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SECTION:B b)3-DB HYBRID QUADRATURE COUPLER: DESIGN OF A CONVENTIONAL COUPLER OF 50 Ohm SYSTEM IMPEDANCE AND PLOT THE CURVE

OF MAGNITUDE AND PHASE OF S-PARAMETERS FOR 0.5f0 to 1.5f0 FREQUENCIES.F0 IS THE DESIGN FREQUENCY GIVEN BY 1GHz. Solution: Theory:

Here the Characteristics Impedance Z0=50 Ohm.This is a typical 3-dB hybrid coupler where Input will be shifter in phase by 90 deg. In the throughput arm and another 90 deg. In the coupling arm. And there will be almost no power output in the isolated arm. Thus in Centre Frequency f0 the S matrix should be :

S-parameter in any frequency f : We can find out S-parameters of this coupler in any frequency by even and odd mode analysis. EVEN-ODD MODE ANALYSIS:

Now We can Find out Those Transmission co-efficients and reflection co-efficients easily. First ,We need to find out the ABCD Parameters of each section in Even and Odd modes. ABCD parameters have 3 parts in each case , for the first /8 section and it will be open circuited in even mode analysis and shorted in Odd mode Analysis respectively.( We basically introduce a magnetic Wall and Electric Wall to realize open and short Circuit respectively) . Then the /4 Transmission Line Section and at last again the same /8 section and multiply those 3 ABCD parameter together. Next We convert it into S-parameter from ABCD parameter. And will find transmission and Reflection co-efficient accordingly. Next by finding the value of B1,B2,B3,B4 we can find out S-parameters. OBSERVATION AND RESULTS: For frequency 0.5f0 to 1.5f0 we plot |S| in dB and <S in degrees and f0=central frequency given 1GHz here.

Magnitude of S-parameter in different Frequency: 0 -5 -10 -15 <S11 <S12 <S13 <S14

Magnitude in dB:

-20 -25 -30 -35 -40 -45 0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9 1 1.1 Frequency (Hz) S vs Frequency

1.2

1.3

1.4

1.5 x 10
9

200 150 100 <S11 <S12 <S13 <S14

Phase of S parameters

50 0 -50 -100 -150 -200 0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9 1 1.1 Frequency (Hz)

1.2

1.3

1.4

1.5 x 10
9

CONCLUSION: From the graph we saw that at centre frequency : 1. S14 is decreasing to 0 value as there is complete isolation between port 1and 4 at centre frequency. 2. S11 i.e. reflection co-efficient is also 0 as port is matched at f0; 3. S14 is 0 and near to 0 for a greater range of f than S11 due to isolation. Power cannot couple Port 4 from port1 easily. 4. Phase of S12 has a shift of -90 deg and phase of S13 has a phase shift of about -180 deg. As we said this is a 90-phase shift coupler due to /4 lines at centre frequency. REFERENCE: 1.D.M.Pozar