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Practical 1 - Getting started with ArcGIS

Key learning outcomes:

Getting ArcGIS up and running1 - Getting started with ArcGIS Key learning outcomes : Setting map parameters Adding raster data

Setting map parametersArcGIS Key learning outcomes : Getting ArcGIS up and running Adding raster data Adding vector data

Adding raster data: Getting ArcGIS up and running Setting map parameters Adding vector data Joining data from a

Adding vector dataup and running Setting map parameters Adding raster data Joining data from a table Creating a

Joining data from a tableSetting map parameters Adding raster data Adding vector data Creating a shapefile from a table Exploring

Creating a shapefile from a tableraster data Adding vector data Joining data from a table Exploring the map (OPTIONAL: georectification) 1.

Exploring the mapJoining data from a table Creating a shapefile from a table (OPTIONAL: georectification) 1. Getting ArcGIS

(OPTIONAL: georectification)a table Creating a shapefile from a table Exploring the map 1. Getting ArcGIS up and

1. Getting ArcGIS up and running The practical element of this course will take the form of a case study of a small fictional region within the UK. A farmer local to the village of Proudmoore has put in an application for planning permission to develop an area of land next to his farmyard into a small theme park called “Agropolis - The Ancient Greek Farming Experience”. This will involve extensive building work likely to disturb any archaeological material that might be hidden beneath the ground. As a caseworker in the office of the Goldshire County Archaeologist, it is your job to determine what level of archaeological intervention should be recommended as part of any planning conditions. You have already commissioned a geophysical survey and collated together all of the available evidence. Now, you will use GIS to combine and analyse that evidence, to help you to reach the best possible conclusion.

In order to complete this practical, you will need access to ArcGIS Desktop. 1 You may be able to run it over your university network or you may be able to obtain a copy for local installation: in the latter case, make sure you obtain as fully functional a version as possible (i.e. including the ArcInfo workstation). When installing ArcGIS locally, make sure to follow the instructions carefully (e.g. you may need to install the License Manager prior to installing the main software), and make sure you download any relevant service packs from the ESRI website. 2 If you have any problems with this, please consult with your university’s IT services, or with your department.

Before we start working with ArcGIS, it is prudent to cover some areas of best practice:

File and directory names need to be kept simple: it is best to restrict yourself to 13 characters, to avoid using spaces, andArcGIS, it is prudent to cover some areas of best practice: ). Try to keep your

). Try to keep your directory structure simple and close to the root

to only use letters, numbers and the underscore

of the drive, i.e. something along the lines of C:\Workspace\

1 Please note that these practicals have been tested under ArcGIS 9.1 and 9.2. Later versions of the software may contain some minor differences in wording, menus and icons.

If running ArcGIS over a network, it is best to avoid using your network storage area to save your data. Ideally, save all of your data to an external hard drive or other USB storage device. If you use any high resolution raster datasets, you will need a lot of disk space.Once you have set up a directory structure and copied over your data files, try

Once you have set up a directory structure and copied over your data files, try to avoid moving them around, as the software will easily get confused if things move unexpectedly.raster datasets, you will need a lot of disk space. Save regularly, as ArcGIS can be

Save regularly, as ArcGIS can be somewhat prone to crashes, and make sure you back up all of your data at least daily.will easily get confused if things move unexpectedly. Use ArcCatalog if you want to delete or

Use ArcCatalog if you want to delete or rename data files (see below).and make sure you back up all of your data at least daily. If any of

If any of the buttons referred to below are not present in your version of ArcMap, go to the “View” menu, hover over “Toolbars” and make sure that the following are both ticked: “Standard” “Tools”. Also make sure that “Status Bar” is ticked on the “View” menu itself.if you want to delete or rename data files (see below). First obtain the zip file

First obtain the zip file containing the data needed to complete these practicals. Extract the data files to a suitable directory in your chosen workspace.

2. Setting map parameters Now we are ready to get started. We shall be using primarily two pieces of software that form part of ArcGIS: ArcMap and ArcCatalog. Start by loading up ArcMap. The software should start and normally you will be presented with a window as follows: 3

normally you will be presented with a window as follows: 3 Make sure “A new empty

Make sure “A new empty map” is selected, then press “OK”. If this window does not appear, it has simply been disabled by a previous user (by ticking the “Do not show this dialog again” box), and you should just continue regardless.

