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Chapter 14 Europe and the World: New Encounters 15001800

Chapter Outline: On the Brink of a New World New Horizons: The Portuguese and Spanish Empires New Rivals on the World Stage Toward a World Economy The Impact of European Expansion Conclusion Introduction While many Europeans were occupied with the problems of dynastic expansion and religious reform, others were taking voyages past the European borders. Ferdinand Magellan: thought he could find passage to Asia through America. King of Spain, King Phillip II, financed voyage. Finally found passage and reached Philippines. Considered first person to circumnavigate the world. During 16th century, Europeans were beginning to launch small fleets in Atlantic Ocean. In Americas: Created Colonies and spread religions, ideas and cultures. In Africa and parts of Asia: Trading affect local people In Island regions of Southeast Asia: Firmly established rule. On the Brink of a New World The age of expansion was a crucial factor in the European transition for the agrarian economy of the Middle Ages to a commercial and industrial capitalistic system. The Motives For almost a millennium, Catholic Europe had been confined to one area after its one attempt to spread the religion, the Crusades, failed. Europe never lost touch with the rest of the world: goods from Asia and Africa, Muslim philosophers works; but it remained limited until end of 15th century. 1. Europeans had long been attracted to the lands outside of Europe. Fantasy Literature: The Travels of John Mandeville, which spoke about lands filled with precious stones. Other writings spoke of Christian kingdoms Medieval Eastern exploration by Venetian explorers Niccolo, Maffeo and Marco Polo, who undertook the journey to the Mongol ruler, Khubilai Khan.

An account of the journey, Travels, was the most informative of all descriptions of Asia. 2. Economic motive With the closing of overland routes to Asia because of the breakup of Mongol empire, a number of people became interested in reaching Asia by sea to gain access to Spices and other precious items. Merchants, government officials, and adventurers had high hopes of finding precious metals and new areas of trade , especially a more direct route to spices in the East. Arab intermediaries were outrageously expensive. 3. Religious Zeal A crusading mentality was strong in Portugal and Spain, especially since the Muslims were driven out. Most scholars believe religious motive was second to economic motive. Spiritual and secular affairs were closely intertwined. The Means 1. The expansion of Europe was connected to the growth of centralized monarchies during the Renaissance. European monarchies had increased their authority and their resources and were in a position to turn their energies beyond their borders. France: Invasion of Italy Portugal: (which was not strong enough to pursue power in Europe) Invaded abroad Spain: (which was a strong enough monarch by the 16th century) invaded Europe and abroad. 2. Technology Symbolic medieval maps were of little help, but the portolani, or detailed charts made by medieval navigators and mathematicians in 13th and 14th century, were more helpful for SHORT trips. Ptolemys Geography was the most important map available during the late 15th century. One problem, though, was the fact that he drastically underestimated the circumference of the earth, which led Columbus and other explorers to believe it was feasible to sail West from Europe and reach Asia. Seaworthy ships and navigational techniques. Constructed ships mobile enough to sail against wind and engage in naval warfare and large enough to mount cannons on. Compasses and astrolabe. Growing knowledge of wind patterns in Atlantic.

