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SAFETY RISK MANAGEMENT PROCEDURE

CONTENTS
1 2 3 4 Purpose Scope Introduction Legal Requirements and Implications
4.1 Legislation 4.2 Record Keeping 4.3 When do I need a Risk Assessment?

5 6 7 8

Documentary Hierarchy Definition of Terms Responsibilities Risk Management


8.1 Hazard Identification 8.2 Risk Assessment
8.2.1 8.2.2 8.2.3 8.2.4 Identify the Consequences Estimate the Likelihood Estimate the Exposure Evaluate the Risk to Determine Control Strategies

8.3 Determining the Control Measures 8.4 Implementation of Control Measures 8.5 Monitoring and Reviewing Control Measures

References

10 Related Documents
10.1 Safety Risk Assessment form

Safety Risk Management Procedure Published on: June 2010 Version 1.1 Authorised by: University Safety Committee Review Date: June 2015 Page 1 of 14 This document is uncontrolled when printed. The current version is available on the Safety and Health website

Purpose

AS/NZS ISO 31000 1 : Risk Management Principles and Guidelines recommends that organisations have a framework that integrates the process for managing risk into the organisation's overall governance, strategy and planning, management, reporting processes, policies, values and culture. The success of risk management will depend on the effectiveness of the management framework providing the foundations and arrangements that will embed it throughout the organisation at all levels. The framework assists in managing risks effectively through the application of the risk management process at varying levels and within specific contexts of the organisation. The framework ensures that information about risk derived from the risk management process is adequately reported and used as a basis for decision making and accountability at all relevant organisational levels. If an organisation's existing management practices and processes include components of risk management or if the organisation has already adopted a formal risk management process for particular types of risk, these should be critically reviewed and assessed against international standards in order to determine their adequacy and effectiveness. The University and the individuals who carry out functions on its behalf have legal Safety and Health related responsibilities. This procedure is to be used to facilitate clear decision making regarding the safety risk management process. It will assist those with responsibilities for Safety and Health to demonstrate due diligence and regulatory compliance in the planning, design and implementation of potentially hazardous tasks or activities. It presents a methodology for identifying hazards, assessing risk, developing risk mitigating controls and reviewing. This is achieved by differentiating minor, acceptable risks from those that require active management. Many office based administrative activities would normally be expected to incur low risk ratings but if in doubt this documented methodology could be used to risk assess any task or activity.

2 Scope
This procedure applies to staff, students and contractors carrying out activities in all locations where it is the responsibility of the University to actively manage risk. To assist in defining the context of this document, Job Safety Analysis is a fundamental part of the task planning process. It describes how to proceed safely with the desired outcome. It incorporates two essential components. These are Risk Management and the development of the Method Statement which incorporates the risk control measures highlighted by the Risk Management process. This document describes the Risk Management process.

3 Introduction
The adoption of consistent processes within a comprehensive framework helps to ensure that risk is managed effectively, efficiently and coherently across an organization. The generic approach described in this document provides the principles and guidelines for managing safety risk in a systematic, transparent and credible manner. Factors such as appropriate selection of personnel, adequate provision of training and thorough consideration of occupational safety and health issues all help to reduce the incidence of injury and illness resulting from inadequate examination of potential hazards, poor ergonomic design, equipment failure, defective products or hazardous materials. The working environment, suitability and purpose of equipment, the training of staff and legislative requirements need to be considered. Equipment designed for a particular purpose must only be used as specified (e.g. ergonomic chairs on casters must not be stood on). Equipment used in many environments allows for a certain amount of user intervention when faults occur by provision of manufacturers instructions. Any maintenance or corrective actions beyond the scope of written instructions supplied by the manufacturer must be carried out by a qualified technician (e.g. photocopiers, computers and printers). Any equipment presenting an obviously high risk (e.g. oldfashioned guillotines in offices) should be withdrawn from service and replaced with modern equivalents fitted with appropriate safety features. Risk management must be an integral consideration in the planning of change in all working areas. In particular it must be reviewed following an incident and at regular predetermined intervals.