You will now be presented with the main ArcMap interface, from which we will access all of the tools and functions that we shall need to complete these three practicals. Before we start to add data to our new map, we need to set several parameters.

3 Note that some of the screenshots included in these practicals may be slightly different from what you see on screen, depending on which version of ArcGIS you are using and where you have the toolbars placed.

Firstly, we shall save our new map. From the “File” menu, select “Save”, then save

Firstly, we shall save our new map. From the “File” menu, select “Save”, then save your new map to a suitable location (ideally the same place to which you extracted the data files) using a suitable name. This new file will be an .mxd ArcMap document. This is essentially a container document that includes the locations of any data layers and information on how they should be displayed. Any data that you add to the map is not saved in the .mxd file, simply linked to by it.

map is not saved in the .mxd file, simply linked to by it. Next, we want

Next, we want to set the file properties so that the saved file uses only the directory paths relative to where you saved the map. The standard option will remember the full paths for each data layer that you add to the map: this becomes a problem if you decide to move something around, or if the name of a directory or a drive letter changes. As such, it is best to tell ArcMap only to remember paths relative to where you just saved the map document. This gives you a bit more flexibility in your work methods. To do so, return to the “File” menu and select “Document Properties” (“Map Properties” in ArcGIS 9.1). Then click on the “Data Source Options…” button in the lower right corner.

9.1). Then click on the “Data Source Options…” button in the lower right corner . Page

Select “Store relative path names”, then click on “OK” in both forms (In ArcGIS 9.2 and later, you can tick the box if you wish to make this the default setting).

tick the box if you wish to make this the default setting). As we shall be
tick the box if you wish to make this the default setting). As we shall be

As we shall be using several different extensions to ArcGIS, we want to make sure that any that we might need are available to us. These extensions contain various extra tools that can be used to analyse our data, etc. (and would include most tools that you might download from the internet). To do this, go to the “Tools” menu and select “Extensions…”. Tick as many boxes as your licences allow. Just click “OK” if you get any licence warnings. That simply means that you will not be able to use any tools associated with those particular licences, which should not be a problem for the completion of these practicals. The most important extensions in the list are the “Spatial Analyst” and “3D Analyst” extensions, which contain the various tools used to deal with the creation and manipulation of raster surfaces (more on which later). When you are done ticking boxes, click on “Close”.

When you are done ticking boxes, click on “Close”. Finally, we shall set the map projection
When you are done ticking boxes, click on “Close”. Finally, we shall set the map projection

Finally, we shall set the map projection that we wish to use for the project in hand. As we are working with British data, we want to set the projection to the British National Grid. From the bottom of the “View” menu, select “Data Frame Properties…”. You will see a form with a large number of tabbed headings at the top. Click on the “Coordinate System” tab to go to that page. In the bottom left quarter of the form, you should see a directory list headed “Select a coordinate system”. This contains all of the projection systems included as standard in ArcGIS. As you will soon see, there are a very large number of these. Open up the “Predefined” folder by clicking on it, then “Projected Coordinate Systems”, then “National Grids”. Scroll down the list until you find “British National Grid” and click on that one. You should see that the projection details all appear in the upper window on the form. Click on the “Add to Favorites” button. From now on, you will be able to select this coordinate system from the “Favourites” folder without having to find it every single time. Leave the form open for now.

folder without having to find it every single time. Leave the form open for now. Page
Our study area for the case in hand is about three kilometres across east to

Our study area for the case in hand is about three kilometres across east to west, by two kilometres north to south. Therefore, the best map unit for exploring our data would be metres. With the “Data Frame Properties” form still open, click on the “General” tab to open up that particular form. Here we can set the preferred map units. The units in which the map is structured are defined by the projection, but we can change the display units, using the appropriate drop down box. Make sure this is set to “Meters”, then click on “OK” to close the form. Make sure to

save your progress

.
.

