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XVII

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XVII


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Contents


, XVII, 2006



1984
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- VI . . .

. 37325.

- . . .
3

, ., . , 3,
1963, 27 . : Pelugq H. Korintische Helme. In: In: Bottini, A. ,
et all., Antike Helme. Sammlung Lipperheide und andere Bestaende des Antikenmuseums Berlin,
Meinz, 1988, S.65106.; Snodgrass, A.M. Arms and Armour, 1984, pl.49; cf. Sotheby`s, New
York, November 29 th, 1989, no. 64.
4

- : Pflug, H. Franz v. Lipperheide- Verleger, Sammler und
Maezen. In: Bottini, A. , et all., Antike Helme. Sammlung Lipperheide und andere Bestaende des
Antikenmuseums Berlin, Mainz, 1988, S. 6, Abb. 4. ; - :
Kukahn, E. Der Griechische Helm, Marburg Lahn,1936, S. 21 f; Bol, P.C. Antike Bronzetechnik.
Kunst und Handwerk antiker Erzbildner, Munchen, 1985.
5

: Antiquities,
Sotheby`s, New York, June 5 th, 1999, p.79, no. 117.
6

Pflug, H, . . . 90, . 3031.
7
, . 8796.
8
, . 93 .
9
, . 92, . 3435; . , . 409, . 31.
10
, . 93, . 36.
1
2

A Corinthian helmet from the collection of the NMH


Summary
Gavrail Lazov
The subject of this publication is a bronze helmet, Corinthian type. The heavily misshapen helmet came
in the NMH in Sofia in 1984. Its frontal section was cut off and then fastened onto a wooden base like an
electric wall bracket. The extensive study showed the missing parts of the helmet although greatly deformed,
have been preserved by the bearer. This facilitated the restoration of the helmet to its original shape.
The bronze helmets of Corinthian type are very rare finds in ancient Thrace territories. The only
helmet of this type that has been known to the specialists until now is kept in the National Military
Historical Museum in Sofia.
The helmet from the NMH is classified in the 3rd chronological group by Hermann Pflugs categorization. Considering the changeable characteristics, defined by the author, the helmet is dated back to
the last two decades of the 6th century BC

13


, XVII, 2006

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43082 ( ) 43083 ( ).
3
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5
. . , , 1957, . 153 201.
6
. , . Studia
Archaeologica Universitatis Serdicensis Suppl. IV, Stephanos Arhaeologicos in honorem
Professoris Ludmil Getov, . 2005, 504 509.
7
. , ., 1960, . 39 42, . 29 32, 62, 81, 84, 87.
8
. . , V, 1940-42, . 189 207; . , . 66.
9
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12
, 252 253, . 126 128.
13
, 267.
1
2

Chariot appliqus from the Bazikova mogila (mound),


the village of Belitsa, Hakovo district
Summary
Elena Pencheva, Ralitsa Ivanova
There are traces from a settlement on a large area in the Black fields and The new fountain
localities, situated within the arable territory of the village Belitsa, the Haskovo district. A bronze openwork side plate of a horse bridle originates from the New fountain locality as well as a Roman coin of
Emperor Caracalla, according to the local people.
A mound necropolis is in the periphery of the todays village.
The surviving pieces of a chariot were uncovered at the Bazikova mogila (Bazikova mound). A
number of fragments from decorative plates and copper alloy hobnails as well as isolated shapeless iron
pieces were found in a treasure hunters ditch 17 m northeast of the mound. According to the locals, the
iron rims of the chariot wheels were scattered nearby.
The finds are from the Roman period. More precise dating is impossible at present.

18


, XVII, 2006



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, . . . . 1905, . 467, . XCIX; , . . ., 1959, . 60, 77-78; -, .


44 86. .. . 4. 1970, . 24.
, . . . XLV. ., 1948/49, . 41; -. 1954, . 90.
, . . . . 1967, . 216, . 25, 26; , . . . 3. 1975, . 31; ,
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The Ancient Hungarians. B., 1996 , 91-92, fig. 7; 216, fig. 1; 265-266, fig. 22.
3

Ibidem, 230-231, fig. 4.
4

, . 1992-1994. Macedoniae
Acta Archaelogica, j, 1996, . 14, 185-200; , .
. j, 2000, 44-51, . 28, 84-85, . 64-64, 88 .
5