New Horizons: The Portuguese and Spanish Empires Development of a Portuguese Maritime Empire Portuguese took the lead in exploration with the sponsorship of King Henry the Navigator to explore the coast of Africa. King Henrys main motives: seeking a Christian kingdom as an ally against the Muslims, acquiring trade opportunities and extending Christianity. Founded a school for navigators and shortly after, Portuguese fleets began searching for Gold. Reached Sengal river, and brought home and sold a cargo of black Africans, who were sold to the wealthy elsewhere in Europe. In 1471, they discovered a new source of gold along the southern coast of the hump of West Africa (Gold Coast). To facilitate trade in gold, ivory and slaves, Portuguese leased land from local rulers and built stone forts along the coast of Bankongo. In 1488, Bartholomeu Dias took advantage of westerly winds and, after hearing reports of a route to India around the Southern Coast of Africa and rounded the Cape of Good Hope. In 1498, Vasco Da Gama rounded the Cape of Good Hope, stopped at several ports controlled by Muslim merchant, and finally reached Calicut. FOUND no Christians but found Spices. Afterwards, Portuguese fleets wanted to destroy Arabic shipping and establish a Monopoly in Spice Trade. In 1509, a Portuguese armada defeated a combined fleet of Turkish and Indian ships and created a blockade, stopping slow of Spices to Muslim rulers and the Ottoman Empire. Admiral Alfonso de Albuquerque set up ports in Goa, seeing the need for land support, and it became headquarters of Portuguese trade in region. Admiral Alfonso de Albuquerque wanted control of Malacca to destroy Arab Spice Trade and gain access to the Moluccas (Spice Islands) From then, explored China and Spice Islands, but the empire remained limited because it lacked population, power and desire to colonize Asian regions. Success because of guns and seamanship. They did NOT have a monopoly on those things, they simply went again lightly armed enemies. Voyages to the New World Portuguese: East through Indian Ocean Spanish: West through Atlantic. Greater resources created a grander overseas empire than Portuguese. Christopher Columbus thought he could reach Asia sailing West. Rejected by Portuguese. Queen Isabella of Spain funded his journey. He reached Cuba and Northern shores of Espanola on October 12,1492, but he thought he had reached India.

In his 4 voyages, Columbus reached all major islands of the Carribean and the mainland of Central America. After explorers realized he was wrong, state sponsored explorers joined the race to New World John Cabot explored the New England coastline of Americas through funding of Henry VII of England. Pedro Cabral, Portuguese sea captain, discovered South American by accident. Amerigo Vespucci accompanied several voyages and wrote a series of letters describing the New World. Led to use of America. Vasco Nunez de Balboa, a Spanish explorer, reached Pacific Ocean. Treaty of Tordesillas: Divided New World in separate Spanish and Portuguese spheres of influence.

The Spanish in the New World Spanish were not funded by the crown, but privately. Superior weapons, organizational skills, and determination helped bring success. Also, rivalry of Native Americans. Early Civilizations of Mesoamerica Mayans Yucatan Peninsula and one of the most sophisticated civilizations in America. Built splendid temples and pyramids Accomplished artists Developed an accurate calendar Agarian people who cleared dense rain forests and developed farming. For unknown reasons, began to decline in 800s and collapsed 100 years later. Aztecs Migrated to Valley of Mexico and established capital Tenochtitlan. Built their city, constructing temples, buildings and houses. Created aqueduct to get water from city 4 miles away. Outstanding warriors Not a centralized state but a collection of semi-independent territories governed by local lords. Cause of fall of Aztec Empire: loose political organization.

Spanish Conquest of Aztec Empire Hernan Cortes landed at Veracruz and marched to Aztec capital, Tenochtitlan, and as he went, created alliances with city-states, who were tired of Aztecs oppressive rule. Especially important city-state: Tlaxcala, a state the Aztecs had not been able to conquer.

Moctezuma, ruler of Aztec empire, gave him a warm welcome because he believed Hernan Cortes to be representative of Quetzakciatl, some god. Spaniard took Montezuma hostage and began to pilage the city. One year after Cortes arrived, local population revolted and drove invaders from the city. With no natural immunity to Spanish diseases, though, Spanish finally prevailed and gained control of Northern Mexico.

The Inca and the Spanish Pachakuti, Incan ruler created a large and highly centralized state. To create a well-organized empire, Pachakuti divided his realm into four parts, with each part managed by a governor. Each quarter was divided into provinces, also led by a governor. At the top was the emperor, believed to be a descendent of sun god. Incas were great builders: road system, two major roadways extended north-south, and bridges. Francisco Pizarro: Inca empire was still flourishing when he arrived, but because he had weapons, gunpowder and horses, unfamiliar to his hosts, and because the empire had already succumbed into smallpox with no immunity. Pachakuki was also infested with small pox and died. Atahualpa defeated his brother, but when he did, Pizzaro killed him and got the Incan capital. Administration of Spanish Empire Spanish encomienda (Queen Isabella of Spain): permitted the conquering Spaniards to collect tribune from Native Americans and use them as laborers. Settlers ignored government mandate to provide protection, pay and spiritual benefits to Natives. Forced labor, starvation and disease: Decline of Native population (30-40 percent died) In response to Bartolome de Las Casas, a Dominican Friars, publications, the government abolished encomienda systems and provided more protection. Spanish empire organized w/ viceroys. Two major administrative units: New Spain(Mexico, Central America, and Carribean Islands) and Peru (Western South America) Viceroys served as kings chief civil and military officers and were aided by audiencias. Catholic Monarchs were given extensive rights over ecclesiastical affairs in the New World. Mass conversion of India structures of Catholicism to New World.

