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'Airy' (Linear) wave theory

This is a Linear wave theory first proposed by Laplace (1776) and Airy (1845) and is some times known as Airy wave theory. The theory is applicable to waves of small amplitude in deep water. The aim of a wave theory to obtain expressions for surface elevation, wave length, celerity, water particle velocity, energy, power etc as a function of wave height, period and water depth. First, we have to make some assumptions:

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12.

The fluid homogeneous and incompressible (density is constant) Surface tension is neglected Coriolis effect can be neglected Pressure at the sea surface is uniform and constant The fluid is ideal or inviscid (lacks viscosity) The wave being considered does not interact with any other water motions The sea bed is a horizontal, fixed, impermeable boundary which implies that the vertical velocity at the sea bed is zero. The wave form is invariant in time and space The waves are two-dimensional The wave height is small compared with both the wave length and water depth. In particular, H / L << 1 HL2/h3 << 1 (Ursell parameter)

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We define velocity potential as u ( x, z, t ) = w ( x, z, t ) = ( x, z, t ) x ( x, z, t ) z

Notation is shown on Figure 1.

We define, horizontal velocity u in the x- direction (ie direction of wave travel), vertical velocity w (positive upwards). z is the vertical coordinate with the zero at mean sea level. Note that z increases positive upwards which means all depth are negative. The sea bed is located at z = -h. The surface profile excursion from the mean level at any given time is given by (x,t) which has a maximum at the crest level (ie max = H/2).

Assumption (1) incompressible means that u w =0 + x z or in terms of the velocity potential, 2 x 2 + 2 z 2 Laplace equation = 0 Standard solutions available.

continuity

The Bernoulli equation can be written 1 2 p u + w 2 + gz + = 0 + 2 t We consider linear terms only and hence, neglect terms involving square of the velocity. i.e. p + gz + = 0 t

, the elevation at the surface where p = 0 (i.e. equal to atmospheric pressure) (assumption 4)

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Hence, we can write, for z = , 1 g t z =

= or

1 = g t z = 0 (small amplitude wave theory and is small assumption 10).

(A)

This approximation leads to an error of the order of those already done in neglecting higher order terms in the Bernoulli equation. Since, wave slope is small, H/L << 1, we can assume that the vertical velocity of the surface has the same velocity as the water. i.e. or = [w ]z = 0 t = t z z = 0

from (A) we can write 1 2 = 2 t g t z = 0 Hence, for z=0, we can write (from subtraction) 1 2 + = 0. g t 2 z This is called the Cauchy-Poisson condition at the free surface. In the solutions of the Cauchy-Poisson condition we assume a solution of the type = f (z) sin (kx t) then = f (z) k cos (kx t ) x 2 = f (z) k 2 sin (kx t ) x -38/8/02

Similarly 2 z 2 Laplace equation, 2 x 2 Substituting 2f z i.e. 2f z


2 2

2f (z) z 2

sin (kx t ).

2 z 2

= 0.

sin (kx t ) k 2f sin (kx t ) = 0

k 2f = 0

The general solution is of the form f (z) = Ae kz + Be kz where A and B are constants.

Thus we obtain = Ae kz + Be kz sin(kx t ). We have boundary condition such that w = 0 at z = -h

w= =0 z z = h

which gives Ae kh Be kh = 0.

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The other boundary condition at z=0,

1 2 + = 0 z g t 2

which will produce, after some algebra

( 2 gk) A + ( 2 + gk) B = 0.

The two boundary conditions could be written in matrix form as 2 gk e


kh

2 + gk e
+ kh

A =0 B

A and B are non-zero. Hence,

2 gk e
kh

2 + gk e
+ kh

=0

e kh 2 gk e kh 2 + gk = 0

2 e kh + e kh gk e kh e kh or e kh e kh 2 = gk kh e + e kh e kh e kh = sinh kh e kh + e kh = cosh kh 2 = gk tanh kh.

=0

DISPERSION RELATIONSHIP

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Now, = 2 T and k= 2 L

Substitute into the dispersion relationship 42 T


2

=g

2 tanh(kh) L

L=

gT 2 tanh(kh) 2 gT tanh(kh) 2 C= L T

C=

as

Now consider values of tanh kh or tanh r where


r = 2 h = 2 h . L L

Hence the value of tanh r depends on the ratio


L water depth h wave length .

As r becomes large tanh r 1 i.e. gT 2


2

Refers to deep water or L0 = 1.56 T2 as C 0 = 1.56 T h must be large. L

L0 = and

C0 =

gT 2

or

L >1 h 4 L >1 h 2

gives 5% error gives 0.37% error .