3. Adding raster data

Now we are finally ready to start adding some data to our map. Firstly, we shall add the DEM that provides us with information

about the background topography of our study region. We add data by clicking on the “Add Data” button

region. We add data by clicking on the “Add Data” button on the main toolbar. Click

on the main

data by clicking on the “Add Data” button on the main toolbar. Click on the button.

toolbar. Click on the button. Before we add the data, we want to add a link to the folder where it is stored. We do this by

clicking on the “Connect to Folder” button

We do this by clicking on the “Connect to Folder” button . Navigate your way to
We do this by clicking on the “Connect to Folder” button . Navigate your way to

. Navigate your way to the folder where you stored the practical data in the window that pops up, click on it so that its path appears in the box over the folder list, then click “OK” . When we return to the “Add Data” window, you should now be in the project folder and should be able to see all of the various layers that we can add to the map. The icons next to each data layer show you what type of data they are constructed

from. We are currently interested in the raster layers, represented by a small grid icon then click “Add”.

represented by a small grid icon then click “Add”. . Click on the file called “dem_sp”,

. Click on the file called “dem_sp”,

The DEM should appear on your map, as a rectangular field coloured according to elevation. To the left of the map, you will see a list of all of the layers added to the map. At the moment, this should just show the DEM layer, and it will describe to you what the colours of the layer represent. We shall look in further detail at recolouring layers in the next practical, but for now try setting the colour ramp used for the DEM to something else. To do so, double click on the symbol in the layer list. A form will pop up from which you can select different colour ramps. Choose something that you feel is appropriate for the display of elevation and click “OK”.

appropriate for the display of elevation and click “OK”. Next, we want to add a small

Next, we want to add a small satellite image of a field near to the development site to the map. Click again on the “Add Data” button, then select the “satellite_rect.tif” layer, and click “Add”. The satellite image should appear on your map. This has

already been rectified (see Step 8 below if you need to learn how to do this). As a result, the image has been skewed slightly and acquired an unsightly white band around the edges. We need to hide this band. To do so, double click on the layer name in the layer list to the left of the map. This brings up the “Layer Properties” form, which we will explore a little more in the next practical. Make sure you are on the “Symbology” tab. We wish to make white areas of this layer invisible. To do this, look for the “Display Background Value:” item. Next to this are three small text boxes. These represent the colours red, green, and blue. To set the background value to white, type the number 255 into each of these boxes (the figure 2 may be hidden when you finish), as the colour white is made up from maximum red, green, and blue on a scale from 0 to 255 (black would be 0, 0, 0). Next to these boxes, it will say “as” and then there is a small drop down box with which we can set the colour we wish to display white as. In this instance, we wish to display it as “No color”, so that it becomes invisible on the map. Click on the little arrow and make sure that “No color” is selected. Finally, make sure that the tickbox to the left of “Display Background Value:” is ticked. Then click on “OK” in the “Layer Properties” form. If you look at the satellite image, you will see that the white areas become invisible.

image, you will see that the white areas become invisible. Add the final raster layer that
image, you will see that the white areas become invisible. Add the final raster layer that

Add the final raster layer that we need, the results of our geophysics survey of the development site. This layer is called geophys_rect.tif”. Just “OK” any projection warning box. Repeat the same procedure used with the satellite image to make its white areas translucent: this time, however, you need to make the green areas translucent rather than the white. To do so, instead of typing 255 into each box, only do so in the middle box (this being the green channel) and type 0 into the other two boxes. This should then make the green areas of the geophysics layer invisible. Save your progress.

4. Adding vector data Having added the raster layers to the map, we now want to add our vector layers. Fortunately, this is done in exactly the

same way. Click on the “Add Data” button again. You will see that the vector layers (which are called shapefiles) have three

different icons: one represents point data

Windows Explorer or an equivalent, you will see that each shapefile is actually made up of a number of different files with the same name, but different extensions. Some of the raster data also uses more than one file, with the DEM actually using a directory of its own. As a result, problems will arise if you try to rename or delete files in the conventional fashion: it is better to use ArcCatalog for this, which we shall encounter later on.

use ArcCatalog for this, which we shall encounter later on. , one line data , and

, one line data

for this, which we shall encounter later on. , one line data , and one polygon

, and one polygon data

encounter later on. , one line data , and one polygon data . If you look

. If you look at this directory using

Add the following layers to the map: “Buildings.shp” “Development.shp” “Divisions.shp” “Lakes.shp” “Rivers.shp” “Roads.shp”, either one at a time or by holding down the Ctrl key and selecting all of them. You should see all of these layers appear on your map and in the layer list to the left of the map (make sure you are on the correct list by clicking on the “Display” tab at the base of the list). The order of layers in the list is the same as the order in which they are drawn on the map, with the layer at the top being drawn on top, and the layer at the bottom on the bottom of the stack. If you drag layers up and down using the mouse, you can change the order in which they are drawn. Drag the layers into a sensible order, from top to bottom: “Development” “Buildings” “Roads” “Divisions” “Lakes” “Rivers” “geophys_rect.tif” “Satellite_rect.tif” “dem_sp”. If you untick the box next to a layer name in the list, that layer will be hidden on the map.

