreditofgoodhistories,willhavebeendrivenintooblivion." "Thereisagooddealtobesaidonthatpoint,"saidDonQuixote,"astowhetherthe historiesoftheknightserrantarefictionornot." "Why,isthereanyonewhodoubtsthatthosehistoriesarefalse?"saidthemanin green. "Idoubtit,"saidDonQuixote,"butnevermindthatjustnow;ifourjourneylasts longenough,ItrustinGodIshallshowyourworshipthatyoudowrongingoing

190 DonQuixotedelaMancha withthestreamofthosewhoregarditasamatterofcertaintythattheyarenot true." FromthislastobservationofDonQuixote's,thetravelerbegantohaveasuspicion thathewassomecrazybeing,andwaswaitinghimtoconfirmitbysomething further;butbeforetheycouldturntoanynewsubjectDonQuixotebeggedhimto tellhimwhohewas,sincehehimselfhadrenderedaccountofhisstationandlife.To this,heinthegreengabanreplied"I,SirKnightoftheMournfulCountenance,ama gentlemanbybirth,nativeofthevillagewhere,pleaseGod,wearegoingtodine today;Iammorethanfairlywelloff,andmynameisDonDiegodeMiranda.Ipass mylifewithmywife,children,andfriends;mypursuitsarehuntingandfishing,but Ikeepneitherhawksnorgreyhounds,nothingbutatamepartridge47orabold ferretortwo;Ihavesixdozenorsoofbooks,someinourmothertongue,some Latin,someofthemhistory,othersdevotional;thoseofchivalryhavenotasyet crossedthethresholdofmydoor;Iammoregiventoreadingtheprofanethanthe devotional,solongastheyarebooksofhonestentertainmentthatcharmbytheir styleandattractandinterestbytheinventiontheydisplay,thoughofthesethereare veryfewinSpain.SometimesIdinewithmyneighborsandfriends,andofteninvite them;myentertainmentsareneatandwellservedwithoutstintofanything.Ihave notastefortattle,nordoIallowtattlinginmypresence;Iprynotintomy neighborslives,norhaveIlynxeyesforwhatothersdo.Ihearmasseveryday;I sharemysubstancewiththepoor,makingnodisplayofgoodworks,lestIlet hypocrisyandvainglory,thoseenemiesthatsubtlytakepossessionofthemost watchfulheart,findanentranceintomine.Istrivetomakepeacebetweenthose whomIknowtobeatvariance;IamthedevotedservantofOurLady,andmytrust iseverintheinfinitemercyofGodourLord." Sancholistenedwiththegreatestattentiontotheaccountofthegentleman'slifeand occupation;andthinkingitagoodandaholylife,andthathewholeditoughtto

47Usedasadecoy.

191 workmiracles,hethrewhimselfofftheDapple,andrunninginhasteseizedhisright stirrupandkissedhisfootagainandagainwithadevoutheartandalmostwith tears. Seeingthisthegentlemanaskedhim,"Whatareyouabout,brother?Whatarethese kissesfor?" "Letmekiss,"saidSancho,"forIthinkyourworshipisthefirstsaintinthesaddleI eversawallthedaysofmylife." "Iamnosaint,"repliedthegentleman,"butagreatsinner;butyouare,brother,for youmustbeagoodfellow,asyoursimplicityshows." Sanchowentbackandregainedhispacksaddle,havingextractedalaughfromhis master'sprofoundmelancholy,andexcitedfreshamazementinDonDiego.Don Quixotethenaskedhimhowmanychildrenhehad,andobservedthatoneofthe thingswhereintheancientphilosophers,whowerewithoutthetrueknowledgeof God,placedthehighestgoodwasinthegiftsofnature,inthoseoffortune,inhaving manyfriends,andmanyandgoodchildren. "I,SeorDonQuixote,"answeredthegentleman,"haveoneson,withoutwhom, perhaps,IshouldcountmyselfhappierthanIam,notbecauseheisabadson,but becauseheisnotsogoodasIcouldwish.Heiseighteenyearsofage;hehasbeenfor sixatSalamancastudyingLatinandGreek,andwhenIwishedhimtoturntothe studyofothersciencesIfoundhimsowrappedupinthatofpoetry(ifthatcanbe calledascience)thatthereisnogettinghimtotakekindlytothelaw,whichI wishedhimtostudy,ortotheology,thequeenofthemall.Iwouldlikehimtobean honortohisfamily,asweliveindayswhenourkingsliberallyrewardlearningthat isvirtuousandworthy;forlearningwithoutvirtueisapearlonadunghill.He spendsthewholedayinsettlingwhetherHomerexpressedhimselfcorrectlyornot insuchandsuchalineoftheIliad,whetherMartialwasindecentornotinsuchand

DonQuixotedelaMancha

192 DonQuixotedelaMancha suchanepigram,whethersuchandsuchlinesofVirgilaretobeunderstoodinthis wayorinthat;inshort,allhistalkisoftheworksofthesepoets,andthoseof Horace,Perseus,Juvenal,andTibullus;forofthemodernsinourownlanguagehe makesnogreataccount;butwithallhisseemingindifferencetoSpanishpoetry,just nowhisthoughtsareabsorbedinmakingaglossonfourlinesthathavebeensent himfromSalamanca,whichIsuspectareforsomepoeticaltournament." ToallthisDonQuixotesaidinreply,"Children,seor,areportionsoftheirparents' bowels,andtherefore,betheygoodorbad,aretobelovedaswelovethesoulsthat giveuslife;itisfortheparentstoguidethemfrominfancyinthewaysofvirtue, propriety,andworthyChristianconduct,sothatwhengrownuptheymaybethe staffoftheirparents'oldage,andthegloryoftheirposterity;andtoforcethemto studythisorthatscienceIdonotthinkwise,thoughitmaybenoharmtopersuade them;andwhenthereisnoneedtostudyforthesakeofpanelucrando48,anditis thestudent'sgoodfortunethatheavenhasgivenhimparentswhoprovidehimwith it,itwouldbemyadvicetothemtolethimpursuewhateversciencetheymaysee himmostinclinedto;andthoughthatofpoetryislessusefulthanpleasurable,itis notoneofthosethatbringdiscredituponthepossessor.Poetry,gentlesir,is,asI takeit,likeatenderyoungmaidenofsupremebeauty,toarray,bedeck,andadorn whomisthetaskofseveralothermaidens,whoarealltherestofthesciences;and shemustavailherselfofthehelpofall,andallderivetheirlusterfromher.Butthis maidenwillnotbeartobehandled,nordraggedthroughthestreets,norexposed eitheratthecornersofthemarketplaces,orintheclosetsofpalaces.Sheisthe productofanAlchemyofsuchvirtuethathewhoisabletopracticeit,willturnher intopuregoldofinestimableworth.Hethatpossesseshermustkeepherwithin bounds,notpermittinghertobreakoutinribaldsatiresorsoullesssonnets.She mustonnoaccountbeofferedforsale,unless,indeed,itbeinheroicpoems,moving tragedies,orsprightlyandingeniouscomedies.Shemustnotbetouchedbythe buffoons,norbytheignorantvulgar,incapableofcomprehendingorappreciating 48Earningonesbread.

193 herhiddentreasures.Anddonotsuppose,seor,thatIapplythetermvulgarhere merelytoplebeiansandthelowerorders;foreveryonewhoisignorant,behelord orprince,mayandshouldbeincludedamongthevulgar.He,then,whoshall embraceandcultivatepoetryundertheconditionsIhavenamed,shallbecome famous,andhisnamehonoredthroughoutallthecivilizednationsoftheearth.And withregardtowhatyousay,seor,ofyoursonhavingnogreatopinionofSpanish poetry,Iaminclinedtothinkthatheisnotquiterightthere,andforthisreason:the greatpoetHomerdidnotwriteinLatin,becausehewasaGreek,nordidVirgilwrite inGreek,becausehewasaLatin;inshort,alltheancientpoetswroteinthe languagetheyimbibedwiththeirmother'smilk,andneverwentinquestofforeign onestoexpresstheirsublimeconceptions;andthatbeingso,theusageshouldin justiceextendtoallnations,andtheGermanpoetshouldnotbeundervalued becausehewritesinhisownlanguage,northeCastilian,noreventheBiscayan,for writinginhis.Butyourson,seor,Isuspect,isnotprejudicedagainstSpanish poetry,butagainstthosepoetswhoaremereSpanishversewriters,withoutany knowledgeofotherlanguagesorsciencestoadornandgivelifeandvigortotheir naturalinspiration;andyeteveninthishemaybewrong;for,accordingtoatrue belief,apoetisbornone;thatistosay,thepoetbynaturecomesforthapoetfrom hismother'swomb;andfollowingthebentthatheavenhasbestoweduponhim, withouttheaidofstudyorart,heproducesthingsthatshowhowtrulyhespoke whosaid,'EstDeusinnobis,'etc.49Atthesametime,Isaythatthepoetbynature whocallsinarttohisaidwillbeafarbetterpoet,andwillsurpasshimwhotriesto beonerelyinguponhisknowledgeofartalone.Thereasonis,thatartdoesnot surpassnature,butonlybringsittoperfection;andthus,naturecombinedwithart, andartwithnature,willproduceaperfectpoet.Tobringmyargumenttoaclose,I wouldsaythen,gentlesir,letyoursongoonashisstarleadshim,forbeingso studiousasheseemstobe,andhavingalreadysuccessfullysurmountedthefirst stepofthesciences,whichisthatofthelanguages,withtheirhelphewillbyhisown exertionsreachthesummitofpoliteliterature,whichsowellbecomesan

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49Thereisagodinus.