Consider the other extreme, i.e.


h is small L

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then, or

tanh r r

L = gT2 . L h

L2 = ghT2 L S = T gh C = gT . L h L = CT C2 = gh and C = gh

for waves in shallow water. In shallow water, celerity of waves only depend on the water depth

when
h < 1 L 20 the error is 5%.

Hence, the limits of the deep, intermediate and shallow water waves from the ratio we have,
L = L0 = gT 2 tanh kh 2 gT 2 2

h , L

and also
C = gT tanh kh 2 gT 2

C0 =

We can write, L C = = tanh kh. L0 C0

Hence, knowing offshore conditions can calculate inshore conditions and vice versa.

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Explicit solution of the wave dispersion relationship


2 = gk tanh kh

Non-dimensional form 2h = kh tanh kh. g = 2h (2 ) 2 h 2 2 h = 2 = 2 2 h = L0 g T g gT

= k0h. Eckart (1952) has shown that kh ~

[tanh ]1/2

5%

Velocity Potential Dispersion relationship was obtained by assuming a solution of the form = (z) sin (kx t) for the Cauchy-Poisson condition at the free surface, 1 2 =0 + z g t 2 was described by, 2 z
2

k 2 = 0.

Solution for this is given by, = H cosh [k (z + h)] sin (kx t ) C sinh (kh) 2 144 2444 4 3
'' (z)

we had 1 = at z = 0 g t 1 H cosh [k (z + h)] = () cos (kx t ) C t sinh (kh) g 2 -88/8/02

i.e.

z=0
1 cos (kx t) = H C . tanh kh 2 g
= H . 1 tanh kh cos (kx t) 2 tanh kh

= H cos (kx t) 2

Horizontal and Vertical Velocities = HC cosh [k (z + h)] sin(kx t ) sinh(kh) 2 HC cosh [k (z + h)] = cos (kx t ) k. x sinh(kh) 2

U= Consider,

HCk H L 2 H = = 2 2 T L T H cosh [k (z + h)] cos (kx t ) T sinh(kh)

U=

Similarly H sinh [k (z + h)] sin(kx t ) =w = sinh(kh) z T

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Particle Orbits Particle orbits can be written

x = u .dt 0 z = w .dt 0
t

.dt x 0 .dt z 0
t

by considering the position of a particle at a point (x + , y + ) where and is small, the following expression is obtained.
2 2 + = 1 A2 B2

where
cosh k (z + h) A = H 2 sinh kh sinh k (z + h) B = H 2 sinh kh

The ratio as i.e.

B = tanh k (z + h) A

z h (i.e. at the bottom) tanh k (z + h) 0 B 0 A

As A is finite B 0 i.e. the particles oscillate in a degenerate ellipse which is a horizontal line at the sea bed. When the water is deep h can show by taking the limit of the equation for the ellipse that 2 + 2 = a 2 e 2 kz a= H 2

Equation of a circle with radius a ekz at z=0, radius is a2 and decreases exponentially with depth. For Airy wave theory no mass transport particles move in closed orbits - 10 8/8/02

Pressure Bernoulli equation neglecting higher order terms is given by : p + gz + = 0 t p + gz = 0 t i.e. = H cosh[k (z + h)] sin(kx t ) C 2 sinh kh

substitute p H cosh [k (z + h)] = gz + cos(kx t ) C sinh kh 2 = gz + Hence, p = gz + gH cosh [k (z + h)] cos(kx t ) + Pa cosh kh 2 H cosh [k (z + h)] cos(kx t ) C cosh kh 2

= hydrostatic less dynamic pressure, + atmos.(neglected) = hence, p becomes p = gz + g The ratio Kz = cosh k (z + h cosh kh H cos (kx t ) 2 cosh [k (z + h)] cosh kh

)]

is called the pressure response factor. Now, the equation for p could be written as p = g(K z z) when, z = h, i.e. at the sea bed 1 k = cosh kh - 11 8/8/02

(A)

Tabulated in wave tables. Hence, if we record pressure at the sea bed then, by using A can calculate .

Energy Need to know the energy of waves as all design criteria depend on it. Also important in calculating longshore sediment transport. The energy contained in the waves is compose of two parts : (1) (2) Potential energy : due to the deviation of its profile from the mean level. Kinetic energy : due to the oscillatory motion of the particles.

