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TAMIL NADU AGRICULTURAL UNIVERSITY

COIMBATORE 641 003

Baking and Confectionery Technology FSN C53 (2+1) ASSIGNMENT ON Bread Rolls

Course Teacher Dr.D.Malathi, Assoc. Prof (FSN) PHTC

External Examiner

Submitted by A.Vigneshwaran BTF-09-041 III B.Tech-FPE

Bread Roll: The production of bread rolls differs principally from that used in making bread in that a richer formula is used and less mixing is required. The dough usually is much softer. The significant ingredients that make richer formula are the fat and sugar content, and in some instances, soft wheat flour is combined with hard wheat flour. Formulas for rolls differ widely i however, regular bread dough may be used to make rolls of good quality. Basic formulas for rolls are as follows: 1. Evaporated & 2. Nonfat dry Bread-Rolls Formulas Hard Rolls (Based on French Bread Fonnula) Rour, Hard wheat Rour, soft wheat Water (vaiable), total Yeast Salt Sugar (total) Shortening Milk 100.00 100.00 100.00 . Soft Rolls (Adapted From Standard Hot Roll Recipe) 85.00 15.00

Ingredient

Quick Raised Hot Rolls Yeast Rolls Standard

Puff Rolls

100.00 -

40.00

26.09

56.67

62.00

76.19

1.24 1.69 9.44 10.00 1132.22

2.85 2.17 9.78 13.04 65.22

1.85 1.67 2.92 2.08

'3.00 1.75 .8.00 12.00 5.00

4.76 0.60 9.52 19.07 29.52

General Directions for Bread Roll production

The steps in roll production are the same as for bread production. These are as follows: 1. Weighing and measuring of ingredients 2. Mixing 3. Fermenting 4. Dividing 5. Scaling 6. Rounding 7 . Intermediate proof 8. Makeup 9. Panning 10. Pan proof 11. Baking 12. Cooling.

Problems Associated with Bread-Roll Production The following problems are associated with bread-roll production. Temperature - As with loaf bread production, temperature control is of paramount importance. Dough temperature should remain at 800F. Too high a temperature will cause dough to ferment too rapidly and rolls will become Sour or yeasty tasting. On the other hand, too low temperature causes heavy tough rolls. Fermentation - The amount of time needed depends upon the amount of yeast and sugar used. In quick-raised rolls, for example about twice more yeast is used and only one fermentation period is required because there is no make up. Proof time is only of 30 minutes duration. Scaling and Shaping - Makeup of bread rolls constitutes the major step in production. The variety of shapes possible with soft and hard rolls is most endless. Accurate scaling of dough and skilled manipulation of it in forming shapes is required of the baker. Proofing - Since rolls are considerably smaller in size than loaf bread, proofing time is very critical. The following points should be controlled: Volume - Rolls should be proofed until about doubled in volume from makeup size. Time required -Under normal conditions of temperature-humidity, this will require

approximately two hours.

Overproofing - Over proof rolls will have blisters on the surface, appear flattened upon placing in oven, and will coarsen in texture when baked. Other than the points discussed, problems in bread-roll production do not differ from those in bread production. Makeup of Bread Rolls Steps in making bread rolls are as follows Sandwich Rolls-Makeup as follows: (1) Divide dough into 1.5Kg.pieces.Round up and let rest 15 minutes. Form each piece of dough into a rope 1in. in diameter. (2) Cut strips of dough into pieces weighing approximately 50 gms. each. (step 1). (3) Round the 50 gms. Pieces into balls by rolling them with a circular motion on the work bench. (Step 2). (4) Place rolls in rows on a greased baking sheet 11/2 to 2 in. apart. (5) Proof for 15 minutes. (6) Flatten rolls with fingers or small Can to the desired thickness and finish proofing. (Step 3).

Step 1 - Cut strips of dough. Step 3 -Flatten and finish proofing

Step 2 Round

Pan Rolls - Proceed as for sandwich rolls, except omit step 6.