194 DonQuixotedelaMancha independentgentleman,andadorns,honors,anddistinguisheshim,asmuchasthe miterdoesthebishop,orthegownthelearnedcounselor.Ifyoursonwritesatires reflectingonthehonorofothers,chideandcorrecthim,andtearthemup;butifhe composediscoursesinwhichherebukesviceingeneral,inthestyleofHorace,and withelegancelikehis,commendhim;foritislegitimateforapoettowriteagainst envyandlashtheenviousinhisverse,andtheothervicestoo,providedhedoesnot singleoutindividuals;thereare,however,poetswho,forthesakeofsaying somethingspiteful,wouldruntheriskofbeingbanishedtothecoastofPontus.50If thepoetbepureinhismorals,hewillbepureinhisversestoo;thepenisthe tongueofthemind,andasthethoughtengenderedthere,sowillbethethingsthatit writesdown.Andwhenkingsandprincesobservethismarvelousscienceofpoetry inwise,virtuous,andthoughtfulsubjects,theyhonor,value,exaltthem,andeven crownthemwiththeleavesofthattreewhichthethunderboltstrikesnot,51asifto showthattheywhosebrowsarehonoredandadornedwithsuchacrownarenotto beassailedbyanyone." HeofthegreengabanwasfilledwithastonishmentatDonQuixote'sargument,so muchsothathebegantoabandonthenotionhehadtakenupabouthisbeingcrazy. Butinthemiddleofthediscourse,itbeingnotverymuchtohistaste,Sanchohad turnedasideoutoftheroadtobegalittlemilkfromsomeshepherds,whowere milkingtheireweshardby;andjustasthegentleman,highlypleased,wasaboutto renewtheconversation,DonQuixote,raisinghishead,perceivedacartcovered withroyalflagscomingalongtheroadtheyweretravelling;andpersuadedthatthis mustbesomenewadventure,hecalledaloudtoSanchotocomeandbringhimhis helmet.Sancho,hearinghimselfcalled,quittedtheshepherds,and,proddingthe Dapplevigorously,cameuptohismaster,towhomtherefellaterrificanddesperate adventure. 50AswasOvidbyAugustusin8A.D. 51Thelaureltree.

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CHAPTERXVII.
WHEREINISSHOWNTHEFURTHESTANDHIGHESTPOINTWHICHTHE UNEXAMPLEDCOURAGEOFDONQUIXOTEREACHEDORCOULDREACH; TOGETHERWITHTHEHAPPILYACHIEVEDADVENTUREOFTHELIONS
ThehistorytellsthatwhenDonQuixotecalledouttoSanchotobringhimhis helmet,Sanchowasbuyingsomecurdstheshepherdsagreedtosellhim,and flurriedbythegreathastehismasterwasindidnotknowwhattodowiththemor whattocarrythemin;so,nottolosethem,forhehadalreadypaidforthem,he thoughtitbesttothrowthemintohismaster'shelmet,andactingonthisbrightidea hewenttoseewhathismasterwantedwithhim.He,asheapproached,exclaimedto him: "Givemethathelmet,myfriend,foreitherIknowlittleofadventures,orwhatI observeyonderisonethatwill,anddoes,calluponmetoarmmyself." Heofthegreengaban,onhearingthis,lookedinalldirections,butcouldperceive nothing,exceptacartcomingtowardsthemwithtwoorthreesmallflags,whichled himtoconcludeitmustbecarryingtreasureoftheKing's,andhesaidsotoDon Quixote.He,however,wouldnotbelievehim,beingalwayspersuadedand convincedthatallthathappenedtohimmustbeadventuresandstillmore adventures;soherepliedtothegentleman,"Hewhoispreparedhashisbattlehalf fought;nothingislostbymypreparingmyself,forIknowbyexperiencethatIhave enemies,visibleandinvisible,andIknownotwhen,orwhere,oratwhatmoment, orinwhatshapestheywillattackme;"andturningtoSanchohecalledforhis helmet;andSancho,ashehadnotimetotakeoutthecurds,hadtogiveitjustasit was.DonQuixotetookit,andwithoutperceivingwhatwasinitthrustitdowninhot hasteuponhishead;butasthecurdswerepressedandsqueezedthewheybeganto runalloverhisfaceandbeard,whereathewassostartledthathecriedoutto Sancho:

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"Sancho,what'sthis?Ithinkmyheadissoftening,ormybrainsaremelting,orIam sweatingfromheadtofoot!IfIamsweatingitisnotindeedfromfear.Iam convincedbeyondadoubtthattheadventurewhichisabouttobefallmeisa terribleone.Givemesomethingtowipemyselfwith,ifthouhastit,forthisprofuse sweatisblindingme." Sanchoheldhistongue,andgavehimacloth,andgavethankstoGodatthesame timethathismasterhadnotfoundoutwhatwasthematter.DonQuixotethen wipedhimself,andtookoffhishelmettoseewhatitwasthatmadehisheadfeelso cool,andseeingallthatwhitemashinsidehishelmetheputittohisnose,andas soonashehadsmeltitheexclaimed: "BythelifeofmyladyDulcineadelToboso,butitiscurdsthouhastputhere,thou treacherous,impudent,illmanneredsquire!" Towhich,withgreatcomposureandpretendedinnocence,Sanchoreplied,"Ifthey arecurdsletmehavethem,yourworship,andI'lleatthem;butletthedevileat them,foritmusthavebeenhewhoputthemthere.I,daretodirtyyourhelmet! Youhaveguessedtheoffenderfinely!Faith,sir,bythelightGodgivesme,itseemsI musthaveenchanterstoo,thatpersecutemeasacreatureandlimbofyourworship, andtheymusthaveputthatnastinessthereinordertoprovokeyourpatienceto anger,andmakeyoubastemyribsasyouarewonttodo.Well,thistime,indeed, theyhavemissedtheiraim,forItrusttomymaster'sgoodsensetoseethatIhave gotnocurdsormilk,oranythingofthesort;andthatifIhad,itisinmystomachI wouldputit,andnotinthehelmet." "Maybeso,"saidDonQuixote.Allthisthegentlemanwasobserving,andwith astonishment,moreespeciallywhen,afterhavingwipedhimselfclean,hishead, face,beard,andhelmet,DonQuixoteputiton,andsettlinghimselffirmlyinhis

197 stirrups,easinghisswordinthescabbard,andgraspinghislance,hecried,"Now, comewhowill,hereamI,readytotryconclusionswithSatanhimselfinperson!" Bythistimethecartwiththeflagshadcomeup,unattendedbyanyoneexceptthe carteronamule,andamansittinginfront.DonQuixoteplantedhimselfbeforeit andsaid,"Whitherareyougoing,brothers?Whatcartisthis?Whathaveyougotin it?Whatflagsarethose?" Tothisthecarterreplied,"Thecartismine;whatisinitisapairofwildcagedlions, whichthegovernorofOranissendingtocourtasapresenttohisMajesty;andthe flagsareourlordtheKing's,toshowthatwhatishereishisproperty." "Andarethelionslarge?"askedDonQuixote. "Solarge,"repliedthemanwhosatatthedoorofthecart,"thatlarger,oraslarge, havenevercrossedfromAfricatoSpain;Iamthekeeper,andIhavebroughtover others,butneveranylikethese.Theyaremaleandfemale;themaleisinthatfirst cageandthefemaleintheonebehind,andtheyarehungrynow,fortheyhaveeaten nothingtoday,soletyourworshipstandaside,forwemustmakehastetotheplace wherewearetofeedthem." Hereupon,smilingslightly,DonQuixoteexclaimed,"Lionwhelpsagainstme! Againstmewhelpsoflions,andatsuchatime!Then,byGod!thosegentlemenwho sendthemhereshallseeifIamamantobefrightenedbylions.Getdown,mygood fellow,andasyouarethekeeperopenthecages,andturnmeoutthosebeasts,and inthemidstofthisplainIwillletthemknowwhoDonQuixoteofLaManchais,in spiteandintheteethoftheenchanterswhosendthemtome." "So,"saidthegentlemantohimselfatthis;"ourworthyknighthasrevealedhimself; thecurds,nodoubt,havesoftenedhisskullandbroughthisbrainstoahead."