The potential energy of a wave per unit area is given by 1 Ep = L 0


L

gzdzdx 0

= 1 g H2 16

The kinetic energy is given by (per unit area). 1 Ek = L 0 = Hence, potential energy = kinetic energy The total energy is given by 1 E = E p + E k = gH 2 8 Joule m-2 (for Airy waves)
L

1 u 2 + w 2 dzdz 2

1 gH 2 16

The energy is averaged over a wave length hence, is energy per unit area. Sometimes termed specific energy or energy density. Sometimes, energy is expressed as per unit wave crest length which is equivalent to EL. Energy flux or power the rate at which energy is transmitted in the direction of the wave is given by,

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1 P = T 0 integration leads to P= writing n= we get,

p u dx dt

2kh 1 1 g H 2C 1 + 8 2 sinh 2kh

2kh 1 1 + sinh 2kh 2

1 P = gH 2Cn 8 P = ECn

Energy flux has units of power, Joule s-1 m-1 or Watts m-1
1 In deep water v = 2 and increases as the depth decreases and in shallow water n = 1

Values of n are tabulated P gives the power transmitted across a plane perpendicular to wave advance. If a plane other than that is used then the component must be taken.

Also associated with wave advance is a flux or transmission of momentum. Longuet-Higgins and Stewart (1964) define "radiation stress" as excess flow of momentum due to the presence of waves. Excess momentum is because in the derivation, dynamic pressure is used, with hydrostatic pressure subtracted from the absolute pressure. i.e. p = g ( k z 1 3 2
dynamic

3 1z ) 2
hydrostatic

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wave advance

wave crests

The radiation stress (momentum flux) across the plane x = constant (parallel to shore say) is given by
S xx = E 2 kh +1 sinh (2kh) 2

n = 1 1 + 2 kh 2 sinh kh 2 kh = 2n 1 sinh kh

substitute
S xx = E 2n 1 2

The flux across plane y - constant


1 In deep water, n = 2 ,

then
S xx = E and S yy = 0 2

In shallow water, n = 1
S xx = 3E and S yy = E 2 2

Radiation stress is important as many applications use it longshore velocity surf beat interaction between waves and currents etc.

Group Velocity Consider the sum of two wave forms give by,

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H H cos(kx t ) + cos(k ' x ' t ) 2 2 2 144 44 3 144 44 2 3


1 2

where, k' and ' are small variations from k and from trigonometry
cos x + cox y = 2 cos 1 ( x + y) cos 1 (x y) 2 2 1 (x + y) = 1 (kx t + kx t) = 1 (k + k) x 1 ( + ') t 2 2 2 2 1 (x y) = 1 (k k) x 1 ( ') t 2 2 2

Hence,
= H cos 1 k + k x 1 + t cos 1 k + k x 1 ' t 2 2 2 2

Hence, the summation of two waves have produced the multiplication of two waves with double the wave height. Consider the 1st term 1 1 cos (k k ') x ( + ') t 2 2 now as k k' and ' this is the ......... has same waveley and period as original 1. Consider the 2nd wave form 1 1 cos (k k ') x ( ') t 2 2

Thus has wavelength 4 k k' and period 4 ' and celerity


= L = = . T k k k

Hence, in the limit,


Cg = dk = d (kC) = C + k dc d dk dk

Cg is the propagation speed of the envelope define as group velocity - 15 8/8/02

g Cg = C + K d tanh kh 1/2 dk k

differentiating and after some algebra we get Cg = 4 h / L 1 1 + sin 4 h / L C 2 144424443


n

Cg = Cn In deep water
n = 1 2 Cg = 1 C 2

Hence, the wave group is half the wave celerity In shallow water n = 1 Cg = C i.e. celerity is same

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Standing Waves So far we looked at progressive waves and obtained equation for celerity and wave length etc. from linear theory i.e. first order solution. We now look at standing waves - 1st order solutions. Standing waves may be thought of as the sum of two progressive waves of equal wavelength and period travelling in opposite directions.

We have surface elevation given by


1 = H cos (kx t) 2

for opposite direction, x = x


2 = H cos (kx t) = H cos (kx + t) 2 2

1 + 2 =

H [cos (kx t ) + cos (kx + t )] 2

= H 2 cos kx cos t 2 cos A + cos B = 2 cos A + B cos A B 2 2

hence = H cos kx cos t 2

Hence, surface wave form has wave height H' which is twice the wave height of the progressive waves as H'= 2H. Equations for C and L are the same for standing waves (obtained from assumptions and Laplace equation)
cosh [k (z + h)] coskx sint = HC z sin kh

velocity components H cosh[k (z + h)] sin kx sin t = u= sinh kh x T H cosh[k (z + h)] cos kx sin t =w = sinh kh T z

wave energy = E = Ep + Ek = 1/8 gH2.

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The main difference is the orbits. We have a system of nodes and antinodes set up Nodes - No motion - same level as S.W.L.

Anti Nodes- Maximum excursion 2 OHP's

Rectilinear paths as opposed to circles and ellipses Can calculate all other parameters such as pressure, etc.

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