New Rivals on the World Stage 15th century: Portugal and Spain 17th Century: Dutch, then French and British Africa: The Slave Trade Primary objective of Portuguese: sail around Africa to find sea route to Spice Islands. Soon discovered profit could be made in Africa itself. Built forts on Western and Eastern coasts of Africa and tried to dominate trade in GOLD. Dutch East India Company, in 17th century, took control of some of Portuguese forts and created a settlement in south Africa, at the Cape of Good Hope, which was meant to serve as a base to provide food to Dutch Ships en route to Spice Islands, but later developed into a later colony. DUTCH FARMERS: DOERS settled on southern African colony. Exploration of African coastline did not affect most Africans living in the interior of continent, but for people living on or near the coast, the impact was great. Slave trade was not new. Cane sugar plantations: Africa, Brazil and islands in Carribean. Slaves were sent from Portugal. Spanish were first to send slaves directly from Africa.

Growth in Slave Trade Great Britain tried to abolish Slave Trade in 19th century. High death rate caused such high numbers in slaves. (16th-19th century) Death rates were lower for slaves born in New World (because of immunity) Owners discouraged slaves to have children (more expensive) Before Europeans, most slaves were prisoners of war. Europeans bought slaves through local African Merchants in exchange for European goods Protests were ignored by Europeans and other Africans. African middlemen were active in the process . Effects of the Slave Trade Tragic effects on individuals and their families: importation of cheap goods from Europe undermined local businesses; depopulation. Increase warfare due to demand of slaves Benin, Africa: brilliant and creative society in sixteenth century, Benin was pulled into the slave trade. As population declined and slave trade increased, the lost faith in Gods, art deteriorated and human sacrifice became more common.

Socially acceptable despite humanitarian sentiments. Blacks inferior Quakers (Society of Fiends) criticized slavery and built opposition. Radical stage of French Revolution abolished slavery. British followed suit. The West in Southeast Asia Portugals efforts to dominate Southeast Asian trade: not successful. Lacked numbers and wealth Philippines became Spanish base to trade across Pacific. Primary threat to Portuguese: arrival of Dutch and British Dutch grained control of Moluccas, then pushed Portuguese out of Spice Trade Aggressive Dutch drove out English and only left them with Sumatra on Sothern coast. Dutch realized the importance of bringing inland regions to control. By 18th century, Dutch had succeeded in bringing almost the entire Indonesia archipelago under their control. Vietnam: Arrival of Western merchant and missionaries coincided with internal conflict. Authorities viewed conversion to Catholicism as a threat to Vietnamese emperor. Mainland Southeast Asia: little European control because of strong Monarchies and cohesive nature of states Malay States: less cohesion, victim of their own resources, which European powers were determined to gain control of. The French and British in India When Portuguese fleet arrived at Calicut, Indian subcontinent was divided in Hindu and Muslim. Mughal dynasty ensured unity in India. First half of 17th century: British success in India, which brought rivals. French tried to gain control Sir Robert Clive, an aggressive British empire builder saved British power in India. French government didnt provide support in India. Clive began by consolidating British control in Bengal, where local ruler had imprisoned local population in Black Hole of Calcutta. Defeated Mughal-led army and received authority to collect taxes . After Seven Years War, British forced French out of India. Expansion of East India Company to interior of subcontinents marked the major step in the gradual transfer of all the Indian subcontinent to the British East India Company and later, the British Crown as a colony. China When Portuguese landed in China, Chinese thought little of it.

