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The Kano model shows how the individual

features of a product/service contribute to
client/customer satisfaction. The model
identifies three categories of product/service

1) Basic features: are attributes, without

which a product would simply be
unacceptable. The customer takes them as
prerequisites and may not even mention them,
though they are essential. Failure to provide
them causes great dissatisfaction; however,
putting effort into enhancing basic features
leads to no extra customer satisfaction and
may add unnecessary cost and complexity to
the product.
2) Performance features: are features that
provide a real benefit to the customer, and the
more highly implemented they are, the more
satisfied the customer will be. An example is
the fuel economy in a car - the more efficient
the better. Lower price is usually another.
3) Excitement features: give the customer
unexpected value and may be attractive out of
all proportion to the objective benefits they
give. The problem is that traditional market
research (surveys and focus groups) is
unlikely to identify the requirements for
excitement features. An example of an
excitement feature is the German
manufacturer Miele’s introduction of a vacuum
cleaner that indicates when the floor being
cleaned is dust-free (a breakthrough feature
for the increasing number of people with
1. Basic features are expected and often
essential and if not present will create client
dissatisfaction. They are ‘givens’ and the
designer is expected to implement these

2. Performance features are required to

achieve product/service success they need to
be identified by the designer.

3. Excitement features will delight the client.

The client may be unaware of that these
options exist and relies on the designer for
their implementation.