Wiener (or finger) Rolls - Make up as follows: (1) Divide dough and roll into strips as for sandwich rolls. 1 (2) Cut strips of dough into pieces weighing approximately 50 gms each. (Use only 30 gms. of dough for linger rolls.) (3) Round dough slightly and roll into pieces approximately 4l/2 in. long. (4) Place rolls in rows on a greased baking sheet l/2 in. apart.

Parker house Rolls - Makeup as follow: (1) Divide and roll dough as for sandwich rolls. (2) Cut strips into portions weighing approximately 50 gms. (1 in thick) (3) Shape dough into balls by rolling with a circular motion on workbench. (4) Allow balls to rest for 10 to 15 minutes. (5) Elongate with small rolling pin. Crease rolls across center with hand, dull edge of knife, or rolling pin. Brush with melted fat. (Step 1.)

(6) Fold roll on crease and press together with palm of hand. Place rolls in rows on greased baking sheet about 1/2in. (apart step 2). Shaping Parker house Rolls Cloverleaf RolIs- Make up as follows: (1) Roll 1.5 kg. piece of dough into a rope approximately 1 in. in diameter and cut into pieces 50 gms each. (2) Divide each small piece of dough into threes and shape in small balls. (3) "Place into oiled muffin pans allowing three balls for each cup, as shown. Twin Rolls - Proceed as for cloverleaf rolls but allow only two balls for each cup. Butterhom Rolls - Make up as follows: (1) Roll dough into a 9 in. circle or a thin rectangular sheet. (2) Cut circle into eight wedge-shaped pieces or cut sheet of dough into triangle. (3) Brush with melted butter. Begin at base, roll each triangle keeping point in middle of roll. Place on greased baking sheet 1% in. apart. Crescents - Proceed as for butter-horn rolls and bring ends of butter horn towards each other to form a crescent shape. Poppyseed or Seasame seed rolls - Shape as for twin rolls, braids, or pinwheels. Brush with egg wash or milk after panning and sprinkle generously with seeds. Butter Pinwheels - Makeup as follows: (1) Roll out a' 2.5 kgs. Strip of dough into a rectangular sheet about l/4 in. thick. (2) 'Spread with creamed butter. , (3) Roll dough as for jellyroll, cut into slices 3/4 in. thick. (4) Place (cut surface down) on greased baking sheet 1/2in. apart.

(5) Brush top with melted butter. Bread Roll Made From Retarded Dough - Retarded doughs are those that are mixed up ahead of need, the dough is kneaded and allowed to undergo one fermentation after which they are punched to release gas, closely covered, and stored at refrigerator temperatures until needed. If an appreciable amount of gas has expanded the dough during storage, then it must be punched down while still in refrigeration t6 release the gas. Enough gas may form to require several punching, so the dough should be checked every few hours. When needed, the entire dough mass, or that amount required, is removed from the refrigerator, shaped into rolls; and pan proofed until doubled in bulk. Most tread on roll dough formulas can be held in the refrigerator up to 48 hours before baking if temperatures are carefully controlled. Yeast action will become inactive at 38' to 42'F, but dough must not be subjected to lower temperatures. Too much gas formation is characteristic of doughs held above 42'F. However, better quality rolls are produced if yeast in roll formulas is adjusted for retarded dough use because over fermentation may result. In doughs to be held over 48 hours an additional sugar will be required to furnish the yeast food. Hard Rolls - The quality most sought after in -hard rolls, like that in French and Vienna breads, is crispness of crust. To obtain the flavour, hard rolls must be thoroughly fermented or well aged because young dough produces tough, rubbery crusts. Use of strong flour is necessary for properly fermented or aged dough. About 1 ]/2 hours should be allowed before first punch and 3/;J hour for second. Varieties of hard rolls are round, french, vienna and seed. Procedure for hard-roll production is as follow: 1. Use any French-bread formula, ferment as directed. 2. Scale dough into 1.5 to 2 kgs. 3. Round and let rest 10 to 15 minutes. 4. Flatten and cut into rolls (by hand or roll divider) and shape up in anyone of the varieties described earlier. 5. Allow to rise until double in size. 6. Back hard rolls at 450'F. Use of steam to saturate oven is desirable to allow the dough surface to expand and convert starch to dextrose which causes better browning.