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198 DonQuixotedelaMancha AtthisinstantSanchocameuptohim,saying,"Seor,forGod'ssakedosomething tokeepmymaster,DonQuixote,fromtacklingtheselions;forifhedoesthey'lltear usalltopieceshere." "Isyourmasterthensocrazy,"askedthegentleman,"thatyoubelieveandareafraid hewillengagesuchfierceanimals?" "Heisnotcrazy,"saidSancho,"butheisfoolhardy." "Iwillpreventit,"saidthegentleman;andgoingovertoDonQuixote,whowas insistinguponthekeeper'sopeningthecages,hesaidtohim,"Sirknight,knights errantshouldattemptonlythoseadventuresthataffordthehopeofasuccessful outcome,notthosewhichareentirelyhopeless;forvalorthatbordersontemerity savorsmoreofmadnessthanofcourage;moreover,theselionsdonotcometo opposeyou,nordotheydreamofsuchathing;theyaregoingaspresentstohis Majesty,anditwillnotberighttostopthemordelaytheirjourney." "Gentlesir,"repliedDonQuixote,"yougoandmindyourtamepartridgeandyour boldferret,andleaveeveryonetomanagehisownbusiness;thisaffairismine,andI knowwhetherthesegentlementhelionscometomeornot;"andthenturningto thekeeperheexclaimed,"Byallthat'sgood,sirscoundrel,ifyoudon'topenthe cagesthisveryinstant,I'llpinyoutothecartwiththislance." Thecarter,seeingthedeterminationofthisapparitioninamour,saidtohim,"Please yourworship,forcharity'ssake,seor,letmeunyokethemulesandplacemyselfin safetyalongwiththembeforethelionsareturnedout;foriftheykillthem,Iam ruinedforlife,forallIpossessisthiscartandmules." "Omanoflittlefaith,"repliedDonQuixote,"getdownandunyoke;youwillsoonsee thatyouareexertingyourselffornothing,andthatyoumighthavesparedyourself thetrouble."

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199

Thecartergotdownandwithallspeedunyokedthemules,andthekeepercalled outatthetopofhisvoice,"Icallallheretowitnessthatagainstmywillandunder compulsionIopenthecagesandletthelionsloose,andthatIwarnthisgentleman thathewillbeaccountableforalltheharmandmischiefwhichthesebeastsmaydo, andformysalaryandduesaswell.You,gentlemen,placeyourselvesinsafety beforeIopen,forIknowtheywilldomenoharm." OncemorethegentlemanstrovetopersuadeDonQuixotenottodosuchamad thing,asitwastemptingGodtoengageinsuchapieceoffolly.Tothis,DonQuixote repliedthatheknewwhathewasdoing.Thegentlemaninreturnentreatedhimto reflect,forheknewhewasunderadelusion."Well,seor,"answeredDonQuixote, "ifyoudonotliketobeaspectatorofthistragedy,asinyouropinionitwillbe,spur yourfleabittenmare,andplaceyourselfinsafety." Hearingthis,Sancho,withtearsinhiseyes,entreatedhimtogiveupanenterprise comparedwithwhichtheoneofthewindmills,andtheawfuloneofthefullingmills, and,infact,allthefeatshehadattemptedinthewholecourseofhislife,werecakes andfancybread."Lookye,seor,"saidSancho,"there'snoenchantmenthere,nor anythingofthesort,forbetweenthebarsandchinksofthecageIhaveseenthepaw ofareallion,andjudgingbythatIreckonthelionsuchapawcouldbelongtomust bebiggerthanamountain." "Fearatanyrate,"repliedDonQuixote,"willmakehimlookbiggertotheethanhalf theworld.Retire,Sancho,andleaveme;andifIdieherethouknowestourold compact;thouwiltrepairtoDulcineaIsaynomore."Totheseheaddedsome furtherwordsthatbanishedallhopeofhisgivinguphisinsaneproject.Heofthe greengabanwouldhaveofferedresistance,buthefoundhimselfillmatchedasto arms,anddidnotthinkitprudenttocometoblowswithamadman,forsuchDon Quixotenowshowedhimselftobeineveryrespect;andthelatter,renewinghis commandstothekeeperandrepeatinghisthreats,gavewarningtothegentleman

200 DonQuixotedelaMancha tospurhismare,SanchohisDapple,andthecarterhismules,allstrivingtogetaway fromthecartasfarastheycouldbeforethelionsbrokeloose.Sanchowasweeping overhismaster'sdeath,forthistimehefirmlybelieveditwasinstoreforhimfrom theclawsofthelions;andhecursedhisfateandcalleditanunluckyhourwhenhe thoughtoftakingservicewithhimagain;butwithallhistearsandlamentationshe didnotforgettothrashtheDapplesoastoputagoodspacebetweenhimselfand thecart.Thekeeper,seeingthatthefugitiveswerenowsomedistanceoff,once moreentreatedandwarnedhimasbefore;butherepliedthatheheardhim,and thatheneednottroublehimselfwithanyfurtherwarningsorentreaties,asthey wouldbefruitless,andbadehimmakehaste. Duringthedelaythatoccurredwhilethekeeperwasopeningthefirstcage,Don Quixotewasconsideringwhetheritwouldnotbewelltodobattleonfoot,insteadof onhorseback,andfinallyresolvedtofightonfoot,fearingthatRocinantemighttake frightatthesightofthelions;hethereforesprangoffhishorse,flunghislanceaside, bracedhisbuckleronhisarm,anddrawinghissword,advancedslowlywith marvelousintrepidityandresolutecourage,toplanthimselfinfrontofthecart, commendinghimselfwithallhishearttoGodandtohisladyDulcinea. Itistobeobserved,thatoncomingtothispassage,theauthorofthisveracious historybreaksoutintoexclamations."OgreatsouledDonQuixote!highmettled, pastextolling!Mirror,whereinalltheheroesoftheworldmayseethemselves!A newandsecondDonManueldeLen,52oncethegloryandhonorofSpanish knighthood!InwhatwordsshallIdescribethisdreadexploit,bywhatlanguage shallImakeitcredibletoagestocome,whateulogiesarethereunmeetforthee, thoughtheybehyperbolespiledonhyperboles!Onfoot,alone,undaunted,withbut asimplesword,andthatnotrenchantbladeofthePerrillobrand,ashield,butno brightpolishedsteelone,therestoodstthou,bidingandawaitingthetwofiercest lionsthatAfrica'sforestseverbred!Thyowndeedsbethypraise,valiant 52DonManualPoncedeLen,aparagonofgallantryandcourtesyduringthetimeof FerdinandandIsabella.

201 Manchegan,andhereIleavethemastheystand,wantingthewordswherewithto glorifythem!" Heretheauthor'soutburstcametoanend,andheproceededtotakeupthethread ofhisstory,sayingthatthekeeper,seeingthatDonQuixotehadtakenuphis position,andthatitwasimpossibleforhimtoavoidlettingoutthemalewithout incurringtheenmityofthefieryanddaringknight,flungopenthedoorsofthefirst cage,containing,ashasbeensaid,thelion,whichwasnowseentobeofenormous size,andgrimandhideousmien.Thefirstthinghedidwastoturnroundinthecage inwhichhelay,andprotrudehisclaws,andstretchhimselfthoroughly;henext openedhismouth,andyawnedveryleisurely,andwithneartwopalms'lengthof tonguethathehadthrustforth,helickedthedustoutofhiseyesandwashedhis face;havingdonethis,heputhisheadoutofthecageandlookedallroundwitheyes likeglowingcoals,aspectacleanddemeanortostriketerrorintotemerityitself. DonQuixotemerelyobservedhimsteadily,longingforhimtoleapfromthecartand cometoclosequarterswithhim,whenhehopedtohewhiminpieces. Sofardidhisunparalleledmadnessgo;butthenoblelion,morecourteousthan arrogant,nottroublinghimselfaboutsillybravado,afterhavinglookedallround,as hasbeensaid,turnedaboutandpresentedhishindquarterstoDonQuixote,and verycoollyandtranquillylaydownagaininthecage.Seeingthis,DonQuixote orderedthekeepertotakeasticktohimandprovokehimtomakehimcomeout. "ThatIwon't,"saidthekeeper;"forifIangerhim,thefirsthe'lltearinpieceswillbe myself.Besatisfied,sirknight,withwhatyouhavedone,whichleavesnothingmore tobesaidonthescoreofcourage,anddonotseektotemptfortuneasecondtime. Thelionhasthedooropen;heisfreetocomeoutornottocomeout;butashehas notcomeoutsofar,hewillnotcomeouttoday.Yourworship'sgreatcouragehas beenfullymanifestedalready;nobravechampion,soitstrikesme,isboundtodo morethanchallengehisenemyandwaitforhimonthefield;ifhisadversarydoes

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202 DonQuixotedelaMancha notcome,onhimliesthedisgrace,andhewhowaitsforhimcarriesoffthecrownof victory." "Thatistrue,"saidDonQuixote;"closethedoor,myfriend,andbearmewitnessas bestyoucanwithregardtowhatyouhaveseenmedohere.Iwouldhavethee certifytowit,thatthoudidstopenforthelion,thatIwaitedforhim,thathedidnot comeout,thatIstillwaitedforhim,andthatstillhedidnotcomeout,andlaydown again.Iamnotboundtodomore;enchantmentsaway,andGodupholdtheright,the truth,andtruechivalry!ClosethedoorasIbadethee,whileImakesignalstothe fugitivesthathaveleftus,thattheymaylearnthisexploitfromthylips." Thekeeperobeyed,andDonQuixote,fixingonthepointofhislancetheclothhehad wipedhisfacewithafterthedelugeofcurds,proceededtorecalltheothers,who stillcontinuedtofly,lookingbackateverystep,allinabody,thegentlemanbringing uptherear.Sancho,however,happeningtoobservethesignalofthewhitecloth, exclaimed,"MayIdie,ifmymasterhasnotovercomethewildbeasts,forheis callingtous." Theyallstopped,andperceivedthatitwasDonQuixotewhowasmakingsignals, andshakingofftheirfearstosomeextent,theyapproachedslowlyuntiltheywere nearenoughtoheardistinctlyDonQuixote'svoicecallingtothem.Theyreturnedat lengthtothecart,andastheycameup,DonQuixotesaidtothecarter,"Hitchup yourmulesoncemore,brother,andcontinueyourjourney;anddothou,Sancho, givehimtwogoldcrownsforhimselfandthekeeper,tocompensateforthedelay theyhaveincurredthroughme." "ThatwillIgivewithallmyheart,"saidSancho;"butwhathasbecomeofthelions? Aretheydeadoralive?" Thekeeper,then,infulldetail,andbitbybit,describedtheendofthecontest, exaltingtothebestofhispowerandabilitythevalorofDonQuixote,atthesightof