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, 2004, 3-4, 61-62.
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, . . , 1974, . 2-3, 97, . 1-5; ,
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1976, 2, 23-39; , . . ., . 39-40, . 1; , .
( -.). -, . 7, , 1995, 58-61, .
10) 709,67, . 1342-70; , . (
V , ). . , 1993, 15-17, . 2-5; , .
1992-1994, Acta Archaelogica, j, 1996, . 14, 185-200; , . . j, 2000,
44-51, . 28, 84-85, . 64-64, 88; , . (V-.) , 2003, . 1, 31-36; , . . . ( ).
9

, . . ., 97, . 1-5.
10
Ebersolt, J. Les arts somtuaires de Byzance, P., 1923, fig. 43.
11
, . . . ( ).
12
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, , .-., 1963, 211, 213, . 145) 2.
13
, 25-27.
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. VI. Coislin
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, XVII, 2006





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4

, . . . ., 1994, . 388.
5

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V. ., 1929, . V. . 58 ,
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7

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8

- , . ? Palobulgarica. .
1997, . 28.
9

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. V. ., 1964, . 303. . , 70- (Patrologia Latina.


129, cols. 715-26).
11
, ,
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12
- , .
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13
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A late medieval amulet against poor eyesight


Summary
Nikolay Markov
The amulet is a round lead plate, cast in a two-side, most probably, stone mould. It was found during
treasure-hunter excavations somewhere in the region of Preslav. Now it is kept in a private collection.
The amulet measures approximately 5, 9 cm in diameter. The plate is ca 0, 12 cm thick and weighs
22, 78 gr.
On the obverse, the warrior St. Dimitrios on horse is outlined in a low relief. The saints body
is turned almost forward in the upper part and his head is encircled with a nimbus. In the background, between the nimbus and the waving chlamys, the saints name is read in Greek O A[IOC]
(C), with letters jointed by ligatures. In his right hand, St. Dimitrios is holding a slanted
spear with its point up. On the horseback, behind the saints saddle is a small, half-facing figure with
raised hands in prayer gesture. The horse is shown galloping, rising on his hind legs.
The reverse of the amulet is occupied by an equal-shouldered cross potent on two steps.
Some scholars suggest that the tiny human figure is the blind man from Miracle 22 of the Miracles
of St. Dimitrios. They admit that the scene on the amulet is a pictorial expression of the supplication,
offered by a man, suffering from poor eyesight entreating St. Dimitrios for miraculous healing like the
miracle he did according to the Miracle 22 story.
The amulet was probably made in the 15th 16th century. It might have been made in one of the numerous goldsmith ateliers in the towns of the European territories of the Ottoman empire. The engravers,
working in these ateliers were adequately skilled to make the moulds in which the amulet was cast.

37


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8

Weir Anthony, The Bektashi Order of Dervishes.
9

, , .
10
: 1. ( 661.); 2. ( 569.); 3.
( 680.); 4. - ( 713/14.); 5. - (
732.); 6. - ( 765.); 7. - ( 799.); 8. ( 818.); 9. - ( 835.); 10. - ( 868.);
11. - ( 873.); 12. - (
874 878. -, .. , 12- .
11
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14
Hathaway J., The Iconography of the Sword
Zulfikar in the Ottoman World, in Proceedings of the International Congress on Learning and
Education in the Ottoman World, 1999, Istanbul.
15
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16
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17
., ( ),
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18
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Birge, J. K., The Bektashi Order of Dervishes. London/Hartford, 1937, p. 269.
20
,
1

45


( th,
, s).
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21
., ,
. , .2, 1999., . 24-25.
22
o Wallis Budge, Amulets and talismans, L.,
1968.
23
, .
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24
Graham O. J., Six-Pointed Star. Its Origin and Usage.
25
1001 , () 1800
.
26
he Testament of Solomon, translated by F. C. Conybeare in Jewish Quarterly Review, October,
1898.
27
, .
.
28
., , ., 2005,
.111-112.
29
., ., .
, , , IX, 2002/2003, 84-85.

An amulet related to the


Bektashiyya order in Bulgaria
Summary
Tsveta Raichevska
An emblematic medallion from the collection of the NMH is discussed here. The object is modeled as a 12-pointed star, symbolizing the 12 shiit imams (religious leaders). Both the representations (a
dervish hat, tadzh and Solomons seal) and the inscriptions on the obverse and the reverse of the medallion feature it as an amulet that had belonged to a member of the non-orthodox sufi order of Bektashiyya.
The suggested dating of the medallion-amulet is from the 15th 16th century.

