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SUMMARY

Introduction. Physical differences between male and female athletes are very obvious. Everyone agrees about these differences, also coaches do. Coaches understand as well that female athletes behavior differs from male athletes in several situations. However, in those cases male athletes behavior might be used as a standard reference. Applying male standards is often an unconscious process while coaching female athletes, because sports have developed from male cultures. But the awareness among trainers and coaches is still growing in the sense that coaching female athletes has its own typical patterns and cant simply be compared to the mental coaching of male athletes. This thesis will cater to this awareness by discussing some specific themes about women in team sports. Method. Research in scientific (sports) literature on sex or gender differences in personality has been done mostly by specific keywords. The studies found were checked on relevance in situations about women in team sport. Sports psychology literature has been studied to find theoretical foundations and to mention these. Results. Differences have been discovered in a lot of areas. The most striking ones were about emotions, pain experience, anxious effect on pain, neuroticism, aggression and unsportsmanlike behavior, moral reasoning, goal orientations and the effect on moral functioning, social climate and the effect on team performance. Conclusions. It is too easy to conclude that women are more emotional than men. There can be a relation with the endorsement of normative expectations for sex differences. Women are showing more quickly positive states of emotion and men show more quickly negative states of emotion like anger and irritation. During games men seem more emotional than women and women show more emotions in interpersonal contexts. Women report more often physical symptoms and higher pain sensitivity. There might be a relation between state anxiety and pain experience. It is remarkable that even 30 minutes after heavy exercise, the high level of arousal and low physical self esteem did not return to the resting level, even when they were as fit as male athletes were. During games men are more aggressive and more unfair than women. Womens higher level of moral reasoning is reducing their unfair and damaging behavior. But this level can be decreased by increasing their ego orientation. This can be achieved by intervening in the motivational climate and by increasing the levels of ego orientation. Proven interventions have put an emphasis on interpersonal competition and normative feedback, adjusting team standards and coaching styles. Social climate seems to be more important for women than for men. There is a correlation between social cohesion and team performance. A relationship between social climate and team performance has not been proven yet.