203 whomthelionquailed,andwouldnotanddarednotcomeoutofthecage,although hehadheldthedooropeneversolong;andshowinghow,inconsequenceofhis havingrepresentedtotheknightthatitwastemptingGodtoprovokethelionin ordertoforcehimout,whichhewishedtohavedone,heveryreluctantly,and altogetheragainsthiswill,hadallowedthedoortobeclosed. "Whatdostthouthinkofthis,Sancho?"saidDonQuixote."Arethereany enchantmentsthatcanprevailagainsttruevalor?Theenchantersmaybeableto robmeofgoodfortune,butoffortitudeandcouragetheycannot." Sanchopaidthecrowns,thecarterhitchedhismules,thekeeperkissedDon Quixote'shandsforthebountybestoweduponhim,andpromisedtogivean accountofthevaliantexploittotheKinghimself,assoonashesawhimatcourt. "Then,"saidDonQuixote,"ifhisMajestyshouldhappentoaskwhoperformedit, youmustsayTHEKNIGHTOFTHELIONS;foritismydesirethatintothisthename IhavehithertoborneofKnightoftheMournfulCountenancebefromthistime forwardchanged,altered,transformed,andturned;andinthisIfollowtheancient usageofknightserrant,whochangedtheirnameswhentheypleased,orwhenit suitedtheirpurpose." Thecartwentitsway,andDonQuixote,Sancho,andheofthegreengabanwent theirs.Allthistime,DonDiegodeMirandahadnotspokenaword,beingentirely takenupwithobservingandnotingallthatDonQuixotedidandsaid,andthe opinionheformedwasthathewasamanofbrainsgonemad,andamadmanonthe vergeofrationality.Thefirstpartofhishistoryhadnotyetreachedhim,for,hadhe readit,theamazementwithwhichhiswordsanddeedsfilledhimwouldhave vanished,ashewouldthenhaveunderstoodthenatureofhismadness;butknowing nothingofit,hetookhimtoberationalonemoment,andcrazythenext,forwhathe saidwassensible,elegant,andwellexpressed,andwhathedid,absurd,rash,and foolish;andsaidhetohimself,"Whatcouldbemadderthanputtingonahelmetfull

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204 DonQuixotedelaMancha ofcurds,andthenpersuadingoneselfthatenchantersaresofteningone'sskull;or whatcouldbegreaterrashnessandfollythanwantingtofightlionsbysheer strengthalone?" DonQuixoterousedhimfromthesereflectionsandthissoliloquybysaying,"No doubt,SeorDonDiegodeMiranda,youmusttakemeforafoolandamadman,and itwouldbenowonderifyoudid,formydeedsdonotargueanythingelse.Butforall that,IwouldhaveyoutakenoticethatIamneithersomadnorsofoolishasImust haveseemedtoyou.Agallantknightlooksgoodbringinghislancetobearadroitly uponafiercebullundertheeyesofhissovereign,inthemidstofaspaciousplaza;a knightshowstoadvantagearrayedinglitteringarmor,pacingthelistsbeforethe ladiesinsomejoyoustournament,andallthoseknightsshowtoadvantagethat entertain,divert,and,ifwemaysayso,honorthecourtsoftheirprincesbywarlike exercises,orwhatresemblethem;butthebestshowingofallismadebyaknight errantwhenhetraversesdeserts,solitudes,crossroads,forests,andmountains,in questofperilousadventures,bentonbringingthemtoahappyandsuccessfulissue, alltowinagloriousandlastingrenown. Moreimpressive,Imaintain,istheknighterrantbringingaidtosomewidowin somelonelywaste,thanthecourtknightdallyingwithsomecitydamsel.Allknights havetheirownspecialpartstoplay;letthecourtierdevotehimselftotheladies,let himaddlustertohissovereign'scourtbyhisliveries,lethimentertainpoor gentlemenwiththesumptuousfareofhistable,lethimarrangejoustings,marshal tournaments,andprovehimselfnoble,generous,andmagnificent,andabovealla goodChristian,andsodoinghewillfulfillthedutiesthatareespeciallyhis.Butlet theknighterrantexplorethecornersoftheearthandpenetratethemostintricate labyrinths,ateachsteplethimattemptimpossibilities,ondesolateheathslethim enduretheburningraysofthemidsummersun,andthebitterinclemencyofthe winterwindsandfrosts;letnolionsdaunthim,nomonstersterrifyhim,nodragons makehimquail;fortoseekthenout,toattackthem,andtovanquishthemall,arein truthhismainduties.I,then,asithasfallentomylottobeaknighterrant,cannot

205 avoidattemptingallthattomeseemstocomewithinthesphereofmyduties;thusit wasmydutytoattackthoselions,althoughIknewittobeanexceedinglyrashthing todo. ForwellIknowthemeaningofvalor:namely,avirtuethatliesbetweenthetwo extremesofcowardiceontheonehandandtemerityontheother.Itis,nonetheless, betterforthebravemantocarryhisbraverytothepointofrashnessthanforhimto sinkintocowardice;for,asitiseasierfortheprodigaltobecomeagenerousman thanitisforthemiser,soitiseasierforthefoolhardytobecometrulybraveforthe cowardtorisetotruevalor.Andbelieveme,SeorDonDiego,inthismatterof adventures,itisbettertolosebyacardtoomanythanbyacardtoofew;fortohear itsaidthat'suchaknightisrashanddaring,'soundsbetterthan'suchaknightis timidandacoward.'" "Imustassureyou,SeorDonQuixote,"saidDonDiego,"thateverythingyouhave saidanddoneisprovedcorrectbythetestofreasonitself;andIbelieve,ifthelaws andordinancesofknighterrantryshouldbelost,theymightbefoundagaininyour Grace;sbosom,whichistheirownproperdepositoryandstorehouse.Butletus makehaste,andreachmyvillage,whereyoushalltakerestafteryourlateexertions; forifthebodyisnottired,thespiritmaybe,andthissometimestendstoproduce bodilyfatigue." "Itaketheinvitationasagreatflavorandhonor,SeorDonDiego,"repliedDon Quixote;andpressingforwardatabetterpacethanbefore,atabouttwointhe afternoontheyreachedthevillageandhouseofDonDiego,or,asDonQuixotecalled him,"TheKnightoftheGreenGaban."

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CHAPTERLXIV.
TREATINGOFTHEADVENTUREWHICHGAVEDONQUIXOTEMORE UNHAPPINESSTHANALLTHATHADHITHERTOBEFALLENHIM
...OnemorningasDonQuixotewentoutforastrollalongthebeach,53arrayedin fullarmor(for,asheoftensaid,thiswas"hisonlygear,hisonlyrestthefray,"and heneverwaswithoutitforamoment),hesawcomingtowardshimaknight,alsoin fullarmor,withashiningmoonpaintedonhisshield,who,onapproaching sufficientlyneartobeheard,saidinaloudvoice,addressinghimselftoDonQuixote, "Illustriousknight,andneversufficientlyextolledDonQuixoteofLaMancha,Iam theKnightoftheWhiteMoon,whoseunheardofachievementswillperhapshave recalledhimtothymemory.Icometodobattlewiththeeandprovethemightof thyarm,totheendthatImaketheeacknowledgeandconfessthatmylady,lether bewhoshemay,isincomparablyfairerthanthyDulcineadelToboso.Ifthoudost acknowledgethisfairlyandopenly,thoushaltescapedeathandsavemethetrouble ofinflictingituponthee;ifthoufightestandIvanquishthee,Idemandnoother satisfactionthanthat,layingasidearmsandabstainingfromgoinginquestof adventures,thouwithdrawandbetakethyselftothineownvillageforthespaceofa year,andlivetherewithoutputtinghandtosword,inpeaceandquietandbeneficial repose,thesamebeingneedfulfortheincreaseofthysubstanceandthesalvationof thysoul;andifthoudostvanquishme,myheadshallbeatthydisposal,myarms andhorsethyspoils,andtherenownofmydeedstransferredandaddedtothine. Considerwhichwillbethybestcourse,andgivemethyanswerspeedily,forthisday isallthetimeIhaveforthedispatchingofthisbusiness."
53DonQuixoteandSancho,afternumerousencounters(suchasDonQuixotes

descentintothecaveofMontesinosandtheirstaywithaplayfulDuke,whogave Sanchothegovernorshipofanislandfortendays),arenowinBarcelona.Famous astheyare,theymeettheviceroyandthenobles;theirhostisDonAntonioMoreno, agentlemanofwealthanddiscernmentwhowasfondofamusinghimselfinan innocentandkindlyway.