46

. 1. - ) )

. 2. 1868.
-.

. 3.
I (15-16.)

47

. 4. .

. 5.
,
1761-62.

. 6.
, ,
1212-13.

. 7.
. , , 3-5.
. .

48


, XVII, 2006

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49

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, .

A 11th century Byzantine lead-bull, reused as an amulet, found


during archaeological
excavations in Silistra
Summary
Vladimir Penchev
In 2003, a Byzantine lead-bull was found during the yearly regular archaeological excavations in
Silistra. The lead-bull was additionally processed aimed at its secondary usage as an amulet.
The lead-bull belonged to the protospatharios Nicephoros Argyros. It can be dated back to the first
half of the 11th century. Most probably, Nicephoros Argyros belonged to the Argyros aristocratic family,
from which the emperor Romanos III Argyros (1028=1034) descended.
At a certain moment of its existence, the lead-bull suffered a secondary processing it was reshaped and chiseled into a nearly rectangular plate. The bust of the Virgin on the obverse, however, was
preserved. The amulet, made in this way, was possibly carried in a small pouch, hanged down from the
neck or the belt of its owner. Judging by the archaeological context, in which the amulet was found, it
should have been hidden in the second half of the 11th century.

50


, XVII, 2006

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.
2
M. Hendy. Coinage and Money in the Byzantine Empire (10811261). Washington,1969, p. 117,
pl. 15,7 9.
3
M. Hendy. Op. cit., p. 118, pl. 16,1 6.
4
Ibidem, p. 119, pl. 16,10 13.
5
Ibidem, p. 119, pl. 16,14 15; pl. 17,1 4.
6
Ibidem, p. 133, pl. 18,15 16.
7
Ibidem, p. 144, pl. 20,9 11.
8
Ibidem, p. 144, pl. 20,12 13.
9
Ibidem, p. 145, pl. 21,1 4.
10
Ibidem, p. 145, pl. 21,5 7.
11
Ibidem, p. 151, pl. 22,8 12; pl. 23,1 7.
12
Ibidem, p. 218, pl. 24,1 9.
13
Ibidem, p. 218, pl. 24,10 14.
14
Ibidem, p. 218, pl. 24,15; pl. 25,1 5.
15
Ibidem, p. 191, pl. 25,6 10.
16
Ibidem, p. 198, pl. 29,1 3.
17
. . (1081 1261). .,
1984, . 62.
18
. . . ., . 63 65.
19
, . 65.
20
. . . : . . .,1973, .
77.
21
. . .
. , V, 2005, . 122
135.
22
, . . ., 1982, . 150.
23
, , - . . . ,
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24
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Collective find of billon


scyphates, found in the ruins of the Roman fortress in Kiustendil
Summary
Vladimir Penchev
The subject of this work is a collective find of billon scyphates, accidentally found in the ruins of
the Roman fortress over 30 years ago. The hoard contains 259 coins, which are grouped as follows:
Manuel I Comnenus (114 1180), 3rd mintage, 3 pieces
Manuel I Comnenus (114 1180), 4th mintage, 6 pieces
Andronicus I Comnenus (1183-1185) 1 piece
Isaac II Angelus(1185-1195) 59 pieces
Alexius III Angelus (1195-1203) 78 pieces
Bulgarian imitations, type A 33 pieces
Bulgarian imitations, type B 17 pieces
Bulgarian imitations, type C 47 pieces
Latin Constantinople imitations 15 pieces
The latest coins from this find are small-size Latin Constantinople imitations, type A. Reasonably the hoard must have been hidden at the beginning of the second decade of the 13th century at the
earliest.

63


, XVII, 2006


(V .)
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1948.,
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67

. . . , V, 1950, . 322.
. . . ,
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3
Ph. Grierson. Catalogue of the Byzantine Coins in the Dumbarton Oaks Collection and in the
Whittemore Collection, vol. V, part II, Washington, 1999, pl. 30, N 502.
4
Ph. Grierson. Op. cit., pl. 30, N 502.
5
Ibidem, pl. 30, N 503.
6
. , . . . ., 1990, . 125.
7
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9
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(v .) ...

