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Karsten Engsager Senior advisor, Danish National Spacecenter, Danish Technical University (ke@space.dtu.dk). Working with classical geodesy in the areas: Reference systems, Reference frames, Adjustment theory, Mappings, Transformations, Interpolation.

A HIGHLY ACCURATE WORLD WIDE ALGORITHM FOR THE TRANSVERSE MERCATOR MAPPING (ALMOST)

K. ENGSAGER 1 , K. PODER 2 1 Danish National Space Center, Geodetic Department, Danish Technical University, Juliane Mariesvej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen E, Denmark. 2 DK-3650 Ølstykke, Denmark

Introduction

This presentation is in no way new or genius. It solely presents the ideas and developments from colleagues: König und Weise (1951). “Map Projections” Grafarend and Krumm (2006) appeared shortly before this paper was written, but some comments are included. The single steps in performing the mapping from geographical (geodetic) coordinates to Transverse Mercator coordinates (and reverse) are outlined but not proved. The formulas given are valid at high/low altitudes with only singularity at the equator 90 degrees from the central meridian. It is our hope that this presentation will convince the reader that the Transverse Mercator projection is a useful tool for world wide presentations.

The Transverse Mercator mapping is a conformal mapping of the ellipsoid coordinates to a plane. Any mapping function satisfying the Cauchy-Riemann differential formula is conformal. It is therefore nearby to use series of complex functions to describe the Transverse Mercator projection. Some of the complex functions are given as Clenshaw sine summation where the coefficients are elaborated on the third flattening n which gives very efficient series. Our contribution is to extend these series from degree 4 to 7. Using series to degree 4 the accuracy is 0.03 mm up to 4400 km from the central meridian. Using the series to higher degree will increase this limit.

Coordinate designation

φ

λ

=

= Geodetic longitude

Geodetic latitude

p
= π
2 −
φ
=
Geodetic co - latitude
φ
=
φ φ
+
i
=
Complex geodetic latitude
c
r
i
p
= π
2
φ φ
i
=
Complex geodetic co - latitude
c
r
i
e
2
 
+ e
cos
p 
 p 
 
Ψ =
− ln
tan
  1
2
 
 
1
− e
cos
p
  
 
 
e
2
 
( π
)
− e
cos
p 
 
Φ
=
ln tan
+
4
2
1
+ e
cos
p
    1
  
 
= Isometriclatitude
Ψ
= Ψ+
i
λ =
Complex Isometric coordinates
c
u
= y
+
ix

= Complex (normalized) mapping coordinates Complex (metric) mapping coordinates

N + iE =

Ellipsoidal definition

a
=
f
=
Flattening
n
=
f
(
2
f
)
F
()
2
φ
= +
1
2ncos 2
(
φ
)
+
n
2
− 1
M
()
φ
=
a
(
1
n
)(
1
+
n
)
F
; Third flattening
3
()
φ
2

; Meridian curvature radius

Q

=

a

1 + n

(

1 +

1 4 n

2 +

1

64 n

4

+

1

256

n

6

)

; Meridian arc unit

The size of some coefficients to the series expansions have been calculated using the derived value of n in the Geodetic Reference System 1980 (GRS80).

The meridian arc unit Q is the mean length of one radian of the meridian thus the length of the meridian quadrant is:

G

(
a
π
)
π
(1
=
2
2
1 + n

+

1 4 n

2 +

1

64

n

4 +

1

256

n

6

)

The last term being 0.1 10 -18 shows the

superiority of series expansion in powers

of the third flattening n against

in

Grafarend and Krumm (2006) (8.40). Using the mean axis

using

e

2

= f

(2

f = n + n

4

)

(1

)

2

as

given

for the scale furthermore

improves the efficiency of the series (b is the minor axis).

a(1

+

n)

-1

= + b)/2

(a

Help functions
2
2
hypot( x ,
y
) =
x
+
y
atan 2( sin
r
p
,
r
cos
p
)
= p
; in proper quadrant
Clenshaw
sine
accumulation
(simple
or
complex)
is
used
in
calculation
of
the
series:
N
CS
() z =
A
sin
( κ
2
z
)
2
κ
κ
= 1

Details

Engsager (1998).