207 DonQuixotewasamazedandastonished,aswellattheKnightoftheWhiteMoon's arrogance,asathisreasonfordeliveringthedefiance,andwithcalmdignityhe answeredhim. "KnightoftheWhiteMoon,ofwhoseachievementsIhaveneverhearduntilnow,I willventuretoswearyouhaveneverseentheillustriousDulcinea;forhadyouseen herIknowyouwouldhavetakencarenottostakeyouralluponthisissue,because thesightwouldhaveremovedalldoubtfromyourmindthatthereeverhasbeenor canbeabeautytobecomparedwithhers;andso,notsayingyoulie,butmerelythat youarenotcorrectinwhatyoustate,Iacceptyourchallenge,withtheconditions youhaveproposed,andatonce,thatthedayyouhavefixedmaynotexpire;and fromyourconditionsIexceptonlythatoftherenownofyourachievementsbeing transferredtome,forIknownotofwhatsorttheyarenorwhattheymayamount to;Iamsatisfiedwithmyown,suchastheybe.Take,therefore,thesideofthefield youchoose,andIwilldothesame;andtowhomGodshallgiveit,maySaintPeter addhisblessing." TheKnightoftheWhiteMoonhadbeenseenbysomeofthetownspeople,whotold theviceroythathewastalkingwithDonQuixote.Theviceroy,fancyingitmustbe somefreshadventuregotupbyDonAntonioMorenoorsomeothergentlemanof thecity,hurriedoutatoncetothebeach,accompaniedbyDonAntonioandseveral othergentlemen,justasDonQuixotewaswheelingRocinanteroundinordertotake upthenecessarydistance.Theviceroyuponthis,seeingthatthepairofthemwere evidentlypreparingtocometothecharge,puthimselfbetweenthem,askingthem whatitwasthatledthemtoengageincombatallofasuddeninthisway.TheKnight oftheWhiteMoonrepliedthatitwasaquestionofprecedenceofbeauty;andbriefly toldhimwhathehadsaidtoDonQuixote,andhowtheconditionsofthedefiance agreedupononbothsideshadbeenaccepted.TheviceroywentovertoDon Antonio,andaskedinalowvoiceifheknewwhotheKnightoftheWhiteMoonwas, orwasitsomejoketheywereplayingonDonQuixote.DonAntoniorepliedthathe neitherknewwhohewasnorwhetherthedefiancewasinjokeorinearnest.This

DonQuixotedelaMancha

208 DonQuixotedelaMancha answerlefttheviceroyinastateofperplexity,notknowingwhetherheoughttolet thecombatgoonornot;butunabletopersuadehimselfthatitwasanythingbuta jokehefellback,saying,"Iftherebenootherwayoutofit,gallantknights,exceptto confessordie,andDonQuixoteisinflexible,andyourworshipoftheWhiteMoon stillmoreso,inGod'shandbeit,andfallon." HeoftheWhiteMoonthankedtheviceroyincourteousandwellchosenwordsfor thepermissionhegavethem,andsodidDonQuixote,whothen,commending himselfwithallhishearttoheavenandtohisDulcinea,aswashiscustomontheeve ofanycombatthatawaitedhim,proceededtotakealittlemoredistance,ashesaw hisantagonistwasdoingthesame;then,withoutblastoftrumpetorotherwarlike instrumenttogivethemthesignaltocharge,bothatthesameinstantwheeledtheir horses;andheoftheWhiteMoon,beingtheswifter,metDonQuixoteafterhaving traversedtwothirdsofthecourse,andthereencounteredhimwithsuchviolence that,withouttouchinghimwithhislance(forheheldithigh,toallappearance purposely),hehurledDonQuixoteandRocinantetotheearth,aperilousfall.He spranguponhimatonce,andplacingthelanceoverhisvisorsaidtohim,"Youare vanquished,sirknight,naydead,unlessyouconfess,accordingtothetermsofour combat. DonQuixote,bruisedandstupefied,withoutraisinghisvisor,saidinaweakfeeble voiceasifhewerespeakingoutofatomb,"DulcineadelTobosoisthefairest womanintheworld,andIthemostunfortunateknightonearth;itisnotfittingthat thistruthshouldsufferbymyfeebleness;driveyourlancehome,sirknight,andtake mylife,sinceyouhavealreadydeprivedmeofmyhonor." "ThatwillImostsurelywillnotdo,saidheoftheWhiteMoon;"Letthefameofthe ladyDulcineasbeautyliveonundimmed;allIrequireisthatthegreatDonQuixote retiretohisownhomeforayear,oruntilsuchtimeasIshallspecify,asweagreed beforejoiningbattle."

209 Theviceroy,DonAntonio,andseveralotherswhowerepresentheardallthis,and heardtoohowDonQuixotereplied,thatsolongasnothinginprejudiceofDulcinea wasdemandedofhim,hewouldobservealltherestlikeatrueandloyalknight.The engagementgiven,heoftheWhiteMoonwheeledabout,andmakingobeisanceto theviceroywithamovementofthehead,rodeawayintothecityatahalfgallop. TheviceroybadeDonAntoniohastenafterhim,andbysomemeansorotherfind outwhohewas.TheyraisedDonQuixoteupanduncoveredhisface,andfoundhim paleandbathedwithsweat. Rocinantefromthemerehardmeasurehehadreceivedlayunabletostirforthe present.Sancho,whollydejectedandwoebegone,knewnotwhattosayordo.He fanciedthatallwasadream,thatthewholebusinesswasapieceofenchantment. Herewashismaster,defeated,andboundnottotakeuparmsforayear.Hesawthe lightofthegloryofhisachievementsobscured;thehopesofthepromiseslately madehimsweptawaylikesmokebeforethewind;Rocinante,hefeared,was crippledforlife,andhismaster'sbonesdislocated;forifhewereonlyjoltedoutof hismadness54itwouldbenosmallluck.Intheendtheycarriedhimintothecityin alitterwhichtheviceroysentfor,andthithertheviceroyhimselfreturnedtofind outwhothisKnightoftheWhiteMoonwaswhohadleftDonQuixoteinsuchasad state.

DonQuixotedelaMancha

54Theoriginalhasanuntranslatablepunondeslocado,whichmeansoutofjoint andalsocuredofmadness(fromloco,mad).Decrazied.

210

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CHAPTERLXV.
WHEREINISMADEKNOWNWHOTHEKNIGHTOFTHEWHITEMOONWAS; LIKEWISEDONGREGORIO'SRELEASE,ANDOTHEREVENTS
DonAntoniaMorenofollowedtheKnightoftheWhiteMoon,andanumberofboys followedhimtoo,naypursuedhim,untiltheyfoundhimfairlyhousedinahostelin theheartofthecity.DonAntonio,eagertomakehisacquaintance,enteredalso;a squirecameouttomeethimandremovehisamour,andheshuthimselfintoa lowerroom,stillattendedbyDonAntonio,whosebreadwouldnotbakeuntilhehad foundoutwhohewas.HeoftheWhiteMoon,seeingthenthatthegentlemanwould notleavehim,"Iknowverywell,seor,whatyouhavecomefor;itistofindoutwho Iam;andasthereisnoreasonwhyIshouldconcealitfromyou,whilemyservant hereistakingoffmyamourIwilltellyouthetruestateofthecase,withoutleaving outanything.Youmustknow,seor,thatIamcalledthebachelorSansonCarrasco.I amofthesamevillageasDonQuixoteofLaMancha,whosecrazeandfollymakeall ofuswhoknowhimfeelpityforhim,andIamoneofthosewhohavefeltitmost; andpersuadedthathischanceofrecoverylayinquietandkeepingathomeandin hisownhouse,Ihituponadeviceforkeepinghimthere. Threemonthsago,therefore,Iwentouttomeethimasaknighterrant,underthe assumednameoftheKnightoftheMirrors,intendingtoengagehimincombatand overcomehimwithouthurtinghim,makingittheconditionofourcombatthatthe vanquishedshouldbeatthedisposalofthevictor.WhatImeanttodemandofhim (forIregardedhimasvanquishedalready)wasthatheshouldreturntohisown village,andnotleaveitforawholeyear,bywhichtimehemightbecured.Butfate ordereditotherwise,forhevanquishedmeandunhorsedme,andsomyplanfailed. Hewenthisway,andIcamebackconquered,coveredwithshame,andsorely bruisedbymyfall,whichwasaparticularlydangerousone.Butthisdidnotquench mydesiretomeethimagainandovercomehim,asyouhaveseentoday.Andashe issoscrupulousinhisobservanceofthelawsofknighterrantry,hewill,nodoubt,

211 inordertokeephisword,obeytheinjunctionIhavelaiduponhim.This,seor,is howthematterstands,andIhavenothingmoretotellyou.Iimploreofyounotto betrayme,ortellDonQuixotewhoIam;sothatmyhonestendeavorsmaybe successful,andthatamanofexcellentwitswereheonlyridofthefooleriesof chivalrymaygetthembackagain." "Oseor,"saidDonAntonio,"mayGodforgiveyouthewrongyouhavedonethe wholeworldintryingtobringthemostamusingmadmaninitbacktohissenses. Doyounotsee,seor,thatthegainbyDonQuixote'ssanitycanneverequalthe enjoymenthiscrazesgive?Butmybeliefisthatalltheseorbachelor'spainswill beofnoavailtobringamansohopelesslycrackedtohissensesagain;andifitwere notuncharitable,IwouldsaymayDonQuixoteneverbecured,forbyhisrecovery welosenotonlyhisowndrolleries,buthissquireSanchoPanza'stoo,anyoneof whichisenoughtoturnmelancholyitselfintomerriment.However,I'llholdmy peaceandsaynothingtohim,andwe'llseewhetherIamrightinmysuspicionthat SeorCarrasco'seffortswillbefruitless." Thebachelorrepliedthatatalleventstheaffairpromisedwell,andhehopedfora happyresultfromit;andputtinghisservicesatDonAntonio'scommandshetook hisleaveofhim;andhavinghadhisamourpackedatonceuponamule,herode awayfromthecitythesamedayonthehorseherodetobattle,andreturnedtohis owncountrywithoutmeetinganyadventurecallingforrecordinthisveracious history.