name in the list, that layer will be hidden on the map. The “Development” layer shows
name in the list, that layer will be hidden on the map. The “Development” layer shows

The “Development” layer shows the area subject to the planning application. If you follow the ordering above, you will notice that it obscures the area we are actually interested in. We can get around this in one of two ways: by making the polygon hollow, or by making it partially transparent. Double click on the layer name to open the “Layer Properties” form for the development layer. Click on the “Display” tab. Here, we can set the transparency of this layer, by typing a percentage figure into the text box next to the word “Transparent:”. Type in 60 (i.e. 60% transparency) and click on “Apply”. Assuming that the form is not hiding the layer, you will see that it is now partly transparent on the map. However, it has become quite hard to see, so let us change the colour as well. Click on the “Symbology” tab in the same form. Here you will see a box with the title “Symbol”, containing a big button coloured with the same colour as the layer. Click on this big button and the symbol selection form will open up. On the right hand side, find the “Fill Color” box, and click on the drop down arrow next to it. Choose a bright red colour, then click “OK”, then “OK” again on the “Layer Properties” form. We have now highlighted our development area in a suitable fashion.

Properties” form. We have now highlighted our development area in a suitable fashion. Page 7 of
Properties” form. We have now highlighted our development area in a suitable fashion. Page 7 of

To change the colour of the rivers and lakes to a more suitable tone, first double click on the symbol under “Lakes” in the layer list to the left of the map. This will again bring up the symbol selection form. On the large and long list that fills up most of this form, you should be able to see a preset symbol style called “Lake”. Double click on this and the lakes will be recoloured more sensibly. Then double click on the symbol under “Rivers” in the layer list, and select the preset “River” symbol in the list. Now experiment with changing the colour and style of the other vector layers that you have added to the map, until you come up with a scheme that you are satisfied with. See if you can work out how to change the outlines of polygons, and the thickness of lines.

change the outlines of polygons, and the thickness of lines. If you wish to remove a
change the outlines of polygons, and the thickness of lines. If you wish to remove a

If you wish to remove a layer, right click on its name in the layer list and select “Remove”. Try this with the “Roads” layer, and then add it again to the map. Save your progress. Recall that you are only saving the arrangement of and links to your data layers. When you remove a layer, you simply remove it from the map without deleting the source files associated with it. This is also why you will get errors if you move around any data files associated with a map document when you reopen it later.

5. Joining data from a table

You should now have the makings of a useful map to further your analysis of the planning application. However, we also have some field survey data to add to the map. Click on the “Add Data” button, then open the directory called “Survey_fields”. Here

you will see a number of shapefiles named after various fields, and also a number of tables (with the icon

the fieldwalking results associated with these fields. Add the shapefiles, but not the tables, to the map as with the previous

layers. There should be six fields: “GromsPlace.shp” “LowerBarrens.shp” “ProudmooreField.shp” “RazorHill.shp” “SilverpinePaddock.shp” “UpperBarrens.shp”. Make sure you have added all six of these to the map.

”. Make sure you have added all six of these to the map. ) which contain

) which contain

you have added all six of these to the map. ) which contain Right click on

Right click on the name of one of the fields in the layer list and select the “Open Attribute Table” option. This shows you the table of attributes associated with each transect in the field. You should be able to see that there are only four attributes currently associated with each field: three of these are standard to the shapefile (“FID”, “Shape”, “ID”), and one is a transect identity code (“TransectID”). We can use this unique code to link the geographical objects in each layer (in this case, the fieldwalking transects) with an external data table containing the results of our survey: the only requirement is that the external table also contains this code. Close the attribute table that you have open.

