Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 34

FIRST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS FOR OPEN SYSTEMS

(REVIEW)

r2 V & & Q W = me u + Pv + + g z & 2 e r2 dEcv V mi u + Pv + + g z + & 2 dt i

CONSERVATION OF ENERGY FOR AN OPEN SYSTEM

If steady state steady flow is assumed,


qw = he hi
for KE 0 and PE 0 . In the above equations, W and w do not include flow work.
2

q41

APPLICATIONS (STEADY FLOW DEVICES)

1 4 Pump w34 3 q23 Condenser 2 Boiler Turbine w12

Steam power plants (with PE = KE = 0) Turbine:


w12 = (h1 h 2 )

Work out (+) Heat out () Work in () Heat in (+)


3

Condenser: q23 = (h 3 h 2 ) Pump: w34 = (h 3 h 4 ) Boiler:


q41 = (h1 h 4 )

APPLICATIONS (STEADY STATE DEVICES)

q41 Condenser Compressor

Expansion valve 2

Evaporator 3 q23

w34

Refrigerators, air-conditioners, and heat pumps (with PE = KE = 0)


Expansion valve: Evaporator: Compressor: Condenser:
h1 = h 2

q = 0, w = 0 Heat in (+) Work in () Heat out ()


4

q23 = (h 3 h 2 )

w34 = (h 3 h 4 )
q41 = (h1 h 4 )

UNSTEADY PROCESSES (ONE INLET AND ONE EXIT)


& W + m i h i m e h e = d (mu ) cv Q & & & dt

Over a period of time


Q W + m i h i m e h e = (m 2 u 2 m1 u 1 ) cv

Note that, in the above equations, W and W do not include flow work.
5

CAUTION
Units of various terms in the energy equation must be consistent. q and w: u and h: r2 V and gz: Pv: kJ/kg; Btu/lbm kJ/kg; Btu/lbm m 2/s2; ft2/s2 (MPa) m /kg; (lbf/in ) ft /lbm
6

CAUTION
m2 kJ Nm kg m m 3 3 3 1 = 10 = 10 = 10 2 2 kg kg s s kg

lbm ft ft Btu ft lbf 1 = 778 = 778 32.2 lbm lbm s 2 lbm ft = 778 32.2 2 s
2

Units for q, w, u, and h

Units for KE
7

CAUTION
(MPa ) m 3 kJ 1 = 103 kg kg
3

Units for flow work


2

Btu ft lbf ft (lbf/ft 1 = 778 = 778 lbm lbm lbm

)
2

1 ft 144 in 2
3

Units for q, w, u, and h

(lbf /in ) ft = 778/144 lbm

CYCLIC DEVICES

HEAT ENGINE
A heat engine is a system (or device) that operates in cycles and produces work while exchanging heat with its surroundings. Examples of a heat engine are steam power plants, automobile engines, steam turbines, gas turbines, and thermoelectric power generation devices.

QH
Heat Engine

QL
10

HEAT PUMP
A heat pump is a system (or device) that operates in cycles, requires work, and accomplishes the objective of transferring heat from a low temperature region to a high temperature region.

QH

Examples of a heat pump are refrigerators, air conditioners, and residential heat pumps.

Heat Pump

QL

11

q41 1

POWER CYCLE

4 Pump w34 3

Boiler Turbine Condenser 2 q23 w12

Power cycle (steam power plants, automobile engines, gas turbines, )

QH

Heat Engine

QL
12

THERMAL EFFICIENCY OF A HEAT ENGINE

q41 1 4 Pump w34 3 q23 Condenser 2 Boiler Turbine w12

Thermal efficiency, , is defined as


W QL = 1 = QH QH

QH
Heat Engine

or

& W = = 1 & QH

& QL & QH

QL
13

q41 Condenser Compressor

REFRIGERATION CYCLE

Expansion valve 2

Evaporator 3 q23

w34

Refrigeration cycle (refrigerators and air conditioners)

QH

Refrigerator

QL

14

COEFFICIENT OF PERFORMANCE OF A REFRIGERATOR

q41 Condenser Compressor

Expansion valve 2

Evaporator 3 q23

w34

Coefficient of performance, , is defined as


QL QL = = W QH QL

QH
Refrigerator

or

& & QL QL = = & & & W QH QL

QL

15

q41 Condenser Compressor

HEAT PUMP CYCLE

Expansion valve 2

Evaporator 3 q23

w34

Heat pump cycle (residential heat pumps) QH


Heat Pump

QL

16

COEFFICIENT OF PERFORMANCE OF A HEAT PUMP

q41 Condenser Compressor

Expansion valve 2

Evaporator 3 q23

w34

Coefficient of performance, , is defined as


QH QH = = W QH QL

QH
Heat Pump

or

& & QH QH = = & & & W QH QL

QL

17

TEAMPLAY
Given below are a heat engine and a heat pump. What can you say about them?

