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MARKING SCHEMES

SUMMER 2005

GEOLOGY
. PAPER 1 HIGHER TIER Question 1 a (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) b (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) c (i) (ii) d 325/65 = 5km per ma = 5mm per year transform (accept wrench or tear) 6.7 movement on faults/movement on San Andreas Fault P wave L wave Highest amplitude/greatest vibrations or similar Correct plotting Collision of plates(1) subduction (1) of ocean crust (1) friction between plates (1) Any 2 points Destruction of buildings (1), death by burial/crushing (1), outbreak of fire (1), loss of services (electricity, gas, water, phone) (2) destruction of infrastructure (roads, bridges, railways/ hospitals (1) disease (1) Any 3 65 ma Response Mark 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 4 4 Sub Total Mark

16

2 a (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) b

Allow between 12 15 mm sedimentary D C E ( one correct 1) Foliated or similar description (1) rounded) (1)

fragmental (accept

1 1 2 2

1 (1) crystals foliated therefore formed under pressure (1) medium/coarse grained high temperatures (1) mineral composition medium grade (1) regional metamorphism (1) Give marks for explanation not description

10

Question 3 a (i) (ii) b Plot of data 1 F 2 G

Response

Mark 2 2

Sub Total Mark 4

Grain size gets smaller/finer at the sea (1), grain shape gets more rounded/rounded at the sea (1), due to attrition/collision of grains (1), due to corrasion/rubbing against river bed (1), fragments broken off (1) Description max 2 explanation max 2 diagrams 2

10

4 a

c (i) (ii)

(iii) d

Constructive plate margin/divergent plate margin narrow base steep slope effusive andesitic /acidic High silica content increases viscosity (1), high viscosity prevents escape of gas (1), andesitic high viscosity and explosive (1), andesitic high silica and high viscosity, andesitic lava and pyroclastics block the vent and trap gas (1) (or reverse of argument for basalt) Any 3 points Plot of data Heavy/coarse particles fall to earth near the vent (1), smaller/lighter particles carried further by the wind (1), most of the material is too heavy/large to be carried by the wind Any 2 points Loose ash and mud mix to form mud flow (1), flows down valleys (1), destroys property (1), risk of drowning (1) Any 2 Partial melting (1), of mantle (1), beneath ocean ridge / mantle plume (1) Any 2 points

1 1 1 1 1

3 2

2 2 2 6 2 16

Question 5 a (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) b

Response M 2 (1) N many (1) Planes of symmetry on M and N L coral (1) M brachiopod (1) Hard upper surface lived on bottom (1) legs crawler/walking (1) Absence of eyes burrower/deep water (1), spines for digging/protection against predators (1) Either carbonisation (1), loss of volatiles (1), enrichment in carbon (1) Cast (1), hollow stem (1), filled with sediment (1) Name (1) description (1) Or coal abundant plant material - terrestrial (1) swamp (1) plant roots in situ (1) fossil soil (1), shale scattered plant fragments - water currents (1) Any 4 points for interpretation not description from diagram Correct position of fold axis

Mark 2 2 2 2 2 4

Sub Total Mark

10 4

14

6 a (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) b (i) (ii) (iii) c

1 Correct diagram with way up arrow 2 unconformity 1 oolitic limestone (1), underneath (1) dolerite and/or coarse sandstone (1), pebbles in 4 conglomerate (1) 1 700ma 1 300ma 1 1:1 or 50:50 2 relative to other rocks (1) absolute is age in millions of years (1)

9 3 2

14

Question 7 a (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) b (i) (ii) c

Response 2.5 3.5 (1), SiO2 (1), chalcopyrite (1) R looks like a metal (1) reflects light (1) QRP 2 diluted further from vein (1) Either from a granite(1) magma (1), water concentrated (1) in late stage of cooling (1) elements (minerals) dissolved in fluid (1) explosively released into country rock (1) fractures country rock (1) fluid enters veins(1) cools (1)precipitates (1) Alternatively groundwater (1)heated by proximity of granite (1) or deep burial(1)convects (1)rises and cools (1)in veins/joints/ faults(1) precipitates (1) Any 4 points Or analysis of stream sediment (1), insoluble elements (1), more concentrated near deposit (1) Analysis of soil (1), reveals hidden ore body (1), more concentrated near ore body and dispersed away (1) Gravity (1) detects anomalies (1)detects rocks associated with mineral ores (1), e.g. granite/gabbro Magnetic (1) detects anomalies (1), detects rocks associated with mineral ores (1) e.g. gabbro (1) Seismic (1) detects suitable structures (faults) (1) Two methods, 2 marks each Correct position of water table Water passes through sandstone (1), stops at impermeable shale (1), lubricates boundary (1), overlying sandstone slides (1) Any 2 points South (1), steep dip (1), towards reservoir (1) Any 2 points Surge of water over dam (1), dam failure (1), flooding downstream (1) Any point

Mark 3 1 2 2 1 1

Sub Total Mark

8 2

4 1 2 2 1

4 1 2 2 1

14

8a b c d