Chinese empire was at its peak as the most magnificent civilization on the face of the earth. BIG. To Chinese ruler, the leaders of all the other countries were just younger brothers of Chinese emperor, who was viewed as the Son of Heaven. Ming Dynasty went from being a great empire under strong rulers with great relations with Native Tribes, to a declining empire (because of weak rulers and conflict with frontier tribes) Manchus overthrew Ming dynasty and declared creation of Qing dynasty. Qing dynastys strong rulers fixed issues. Two Qing Monarchs: Kangx and Qianlong, were responsible for much of the greatness of Manchu China.

Western Inroads Decline of Qing dynasty occurred alongside increase of European pressure for more trade. First conflict from Russia, but alliances were formed. By the end of 17th century, English had replaced Portuguese in European trade. Through East India Company, which served as a trading unit and the administrator of English territories in Asia, English established first trading post at Canton. To limit contacts between European and Chines, the Qing government confined European traders to a small island just outside city walls of Canton and put a time limit. 1793, Lord McCartney visited Beijing to press for liberalization of trade restrictions. Japan Tokugawa Ieyasu, most powerful and long-lasting of all Japanese shogunates, completed the restoration of central authority and prevented anarchy. Opening to the West First Jesuit missionary, Francis Xavier, had some success converting Japanese to Christianity. Initially, the reoccurring Portuguese visitors were welcomed. European goods fascinated Japanese. Japanese military architecture was striking, as local loards began to construct castles based on European model. The success of Catholic missionaries created strong reaction against the presence of Westerners, however. Tokugawa expelled all European missionaries, and those who converted, were executed. European merchant next to go.

Only a small Dutch community in Nagasaki were allowed to remain in Japan with strong limitations only because, unlike Spanish and Portuguese, the Dutch had not allowed missionary activities to interfere w/ trade. The Americas 16th century: Spain and Portugal had established colonial empires in Americas. Portugal profited from Brazilian empire. 17th century: Spanish power declined due to poverty in Spanish monarchy. Both Portugal and Spanish found their American empires to be challenged by Dutch, British and French. The West Indies Both French and British colonial empires in the New World had large parts in West Indies with Plantation economies. Sugar Factories, as sugar plantations in Carribean were called, played a prominent role. Jamaica, one of most important British colonies, was producing 50,000 tons of sugar annually w/ slave labor. French Colony of Saint Dominique was producing 100,000 tons of sugar a year but with a HIGH death rate of slaves. Site to first slave uprising: Saint Dominique. North America Spain claimed most of North American, but other nations ignored claims. Dutch were first to establish settlements in North America (Henry Hudson, Hudson river and New Netherlands) Second half of 17th century, though, came with competition from French and British led to decline of Dutch commercial empire. In 1664, English seized colony of New Netherlands and named it New York. Dutch West India Company went bankrupt. First permanent ENGLISH settlement in America: Jamestown. Colonization of British to Americas: not quick profit but instead, the desire to practice ones own religion and economic interests lead to successful colonization. FRENCH: Jacques Cartier discovered Saint Laurence river and laid claim to Canada as French territory. Samuel De Champlain established settlement in Quebec. 1663: Canada was considered French province. Thinly populated and French failed to provide men or money. Continental Wars > conquest of North America.

Treaty of Utrecht: French gave some of their lands to rival, the English. Seven Years War: surrendered the rest of their Canadian land. The decline of Spain and Portugal led French and British to depend even more on resources from colonies: STRICT mercantilist rules to keep others out.

Economic Conditions in 16th century Inflation was a major economic problem. Wage earners saw standard of living drop while landed aristocrats and industrial entrepreneurs, prospered. Profit inflation: valuable stimulus to investment and growth of Capitalism. Governments also affected by inflation, Growth of Commercial Capitalism European trade consisted of: Mediterranean in South, Low Countries and Baltic region in the North, and central Europe. W/ Cheaper and faster ships, Dutch monopolized European and World trade, though they were challenged by English and French in 17th century. Commercial expansion was made easier by joint-stock trading company. Bank of Amsterdam: trading of stocks replaced trading of goods and was the hub of European business world. Mercantilism Since one nation could expand its trade and prosperity only at the expense of others, mercantilists saw economic activity as a constant peaceful war. Prosperity of nation required plentiful supply of bullion (gold and silver) Governments should: grant trade monopolies, encourage investment in new industries, improving transportation systems, etc.