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Introduction Method of moments (MM) based RCS calculations are performed by the three Matlab computer codes: 1. pulbf.m (pulbf2.m ) 2. tribf.m (tribf2.m ) 3. wiregrid.m The first code (pulbf.m ) uses pulse basis functions to solve the E-field integral equation (EFIE) and compute the monostatic RCS. The second code (tribf.m ) uses overlapping triangular basis functions in the solution of the EFIE. Two slightly different versions of the codes are provided. The version with 2 in the name uses Gaussian quadrature integration, while the other version uses simple rectangular rule integration. For very long wires with hundreds of segments Gaussian quadrature is faster. The third code (wiregrid.m ) calculates the RCS of simple wire grid models using pulse basis functions. All three codes assume thin wires of diameter 2a e , where a e is the effective radius. Wires of arbitrary cross section can be handled if the proper effective radius is used in the calculation. For a discussion of the theory and derivation of the formulas see reference [1]. Pulse Basis Functions: pulbf.m Pulse basis functions are used in the solution of the EFIE. This is equivalent to representing the current on the wire by a staircase approximation. It is assumed that the wire is very thin and the length much larger than the radius ( a << and a << L ). Under these conditions there is only an axial component of current. The wire is parallel to the z axis. It is discretized into segments and the current is assumed to be constant on each segment. The subdomain (segment) size should be much less than the wavelength, but if it becomes too small numerical errors can result. A good starting point is 0.1 .

A portion of the program setup is shown below. The angles at which the RCS is computed are assigned at the beginning: start, stop and the increment dt (all in degrees). They can be changed by the user. The wire length is lwz, and all lengths are normalized to wavelength. The polarization of the incident wave is TM z E i = E 0 + E 0 where E 0 = 1 and E 0 = 0 . For a thin wire, the only nonzero scattered field component will be TM z (that is, there is only a ). Rs is the resistivity of the wire in ohms/square. A perfect electric conductor has Rs=0.

% % % % % % % % program pulbf.m scattering from a wire using the method of moments with pulse basis functions. wire is along the z axis. TM pol assumed at an angle theta. Nseg is the number of segments -- assumed to be equal in length and the width is w (<< wavelength). Perfect electric conductor assumumed. uses delta function approximation for Zmn start=0; stop=180; dt=2; rad=pi/180; bk=2*pi; conk=4*pi; eta=377; sigc=bk^2/conk*eta^2; lwz=input('enter length: '); nseg=input('enter nseg: '); Rs=input('resistivity: ');

For a circular wire it is the same as the physical radius. If the wire radius is not specified, L ae is a good value to use that satisfies the thin wire approximation. If the wire is a ( 2)( 74.2) flat strip of width w then the effective radius is about a e 0.25w . The segment size is computed from the number of segments and length of the wire specified by the user.

% calculations use an equivalent strip width (radius*4) thus use 4*aw ae=lwz/2/74.2; delw=lwz/nseg;

% compute impedance elements nint=5; dint=delw/nint;

Example: The RCS of a thin perfectly conducting wire of radius a = 0.0084 and length L = 1.25 is shown below. The two large lobes at 50 and 130 degrees are due to traveling waves. Increasing the resistivity of the wire would decrease its RCS.

-5 -10 -15 -20 -25 -30 -35 -40 -45 -50 length in wavlengths= 1.25, number of segments= 40

2 Sigma/wavl , dB

50

150

200

Triangular Basis Functions: tribf.m Triangular basis functions are computationally more efficient than pulse basis functions. Therefore, fewer segments are needed to compute the current. Another difference between pulbf.m and tribf.m is that the wire orientation is arbitrary for tribf.m. The coordinates ( x, y , z ) of the endpoints are specified as shown below. It can be done interactively by un-commenting the first two lines.

% % R1(1:3)=input('enter start [x y z]: '); R2(1:3)=input('enter stop [x y z]: '); R1=[0 0 0]; R2=[0 0 1.25]; nsegs=input('enter number of segments: ');

The plane is also specified. This is arbitrary because of the cylindrical symmetry of a wire, and it is usually chosen to be = 0 .

phid=input('enter phi for pattern cut: '); phr=phid*rad; cp=cos(phr); sp=sin(phr);

The plane wave and receive vector elements for the and components are rwt and rwp, respectively.

rwt(m)=(sum1+sum3)*dint; rwp(m)=(sum2+sum4)*dint;

The RCS is computed using rwt; the RCS is computed using rwp. (Note that if the wire is not parallel to the z axis, both components may be nonzero.)