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212

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CHAPTERLXXIII.
OFTHEOMENSDONQUIXOTEHADASHEENTEREDHISOWNVILLAGE,AND OTHERINCIDENTSTHATEMBELLISHANDGIVEACOLOURTOTHISGREAT HISTORY
Attheentranceofthevillage,sosaysCideHamete,DonQuixotesawtwoboys quarrellingonthevillagethreshingflooroneofwhomsaidtotheother,"Takeit easy,Periquillo;thoushaltneverseeitagainaslongasthoulivest." DonQuixoteheardthis,andsaidhetoSancho,"Dostthounotmark,friend,what thatboysaid,'Thoushaltneverseeit55againaslongasthoulivest'?" "Well,"saidSancho,"whatdoesitmatteriftheboysaidso?" "What!"saidDonQuixote,"dostthounotseethat,appliedtotheobjectofmy desires,thewordsmeanthatIamnevertoseeDulcineaagain?" Sanchowasabouttoanswer,whenhisattentionwasdivertedbyseeingaharecome flyingacrosstheplainpursuedbyseveralgreyhoundsandsportsmen.Initsterrorit rantotakeshelterandhideitselfundertheDapple.Sanchocaughtitaliveand presentedittoDonQuixote,whowassaying,"Malumsignum,malumsignum!56a hareflies,greyhoundschaseit,Dulcineaappearsnot." "Yourworship'sastrangeman,"saidSancho;"let'stakeitforgrantedthatthishare isDulcinea,andthesegreyhoundschasingitthemalignantenchanterswhoturned herintoacountrywench;sheflies,andIcatchherandputherintoyourworship's

55InSpanish,nounsarefeminineandmasculine.Acricketcageisfeminineandis

thusreferredtoasher;thusQuixotesinferenceconcerningDulcinea. 56Abadsign.Meetingahareisconsideredanillomen.

213 hands,andyouholdherinyourarmsandcherishher;whatbadsignisthat,orwhat illomenistheretobefoundhere?" Thetwoboyswhohadbeenquarrellingcameovertolookatthehare,andSancho askedoneofthemwhattheirquarrelwasabout.Hewasansweredbytheonewho hadsaid,"Thoushaltneverseeitagainaslongasthoulivest,"thathehadtakena cagefullofcricketsfromtheotherboy,anddidnotmeantogiveitbacktohimas longashelived.Sanchotookoutfourcuartosfromhispocketandgavethemtothe boyforthecage,whichheplacedinDonQuixote'shands,saying,"There,seor! therearetheomensbrokenanddestroyed,andtheyhavenomoretodowithour affairs,tomythinking,foolasIam,thanwithlastyear'sclouds;andifIremember rightlyIhaveheardthecurateofourvillagesaythatitdoesnotbecomeChristians orsensiblepeopletogiveanyheedtothesesillythings;andevenyouyourselfsaid thesametomesometimeago,tellingmethatallChristianswhomindedomens werefools;butthere'snoneedofmakingwordsaboutit;letuspushonandgointo ourvillage." Thesportsmencameupandaskedfortheirhare,whichDonQuixotegavethem. Theythenwenton,anduponthegreenattheentranceofthetowntheycameupon thecurateandthebachelorSansonCarrascobusyreadingtheirbreviaries.Itshould bementionedthatSanchohadthrown,bywayofasumptercloth,overtheDapple andoverthebundleofarmor,thebuckramrobepaintedwithflameswhichtheyhad putuponhimattheduke'scastlethenightAltisidoracamebacktolife.57Hehad alsofixedthemiterontheDapple'shead,theoddesttransformationanddecoration thateveranassintheworldunderwent.Theywereatoncerecognizedbyboththe curateandthebachelor,whocametowardsthemwithopenarms.DonQuixote dismountedandreceivedthemwithacloseembrace;andtheboys,whoarelike lynxesthatnothingescapes,spiedouttheass'smiterandcamerunningtoseeit, foratime;shedramaticallypretendedtobeinlovewithDonQuixote.
57AltisidorawasagirlinthedukescastlewhereQuixoteandSanchowereguests

DonQuixotedelaMancha

214 DonQuixotedelaMancha callingouttooneanother,"Comehere,boys,andseeSanchoPanza'sassfiggedout finerthanMingo,andDonQuixote'sbeastleanerthanever." Soatlength,withtheboyscaperingroundthem,andaccompaniedbythecurateand thebachelor,theymadetheirentranceintothetown,andproceededtoDon Quixote'shouse,atthedoorofwhichtheyfoundhishousekeeperandniece,whom thenewsofhisarrivalhadalreadyreached.IthadbeenbroughttoTeresaPanza, Sancho'swife,aswell,andshewithherhairalllooseandhalfnaked,dragging Sanchicaherdaughterbythehand,ranouttomeetherhusband;butseeinghim cominginbynomeansasgoodcaseasshethoughtagovernoroughttobe,shesaid tohim,"Howisityoucomethisway,husband?Itseemstomeyoucometramping andfootsore,andlookingmorelikeadisorderlyvagabondthanagovernor." "Holdyourtongue,Teresa,"saidSancho;"often'wheretherearestakesthereisno bacon;letusgointothehouseandthereyou'llhearstrangethings.Ibringmoney, andthat'sthemainthing,gotbymyownindustrywithoutwronginganybody." "Youbringthemoney,mygoodhusband,"saidTeresa,"andnomatterwhetherit wasgotthiswayorthat;for,howeveryoumayhavegotit,you'llnothavebrought anynewpracticeintotheworld." Sanchicathenembracedherfatherandaskedhimifhebroughtheranything,forshe hadbeenlookingoutforhimasfortheshowersofMay;andshetakingholdofhim bythegirdleononeside,andhiswifebythehand,whilethedaughterledthe Dapple,theymadefortheirhouse,leavingDonQuixoteinhis,inthehandsofhis nieceandhousekeeper,andinthecompanyofthecurateandthebachelor. DonQuixoteatonce,withoutanyregardtotimeorseason,withdrewinprivatewith thebachelorandthecurate,andinafewwordstoldthemofhisdefeat,andofthe engagementhewasundernottoquithisvillageforayear,whichhemeanttokeep totheletterwithoutdepartingahair'sbreadthfromit,asbecameaknighterrant

DonQuixotedelaMancha boundbyscrupulousgoodfaithandthelawsofknighterrantry;andofhowhe

215

thoughtofturningshepherdforthatyear,andtakinghisdiversioninthesolitudeof thefields,wherehecouldwithperfectfreedomgiverangetohisthoughtsoflove whilehefollowedthevirtuouspastoralcalling;andhebesoughtthem,iftheyhad notagreatdealtodoandwerenotpreventedbymoreimportantbusiness,to consenttobehiscompanions,forhewouldbuysheepenoughtoqualifythemfor shepherds;andthemostimportantpointofthewholeaffair,hecouldtellthem,was settled,forhehadgiventhemnamesthatwouldfitthemtoaT.Thecurateasked whattheywere.DonQuixoterepliedthathehimselfwastobecalledtheshepherd QuixotizeandthebachelortheshepherdCarrascon,andthecuratetheshepherd Curambro,andSanchoPanzatheshepherdPancino. BothwereastoundedatDonQuixote'snewcraze;however,lestheshouldonce moremakeoffoutofthevillagefromtheminpursuitofhischivalry,theytrusting thatinthecourseoftheyearhemightbecured,fellinwithhisnewproject, applaudedhiscrazyideaasabrightone,andofferedtosharethelifewithhim. "Andwhat'smore,"saidSansonCarrasco,"Iam,asalltheworldknows,avery famouspoet,andI'llbealwaysmakingverses,pastoral,orcourtly,orasitmaycome intomyhead,topassawayourtimeinthosesecludedregionswhereweshallbe roaming.Butwhatismostneedful,sirs,isthateachofusshouldchoosethenameof theshepherdesshemeanstoglorifyinhisverses,andthatweshouldnotleavea tree,beiteversohard,withoutwritingupandcarvinghernameonit,asisthehabit andcustomoflovesmittenshepherds." "That'stheverything,"saidDonQuixote;"thoughIamrelievedfromlookingforthe nameofanimaginaryshepherdess,forthere'sthepeerlessDulcineadelToboso,the gloryofthesebrooksides,theornamentofthesemeadows,themainstayofbeauty, thecreamofallthegraces,and,inaword,thebeingtowhomallpraiseis appropriate,beiteversohyperbolical."