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4 Legal Requirements and Implications


4.1 Legislation

The following are extracts which are summarised to provide key information. For comprehensive information please refer to the Act itself. Legislation Occupational Safety and Health Act 1984 (WA) 2 Part III, Division 2 General Workplace Duties

Section 19 - Duties of Employers: Employers shall, as far as is practicable, provide and maintain a working environment in which employees are not exposed to hazards.

Section 20 - Duties of Employees: Employees shall take reasonable care to ensure their own safety and health and also avoid adversely affecting the safety and health of any other person through any act or omission at work.

Section 22 - Duties of Persons who have Control of Workplaces: Persons who have control of workplaces shall take such measures as are practicable to ensure that persons working at that workplace, or using the means of access to and egress from the workplace, are not exposed to hazards.

Section 23 - Duties of Persons who Design, Manufacture, Import or Supply: Plant includes machinery, equipment, appliance, implement or tool and any component and fitting thereof or accessory thereto for use at a workplace. The responsible person shall, so far as practicable ensure that the design and construction of the plant is such that persons who properly install, maintain or use the plant are not, in doing so, exposed to hazards. They must provide adequate information regarding dangers, instructions for safe use, specifications, test data and maintenance information. A person that manufactures, imports or suppliers any substance for use in the workplace shall, so far is practicable, ensure that adequate toxicological data in respect of the substance and such other data as is relevant to its safe use, handling, processing, storage and transport is provided upon supply and thereafter whenever requested.

Part III, Division 3: Certain Workplace Situations to be treated as Employment

Section 23D - Contract Work Arrangements: The University is referred to as the Principal who engages the Contractor. Where this section applies, section 19 has effect. Where the Principal has capacity to exercise control, the University is considered to be the employer of the contractor and any person employed or engaged by them to carry out the work. Due to this arrangement, any agreement which purports to pass control to a Contractor is considered void.

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Occupational Safety and Health Regulations 1996 (WA) 3 A person who, at a workplace, is an employer, the main contractor, a self-employed person, a person having control of the workplace or a person having control of access to the workplace must, as far as practicable: Part 3: Workplace Safety Requirements; Division 1: General Duties Applying to Workplaces

Section 3.1 - Identification of Hazards and Assessing and Addressing Risks at Workplaces: (a) (b) Identify each hazard to which a person at the workplace is likely to be exposed. Assess the risk of injury or harm to a person resulting from each hazard, if any, identified under paragraph (a) Consider the means by which the risk may be reduced.

(c)

4.2

Record Keeping

Adequate record keeping of the risk management process is important because the absence of such records may be treated as not having fulfilled the required duty of care and it becomes difficult to mount a defence in court without documentation. Records must demonstrate that the process has been conducted properly including information about the identified hazards, associated risks and that control measures have been implemented. Documented risk management Information should include: Identification of hazards based on experience in the workplace, recorded data and other information. Assessment of the associated risks by making an evaluation of the level of risks to the safety and health of workers, based on the consequences, likelihood of harm and exposure. Control measures from the hierarchy of control (e.g. eliminate, substitute, engineering, administrative and personal protective equipment) and how they are to be implemented. How the control measures will be monitored to ensure that they are working correctly to minimise the risks. How any new risks, introduced whilst the task/activity is carried out, will be managed.

4.3

When do I need a Risk Assessment?

The legal consequences of failing to manage risk adequately can be very severe. Guidance is required to define when a risk assessment may not be required, as it is often a subjective decision, when an objective view of the work would suggest that it is a requirement. The default position is that you should carry out a Risk Assessment. This is also true if you are unsure. To justify not carrying out a Risk Assessment you would need to record that there is only a remote possibility of a minor injury or minor sickness. This would normally be noted in other documentation such as the Method Statement.

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5 Documentary Hierarchy
Safe System of Work This exists principally as a result of development and management of a safety culture throughout the organisation. It involves the integration of management, people, procedures, environmental factors, materials, plant and equipment. In terms of task or activity planning it encompasses the functional processes of conforming to the procedures and guidance, creation of a reliable Safety Management Plan, Job Safety Analysis (JSA) and the process of being given permission to carry out the task or activity.