% compute sigma theta-theta B=rwt;

Example: wire along the x axis. The result is simply a rotated version of the RCS in the last example.

-5 -10 -15 Sigma/wavl , dB -20 -25 -30 -35 -40 -45 -50 0 50 100 Angle, Degrees 150 200

Simple Wire Grid Models: wiregrid.m The program wiregrid.m can be used to compute the RCS of objects comprised of wires. The thin wire approximation is assumed on all wires and pulse basis functions are used. The setup is similar to pulbf.m and tribf.m. The number of wires is specified along with their end points in cartesian coordinates. The number of segments in each wire is also specified by the user. Simple wire grid models can be used to predict the resonant frequencies of structures. For this type of calculation the angle of incidence is fixed and the frequency is varied. Resonances are expected at frequencies that correspond to integer multiples of / 2 .

% data for wire endpoints -- noninteractive case (if interact=1) nwires=6; P1(1,1:3)=[-.2 -.2 0]; P2(1,1:3)=[-.1 0 0]; nsegs(1)=8; % left wing P1(2,1:3)=[-.2 .2 0]; P2(2,1:3)=[-.1 0 0]; nsegs(2)=8; % right wing P1(3,1:3)=[-.55 0 0]; P2(3,1:3)=[0 0 0]; nsegs(3)=20; % fuselage P1(4,1:3)=[-.55 -.1 0]; P2(4,1:3)=[-.5 0 0]; nsegs(4)=5; % left tail P1(5,1:3)=[-.55 .1 0]; P2(5,1:3)=[-.5 0 0]; nsegs(5)=5; % right tail P1(6,1:3)=[-.50 0 0]; P2(6,1:3)=[-.55 0 .1]; nsegs(6)=5; % vert tail

The program automatically plots the center points of all segments of all wires. The center location is represented by a o on the plot as shown below:

wire segment center points

0.5

The user can input a model by replacing the aircraft data in the code itself, or by changing the parameter interact, which allows geometry data to be entered interactively.

interact=0; if interact==0, nwires=input('enter nwires: '); end kseg=0; for i=1:nwires if interact==0 R1(1:3)=input(['enter [x,y,z] of end 1 of wire ',num2str(i),': ']); R2(1:3)=input(['enter [x,y,z] of end 2 of wire ',num2str(i),': ']); nsegs(i)=input(['enter number of segments for wire ', ,num2str(i),':']'); else R1(1:3)=P1(i,:); R2(1:3)=P2(i,:); end

% calculations use an equivalent radius (same for all wires) aw=0.005; % aw=L/2/74.2; This is a good value if aw is not specified

The range of frequencies and the frequency increment are input by the user. The impedance matrix is recalculated at each frequency, so the computational time to complete each frequency can be substantial if there are many segments in the model. It is recommended that a single frequency be solved initially in order to estimate the execution time. Note that if nf=1 a single frequency is computed and the angles are varied as assigned in the code below. Also, it should be noted that continuity of current at the junctions of the wires is not enforced. The junction effect should be small, particularly at frequencies near the structure resonance.

fstart=input('start frequency in MHz: '); fstop=input('stop frequency in MHz: '); df=0; nf=1; if fstart~=fstop, df=input('frequency step in MHz: '); end if df~=0, nf=floor((fstop-fstart)/df)+1; end if nf>1 phd=input('phi (deg) for backscatter calculation: '); thd=input('theta (deg) for backscatter calculation: '); it=1; dang=0; start=thd; end if nf==1 start=0; stop=360; dang=2; it=floor((stop-start)/dang)+1; phd=0; end

Example: A simple stick aircraft. The incident wave is approaching from above the aircraft and the electric field vector is parallel to the fuselage. The RCS peak at about 270 MHz is a fuselage resonance.

phi= 0

250

350

400

Reference: [1] D. Jenn, Radar and Laser Cross Section Engineering, AIAA Education Series, 1995

(10/20/99)

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