Part of a hoard of gold and silver medieval coins (14th century), from the
village of Aleksandrovo,
the Lovech district
Summary
Vladimir Penchev
In 1948, a clay vessel with gold and silver coins and adornments from the 14th century was found
on the territory of the Aleksandrovo village, the district of Lovech. 3 gold Byzantine coins of emperor
Andronicos II Palaeologos with Andronicos III Palaeologos, 13 silver coins of Ivan-Alexander with
Michael Asen and 1 silver ring entered the Archaeological Museum in Sofia. Most probably, the hoard
was hidden at the end of the 50s and the beginning of the 60s of the 14th century.
This partially survived hoard is the subject of the article.

71


, XVII, 2006

,
,

2002.,
,
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,
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72

,

,
,
. (Custurea 1980,
641 642; Diaconu 1980). (
1982, 124, . , 9).
,



( 1982, 124;
, 1990, 185).
. , , ,
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(,
1990, 184),
.

, ...

1982: . . . :
. . , 1982, 119 129.
, 1990: . , . . . ., 1990.
Custurea 1980: G. Custurea. Precisari cu privire la cronologia unor monede medievale descoperite la
Pacuiul lui Soare. Studii si cercetari de istorie veche si arheologie, vol. 31, 4. Bucuresti, 1980, 641642.
Diaconu 1980: P. Diaconu. Les contributions numismatiques a la connaissance de l organisation
politique de la Dobroudja (XIV s.). Rapports du IVe Congres International d Archeologues Slave, 1516
Septembre, 1980, Sofia.

. 1

A newly-found copper coin of


Terter, son of the despot
Dobrotitsa, over-struck on a coin of Dobrotitsa, minted in Drastar
Summary
Vladimir Penchev
In 2002, a copper coin of Terter, son of the Dobrudzha despot Dobrotitsa, over-struck on a copper
coin of Dobrotitsa was discovered during regular archaeological excavations in Silistra.
Until now, only 3 coins of Terter over-struck on coins of Dobrotitsa, have been published. Two of
them were found on the island of Pacuiul lui Soare, situated opposite Silistra and the third coin originates from the fortress of Shumen.
The significance of these over-struck coins consists in that they help to indisputably establish the
relative chronology of the Drastar copper mintages of Dobrotitsa and his son Terter. Undoubtedly, the
coins of Dobrotitsa are the earlier.

73


, XVII, 2006






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Universit degli studi di Roma La Sapienza, Wikipedia. L enciklopedia libera.
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La Sapienza IERI. www.uniroma1.it/europrog/ectsguide/acts0203it/La Sapienza_0203_it.PDF,
s.1
7

La Sapienza OGGI. www.uniroma1.it/europrog/ectsguide/acts0203it/La Sapienza_0203_it.PDFq, s. 1
8

1930-1932 1935-1943.
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, , .1977 .25

, V-V .2005
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.. , .
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, . .
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.. ,
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www.cais-soas.com
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ON IBERIAN KINGDOM: FOURTH -FIRST CENTURIES BC The First International
Conference on the Ancient Cultural Relations Between Iran and Western Asia, Tehran, IRAN,
16-18 August, 2003.
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Transactions of the Ancient Monuments Society, vol. 43, 1999, pp. 77-100
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Datsvisa da Analizis Sakitkhebi ( ). Tbilisi,
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32
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34
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93

Nikola Rizov moments


from the life of a Bulgarian
Summary
Valentina Zadgorska
In the end of 2005, a donation was made to the National museum of history. The donation is related to Nikola Rizov, brother of Dimitar Rizov renowned Bulgarian diplomat and publicist. Nikola
Rizov (1872-1942) was born in Bitola, Macedonia. He graduated from the School for political sciences
in Paris in 1897, then he started work as a teacher at the Solun boys secondary school and for over nine
years, he was an official of the Ministry for foreign affairs and denominations. He assumed various posts
in the Bulgarian diplomatic agencies in Germany, Greece and Rumania. He also worked as a political
journalist.
The donation contains 26 objects a portrait of Nikola Rizov (1903), his graduation diploma from
Paris, award certificates, Nikola Rizovs personal seal, a leather case with his initials, invitations for
various official parties receptions, balls, etc.

94


, XVII, 2006

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106

The unknown Ilia Bizhev


Summary
Olga Yaneva
A period of the life and activity of Ilia Bizhev, a Macedonian revolutionary activist, a teacher, a
lawyer and a public figure, is represented in the article. The story is based on photos of his, memories,
and documents, committed to the museum by his daughter Nadezhda Bizheva-Radeva for a temporary
use by the museum experts.
The central moment in the article is Ilia Bizhevs participation in 1903 as a member of the volunteers detachment of Yane Sandanski in Tsarigrad (Istanbul) as he remembered it. His participation in the
events show him as a defender of the achievements of the Young Turks revolution (1908), threatened
by the counterrevolutionary revolt in the Ottoman capital. His memories about the events significantly
contribute to clarifying a number of details related to our recent history.