Difference between Breads & Bread rolls

Properties Density Moisture content Temperature Time Glazing Leaning effect

Breads 0.22 to 0.25 kg/m 36.8 to 40.4% wb 200 to 230 C 20 minutes Not necessary 2 to 5 % of length

Bread rolls 0.20 to 0.25 kg/m 26.4 to 37 % wb 175 to 190 C 12 to 15 minutes Egg white + water 3 to 7 % of length

Bread Roll Machinery:Much of a bakers art and craft involves simple tools. Learning to be a skilled baker requires developing a great deal of manual skill using these tools. For example, a pastry bag is nothing more than a cone-shaped piece of fabric or plastic, open at both ends. Although its construction is simple and it requires no operating manual, hours of practice are required to become skilled at using a pastry bag for decorative work. At the other extreme are large machines such as floormodel mixers, ovens of many types, and dough-handling equipment such as molders, dividers, and sheeters. Of these, perhaps only ovens are essential to a bakers work. The other items are important laborsaving devices that enable the worker to produce goods in large quantities with greater speed. Without them, much of the work of a bakeshop would not be economically feasible. Mixers, ovens, and dough-handling equipment take up most of this category. [1].MIXERS Mixers of various types are essential tools in the bakeshop. While small quantities of doughs and batters can be mixed by hand, commercial baking in any quantity would be next to impossible without power mixers. Several types are used in baking and pastry making. Vertical Mixer Also called planetary mixer, this is the most common type of mixer used in baking as well as in cooking. The term planetary is descriptive of the motion of the beater attachment. Just as a planet spins on its own axis while revolving around the sun, so the beater attachment spins on its axis while it rotates in an orbit to reach all parts of the stationary bowl. Tabletop mixers range in capacity from 5 to 20 qt (4.75 to 19 L). Floor models are available as large as 140 qt (132 L). Vertical mixers have three main mixing attachments. The paddle is a flat blade used for general mixing. The wire whip is used for such tasks as beating egg foams and cream. The dough arm or dough hook is used for mixing and kneading yeast dough. Be sure to use the right size attachment for the bowl. Using a 40-qt paddle with a 30-qt bowl could cause serious damage. Also, make sure both the bowl and the mixing attachment are firmly in place before turning on the machine. Additional special attachments are also available.

Spiral Mixer
Spiral mixers are designed for dough and heavy batters and are used primarily for making large quantities of yeast dough for breads and bagels. Unlike vertical mixers, spiral mixers do not have interchangeable bowls and agitator arms. The agitator arm is in the shape of a spiral, and

both the bowl and the spiral arm rotate to develop the dough quickly and efficiently. Bowl capacities range from 120 to 250 qt (113236 L). Bowls may be removable or fixed, depending on the model.

Horizontal Mixer
Horizontal mixers are large, industrial-size mixers capable of handling as much as several thousand pounds of dough at a time .Each model is designed to work best with a specific range of products, such as bread dough, pastry dough, or soft dough and batters.

[2].DOUGH-HANDLING EQUIPMENT Dough Fermentation Trough


This item is used to hold mixed yeast dough during fermentation. Small operations might simply use large mixing bowls on stands instead.

Divider
Dividers cut scaled pieces of dough into equal portions by means of a die or cutter attached to a hydraulic or mechanical lever assembly. For example, a divider may cut a 3-lb piece of dough (called a press) into 36 pieces, 113 oz each, for making dinner rolls. After dividing, the individual pieces must be rounded by hand.