may

be

found

in

Poder

and

Derivatives of a mapping function

The derivatives of a mapping function can be found as the complex differential with modulus m and argument g of the mapping function to the complex differential of isometric latitude and longitude. The

simplification is possible because both systems

are orthogonal and isometric.

du
=
dy
+
ix
ds
=
r
()(
φ ψ
d
+
id
λ
)
du
µ =
m
exp(
ig
)
=
ds
hypot
(
δ δψ δ δψ
y
,
x
)
m =
r () φ
g
= atan 2(
δ δψ δ δψ
x
,
y
)

(Mapping fundamental form) (Geodetic fundamental form)

(Complex scale)

(Scale)

(Meridian Convergence)

The Transverse Mercator mapping

The Transverse Mercator is basically a generalisation of the meridian to the plane:

 Point P with geodetic coordinates ( φλ λ , + c ) , λ c = longitude of central meridian ( Genuine origo : N, E ) = ( 0,0 ) at ϕ = 0 and λ = 0 ELLIPSOID = Complex latitude : cos + φ c 2 + φ d c ) ( φ c ( 1 = φ φ r + i i ( 2cos 2 )) ix SPHERE Φ =Φ +Φ i c r i n d Normalized transv. crd : u Ψ c ( 1 − n ) 2 = y φ c + U = Y + iX du = M ( φ c ) φ d c Q

Mapping sequence for the Transverse Mercator mapping

The mapping for the Transverse Mercator

is split up in several conformal mappings during the development of the mapping. This is done to ensure as efficient expansion of series and a simple development strategy. Finally some of the mappings are united again ending up with only three mappings:

1. Ellipsoidal coordinates to the Soldner Sphere

2. Soldner Sphere to Complex Gaussian coordinates

3. Complex Gaussian coordinates to Transverse Mercator coordinates

Direct mapping ┌────────────────────────┐

└────────────┬───────────┘

φ,λ: Geodetic coord

(1)

(3)

(2)

┌────────────┴───────────┐

Φ,Λ: Soldner Sphere

└────────────┬───────────┘

(4)

┌────────────┴───────────┐

Y,X: Complex Gaussian coord. └────────────┬───────────┘

(5)

(6)

┌────────────┴───────────┐

N,E: Transversal coord.

└────────────────────────┘

Inverse mapping

Mapping Ellipsoid  Soldner Sphere

The Soldner Sphere is a pure parameter sphere of unity size. The Geodetic coordinates of the ellipsoid is mapped on the sphere with the simple and virtually unique mapping equations as shown below. Strictly speaking we should account for the Riemann leaves arising from the periodicity of the complex functions.

 Mapping equations : Ψ= = ψ d cos Φ Ψ+ Λ ( )( id ) Λ= = λ ( cos Φ ) = = 0 µ N () ()( φ cos φ ψ d + λ id Cauchy - Riemann : δ Ψ = δ Λ = 1 ) N () () φ cos φ δ Λ m ; δ Ψ =− g = 0 δψ δλ δψ δλ Function : exp ( − ψ ) = tan ( p e 2  1 + e cos () p  2 )     1 − e cos () p   = tan( P 2)

This may be reformulated into a Clenshaw sine summation:

7
Φ= +
φ
e
sin 2
(
κφ
)
2
κ
1
Λ=
λ
Array
e
[] 7
= {
e
, e
, e
, e
, e
, e
, e
}
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
2
4
3
82
4
32
5
4642
6
8384
7
e
=− n +
2
n
2 +
n
n
+
n
+
n
n
2
3
3
45
45
4725
4725
5
2 16
3
13
4
904
5
1522
6
2288
7
e
=
+
n
n
n
+
n
n
n
4
3
15
9
315
945
1575
26
3
34
4
8
5
12686
6
44644
7
e
= −
n
+
n
+
n
n
n
6
15
21
5
2835
14175
1237
4
12
5
24832
6
1077964
7
+
n
n
n
+
n
630
5
14175
155925
734
5
109598
6
1040
7
=
n
+
n
+
n
e 10
315
31185
567
444337
6
941912
7
=
+
n
n
e 12
155925
184275
2405834
7
n
675675

e

8

=

e

14

=

(1)

Sphere

Geodetic

coordinates

Soldner

The last coefficient is e 14 = -1.3 10 -19 Limiting the series to n 4 gives the last coefficient in e 8 = 1.6 10 -11