107


, XVII, 2006

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Between the reality and


the national ideal:
Ivan mihaylov in Zagreb
(1941 1944)
Summary
Nikolai Kochankov
Following the defeat of Yugoslavia in April 1941 Germany and Italy agreed to certain steps to match
up their standpoints on the approaching territorial rework of the European Southeast. The Foreign Ministers von Ribbentrop and count Ciani drew out the new political map of the region during the meeting in
Vienna. Macedonia, as well as some other territories conceded after the WWI to Yugoslavia of that time,
was given to Bulgaria but at the same time, to the West, a wide belt encompassing Struga, Gostivar, Tetovo
and Debar was handed to Albania in spite of the Bulgarian protest.
In May 1941 Ivan (Vancho) Mihaylov and his wife Melpomena (Mencha) Karicheva found shelter
in Zagreb as guests of the leader (Poglavnik) of the Independent State of Croatia (Nezavisna Drzava
Hrvatska) Ante Paveli. Mihaylov did not have much room for maneuvering under the surveillance of
the Germans secret services and the Bulgarian Legation but he was not in political isolation either. Relations between the Macedonian leader and his followers in Bulgaria were not cut off. What is more, the
Mihaylovs correspondence from Zagreb to Sofia and vice versa was conducted through the diplomatic
channels of the Croatian Legation He was even granted access to the reports of the Croatian diplomats
that allowed him to be timely informed about the events in Bulgaria.
The attitude of the Bulgarian officials toward Iv. Maihaylov is ambivalent the government unquestionably demonstrated its unwillingness to share with him the bays from the joining of Macedonia
as well as its dissociation from the methods that Mihaylov had practiced in the past. These viewpoints,
however, were not made public. In fact the Bulgarian newspapers published laudatory appraisals about
his efforts of defending the Bulgarian identity and spirit in the not-so-distant past. It is also said that
he was pardoned and free to return immediately to the country. It is quite another issue that Mihaylov
himself did not consented to this amnesty pronouncing the latter to be inconclusive and offensive to
the memory of generations of Macedonian activists who had given their lives for the unification of
Bulgaria.
The decision of Iv. Mihaylov to continue with his exile was clearly a manifestation of his uneasy
relations with the officials in Sofia. His assessments about the policy of the Bulgarian government and
particularly the one conducted in Macedonia, had endured significant changes since the fall of 1941.
Now he considered it erroneous and extremely dangerous and when the moment comes for us to defend our common Bulgarian cause we would not be able to do so.
All of the above leads to the view that Iv. Mihaylov was able to return to Bulgaria but not to the
active Bulgarian political life. His eventual political re-activation would have significantly impeded the
plans of the government concerning Macedonia.
The capitulation of Italy in September 1943, provided a real opportunity to Bulgaria to re-unite
those of the Macedonian territories that had been conceded to Albania earlier. However such a step
was never made. The concerns of the Bulgarian government about further involvement in the issues of
the European Southeast did not allow the Bulgarian politicians to comprehend clearly the difference
between the activities of the occupying military corps in Serbia and th possible joining of Western
Macedonia a region where the Bulgarian population was subjected to a systematic terror from the
Albanian gangs..
Ivan Mihaylov was given the opportunity to realize his political ambitions even towards the end
of the WWII, when he was encouraged by the Germans to proclaim independent Macedonia. On the

145


31st of August he arrived in Sofia and in the following days stayed in Skopje where he unsuccessfully
tried to proclaim the Macedonian independency. After this fruitless move Mihaylov returned shortly in
Zagreb to continue along the path of his political emigration.
The documents introduced in this article reveal new aspects of Ivan Mihaylovs activity during
his voluntary exile in the Croatian capital. The main body of these documents consists of reports and
ciphered telegrams from the Bulgarian minister plenipotentiary in Zagreb Yordan Mechkarov to the
minister of foreign affairs, an office successively occupied by Ivan Popov, Bogdan Filov, Sava Kirov,
Dimitar Shishmanov and Parvan Draganov. Reports of the Bulgarian minister plenipotentiary in Berlin
Parvan Draganov, of Iliya Boyadzhiev, a minister plenipotentiary in Lisbon , of Petar Lungov, a press
attach in Zagreb, of Stefan Shopov, head of the Bulgarian consulate in Belgrade, of rear admiral Sava
Ivanov, a liaison officer at the German headquarters in Belgrade, of captain Petrov, a military attach in
Zagreb are among the issued documents.
The documents come from the Central State Archives and the Ministry of Internal affairs Archive.
They are published in chronological succession and in their original handwriting and spelling the only
change is the dropping of the letter in the end of the words.