Start with the field “GromsPlace”. Right click on the layer name, hover over “Joins and
Start with the field “GromsPlace”. Right click on the layer name, hover over “Joins and

Start with the field “GromsPlace”. Right click on the layer name, hover over “Joins and Relates” in the options menu, then click on “Join…”. A new form should pop up, which we can use to join the layer to an external data table. For item 1, “Choose the field in this layer that the join will be based on:”, click on the drop down menu and select the “TransectID” field. For item 2, “Choose the table to join to this

layer…”, click on the open file icon

to join to this layer…”, click on the open file icon , then find and select
to join to this layer…”, click on the open file icon , then find and select

, then

find and select the following table on your disk: “GromsPlace.csv”, then click “Add”. At item 3, “Choose the field in the table to base the join on”, click on the drop down list and select “Sector”. Then click on OK. If you now open up the attribute table for “GromsPlace” again as before and scroll across to the right, you will see that an extensive series of extra attributes have been added to this layer. Again, close the attribute table that you have open.

have been added to this layer. Again, close the attribute table that you have open. Page
Repeat the process for the other field layers. You will see that in some of

Repeat the process for the other field layers. You will see that in some of them the linking field in the external table is called “Transect” rather than “Sector”, and that some of them have slightly simplified file names. When you get to the “LowerBarrens” and “UpperBarrens” fields, you will see that there is only a single external attribute table associated with both fields (“Barrens.csv”), as these were surveyed together for your project according to the same research design. When joining these, therefore, click on the “Advanced” button before you click “OK”. Select “Keep only matching records” in the form that appears, and click “OK”. You can now click “OK” in the join form. This means that only transects associated with an attribute record will be kept in the final joined layer. Doing this is not strictly necessary, but best practice. Do this for both of the “…Barrens” layers.

You may have noticed that the tables linked to were so-called .csv files. This stands for Comma Separated Values. Essentially, it is a text based format for saving data tables, where each record is separated by a comma. Excel spreadsheets can be saved to .csv files (via the normal “Save As” procedure), although any formulae or multiple worksheets will be lost (so make sure to keep your original files). If you are using ArcGIS 9.2 or later, you can link directly to an Excel spreadsheet, but this feature is quite new and does not function with .xlsx files. If you are using this procedure to link your own data to your own map layers, there are several things you must take care to do / avoid:

The first row must contain the field names.there are several things you must take care to do / avoid: The field names need

The field names need to be less than 13 characters long, with no spaces, and no characters other than simple letters and the underscore.to do / avoid: The first row must contain the field names. Do not use commas

Do not use commas anywhere in your entire table, as they will just get confused with the commas used to separate the records. If you have used commas in your spreadsheet, use “Find and Replace” to replace records. If you have used commas in your spreadsheet, use “Find and Replace” to replace them all with semicolons.

You may find that ArcGIS does not recognise .csv files saved directly from Excel. To get around this, save the file in Excel and close it. Then open it up in a text editor such as Notepad or Wordpad. Add a character at the start, then delete it, so you have edited the file. Then save the file. It should now be readable by ArcGIS. The author is not sure why this is necessary, but it works.“Find and Replace” to replace them all with semicolons. In the next practical, we shall look

In the next practical, we shall look at how to display the data that we have just joined to our field survey layers. Save your progress.

6. Creating a shapefile from a table For our final data layer, we shall be adding a data table created in Excel associated with SMR records. This data table contains two fields containing the easting and northing coordinates of each data point, in metres and according to the OS National Grid (see Appendix below for instructions on converting OS coordinates for use in ArcGIS). It has, again, been

exported as a .csv file, subject to the same restrictions as at item 5 above. However, this time the table is not associated with any layer on the map, as it contains its own location information. This is a very useful way of importing point data to a GIS.

We shall be creating a new shapefile based upon this table. We can do this using ArcMap, but it is more robust to use

ArcCatalog. You can launch ArcCatalog from ArcMap by clicking on the ArcCatalog button

ArcCatalog is essentially used to manipulate the file structures etc. of your geographic database. It is the best place to delete

or rename data layers, and also the best way to create new shapefiles. On the left there should be a list of directories, on the right a list of the contents of whatever is currently selected on the left:

the contents of whatever is currently selected on the left: . Please do so now. If

. Please do so now.

is currently selected on the left: . Please do so now. If you scroll down the

If you scroll down the list on the left, you should be able to find your main project folder for this practical, assuming you connected to the folder as instructed earlier. Click on it, and its contents should appear on the right hand side.