Safety Management Plan This defines the safety management processes, how they are planned, implemented and monitored. It includes responsibilities, accountabilities, policies, procedures and guidelines. The plan provides a framework within which tasks or activities can occur with the requisite controls for review and management. It assists both employer and employee (or contractor) to meet their respective legal obligations.

Job Safety Analysis The supervisor of the person(s) carrying out the task/activity ensures that all planning accords with a Safety Management Plan, identifies hazards, assesses risk and develops a Method Statement which incorporates risk control measures as part of the instructions.

Risk Management The overall process of estimating the magnitude of risk and deciding what actions will be taken. This is achieved via hazard identification, risk assessment, referencing of Standard Operating Procedures for equipment and by specifying control measures and monitoring methods.

Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) for Equipment This is a supporting document which is prepared and available for referencing. It is normally a single information sheet containing instruction on the safe use of equipment including pre-operational checks, post-use guidance, potential hazards and forbidden uses. The absence of SOPs for equipment can be accounted for by detailed consideration in the Risk Assessment (RA) but their availability for referencing from the RA or the Method Statement obviates the need to repeatedly assess use of the same equipment from one RA to another.

Chemical Risk Assessment This is a supporting document for hazardous or dangerous chemicals. It is available for referencing from the Safety Risk Assessment which relates to the task or activity in which the chemical is used.

Method Statement This is an instruction which describes the steps to be taken to complete the task. It incorporates any necessary methods of working which are influenced by the specified risk control measures.

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Permission Managers and supervisors have control of and are responsibility for areas and are authorised to give permission on behalf of the University. This may be via a Permit to Work or based on demonstrable competency of the persons carrying out the work.

Demonstrable Competency A combination of endorsement of the method statement, appropriate supervision and verbal permission may be sufficient as a basis for granting permission provided it can be demonstrated that the persons who carry out tasks are able to meet the following criteria: They have received appropriate information, industry induction, instructions and training. They have the necessary qualifications and/or the necessary knowledge, skills, ability and experience as appropriate. They are fit for duty and competent to safely carry out the task.

Permit to Work This is a formal administrative control for additional safety. It is a written authority to persons with appropriate training to carry out tasks where particular hazards or adverse conditions are involved. It grants permission on the basis that all aspects of the job have been considered and the safety precautions to be taken are clearly defined. It also allows for time extension subject to further formal authorisation. Contractor Work Permits are required for all work by external contractors. This is a fundamental part of demonstrating the required control (see Section 4.1 Legislation) and can be produced by the contractor as proof of permission to be on University premises carrying out tasks. Specific hazards are addressed by Hot Work Permits and Confined Space Work Permits. Permits to work can be accessed via http://www.safety.uwa.edu.au/policies/permit

6 Definition of Terms
Task This is the work to be carried out and may be also described as an activity when more appropriate. Hazard Identification Describes sources of, or circumstances with a potential for injury or harm to health. Risk Assessment Assessment of risks derived from identified hazards. Risk This is considered in relation to any potential injury or harm. It is an assessment of consequence and likelihood of injury or harm occurring whist accounting for the degree of exposure to the hazard. Inherent Risk This is the worst case scenario where the risk is assessed without any controls present. Residual Risk This is the situation after applying the control measures. Consequence This is the most probable outcome of an individual being exposed to a hazard and an incident occurring.

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Likelihood This is the probability that the complete sequence of events leading up to consequences will occur upon exposure to the hazard. Exposure This is a measure of how often people are at risk of interacting with the hazard and the defined consequences being realised. This can be measured either as multiple exposures for the same person or when many people are exposed simultaneously. Control Measures These are normally modifications to the initial circumstances which mitigate the identified risks by elimination, substitution, engineering controls, administrative controls and use of personal protective equipment. Administrative Procedures These are predefined instructions which are designed to control known hazards (e.g. written instructions, rostering of staff, hazard warnings and other signage) Incident This is realisation of the defined consequences (i.e. an injury) but can also be the result of interaction with unforseen hazards. The objective of efficient hazard identification is to avoid such an occurrence.

