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RESULT

EXPERIMENT 1 : DEMONSTRATION OF FILMISE AND DROPWISE

Type of Condensation Filmwise

Characteristic Low rate of condensation

Observation The water doplets flow Directly to the bottom

Dropwise

High rate of condensation

The water droplet flow drop by drop to the bottom

Table 1

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EXPERIMENT 2 : THE FILMWISE HEAT FLUX AND SURFACE HEAT TRANSFER COEFFICIENT DETERMINATION AT CONSTANT PRESSURE

Reading 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Power (W) -1803.19 -372.09 1373.86 4980.25 7942.65 11333.75 15527.52 19119.6 22667.48 26046.16

Water Flowrate (LPM) 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0

Steam , Tsat 71.3 71.5 71.4 71.1 71.6 71.1 71.4 71.0 71.3 71.1

Surface temperature, Tsurf 83.9 72.8 68.2 62.4 60.5 57.9 55.9 54.3 53.7 52.9 Table 2

T (Tsat Tsurf) -12.6 -1.3 3.2 8.7 11.1 13.2 15.5 16.7 17.6 18.2

Tin, T1 31.1 31.3 31.2 31.3 31.2 31.2 31.2 31.2 31.2 31.2

Tout, T2 60.9 47.0 41.8 39.3 38.2 37.0 36.2 35.5 35.2 34.6

Flowrate 24.0 24.0 24.0 24.0 24.0 24.0 24.0 24.0 24.0 24.0

Reading 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Heat Flux, q -1423.45 -293.72 1084.54 3931.46 6270.00 8947.46 12257.57 15093.19 17893.92 20561.08

Surface Heat Transfer Coefficient, h 11.97 228.95 338.92 451.89 564.86 677.84 790.81 903.78 1016.76 1120.73 Table 3

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Graph 1
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Graph 2
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EXPERIMENT 3 : THE DROPWISE HEAT FLUX AND SURFACE HEAT COEFFICIENT AT CONSTANT PRESSURE

Reading 1 2 3 4

Water Flowrate (LPM) 0.4 0.8 1.2 1.6

Steam, Tsat 71.2 71.2 71.1 71.6

Surface temperature, Tsurf 67.0 61.5 58.0 57.6

T (Tsat Tsurf) 4.2 9.7 13.1 14.0 Table 5

Tin, T1 31.2 31.2 31.1 31.1

Tout, T2 39.9 36.6 35.0 33.9

Flowrate 24.0 24.0 24.0 24.0

Power (W) 2404.2609 11105.3959 22497.0136 32056.8132

Reading 1 2 3 4

Heat Flux, q 1897.9459 8766.7027 17759.3514 25305.9460

Surface Heat Transfer Coefficient, h 451.89 903.78 1355.68 1807.57 Table 6

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Graph 3
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Graph 4

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Graph 5

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Graph 6
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EXPERIMENT 4 : THE EFFECT OF AIR INSIDE CHAMBER

Filmwise

Reading 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Pressure (atm) 1.01 1.01 1.01 1.01 1.01 1.01 1.01

Water Steam, Flowrate Tsat (LPM) 0.1 71.0 0.2 71.4 0.3 71.3 0.4 71.3 0.5 71.2 0.6 71.2 0.7 71.2

Surface T temperature, (Tsat Tsurf) Tsurf 74.3 -3.3 64.0 7.4 58.4 12.9 55.3 16.0 55.0 16.2 51.4 19.8 50.3 20.9 Table 7

Tin, T1 31.4 31.5 31.4 31.4 31.4 31.4 31.4

Tout, T2 53.6 43.7 39.2 37.6 36.6 35.4 32.1

Flowrate 24.0 24.0 24.0 24.0 24.0 24.0 24.0

Power (W) -472.2655 2118.0394 5538.3869 9159.0895 11592.0992 17001.5597 20937.1062

Reading 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Heat Flux, q -372.8108 1672.0000 4372.0541 7230.2703 9150.9108 13421.1891 16527.9460

Surface Heat Transfer Coefficient, h 112.97 225.96 338.92 451.89 564.86 677.84 790.81 Table 8

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Dropwise

Reading 1 2 3 4

Pressure (atm) 1.01 1.01 1.01 1.01

Water Steam, Flowrate Tsat (LPM) 0.4 71.5 0.8 71.3 1.2 71.2 1.6 71.2

Surface T temperature, (Tsat Tsurf) Tsurf 54.2 17.3 51.0 20.3 49.6 21.6 48.7 22.5 Table 9

Tin, T1 31.3 31.3 31.3 31.3

Tout, T2 36.0 34.2 33.3 33.1

Flowrate 24.0 24.0 24.0 24.0

Power (W) 9903.2654 23241.1895 37094.3124 51519.8783

Reading 1 2 3 4

Heat Flux, q 7817.7297 18346.8108 29282.5946 40670.2703

Surface Heat Transfer Coefficient, h 451.89 903.78 1355.68 1807.57 Table 10

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Filmwise

Graph 7

Dropwise
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Graph 8

Filmwise
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Graph 9 Dropwise

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Graph 10
CALCULATIONS 24

Sample calculations Heat flux Q " = Q/A Surface heat transfer coefficient h= Q____ A.dT Q= heat flow in input or lost heat flow , J/s=W h=heat transfer coefficient, W/(m2K) A= heat transfer surface area, m2 dT = difference in temperature between the solid surface and surrounding fluid are, K