7
φ =Φ+
G
sin 2
(
κ Φ
)
2
κ
1
Λ=
λ
Array
G
[] 7
= {
G , G , G , G , G
, G
, G
}
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
2
2
3
116
4
26
5
2854
16822
7
G
2 =+ 2 n −
n
2
n
+
n
+
n
n
6 +
n
3
45
45
675
4725
7
2 8
3
227
4
2704
5
2323
6
31256
7
G
=
+
n
n
n
+
n
+
n
n
4
3
5
45
315
945
1575
56
3
136
4
1262
5
73814
6
98738
7
G
=
+
n
n
n
+
n
+
n
6
15
35
105
2835
14175
4279
4
332
5
399572
6
11763988
7
G
=
+
n
n
n
+
n
8
630
35
14175
155925
4174
5
144838
6
2046082
7
G
=
+
n
n
n
10
315
6237
31185
601676
6
115444544
7
G
=
+
n
n
12
22275
2027025
38341552
7
G
=
+
n
14
675675

(2)

coordinates

Soldner

Sphere

Geodetic

The last coefficient is G 14 = 2.1 10 -18 Limiting the series to n 4 gives the last coefficient in G 8 = 5.4 10 -11

Soldner Sphere  Complex Gaussian coordinates

The Complex Gaussian coordinates gives a transverse mapping, where the central meridian is mapped with unity scale i.e. it behaves as if the central meridian is the “virtual equator” and the normal to the central meridian plane passing through the centre of the sphere is the “virtual rotation axis”. A point with the Gaussian coordinates (Φ, Λ) should be mapped to the Complex Gaussian coordinates Φ c = Φ r + iΦ i .

The figure shows the latitudes and the longitude and the auxiliary parameter t, which in fact is the virtual latitude, while Φ r is the virtual longitude in a Mercator mapping, where the central meridian acts

as the virtual equator and the virtual poles are found in the real equator 90 degrees from the central meridian.

The singularity at the (true) Poles is
handled by using the atan2 function.
Input :
Φ Λ
,
; on the soldner sphere
Y =Φ =
atan 2 sin
(
(
Φ
)
, cos
(
Φ
)
cos
())
Λ
r
t =
atan 2 cos
(
(
Φ
)
sin
()
Λ
, hypot
(
sin
(
Φ
)
, cos
( ) ()))
Φ
cos
Λ
X
=Φ=
ln tan
(
(
π
4
+
t
2
))
i
U
= + =Φ +Φ
Y
iX
; Complex Gaussian Coordinates
r
i

(3)

coordinates

Soldner Sphere Complex Gaussian

The parameter t (atan2(…)) is crucial for the accuracy of the entire Transverse Mercator mapping. For geodetic purposes up with series expantion to degree 4 t up to 40° is acceptable giving 0.03 mm in accuracy. For cartographic purposes it is possible to go close 90° and still getting an accuracy of one meter.

U
= + =Φ +Φ
Y
iX
i
; Complex Gaussian Coordinates
r
i
Λ= atan 2 sin t ,
(
() () ())
cos
t
cos
Y
Φ= atan 2 sin
(
(Y ) (t)
cos
, hypot
(
sin t
()
, cos
(t) (Y )))
cos

t =

2atan exp X

(

( ))

π

2

(4)

Soldner Sphere

Complex Gaussian coordinates

Complex Gaussian coordinates  Transverse Coordinates

The Complex Gaussian coordinates are mapped to Transverse Coordinates in two steps via the Normalized Transverse Coordinates. The two Clenshaw summations have been reformulated to one which is presented below. Interested readers may find details in Poder and Engsager (1998). The normalized transversal coordinates are then scaled to Transversal Mercator coordinates.