it, and its contents should appear on the right hand side. The file called “SMR.csv” is
it, and its contents should appear on the right hand side. The file called “SMR.csv” is

The file called “SMR.csv” is what we are currently interested in. Find it here and right click on it. You will notice that a number of options will appear, including the options to delete and rename. This is how you would delete or rename your GIS data files, if you so wished. For now, hover over “Create Feature Class”, then click on “From XY Table…”. A form should appear. Under where it says “X Field”, select “Easting”, and under “Y Field” select “Northing”: these are the two fields in our data table associated with the map coordinates of each object. Ignore the “Z Field” box, as there is no elevation data associated with this layer. Next, click on the button that says “Spatial Reference of Input Coordinates…” and the click on “Select”. We are again choosing the projection that we wish to use, so navigate your way to “Projected Coordinate Systems\National Grids\British

National Grid.prj ”, select it, and click “Add”. Then click “OK” in the spatial reference

National Grid.prj”, select it, and click “Add”. Then click “OK” in the spatial reference properties form. Finally, we need to tell ArcCatalog where to save our file. Click on the open file button and then navigate your way to the project directory in the usual fashion. You should then type in a sensible name next to “Name:”, such as “SMR.shp”, and then click “Save”. When you return to the original form, click on “OK” and the new shapefile layer will be built, based upon the data in our table.

layer will be built, based upon the data in our table. Right click in blank space
layer will be built, based upon the data in our table. Right click in blank space
layer will be built, based upon the data in our table. Right click in blank space

Right click in blank space in the right hand window in ArcCatalog, and select “Refresh”. You should see your new shapefile appear. Return to ArcMap, and add this new layer to your map in the usual fashion. You should see a series of points appear on the map. If you were to open up the attribute table for this layer (by right clicking on its name as before), you would see that each point is associated with a number of different attributes. Make sure this new layer is on the top of the map stack, and feel free to change the symbol if you so wish (by double clicking on the symbol in the layer list). Save your progress. You may close ArcCatalog now if you wish.

7. Exploring the map

We now have a large amount of different data layers in our map, and we should have learned how to add new ones, how to link data to layers, and how to create new layers from a table. We shall now explore our data a little. If you right click on the name of a layer in the layer list, you can select the “Zoom to Layer” option to zoom in to the extent of that layer. Experiment

with this a bit. If we click on the “Full Extent” button

to the full extent of the current map. The magnifying glass buttons

in or out by clicking on the map, or to zoom to a selected area of the map by dragging out a

selection. The zoom in and out buttons

map by dragging out a selection. The zoom in and out buttons on the main toolbar,
map by dragging out a selection. The zoom in and out buttons on the main toolbar,

on the main toolbar, we will zoom out

in and out buttons on the main toolbar, we will zoom out allow you to zoom

allow you to zoom

on the main toolbar, we will zoom out allow you to zoom allow us to zoom

allow us to zoom in or out by a fixed amount.

you to zoom allow us to zoom in or out by a fixed amount. The blue

The blue arrows our previously selected zoom levels. The hand button

around, by clicking and holding down the mouse button on the map, then releasing when we have it in the desired position. Finally, there is also a drop down box for selecting a particular fixed map scale. When moving your mouse pointer around on screen, look down to the status bar at the bottom of the ArcMap window: at its right hand end, you will

bottom of the ArcMap window: at its right hand end, you will allow us to move
bottom of the ArcMap window: at its right hand end, you will allow us to move

allow us to move back and forth between allows you to grab the map and pan it

back and forth between allows you to grab the map and pan it see the current
back and forth between allows you to grab the map and pan it see the current

see the current coordinates of the mouse pointer.

Feel free to experiment with these tools. If you have time and wish to learn a little about rectifying images to place them on a map, then read on. Otherwise, save your progress, then go away and take a break. Well done, you have completed the first practical.