216 DonQuixotedelaMancha "Verytrue,"saidthecurate;"butwetheothersmustlookaboutforaccommodating shepherdessesthatwillanswerourpurposeonewayoranother." "And,"addedSansonCarrasco,"iftheyfailus,wecancallthembythenamesofthe onesinprintthattheworldisfilledwith,Filidas,Amarilises,Dianas,Fleridas, Galateas,Belisardas;forastheyselltheminthemarketplaceswemayfairlybuy themandmakethemourown.Ifmylady,orIshouldsaymyshepherdess,happens tobecalledAna,I'llsingherpraisesunderthenameofAnarda,andifFrancisca,I'll callherFrancenia,andifLucia,Lucinda,foritallcomestothesamething;and SanchoPanza,ifhejoinsthisfraternity,mayglorifyhiswifeTeresaPanzaas Teresaina." DonQuixotelaughedattheadaptationofthename,andthecuratebestowedvast praiseupontheworthyandhonorableresolutionhehadmade,andagainofferedto bearhimcompanyallthetimethathecouldsparefromhisimperativeduties.And sotheytooktheirleaveofhim,recommendingandbeseechinghimtotakecareof hishealthandtreathimselftoasuitablediet. Itsohappenedhisnieceandthehousekeeperoverheardallthethreeofthemsaid; andassoonastheyweregonetheybothofthemcameintoDonQuixote,andsaid theniece,"What'sthis,uncle?Nowthatwewerethinkingyouhadcomebacktostay athomeandleadaquietrespectablelifethere,areyougoingtogetintofresh entanglements,andturn'youngshepherd,thouthatcomesthere,youngshepherd goingthere?'58Nay!indeed'thestrawistoohardnowtomakepipesof.'"59 "And,"addedthehousekeeper,"willyourworshipbeabletobear,outinthefields, theheatsofsummer,andthechillsofwinter,andthehowlingofthewolves?Not you;forthat'salifeandabusinessforhardymen,bredandseasonedtosuchwork almostfromthetimetheywereinswaddlingclothes.Why,tomakechoiceofevils, 58Fromaballad. 59Aproverb.

217 it'sbettertobeaknighterrantthanashepherd!Lookhere,seor;takemyadvice andI'mnotgivingittoyoufullofbreadandwine,butfasting,andwithfiftyyears uponmyheadstayathome,lookafteryouraffairs,gooftentoconfession,begood tothepoor,anduponmysoulbeitifanyevilcomestoyou." "Holdyourpeace,mydaughters,"saidDonQuixote;"Iknowverywellwhatmyduty is;helpmetobed,forIdon'tfeelverywell;andrestassuredthat,knighterrantnow orwanderingshepherdtobe,Ishallneverfailtohaveacareforyourinterests,as youwillseeintheend."Andthegoodwenches(forthattheyundoubtedlywere), thehousekeeperandniece,helpedhimtobed,wheretheygavehimsomethingto eatandmadehimascomfortableaspossible.

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218

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CHAPTERLXXIV.
OFHOWDONQUIXOTEFELLSICK,ANDOFTHEWILLHEMADE,ANDHOWHE DIED
Asnothingthatisman'scanlastforever,butalltendseverdownwardsfromits beginningtoitsend,andaboveallman'slife,andasDonQuixote'senjoyedno specialdispensationfromheaventostayitscourse,itsendandclosecamewhenhe leastlookedforit.Forwhetheritwasofthedejectionthethoughtofhisdefeat produced,orofheaven'swillthatsoordereditafeversettleduponhimandkept himinhisbedforsixdays,duringwhichhewasoftenvisitedbyhisfriendsthe curate,thebachelor,andthebarber,whilehisgoodsquireSanchoPanzanever quittedhisbedside.They,persuadedthatitwasgriefatfindinghimselfvanquished, andtheobjectofhisheart,theliberationanddisenchantmentofDulcinea, unattained,thatkepthiminthisstate,strovebyallthemeansintheirpowerto cheerhimup;thebachelorbiddinghimtakeheartandgetuptobeginhispastoral life,forwhichhehimself,hesaid,hadalreadycomposedanecloguethatwouldtake theshineoutofallSannazarohadeverwritten,andhadboughtwithhisownmoney twofamousdogstoguardtheflock,onecalledBarcinoandtheotherButron,which aherdsmanofQuintanarhadsoldhim. ButforallthisDonQuixotecouldnotshakeoffhissadness.Hisfriendscalledinthe doctor,whofelthispulseandwasnotverywellsatisfiedwithit,andsaidthatinany caseitwouldbewellforhimtoattendtothehealthofhissoul,asthatofhisbody wasinabadway.DonQuixoteheardthiscalmly;butnotsohishousekeeper,his niece,andhissquire,whofellweepingbitterly,asiftheyhadhimlyingdeadbefore them.Thedoctor'sopinionwasthatmelancholyanddepressionwerebringinghim tohisend.DonQuixotebeggedthemtoleavehimtohimself,ashehadawishto sleepalittle.Theyobeyed,andhesleptatonestretch,asthesayingis,morethansix hours,sothatthehousekeeperandniecethoughthewasgoingtosleepforever.But attheendofthattimehewokeup,andinaloudvoiceexclaimed,"Blessedbe

DonQuixotedelaMancha AlmightyGod,whohasshownmesuchgoodness.Intruthhismerciesare boundless,andthesinsofmencanneitherlimitthemnorkeepthemback!"

219

Theniecelistenedwithattentiontoheruncle'swords,andtheystruckherasmore coherentthanwhatusuallyfellfromhim,atleastduringhisillness,sosheasked, "Whatareyousaying,seor?Hasanythingstrangeoccurred?Whatmerciesor whatsinsofmenareyoutalkingof?" "Themercies,niece,"saidDonQuixote,"arethosethatGodhasthismomentshown me,andwithHim,asIsaid,mysinsarenoimpedimenttothem.Myreasonisnow freeandclear,ridofthedarkshadowsofignorancethatmyunhappyconstantstudy ofthosedetestablebooksofchivalrycastoverit.NowIseethroughtheir absurditiesanddeceptions,anditonlygrievesmethatthisdestructionofmy illusionshascomesolatethatitleavesmenotimetomakesomeamendsbyreading otherbooksthatmightbealighttomysoul.Niece,Ifeelmyselfatthepointofdeath, andIwouldfainmeetitinsuchawayastoshowthatmylifehasnotbeensoillthat Ishouldleavebehindmethenameofamadman;forthoughIhavebeenone,I wouldnotthatthefactshouldbemadeplaineratmydeath.Callintome,mydear, mygoodfriendsthecurate,thebachelorSansonCarrasco,andMasterNicholasthe barber,forIwishtoconfessandmakemywill."Buthisniecewassavedthetrouble bytheentranceofthethree.TheinstantDonQuixotesawthemheexclaimed,"Good newsforyou,goodsirs,thatIamnolongerDonQuixoteofLaMancha,butAlonso Quixano,whosewayoflifewonforhimthenameoftheGood.NowamItheenemy ofAmadisofGaulandofthewholecountlesstroopofhisdescendants;odioustome nowarealltheprofanestoriesofknighterrantry;nowIperceivemyfolly,andthe perilintowhichreadingthembroughtme;now,byGod'smercyschooledintomy rightsenses,Iloathethem." Whenthethreeheardhimspeakinthisway,theyhadnodoubtwhateverthatsome newcrazehadtakenpossessionofhim;andsaidSanson,"What?SeorDonQuixote! NowthatwehaveintelligenceoftheladyDulcineabeingdisenchanted,areyou

220 DonQuixotedelaMancha takingthisline;now,justasweareonthepointofbecomingshepherds,topassour livessinging,likeprinces,areyouthinkingofturninghermit?Hush,forheaven's sake,berationalandlet'shavenomorenonsense." "Allthatnonsense,"saidDonQuixote,"thatuntilnowhasbeenarealitytomyhurt, mydeathwill,withheaven'shelp,turntomygood.Ifeel,sirs,thatIamrapidly drawingneardeath;atrucetojesting;letmehaveaconfessortoconfessme,anda notarytomakemywill;forinextremitieslikethis,manmustnottriflewithhissoul; andwhilethecurateisconfessingmeletsomeone,Ibeg,goforthenotary." Theylookedatoneanother,wonderingatDonQuixote'swords;but,though uncertain,theywereinclinedtobelievehim,andoneofthesignsbywhichthey cametotheconclusionhewasdyingwasthissosuddenandcompletereturntohis sensesafterhavingbeenmad;fortothewordsalreadyquotedheaddedmuchmore, sowellexpressed,sodevout,andsorational,astobanishalldoubtandconvince themthathewassoundofmind.Thecurateturnedthemallout,andleftalonewith him,heardhisconfession.Thebachelorwentforthenotaryandreturnedshortly afterwardswithhimandwithSancho,who,havingalreadylearnedfromthe bachelortheconditionhismasterwasin,andfindingthehousekeeperandniece weeping,begantoblubberandshedtears. Theconfessionover,thecuratecameoutsaying,"AlonsoQuixanotheGoodis indeeddying,andisindeedinhisrightmind;wemaynowgointohimwhilehe makeshiswill." Thisnewsgaveatremendousimpulsetothebrimmingeyesofthehousekeeper, niece,andSanchoPanzahisgoodsquire,makingthetearsburstfromtheireyesand ahostofsighsfromtheirhearts;forofatruth,ashasbeensaidmorethanonce, whetherasplainAlonsoQuixanotheGood,orasDonQuixoteofLaMancha,Don Quixotewasalwaysofagentledispositionandkindlyinallhisways,andhencehe wasbeloved,notonlybythoseofhisownhouse,butbyallwhoknewhim.