QH
Heat Engine

QH W
Heat Pump

W=0

QL = 0

QL
18

THE 1ST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS


& & Q W = dEsystem dt
for closed systems for open systems

& W + (m e ) (m e ) = dEcv Q & & i & e dt

The First Law says that energy may be converted from one form to another. The First Law places no restriction on energy conversion other than the overall conservation.
19

TEAMPLAY
Consider the two systems, A and B, below. Initially, the two system are at 100F and 50F, respectively. Both have the same mass and specific heat. The two systems are brought into contact. Energy is allowed to be exchanged between the two systems, but not between each system and the surroundings.

A
T = 100F

B
T = 50F

STATE 1

20

TEAMPLAY (CONT.)
You come back in several days and find that the final temperature of B is 100F. What is the final temperature of A?

A
T=?

B
T = 100F

STATE 2
Is the answer what you would expect? Please explain.
21

HEAT PUMP/REFRIGERATOR WITH W = 0


According to the First Law, QH + QL W = E = 0 or |QH| = |QL| Heat may be transferred from a lower temperature region to a higher temperature region. Coefficient of performance of this heat pump/refrigerator is infinity ().

QH
Heat pump/ refrigerator

W=0

QL
22

HEAT ENGINE WITH QL = 0


According to the First Law, QH W = E = 0 or |QH| = |W| All (100%) of the heat may be converted to work with this heat engine. Thermal efficiency of this heat engine is 1.0, or 100%

QH
Heat Engine

QL = 0
23

THE 2nd LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS


The heat pump/refrigerator that transfers heat from a region at TL to a region at TH and does not require work (with W = 0) and the heat engine that converts all of the heat from a source to work (with QL = 0) violate the Second Law of Thermodynamics. According to the 2nd Law, it is not possible to have such a heat pump/refrigerator or heat engine.
24

THE 2nd LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS The 2nd Law of Thermodynamics help us: determine the direction of a process, establish the final equilibrium state, define the ideal performance of any energy conversion device, determine the quality of energy, determine if a process is irreversible, and define an absolute temperature scale.
25

THE 2nd LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS There are two statements of the Second Law of Thermodynamics: the Clausius statement, and the Kelvin-Planck statement.
26

THE CLAUSIUS STATEMENT OF THE 2nd LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS It is impossible to operate a cyclic device in such a manner that the sole effect external to the device is the transfer of heat from one heat reservoir at a lower temperature to another at a higher temperature.
27

HEAT RESERVOIR
A heat reservoir is a closed system, from which heat is removed, or to which heat is added. The temperature of the reservoir does not change. The sole distinguishing property of a heat reservoir is its temperature. A heat reservoir may be a large heat source or a large heat sink.
28

THE CLAUSIUS STATEMENT OF THE 2nd LAW It is not possible to have the following system & with W = 0. Reservoir at TH We need work input to the system to move the heat from a reservoir at TL to another at TH .
& QH
Heat pump

& W

& QL
Reservoir at TL
29

THE KELVIN-PLANCK STATEMENT OF THE 2nd LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS It is impossible for any system to operate in a thermodynamic cycle and deliver a net amount of work to its surroundings while exchanging heat with a single heat reservoir.
30

THE KELVIN-PLANCK STATEMENT OF THE 2nd LAW It is not possible to have the following system & with QL = 0. Reservoir at TH
& QH

We cannot convert all of the heat from a heat reservoir at TH to work.

& W

Heat engine

& QL = 0
Reservoir at TL
31

TWO STATEMENTS OF THE 2nd LAW The two statements of the Second Law are equivalent. The violation of one implies the violation of the other.

32

Given a device, Device 1, that violates the Clausius statement of the 2nd Law.
TH |QL| Device 1 |QL| TL |QH| Heat engine |QL| |W|=|QH|-|QL|
Add a heat engine. Operate Device 1 and the heat engine with the same two reservoirs.
33

Consider a second device, Device 2, that includes Device 1 and the heat engine. Device 2 TH violates the |QH| Kelvin-Planck |QL| statement.
Device 1 |QL| Device 2 TL
34

Heat engine

|W|=|QH|-|QL|

|QL|