8. (OPTIONAL) Georectification Georectification is the process by which a remotely sensed raster image (e.g. an aerial photograph, a satellite image, geophysics results, or even a scanned map) is linked in to a coordinate system so that it can be accurately located onto a map. It is a fairly complex procedure, but this short exercise will give you a taste of how to do it using ArcGIS.

exercise will give you a taste of how to do it using ArcGIS. First, hide the

First, hide the following layers by unticking them in the layer list: “Development” “satellite_rect.tif” “geophys_rect.tif” “LowerBarrens” “UpperBarrens”. Then add the following layer to the map: “Satellite_image.tif”. This is the same satellite image as before, but it has not been geographically located. When it is added to the map, you will not be able to see it as it will be off screen, so right click on its name and select “Zoom to Layer”. Next, go up to the “View” menu, hover over “Toolbars”, and then select “Georeferencing”. A new toolbar should appear:

select “Georeferencing”. A new toolbar should appear : Use the drop down box next to “Layer:”

Use the drop down box next to “Layer:” on this toolbar to select the layer Satellite_image.tif”. We will be rectifying this image by selecting points that appear in both our image and our base map, specifically the field boundaries recorded in the “Divisions” layer. To make this process easier, make sure that the “Divisions” layer is above the “Satellite_image.tif” layer in the layer list, and make sure that the “Divisions” layer is set to use a brightly coloured symbol. On the Georeferencing toolbar, look for the “Add Control Points”

button

also identify on our other layers. When we click for the second time, we are selecting this identified point on our other layers,

and creating a link between them.

point on our other layers, and creating a link between them. , and click on it.

, and click on it. Now, when we click on the map for the first time, we shall select a point on our image that we can

Click on the satellite image at the point where the hedge near the south-western edge

Click on the satellite image at the point where the hedge near the south-western edge forms a shallow V- shape (all of the control points used can be seen in the image below). You will see that a cross is placed there on the map and your cursor becomes another cross linked to the first by a line . On the layer list, right click on the “dem_sp” layer and select “Zoom to Layer”. Use the magnifying glass tool to zoom in on the area to which our satellite image relates. Then click on the “Add Control Points” button again. You should see that the pointer becomes a cross once more, still linked to the cross on our satellite image. Click on the shallow V-shape where you can see it in the “Divisions” layer. Right click on the name of the satellite image layer in the layer list, and zoom to that layer. This time, add a point where the two hedges meet near the northern edge of the image. Then zoom back to the study area as before, and place the corresponding point on the base map.

before, and place the corresponding point on the base map. The image should now appear stretched

The image should now appear stretched over its proper location, but still somewhat imperfectly placed. Add two further points where the hedges meet in the north eastern corner and at the corner of the hedge to the east of the shallow V-shape. The satellite image should now pretty closely match the background geographic data. Adding more points may sometimes

improve the accuracy, but this is not necessary in this case. Another alternative is to determine the locations of points in your

image on the ground (using GPS or similar) and then to enter them manually into the Link Table scope of this short demonstration.

into the Link Table scope of this short demonstration. , but that is beyond the Page

, but that is beyond the

into the Link Table scope of this short demonstration. , but that is beyond the Page

When you are finished, you would save your results by clicking on the “Georeferencing” menu button on the toolbar, and selecting “Rectify…”. You would then select an appropriate location to save the new layer, alter any other parameters of the transformation that you wish, and click on “Save”. You could then add this new rectified image to your map. However, there is no need to do this in this case, as we already have a rectified version of this satellite image on the map. Therefore, when you are done, simply close the “Georeferencing” toolbar (by clicking on the close icon in its top right corner), and remove the Satellite_image.tif” layer from the map. This georectification process is rather complex, so do not be alarmed if it does not turn out perfectly. Further detail will be provided in a later module.

Appendix: data sources Satellite images:

Landsat Satellite images and topographic data for the UK at http://landmap.ac.uk (requires Athens login) http://landmap.ac.uk (requires Athens login)

Spot images at http://www.spotimage.com/ http://www.spotimage.com/

University of Maryland archive of free data at http://glcf.umiacs.umd.edu/data/ http://glcf.umiacs.umd.edu/data/

NASA GeoCover has free small scale images at http://visibleearth.nasa.gov/ http://visibleearth.nasa.gov/

Google Earth may be downloaded from http://earth.google.com/ http://earth.google.com/

Digital maps:

Digimap can be a bit hard to navigate, but provides Ordnance Survey maps for UK (including historical) via Edina at http://edina.ac.uk/digimap/ (site requires registration and you must be careful to cite copyright correctly on any http://edina.ac.uk/digimap/ (site requires registration and you must be careful to cite copyright correctly on any finished maps)

The USGS provides Digital Elevation Models etc. for the whole world at http://seamless.usgs.gov/ http://seamless.usgs.gov/