DonQuixotedelaMancha

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Thenotarycameinwiththerest,andassoonasthepreambleofthehadbeenset outandDonQuixotehadcommendedhissoultoGodwithallthedevoutformalities thatareusual,comingtothebequests,hesaid, "Item:itismywillthat,touchingcertainmoneysinthehandsofSanchoPanza (whominmymadnessImademysquire),inasmuchasbetweenhimandmethere havebeencertainaccountsanddebitsandcredits,noclaimbemadeagainsthim, noranyaccountdemandedofhiminrespectofthem;butthatifanythingremain overandabove,afterhehaspaidhimselfwhatIowehim,thebalance,whichwillbe butlittle,shallbehis,andmuchgoodmayitdohim;andif,aswhenIwasmadIhad ashareingivinghimthegovernmentofanisland,so,nowthatIaminmysenses,I couldgivehimthatofakingdomifitwerewithinmypower,forhissimplicityof mindandthefidelityofhisconductdeservenoless."Andthen,turningtoSancho, hesaid,"Forgiveme,myfriend,thatIledtheetoseemasmadasmyself,making theefallintothesameerrorImyselffellinto,thattherewereandstillareknights errantintheworld." "Ah!"saidSanchoweeping,"don'tdie,master,buttakemyadviceandlivemany years;forthecraziestthingamancandointhislifeistolethimselfdiewithout rhymeorreason,withoutanybodykillinghim,slainonlybythehandsof melancholy.Come,don'tbeidle,butgetupfromyourbedandletustaketothe fieldsinshepherd'strimasweagreed.Perhapsbehindsomebushweshallfindthe ladyDulcineadisenchanted,asfineasfinecanbe.Ifitbethatyouaredyingof vexationathavingbeenvanquished,laytheblameonme,andsayyouwere overthrownbecauseIhadgirthedRocinantebadly;besidesyoumusthaveseenin yourbooksofchivalrythatitisacommonthingforknightstoupsetoneanother, andforhimwhoisconqueredtodaytobeconquerortomorrow." "Verytrue,"saidSanson,"andgoodSanchoPanza'sviewofthesecasesisquite right."

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DonQuixotedelaMancha

"Sirs,notsofast,"saidDonQuixote,"'inlastyear'sneststherearenobirdsthis year.'Iwasmad,nowIaminmysenses;IwasDonQuixoteofLaMancha,Iamnow, asIsaid,AlonsoQuixanotheGood;andmaymyrepentanceandsincerityrestoreme totheesteemyouusedtohaveforme;andnowletMasterNotaryproceed. "Item:IleaveallmypropertyabsolutelytoAntoniaQuixanamyniece,herepresent, afterallhasbeendeductedfromthemostavailableportionofitthatmaybe requiredtosatisfythebequestsIhavemade.AndthefirstdisbursementIdesireto bemadeisthepaymentofthewagesIoweforthetimemyhousekeeperhasserved me,withtwentyducats,overandabove,foragown.Thecurateandthebachelor SansonCarrasco,nowpresent,Iappointmyexecutors. "Item:itismywishthatifAntoniaQuixana,myniece,desirestomarry,sheshall marryamanofwhomitshallbefirstofallascertainedbyinformationtakenthathe doesnotknowwhatbooksofchivalryare;andifitshouldbeprovedthathedoes, andif,inspiteofthis,mynieceinsistsuponmarryinghim,anddoesmarryhim,then sheshallforfeitthewholeofwhatIhavelefther,whichmyexecutorsshalldevoteto worksofcharityastheyplease. "Item:Ientreattheaforesaidgentlemen,myexecutors,that,ifanyhappychance shouldleadthemtodiscovertheauthorwhoissaidtohavewrittenahistorynow goingaboutunderthetitleofTheSecondPartoftheAchievementsofDonQuixoteof LaMancha,theybegofhimonmybehalfasearnestlyastheycantoforgivemefor havingbeen,withoutintendingit,thecauseofhiswritingsomanyandsuch monstrousabsurditiesashehaswritteninit;forIamleavingtheworldwitha feelingofcompunctionathavingprovokedhimtowritethem." Withthisheclosedhiswill,and,afaintnesscomingoverhim,hestretchedhimself outatfulllengthonthebed.Allwereinaflutterandmadehastetorelievehim,and duringthethreedayshelivedafterthatonwhichhemadehiswill,hefaintedaway

DonQuixotedelaMancha veryoften.Thehousewasallinconfusion;butstillthenieceateandthe housekeeperdrankandSanchoPanzaenjoyedhimself;forinheritingproperty wipesoutorsoftensdownintheheirthefeelingofgriefthedeadmanmightbe expectedtoleavebehindhim.

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AtlastDonQuixote'sendcame,afterhehadreceivedallthesacraments,andhadin fullandforcibletermsexpressedhisdetestationofbooksofchivalry.Thenotary wasthereatthetime,andhesaidthatinnobookofchivalryhadheeverreadofany knighterrantdyinginhisbedsocalmlyandsolikeaChristianasDonQuixote,who amidthetearsandlamentationsofallpresentyieldeduphisspirit.Onperceivingit, thecuratebeggedthenotarytobearwitnessthatAlonsoQuixanotheGood, commonlycalledDonQuixoteofLaMancha,hadpassedawayfromthispresentlife, anddiednaturally;andsaidhedesiredthistestimonyinordertoremovethe possibilityofanyotherauthorsaveCideHameteBenengelibringinghimtolife againfalselyandmakinginterminablestoriesoutofhisachievements.60 SuchwastheendoftheIngeniousGentlemanofLaMancha,whosevillageCide Hametewouldnotindicateprecisely,inordertoleaveallthetownsandvillagesof LaManchatocontendamongthemselvesfortherighttoadopthimandclaimhimas ason,asthesevencitiesofGreececontendedforHomer.Thelamentationsof Sanchoandthenieceandhousekeeperareomittedhere,aswellasthenewepitaphs uponhistomb;SansonCarrasco,however,putdownthefollowinglines: Adoughtygentlemanlieshere; Astrangerallhislifetofear; NorinhisdeathcouldDeathprevail, Inthatlasthour,tomakehimquail. Hefortheworldbutlittlecared; Andathisfeatstheworldwasscared; 60ItiscommonlybelievedthatCervanteskilledoffhisheroinordertopreventany morefalsesequelsliketheonethathadobligedhimtowritePartTwo.

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DonQuixotedelaMancha Acrazymanhislifehepassed, Butinhissensesdiedatlast.

AndsaidmostsageCideHametetohispen,"Resthere,hungupbythisbrasswire, uponthisshelf,Omypen,whetherofskilfulmakeorclumsycutIknownot;here shaltthouremainlongageshence,unlesspresumptuousormalignantstorytellers taketheedowntoprofanethee.Buteretheytouchthee,warnthem,and,asbest thoucanst,saytothem: Holdoff!yeweaklings;holdyourhands! Adventureitletnone, Forthisemprise,mylordtheking, Wasmeantformealone. FormealonewasDonQuixoteborn,andIforhim;itwashistoact,minetowrite; wetwotogethermakebutone,notwithstandingandinspiteofthatpretended Tordesillesquewriterwhohasventuredorwouldventurewithhisgreat,coarse,ill trimmedostrichquilltowritetheachievementsofmyvaliantknight;noburden forhisshoulders,norsubjectforhisfrozenwit:whom,ifperchancethoushouldst cometoknowhim,thoushaltwarntoleaveatrestwheretheylietheweary molderingbonesofDonQuixote,andnottoattempttocarryhimoff,inopposition toalltheprivilegesofdeath,toOldCastile,makinghimrisefromthegravewherein realityandtruthheliesstretchedatfulllength,powerlesstomakeanythird expeditionornewsally;forthetwothathehasalreadymade,somuchtothe enjoymentandapprovalofeverybodytowhomtheyhavebecomeknown,inthisas wellasinforeigncountries,arequitesufficientforthepurposeofturninginto ridiculethewholeofthosemadebythewholesetoftheknightserrant;andso doingshaltthoudischargethyChristiancalling,givinggoodcounseltoonethat bearsillwilltothee.AndIshallremainsatisfied,andproudtohavebeenthefirst whohaseverenjoyedthefruitofhiswritingsasfullyashecoulddesire;formy desirehasbeennootherthantodeliverovertothedetestationofmankindthefalse

DonQuixotedelaMancha andfoolishtalesofthebooksofchivalry,which,thankstothatofmytrueDon Quixote,areevennowtottering,anddoubtlessdoomedtofallforever. Farewell."

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