146


, XVII, 2006


1943-1944
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148

Allied bombing of Bulgaria during the World


War II, : ACTA. International Congress
for the 50 years from the 1940-1941 Epopee
and the Battle of Crete, Greece, 1991; , . : , .,
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168

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1916., 15 1917., 30 1923., 1 1933.,
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, 22- 1926., 3-
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98 1935., 3- 115 1936.,
3- 120 1937., - 8- 1939., 1941.,
- 6- 1942.

Unknown documents on the


Anglo-American air attacks
upon Bulgaria between 1943-1944
Summary
Kotev N., Koteva Avr., Venem Yan.
The Anglo-American air offensive between 1943 and 1944 is still one of the insufficiently clarified historical questions. The present work is based on unknown and little known evidences from the
documents kept in the Central Military Archives Veliko Tarnovo, that reveal a number of details on
the composition of the Anglo-American flying corps, the counteraction of the Bulgarian air-defence and
air forces, on the choice of assaulted targets etc. The article also tries to explain those circumstances that
made the Bulgarian government start after tsar Boris IIIs death, negotiations for eventually signing a
peace agreement with the states of the anti-Hitlerit coalition.

169


, XVII, 2006

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181


The Chirpan (Vazovs) guest room
in the Rila Monastery
Summary
Maria Koleva
All prospering Bulgarian villages participated in the restoration of the Rila monastery after the
devastating fire in 1833 giving their material and moral contribution to the common efforts in achieving the goal.
In 1835, the citizens of the town of Chirpan provided the finance means and bought one of the
guest rooms of the monastery, situated in its eastern wing.
In 1985, the exhibition Interior of the Chiprovtsi guest room from mid-19th century opened in
the Chirpan room. The exhibits reveal the spiritual involvement between the Chirpanians and the Rila
monastery, illustrate their everyday life, inimitable diligence and mutual aid.
The Chirpanians are known as men-of-honor, they willingly keep to their traditions and make
every effort for the spiritual advance of their fellow-countrymen.

182


, XVII, 2006





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,.. . // ,1981, 6, 98106;


: . ., 1988, 65109
2

, . . ., 1993, 5560
3
, 7779
4

, . . . ., 1985
1

185

( , 1882 .)
.
Age designations in the Middle West Bulgaria
Summary
Simeon Milyov
The designations of male and female grown-ups in Central West Bulgaria - the districts of Pernik
and Breznik (Graovo), Radomir (Mraka), Tran (Znepole) within the territory of the administrative
region of Pernik are the subject of this work.

186


, XVII, 2006







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Pharmacia
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2.

, ., , , , 1976
, ., ., . , , , , 1978.
3. , ., . , , , , 1981.
4. , .., , , , 1985.
5. ,., ., , 2, , , 1984.
6. ., .,, , , 1982.
7. Hawell,D.,Silk degradation studies, In book: Silk: Harpers Ferry Regional Group 11th
Symposium, Nowember 12-13, 1992, National Museum of American History (1992), pp. 1112.
8. Chikamai, B.N., M.E. Osman, A.R.Menzies and W.B.Banks, An evaluation of methods for
characteristing and monitoring gum arabic of commerce and releated Acacia gums, Wood science
and technology, 30, no.1, 49-61 (1995).
9. De La Rie, E. Rene and Christopher W. McClinchey, New synthetic resins for picture varnishes.
In proceedings:Cleaning,retouching and coatings technology and practice for easel paintings and
polychrome sculpture:preprints of the contributions to the Brussels Congress, 3-7 September
1990,Milles John S. and Smith, Perry, Editors (1990),168-173.
10. , ., . ,
, a , II,
2001, 233-244.
11. , ., ,
, ,
IV, 2004, 378-384.