Example Heat flux Q= 1373.86/ 1.26677 = 1084.5405 Surface Heat transfer Area condenser tube= d2/4= 1.26677m2 h = 1373.86/(1.26677 x 3.2) =338.92 W/(m2K)

DISCUSSION Experiment 1 : demonstration of film wise and drop wise condensation


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The objective to demonstrate the film wise and drop wise condensation is achieved. The characteristic of film wise at low rate condensation shows that the water droplets flow directly to the bottom while drop wise at high rate of condensation shows that the water droplets flow drop by drop to the bottom. This is because film wise condensation on vertical surfaces occurs when the liquid phase fully wets the surface, whereas in drop wise condensation the liquid incompletely wets the solid surfaces. The condensation process begins with vapour condensing directly on the wall surface. However, in contrast with drop wise condensation after the wall is initially wetted, it remains covered by a thin film of condensate. Thus, the condensation rate is directly a function of the rate at which heat is transported across the liquid film from the liquid-vapor interface to the wall.

Figure above shows three distinct regimes of film wise condensation on the vertical wall. These regimes are proceeding in order from the top wall (x=0) that is laminar, wavy and turbulent. At the top of the wall, where the film is thinnest, the laminar regime is exist. As the condensation process proceeds, more and more condensation appears on the surface and the liquid condensate is pulled downward by gravity. As the condensate moves downward, the film becomes thicker. Finally, if the film thickness becomes so great that irregular ripple in both time and space will appear which is identified as turbulent flow regime. Experiment 2 and 3
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The cooling water is circulated through the film wise condenser starting with a minimum value of 0.1 LPM.to attain the desired pressure at1.01 bar, the heater power is adjusted. When the condition is stabilized, the steam at temperature saturated surface temperature at temperature surface, temperature in and out and flow rates are jotted. Graph 2 shows that the heat flux increases with temperature differences increases at constant steam pressure. While graph of drop wise show that it increases more than the film wise graph. This can be explained in terms of how the condensation forms in the condenser. The vapour drops in dropwise condensation are discrete and are continually formed and released which means that the surface of the condenser is also continually being exposed. In comparison, the film created in film wise condensation always covers the surface of the condenser at film wise. As a relatively poor conductor of heat, this film creates a thermal resistance which is the reason why the value for heat flux for film wise is lower than the drop wise condensation. To check the accuracy of the experiment, the values for the heat transfer coefficient in the film wise condenser were compared to the values which are obtained theoretically using the heat transfer coefficient equation: h= Q____ A.dT Q= heat flow in input or lost heat flow , J/s=W h=heat transfer coefficient, W/(m2K) A= heat transfer surface area, m2 dT = difference in temperature between the solid surface and surrounding fluid are, K Experiment 4: the effect of air inside chamber

The effect of a non condensable gas in the steam vapour is presented in the graph 7 until 10 show that for a certain temperature difference, the Heat Flux for a condenser using steam mixed with 5% of air is significantly smaller than pure steam, and the magnitude of this difference increases with temperature difference. In the case of Heat Transfer Coefficients, the value for both steam and steam with air approaches zero, but when the steam is mixed with air it is consistently low.

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In conclusion, dropwise condensation is a more effective method of heat transfer than filmwise condensation, and the presence of air in steam vapour significantly reduces the heat transfer.

APPLICATION During winter, the inside of windows will undergo fog, moisture or sweating. That fog or moisture occurs when humid air comes in contact with a surface that is cooler than the air. This happens when doors and windows are kept closed, hence holding in the moisture-filled air. A thin film of dew or frost on your windows is normal and will not damage them

CONCLUSION

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In conclusion, dropwise condensation is a more effective method of heat transfer than filmwise condensation, and the presence of air in steam vapour significantly reduces the heat transfer.

RECOMENDTION

1. Always opened the overflow valve to maintain or lower its pressure. 2. Make sure that the valve is closed tightly to ensure no leaking of water during experiment.
3. Make sure that the pressure switch to turn off the heater when chamber pressure exceeds

1.20 abs bar, pressure relief valve to discharge at 1.5 abs bar 4. Make sure that when taking the reading of the flow rate, the eye level must be perpendicular with the water inside the chamber. 5. Do not directly touch the over flow water that might have high temperature that can blistered.

REFERENCES

Advanced Heat and Mass Transfer ,By Amir Faghri, Amir Faghri, Yuwen Zhang, John Howell, Yuwen Zhang, John Howell W.W. Akers, S.H. Davis, Jr and J.E. Crawford, "Condensation of a Vapor in the Presence of a Noncondensing Gas," Chemical Engineering Progress Symposium Series, No 30, Vol 56, pp 139-144, 1960. H.K. Al-Diwany and J.W. Rose, "Free Convection Film Condensation of Steam in the Presence of Noncondensing Gases," Int J Heat Mass Transfer, Vol 16, pp 1359-1369 1973. K. Almenas and U. Lee, "A Statistical Evaluation of the Heat Transfer Data Obtained in the HDR Containment Tests," University of Maryland, 1984. K. Asano and Y. Nakano, "Forced Convection Film Condensation of Vapors in the Presence of Noncondensable Gas on a Small Vertical Flat Plate," J of Chem Engr of Japan , 1978.

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APPENDIX

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