7 Responsibilities
Everyone has a responsibility to identify and minimise hazards in the workplace. However, there are specific responsibilities for different roles within the University. School heads and Supervisors have management responsibility for the smooth functioning of the work of the school or work area. In most circumstances responsibility is effectively undertaken through successful delegation and regular reporting. This assists signatories of Safety Risk Assessments in meeting their duty of care. The most immediate management control is exerted by Supervisors who must be familiar with all aspects of the task. The final signature must be provided by the Head of School or Unit to ensure that they have prior knowledge of activities. This also provides a pathway for escalation in cases where some aspect of the Safety Risk Assessment process falls outside the control or remit of the Supervisor. Also refer to Section 4: Legal Requirements and Implications.

8 Risk Management
The Risk Management process is a reiterative process which commences with the initial definition of the task including activities, work processes and practices. This definition forms the basis of the Risk Management which has several components (see Fig. 1) Hazard Identification This is based on experience in the workplace, recorded data and other information. Risk Assessment Evaluation of the associated risks by making an evaluation of the level of risks to the safety of workers, based on the consequences, likelihood of harm and exposure. Defining the control measures This implements the operational safety and health hierarchy of control. Implementation of control measures The inclusion of the control measures in the description of how to do the task. These are incorporated into the method statement where appropriate. Monitoring and reviewing control measures To ensure that the control measures are effective and to identify and deal with any newly arising hazards.

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Fig 1: Components of the Risk Management process


RISK MANAGEMENT Hazard Identification, Risk Assessment, Definition of control measures and Monitoring methods
Justify not Risk Assessing in the Work Instruction.

Does the task involve hazards which must be considered?

J O B S A F E T Y A N A L Y S I S

Y
Documents which address specific aspects or sub-activities of the task avoid the need to repeatedly re-assess for multiple tasks. These may include: Standard Operating Procedures for items of equipment without which each must be addressed in the Safety Risk Assessment. Chemical Risk Assessments for hazardous substances without which tasks may not be carried out.

Are there supporting risk management documents which can be referenced from the Safety Risk Assessment?

N
Develop the Safety Risk Assessment for the task accounting for all associated hazards and include all relevant risk management documentation.

Prepare Working Instruction incorporating any control measures arising from a related Risk Assessment and have it checked and verified

METHOD STATEMENT Incorporating risk control measures including elimination, substitution, engineering, administrative controls and PPE

Source: OSH Legislative Hierarchy and Safe System of Work Guidelines; UWA Safety and Health

8.1

Hazard Identification

Hazards can be identified and recorded by observing, inspecting, investigating, communicating and consulting with workers. Local knowledge of workplace hazards is likely to already exist and is a useful source. If the risk associated with a hazard is obviously minor it may be possible to permanently correct it with immediate effect and avoid the need to include it in the risk assessment. The question of whether or not to include identified hazards rests with the risk assessor. Some hazards do not need to be included if basic control measures already address them in the form of local instructions or manuals due to their routine nature (e.g. outside workers using sunscreen, sunglasses and hats). If it is not a minor risk it should be included. In cases which present more than a minor risk, check whether there is a regulation, advisory standard, or industry code of practice which addresses them and use it to determine the best approach to managing the hazard. If in doubt, contact UWA Safety and Health for advice. Examples of existing supporting documents which address specific hazards are Standard Operating Procedures (SOP) for equipment and Chemical Risk Assessments. Other specific aspects or subactivities of the task may also be safety assessed in supporting documents. Reference to them can be made in the Safety Risk Assessment of tasks or activities as this avoids the need to repeatedly reassess when the process has already been carried out in advance.
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Hazards are not always attributed to the environment alone. They can also be psychological or as a result of a variety of human behaviours.