Divider-Rounder
This machine divides the dough as does a simple divider, and it then automatically rounds the individual portions, greatly speeding makeup of the dough products.

Dough Sheeter
A sheeter rolls out portions of dough into sheets of uniform thickness. It consists of a canvas conveyor belt that feeds the dough through a pair of rollers. To make thin sheets, the dough usually must be passed back and forth through the rollers several times. The operator decreases the space between the rollers after each pass.

Molder
A molder rolls and forms pieces of bread dough for standard loaves, baguettes, and rolls, eliminating the need to perform these tasks by hand.

Proofer
A proofer is a special box used to create the ideal conditions for fermenting yeast dough. It does this by maintaining a preset warm temperature and humidity level appropriate to the specific dough.

Retarder
Chilling or refrigerating yeast dough slows down or retards the rate of fermentation so the dough can be stored for later baking. A retarder is a refrigerator that maintains a high level of humidity to prevent the dough from drying out or crusting.

Retarder-Proofer
This machine is, as the name suggests, a combination retarder and proofer. Dough can be retarded for a preset time, after which the machine switches to proofing mode and warms up to a second preset temperature and humidity level. For example, breakfast breads can be made up the previous day, held, and be fully proofed and ready to bake when the shop opens the next morning.

OVENS
Ovens are, of course, the workhorses of the bakery and pastry shop and are essential for producing breads, cakes, cookies, pastries, and other baked items. Ovens are enclosed spaces in which food is heated, usually by hot air (except in the case of microwave ovens, which are not especially useful in a bakeshop). Several kinds of ovens are used in baking. Steam is important in the baking of many kinds of breads. Ovens used in bakeshops, including deck ovens, rack ovens, and mechanical ovens, may have steam injected into them during part of the baking cycle.

Deck Oven
Deck ovens are so called because the items to be bakedeither on sheet pans or, in the case of some breads, freestandingare placed directly on the bottom, or deck, of the oven. There are no racks for holding pans in deck ovens. Deck ovens are also called stack ovens because several may be stacked on top of one another. Breads baked directly on the floor of the ovens and not in pans are often called hearth breads, so another name for these ovens is hearth ovens. Deck ovens for baking bread are equipped with steam injectors. Wood-fired brick ovens are similar in function to deck ovens in that items are baked directly on the oven floor. These ovens are used in some operations that produce artisan breads, as well as in some restaurants that serve pizzas and similar items. The heat is generated by a wood fire built inside the oven. This fire heats the thick

brick floor and walls, which retain the heat enough to bake foods. Gas-fired brick ovens are similar, but the heat is more easily controlled.

Rack Oven
A rack oven is a large oven into which entire racks full of sheet pans can be wheeled for baking. Normal bakers racks may hold from 8 to 24 full-size sheet pans, but racks made specifically to go into rack ovens usually hold about 15 to 20 pans. Rack ovens hold one to four of these racks at once. These ovens are also equipped with steam injectors. Although this usage is not strictly correct, sometimes you may hear the term rack oven used for conventional ovens such as those found in restaurant ranges because the pans are placed on racks rather than directly on the bottom as for deck ovens.

Mechanical Oven
In a mechanical oven, the food is in motion while it bakes. The most common type is a revolving oven, in which the mechanism is like that of a Ferris wheel. This mechanical action eliminates the problem of hot spots or uneven baking because the mechanism rotates the food throughout the oven. Because of their size, they are especially useful in high volume operations. Revolving ovens can also be equipped with steam injectors.

Convection Ovens
Convection ovens contain fans that circulate the air and distribute the heat rapidly throughout the interior. The forced air makes foods cook more quickly at lower temperatures. Because the strong forced air can distort the shape of items made with batters and soft dough, and because the air may be strong enough to blow baking parchment off sheet pans, convection ovens are not as versatile for the baker as the other kinds of ovens.

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