input : Gaussian complex coordinates :
U
= + =Φ+Φ
Y
iX
i
r
i
normalized transversal coordinates :
7
u =
U
+
∑ U
sin 2
(
κU
)
2 κ
1
output : metric scaled transversal coordinates :
N +
iE
=
uQ
Array
U [7]
= {
U
,
U
,
U
,
U
,
U
,
U
,
U
}
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
1
2
41
4
127
5
7891
6
72161
7
U
=+ n −
2 +
5 n
3 +
n
n
+
n
+
n
2
3 n
2
16
180
288
37800
387072
13
2 3
3
557
4
281
5
1983433
6
13769
7
+
n
n
+
n
+
n
n
+
n
U 4 =
48
5
1440
630
1935360
28800
61
3
103
4
15061
5
167603
6
67102379
7
=
+
n
n
+
n
+
n
n
U 6
240
140
26880
181440
29030400
49561
4
179
5
6601661
6
97445
7
=
+
n
n
+
n
+
n
U 8
161280
168
7257600
49896
34729
5
3418889
6
14644087
7
=
+
n
n
+
n
U 10
80640
1995840
9123840
212378941
6
30705481
7
=
+
n
n
U 12
319334400
10378368
1522256789
7
+
n
1383782400

U

14

=

(5) Complex Gaussian coordinates Transversal Mercator coordinates

The last coefficient is U 14 = 4.1 10 -20 Limiting the series to n 4 gives the last coefficient in U 8 = 2.4 10 -12

NB.: Clenshaw Complex sine summation is used in (5) and (6).

input : metric scaled transversal coordinates :
N E
,
normalized transversal coordinates :
u =
(
N
+
iE
)
/ Q
output : Gaussian complex coordinates :
7
U = u +
∑ u
sin 2
(
κu
)
2 κ
1
Array u[7]
= {
u
,
u
,
u
,
u
,
u
,
u
,
u
}
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
1
2
37 n
3
1
4
81
5
96199 n
5406467
7
u
=− n +
+
n
+
n
6 +
n
2
2
2 3 n
96
360
512
604800
38707200
1
2 1
437
4
46
5
1118711
6 51841
7
u
=
- n
n
3 +
n
n
+
n
n
4
48
15
1440
105
3870720
1209600
17
37
4
209
5
5569
6 9261899
7
u
=
- n
3 +
n
+
n
n
6
480
840
4480
90720 n
58060800
4397
11
830251
6 466511
7
u
=
- n
4 +
5 +
n
8
161280
504 n
7257600 n
294800
4583
108847
8005831
7
=
n
5 +
n
6 +
n
u 10
161280
3991680
63866880
20648693
16363163
7
=
n
6 +
n
u 12
638668800
518918400
219941297
7
u
=
n
14
5535129600

(6) Transversal Mercator coordinates Complex Gaussian coordinates

The last coefficient is u 14 = -1.5 10 -21 Limiting the series to n 4 gives the last coefficient in u 8 = -2.2 10 -13

Implementation details

All coordinates except the Transversal Mercator coordinates may be considered be angular units in radians. The Meridian arc unit Q is used to transform the Transverse Mercator coordinates into angular units called Normalized Transverse Mercator

coordinates.

Using the scaled meridian arc unit Q m

instead introduce the scale in a simple way:

Scale on central meridian : m

Q

m =

Q

m

0

0

Accuracy check Taking the difference between the input coordinates and the result of the backward_trf(forward_trf(input coordinates)) the accuracy may be checked against the accuracy required for transformation. In the figure below is the limit 0.03 mm shown at series to degree 4 and 5. This limit may be controlled in (3) by fabs(Λ) 0.810 and in (4) by fabs((U )) 0.810 as a very coarse limit

a

function of the latitude and longitude. For degree 5 the limit will be 1.144 (i.e.

(i.e.

E 5100 km ). The limit is in fact

E 7300 km ).

An accuracy limit of 30 m will give a

limiting factor of 2.290 (i.e.

E 14500 km ).

The singularity points may be controlled

by the limiting factor above or a coarser

one.

UTM zone 32 coordinates : E coordinate is given +E 0 (=500km)

Performance The mapping implemented to 4 th degree

run on a PC with Intel Pentium 4 cpu 2.66 GHz makes more than 224000 transformations pr. second in accuracy

checking

backward_trf(forward_trf((input coordinates)). An implementation to 5 th degree decreases the throughput to 222000. When the mapping is run trough our general transformation manager the throughput decreases by further 10%.

mode:

More convolutions The formulas presented are valid for the

the

, where δ

may be related to the control setup above. When the input latitude goes beyond the limits it is forced to the interval by adding/subtracting κ2π to the latitude and the northing N is either increased or decreased by κ4Q m . The reverse situation is handled in a similar way.

latitude π ϕ

longitude

+π

and
π
2

δ

for

π
2

δ λ

+ ≤ ≤+

Conclusion

It has been demonstrated that it is possible in a fairly simple sequence of very efficient mappings to transform the geographical coordinates to Transversal Mercator Coordinates.