Useful sources of information are: Records of workplace inspections. Incident/injury and first aid records. Plant maintenance and breakdown records. Checklists and Audit reports. Work systems and procedures documentation. Operators record books, manuals and equipment instructions. Industry knowledge and experience.

A useful approach is to analyse in steps as follows: Is the work environment suitable for the execution of the task? What hazards can the equipment to be employed present to the users or others? Is there operating equipment in the work environment which is not associated with the planned task and if so, can its presence have an adverse affect on the planned task? How will the execution of the task affect other adjacent work areas and people? Are there people at greater risk through age, disability, experience, fatigue or physical ability?

8.2

Risk Assessment

Analysing the risk involves determination of the Consequences, Likelihood and the Exposure. Use the Safety Risk Assessment Form to determine the level of risk. Note that the completed form is to be checked and endorsed at two levels, the first is by a peer and the second is by the supervisor of the task to be performed. If a single person is to carry out a task once then the Exposure variable will have a value of 1 and the risk will be determined by Consequence and Likelihood only. The form allows the risks to be prioritised so that control measures are implemented in accordance with the severity of risk which each hazard presents. Assessing risks without any controls present gives the worst case scenario referred to as the inherent risk. Control measures which are already functioning satisfactorily need to be included in this assessment.
4 This risk assessment method is adapted from two sources. William Fine and later, G.F. Kinney and 5 A.D. Wiruth developed a risk score calculator in which the level of risk is determined by consequences, likelihood (probability) and exposure. In this methodology, the definitions are as shown in the definitions section of this document. Numbers assigned to each level of consequence, likelihood and exposure are multiplied to produce a level of risk. It is possible to apply this semi-quantitative method to injuries which occur as a result of cumulative exposure (e.g. back injury), providing that likelihood is interpreted on the basis of a cumulative effect.

The advantage of this methodology is that it causes the risk assessor to work in better defined steps than some other approaches. This approach can greatly assist in improving the quality of understanding of hazards and their associated risk as the judgement related to likelihood does not need to simultaneously account for the number of individuals present and the proportion of them that
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might be exposed to the hazard. Estimation of likelihood on an individual basis promotes a better assessment. When assessing likelihood it should be remembered that we are only assessing the possibility of an incident happening when an individual is exposed to or interacts with the hazard. The location of a hazard can affect the likelihood of the incident happening, e.g. an exposed belt drive on a machine located adjacent to a walkway where persons could easily come into contact with the nip points would have a higher likelihood rating than if the same drive arrangement were located in a position from which persons were excluded because they could not come into contact with it. Such elimination is always the best risk mitigating approach. Having decided how likely it is that the defined consequences may be realised, the exposure is considered separately. The same task may be performed on a regular basis or many people may be exposed to hazards simultaneously. This is particularly significant in the case in a university environment (e.g. students attending lectures or patrons attending a theatrical performance). Consideration must also be given to the health disposition of people being exposed as some disabilities may generate a greater exposure which must be accounted for. Step 1 using Table 1: CONSEQUENCES Define the worst case consequence of an individual interacting with the hazard in its present state, including any pre-existing control measures. Step 2 using Table 2: LIKELIHOOD Decide how likely, upon an individual interacting with the hazard, it is that the identified worse case consequence will be realised. Step 3 using Table 3: EXPOSURE Consider how often an individual will be exposed to the hazard over a period of time. Alternatively, consider the case of multiple simultaneous exposures due to the presence of multiple individuals. Step 4 using Table 4: RISK SCORE, RATING and CONTROL STRATEGY RISK RATING = CONSEQUENCES SCORE x LIKELIHOOD SCORE x EXPOSURE SCORE Calculate the risk score to determine the rating and the strategy for controlling, minimising and monitoring the hazard.

8.2.1

Identify the Consequences

The Risk Assessment Form presents the following definitions of Consequence. Select the most appropriate category from the table. Table 1 CONSEQUENCES (the most probable outcome of exposure to the hazard) Catastrophe: Multiple fatalities. Disaster: Very serious: Serious: Important: Noticeable: Fatality. Permanent disability/ill health. Non-permanent injury or ill health. Medical attention needed. Minor cuts, bruises, sickness.