Soviet maps of Europe are available at http://maps.poehali.org/en/ o r http://topomaps.eu o r http://sovietmaps.com (note that these may need significant http://maps.poehali.org/en/ or http://topomaps.eu or http://sovietmaps.com (note that these may need significant processing to be usable)

An excellent list of sources of free or low cost geographical data is provided at http://wiki.osgeo.org/wiki/Public_Geodata_for_the_UK (mostly for the UK, but it also includes some international sources) http://wiki.osgeo.org/wiki/Public_Geodata_for_the_UK (mostly for the UK, but it also includes some international sources)

Appendix - Ordnance Survey coordinate conversion OS grid references usually take the following form: SK123456 or HZ12345678, etc., depending on their precision. Here, the letters give the location of the large 100km grid square and the numbers give the easting and northing. To enter these grid references into a GIS, we need to split out the easting and northing into separate attributes and convert the letter portion into numbers, using the system shown in the diagram and conversion table on the next page. We also usually need to add some zeroes to the end of each number to make sure that the grid references are to the nearest metre.

Thus, the grid reference SK123456 would have an easting of 412300 and a northing of 345600; the 4

diagram and the rest of the grid reference split in the middle. We have to add two zeroes to each number as this was a six figure

grid reference which is precise to the nearest 100 metres (essentially it refers to a 100m x 100m square on the ground). As another

example, HZ12345678 would have an easting of 412340 and a northing of 1056780, with the 4

here we add one zero to each number as an eight figure grid reference is precise to the nearest 10 metres. We would not have to add any zeroes to a ten digit grid reference, as it is already precise to one metre. We would need to add more zeroes to two and four figure grid references, but these are very imprecise and so would be better represented as grid squares in any event.

and 3

are read off the

and the 10

read off the diagram;

We usually do this conversion using spreadsheet software (such as Excel) prior to entering the data into the GIS. First we would create three fields that split the grid reference into the letter, easting and northing portions (either manually or by creating a macro). Then we convert those eastings and northings into full coordinates by multiplying by 10 (for an eight figure grid reference) or 100 (for a six figure) and then adding on the conversion figure, e.g. 400000 to the easting and 300000 to the northing for the SK square. The formula would looks something like this:

=(A1*10)+400000

where A1 is the cell holding the unconverted easting value.

OS conversion table:

OS conversion table : Grid square: Easting value: Northing value: Easting metres: Northing metres: HP 4

Grid square:

Easting value:

Northing value:

Easting metres:

Northing metres:

HP

4

12

400000

1200000

HT

3

11

300000

1100000

HU

4

11

400000

1100000

HW

1

10

100000

1000000

HX

2

10

200000

1000000

HY

3

10

300000

1000000

HZ

4

10

400000

1000000

NA

0

9

0

900000

NB

1

9

100000

900000

NC

2

9

200000

900000

ND

3

9

300000

900000

NF

0

8

0

800000

NG

1

8

100000

800000

NH

2

8

200000

800000

NJ

3

8

300000

800000

NK

4

8

400000

800000

NL

0

7

0

700000

NM

1

7

100000

700000

NN

2

7

200000

700000

NO

3

7

300000

700000

NR

1

6

100000

600000

NS

2

6

200000

600000

NT

3

6

300000

600000

NU

4

6

400000

600000

NW

1

5

100000

500000

NX

2

5

200000

500000

NY

3

5

300000

500000

NZ

4

5

400000

500000

OV

5

5

500000

500000

SC

2

4

200000

400000

SD

3

4

300000

400000

SE

4

4

400000

400000

SH

2

3

200000

300000

SJ

3

3

300000

300000

SK

4

3

400000

300000

SM

1

2

100000

200000

SN

2

2

200000

200000

SO

3

2

300000

200000

SP

4

2

400000

200000

SR

1

1

100000

100000

SS

2

1

200000

100000

ST

3

1

300000

100000

SU

4

1

400000

100000

SV

0

0

0

0

SW

1

0

100000

0

SX

2

0

200000

0

SY

3

0

300000

0

SZ

4

0

400000

0

TA

5

4

500000

400000

TF

5

3

500000

300000

TG

6

3

600000

300000

TL

5

2

500000

200000

TM

6

2

600000

200000

TQ

5

1

500000

100000

TR

6

1

600000

100000

TV

5

0

500000

0