It has been pointed out that there is a substantial difference in expanding series in powers of the third flattening n against in powers of the eccentricity e 2 . Due to the relation between the two parameters any series expansion may be reformulated to the other.

To illustrate the accuracy the size of some coefficients depending on the third flattening n have been calculated to the derived value of n in the Geodetic Reference System 1980 (GRS80).

 Implementation details have also been given.

The C-code for the Transversal Mercator mapping is free and may be found on the

under

homepage

Research/Geodesy/Mapping (the URL is

not

be

to

forwarded

spacecenter.dk

writing

on

time)

at

or

will

request

Appendix

Scaled meridian arc length from equator to the latitude

φ

7

 

 G () φ = Q 3 m  + 9 p ∑ κ= 1 3 3 2 κ sin 2 ( κφ ) 5 57  7 2 15 4 + 135 6 − + n 15 n − n p 2 =− n + 2 16 n 32 n 2048 p 4 =− 16 32 2048 n p 35 n 3 + 105 5 105 7 p + 315 n 4 189 6 6 = = = − n − n 8 = − 512 n 48 256 2048 512 693 5 693 7 1001 6 p 10 − n + n p 12 = + n 1280 2048 2048 6435 7 p − n 14 14336

The last coefficient is p 14 = 1.7 10 -20

Limiting the series to n 4 gives the last coefficient in p 8 = 4.9 10 -12

Latitude at the normalized arc length

A
= G /
Q m
7
φ
() A
=
A
+
∑ q
sin 2
(
κ
A
)
2
κ
κ=
1
3
27
3 269
5
6607
7
21
2 55
6759
6
=+ n −
n
n
n
q
4 =+
n
n
4 +
n
q 2
2
32
512
24576
16
32
4096
151
3 417
5
87963
7
1097
4 15543
6
=
+
n
n
+
n
q
+
n
n
q 6
8 =
96
128
2048
512
2560
8011
5
69119
7
293393
6
=
+
n
n
q
+
n
q 10
2560
6144
12 =
61440
6459601
7
q
=
+
n
14
860160

The last coefficient is q 14 = 2.8 10 -19 Limiting the series to n 4 gives the last coefficient in q 8 = 1.7 10 -11

Meridian convergence and local scale

References

Normalized Transversal coordinates :
− 1
u =
(
N
+
iE ) Q
=
y
+
ix
m
φ = latitude of the point (N, E)
A
= G
() φ
− 1
Q
; Normalized scaled meridian length
m
(
ΦΛ=
,
)
coordinates on the Soldner sphere of (N,E)
MERIDIAN CONVERGENCE
4
µ
= atan 2 sin
(
() () ())
y
tanh
x
,cos
y
−ℑ 
C
cos 2
(
κ
u
)
2
κ
 
κ
= 1
4
= atan 2 sin
(
(
Φ
)
sin
()
Λ
,cos
())
Λ −ℑ 
C
cos 2
(
κ u
)
2
κ
 
κ
= 1
LOCAL SCALE
4
4
exp
C
cos 2
(
κ u
)
cos 2
(
κ
A
)
 
  ℜ 
2
κ
 
− 
κ
= 1
κ
= 1
 
[ 1
1
2
(
)
2
cos
Φ
sin
()]
Λ
4
 ℜ 
4
exp
C
cos 2
(
κ u
)
cos 2
(
κ
A
)
 
2
κ
 
− 
κ
= 1
κ
= 1
 
3
3
3 55
5
2 1
2421
4
C
=
+
n
2 +
n
n
4 C
=
n
n
3 +
n
2
4
1 2 n
8
32
1152
+ 16
3
772
83
3 173
+ 1531
4
C
=
n
n
4 C
=
n
6
8
+ 480
899
336

σ

= m

0 [

hypot cos

y

( ()

,sinh

())] ()

x

cos

A

=

m

0

The last coefficient is C 8 = 3.6 10 -11 and in the Clenshaw summation is used both cosine and complex cosine.

Bomford, G (1962): Geodesy, second edition, Oxford

Bougayevskiy Lev M, Snyder John P (1995) Map Projections. A reference Manual. Taylor and Francis, London

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