C 100 50 25 15 5 1

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8.2.2

Estimate the Likelihood

The Risk Assessment Form presents the following definitions of Likelihood. Select the most appropriate category from the table. Consider whether there are reasons why exposure could be increased through such factors as lack of familiarity with an area, age, physical disability, experience, fatigue or physical ability?

Table 2 LIKELIHOOD (that an individual, being exposed to the hazard, will result the identified consequence) Almost certain: The most likely outcome if the event occurs. Likely: Unusual: Remotely possible: Conceivable: Not unusual. Quite possible to occur. Possible but doubtful. A possible coincidence. Has never happened in years of exposure, but possible.

L 10 6 3 1 0.5

8.2.3

Estimate the Exposure

The Risk Assessment Form presents the following definitions of Exposure. Select the most appropriate category from the table. Identify persons who may be exposed and determine whether the exposure will be individual or collective. An individual person may feel that an activity only presents a risk to themselves but others in the same vicinity may be affected and need to be taken into account. For example, a trip hazard from a raised paving brick may have only a low exposure if only one person per day walks over it. However, if 1000 persons per day cross it the exposure is much higher.

Table 3 EXPOSURE (can be regularity of activity or a simultaneous, collective attendance) REGULARITY ATTENDANCE Continuous or many Involves a crowd. All of whom will be directly exposed to the times daily. hazard (e.g. public event, theatre, cinema). OR Involves a crowd. Some of whom could be exposed to the hazard. Frequently. Approximately once (e.g. public event, theatre, cinema). daily. OR Occasionally. Once Involves a small gathering of people (e.g. classroom, lecture, a week to once a laboratory, meeting). month. OR Infrequent. Once a Involves several people. month to once a year. OR Rare. Has been One-off task by one person. Known to occur. OR

E 10

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8.2.4

Evaluate the Risk to Determine Control Strategies

Whilst risk control measures are being implemented, determine the monitoring regime. Create a checklist to demonstrate that it has been done which includes the date and who carried out the check. In cases where unmanned equipment is to operate, the monitoring regime must include regular checks on its operating status. The Risk Score is defined as Exposure x Likelihood x Consequences. The Risk Score is used to evaluate whether the magnitude of the risk is acceptable or tolerable and what responses, if any, are required. It is determined as follows:

Table 4 RISK SCORE CxLxE = >600

RISK RATING VERY HIGH

CONTROL STRATEGIES (to mitigate risk from the identified hazard) Immediate action required. Do not proceed with activity until control measures have been implemented Notify Supervisor, Safety & Health Representative and Head of School. Arrange continuous review and monitoring. Consider not carrying out task/activity until control measures have been implemented as soon as practicable. Notify Supervisor and Safety & Health Representative. Action plan to reduce risk. Monitor every subsequent exposure in addition to any other regular monitoring regime. Implement immediate action to minimise potential for injuries. Notify Supervisor to organise remedial action before commencing activity.

>300 to 600

HIGH

>90 to 300 90 or Less

MEDIUM

LOW

Required action to be agreed with Supervisor. Remedial action to be taken as soon as practicable and within a month.

8.3

Determining the Control Measures

The primary objective of risk control is to eliminate hazards giving rise to the risks, thereby eliminating or reducing the risk if possible. Assessing risk with the control measures in place gives the current situation known as the residual risk. When developing a risk control strategy use the hierarchy of controls shown below to find the most effective measures to be implemented. It may be necessary to take multiple measures to reduce some risks. In order of effectiveness: Elimination Removing the hazard is the most effective control method and should always be considered first (e.g. isolation of electricity supply). Substitution Replacing the material, plant, chemical or work process with a less hazardous one. Engineering Modify equipment. Automate the process to minimise human involvement. Redesign the process to eliminate hazardous activity. Isolate the hazard by guarding. Redirect the hazard by exhaust ventilation. The remaining two controls should NOT be relied on as the primary means of risk control until the options higher in the hierarchy have been exhausted. In addition to behavioural modification, these controls require management, enforcement and personnel commitment.
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Administrative Controls Procedural management of hazards, standard operating procedures (SOPs), lock-out/tag-out procedures, education and training, rotation of staff to minimise exposure. Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) This is the last resort and the least effective control method. It is the final barrier between people and the hazard. It does not control the hazard at source but instead relies on human behaviour where noncompliance can expose the person to the hazard. This may include equipment such as protective clothing, aprons, gloves, goggles, boots and respirators.