Effective methods for purification of proteins for the purpose


of conservation analysis
Summary
Diana Nikolova
Three methods for separation, purification and concentration of protein solutions, largely applied
in protein chemistry are described in the article. According to the literature, only the gel-chromatography is episodically used in the analytical practice of conservation and restoration. The author has
successfully applied the three methods in her research work and she recommends them as effective
methods for conservation analysis in purification, separation, concentration and desalting of protein
binders in the course of the preparation of this type of substances for their identification.

191


, XVII, 2006



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4. 18871909 .
5.
(1835 1899) , ,
6.
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3.
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5.
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, 1806 .,
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.
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30- 20 .
1892 .,

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199

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.
;
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5.


-, . 2005. . : , , 363372.
, . 1995. . Museum, N 185,
4-5.
Belcher, M. 1991. Exhibitions in Museums. London, Leichester.
Dean, D. 1995. Museum Exhibitions. Theory and Practice. London: Routhlege.
Hainard,J. 1994. Objects en drive pour Le Salon de lethnographie. In:Vagues. Une anthologie
de la nouvelle musologie.Vol. II. Paris, 405414.
Hofmann, R. 1999. Qualit, objectivit et integrit de lnterpretation de lhistiore dans les
muses. In: Cahier dtude ICOM, 6, 1214.
Kult und Kultur des Ausstellens. Beitrge zur Praxis, Theorie und Didaktic des Museums. 1992.
Wien: Universitt Verlag.
Maroevi, I. 1998. Intoduction to Museology the European Approach. Mnchen: Verlag Dr.
Christian Mller-Straten.
McLean, K. 1999. Museum exhibitions and dynamics of dialogue. Daedalus, Boston, Summer,
83107.
Schrrer, M. 2000.Le muse et lxposition: Variation de langages, variation de signes.Cahier
dtud ICOM, N 8, 910.
Schouten, F. 1987. Psychology and Exhibit Design: A Note. Museum management and
curatorship, V. 6, 259262.
Shapiro, M. (Ed.) 1990. The Museum. A Reference Guide. New-YorkLondon, Greenwood Press
USA.
ola, T. 1997. Essays on Museums and their Theory. Towards the cybernetic museum. Saarijavi,
Gummerus Kirjapaino Oy.
Strnsk, Z. 1977. Museological principles of museum exhibitions. In: The Problems of
Contents, Didactics and Aesthetics of Modern Museum Exhibitions. Budapest, 7194.
Waidacher, F. 1999. Handbuch der Allgemeinen Muselogie. Wien, Bhlau Verlag.
Pears, S.M. (Ed.) Experiancing Material Culture in the Western World. London, Leichester Unev.
Press, 6580.

200

Secondary selection and philosophy of the museum exhibition


(on materials from the History museum in Gabrovo)
Summary
Leonora Boneva-Trayanova
The principles of the secondary selection are set at the initial phase of the preparation and planning
of the exhibition, at its conceptual level. During the process, concretization of the objects to be exhibited
is made, based on the general idea and the formulated messages to the museum public. Determining is
the principle that the presentation should be founded on the collections and not on ordinary information
media. Both processes conceptualization and selection go parallel in case of object-oriented exhibitions and when the exhibitions are content-oriented then the concept is preceding.
Excerpts from the Gabrovo and the Gabrovians exhibition basic concept for the History museum in Gabrovo illustrate the complex conceptualization selection interaction. The exhibition concept
was created by the author of this article in 2004 and the exhibition design, drawn up by prof. Lachezar
Lozanov and ass. Prof. Miroslav Bogdanov. The concrete results from the secondary selection, carried
out by the team of the History museum in Gabrovo, under the conduction of the museum director Petar
Totsev are given in the supplement.

201


, XVII, 2006

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2005-2006.)
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Christian feasts. Folk


traditions and customs
(On the exhibition project of NMH in 2005-2006)
Summary
Elizabeth Savcheva
The short-term exhibitions entitled Christian feasts. Folk traditions and customs that is held
every month in the foyer of the National museum of history is a challenge for the specialists from
the History of art, ethnography and interdisciplinary studies department. The realization goal was
motivated with the Bulgarian tradition, it meets both the modern museum-goers requirements and the
tendency in the all-European museum development. The specific representation of original objects from
the collections of NMH, labeled and accompanied with texts from the Holy Scriptures, hagiography and
hymnography works, as well as with poems and songs from the rich folklore, comes to show the roots
and the wealth of traditions and cultures and the role they played in preservation of the national identity,
the memory of the old homeland, language, traditions, customs.

203

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