8.4

Implementation of Control Measures

The Area Supervisor must ensure control measures are recorded in the description of how to do the task. This should normally be in the form of a method statement where appropriate. The measures must be fit for purpose and properly implemented. Any physical alterations, to equipment or working environment, which are specified, must be implemented before any activities commence. In cases where implementation of control measures is outside the scope of the Supervisor these must be escalated to the appropriate management level. Whilst it may be effective in the short term to rectify hazards using interim, reliable measures, a permanent and effective solution must be implemented as soon as practicable. In some cases, it will be necessary to use more than one control measure to manage exposure to risk. For example, to minimise exposure to a risk involving a chemical you could decide to replace the chemical with a less toxic one, implement safer work procedures and use a fume cupboard. Some control measures that are lower control priorities may need to be put in place until a permanent solution can be achieved. For example, you may decide the best way to manage exposure to a risk is to purchase a safer type of machinery with better guarding (substitution). In the mean time, to allow, continued use it will be necessary to minimise exposure to the risk by increasing supervision (administrative control), changing work procedures (administrative control) and erecting a temporary barrier (engineering control). Whatever control measures are being chosen, the hierarchy of control measures must be taken into account.

8.5

Monitoring and Reviewing Control Measures

Controls themselves can be subject to failure so monitoring is recommended whenever the Risk Rating is more severe than LOW. The area Supervisor will specify the frequency for monitoring and review as it may be appropriate to include this as part of other, wider reviews in the same working area. Monitoring and review are often viewed as the final stage in the risk management process but Risk Management is dynamic, reiterative and must be responsive to change. This implies that there should always be some form of monitoring. This is the means by which risk management is kept current and effective, as new hazards and those overlooked in the original process are identified and controlled. Monitoring should be recorded to ensure that it is kept up as regularly as originally intended and should include both questioning and physical inspection to determine whether chosen control measures continue to be as effective as originally anticipated. People are generally more adept at following rules than considering risks. For this reason any monitoring system which identifies new risks must translate control measures into revised rules wherever appropriate. This may be in the form of amendments to work processes, signage and other guidance. In every activity monitoring in the form of vigilance for unexpected occurrences should be ongoing and integrated into the routine operation of the activity (e.g. a routine safety check with checklist in theatres or public events prior to performances or instructions). If new hazards can arise during an activity, it may not be possible to immediately remove people from them so the hierarchy of control must be considered in taking immediate steps to minimise risk and a permanent solution must be implemented as soon as practicable.

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9 References
1

AS/NZS ISO 31000:2009 Risk Management - Principles and Guidelines The process described for managing risk is identical to that in AS/NZS 4360:2004. This Standard is identical with and has been reproduced from ISO 31000:2009, Risk Management Principles and guidelines. It contains minor changes that have been made to the introduction to address the application of the Standard in Australia and New Zealand

Occupational Safety and Health Act 1984 (WA)

Occupational Safety and Health Regulations 1996 (WA)

FINE, W.Y.T., Journal of Safety Research 1971, p157

KINNEY, G.F. and WIRUTH A.D. Practical Risk analysis for Safety Management. NWC Technical Publication 5865 Naval weapons Centre China Lake CA 1976.

OHS Risk Management Handbook (HB 2052004); Standards Australia International This provides practical guidance on how to apply the risk management process set out in AS/NZS 4360:2004, Risk management to manage occupational health and safety risks.

10 Related Documents
10.1 Safety Risk Assessment form

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