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1.

( )
( ). .
() : c [gg].
.
cn [ke:n] [k] [k]: cwn, cyning.
n [] [g] [k]: leornun ().
x cs: oxa ().
, .. .
, , f [f],
[v]. [] [], s [s] [z].
, ,
.
.
1. , n
[], , leo (), d (), an
(), sinan ().
2. , r l
[] : daas (), sor (), folian ().
3. ,
[]: : d (), we (), spedi .
[j]: iefan (), ear ().
c : secan (), bryc (), ec


p
b
f
w
v
m


t
k
d
g

s
x

z
j
n
l
r

k
g
x



5-7 .
( ). :
f > vdrifan [drivan], steorfan [steorvan]
> cwean [kwean], weoran [weoran]

s > zwesan [wezan], bosm [bozm]



, f, (), s.

, : wulf wulfas [wulvas].
wolf wolves, wife wives, life lives, leaf leaves, house houses ..
,
,
(. 1
..).

[m], [n] [f], [s], []. ,
, . .
OE ff < finf (Got fimf; OHG finf, fimf)
OE er < oner (Got anar)
OE t < ton (Got tunus
OE s < ns (OHG gans)
OE s < uns (OHG uns)
[h]
:
OE ton < teohan (OHG ziohan)
OE son < seohan < sehan (OHG sehan)
OE slan < sleahan < slhan (OHG slahan)

.
, , ,
11 .
[k] [g]
[sk]:
cild > child
cicen > chicken
cin > chin
swilc > swich (NE such)
stice > stitch
cirice > church

cyse > cheese


, ,
: [k] ,
. [k] :
kin () < OE cynn < kuni ()
keen () < OE cne < cni ()
, ,
( 6 . 7 .).
. 13 .
ch, .
gj [g] ( c).
[] [k] [t]. :
brugio > bryc > OE bridge ()
wagja > wec > ME wedge ()
[sk] [k] [t] []. :
OE fisk > ME fish (fish)
OE sceorte > ME sherte (shirt)
OE sceacan > ME shaken (to shake)
OE scap > ME sheap (sheep)
[] sch,
sh.
[t], [ ], [].

[hl], [hn], [hr] 11 . [h],
. :
8 .11 .
hringring (ring)
hnutunute (nut)
hldld (loud)
, [hw] [h] .
wh, :
d. hwt > . what
d. hwt > . wht (white)

, (
). , ,
. r
:
. ridda > irda (third)
. rinnen > irnan, iernan (to run)
. brid > bird (bird)
. scian > xian (to ask)
. wascan > waxan (wax)
.
1). .
.
() [k] [], ch.
, ( )
, [k]: . mycel > . mikel; . cirice > . kirk.
sc [sk] [],
sh, sch (. ).
() c []. g
[], joy, just, viage (NE voyage) .
[], [ ].
, [] [].
1315 . .
2. [v] ( v
f, ). [v]
, v: veyn
, verray .
, , ,
, .
3. 14 15 . [x]
[x]. :
right [rixt] > [ri:t]
night [nixt] > [ni:t]
light [lixt] > [li:t]
[x] [i] [i:] ,
[ai].
, , [x] ,
[u]:
coughen [kouxen] > cough [koux] > [ko:f]

laughen [lauxen] >laugh [laux] > la:f]


rough [ru:x] > rough [ru:f] > [ruf] > [rf]

[r]. 17-18 . [r] , ,
, ,
.
16 .17-18 .
bark [bark]>bark [ba:k]
turn [turn]>turn [t :n]
port [port]>port [po:t]
care [k:r]>care [k]
here [hi:r[>here [hi]
[r]
. [r] , . a. [hard], [port], [kr]
.
. 16 . [b] [n] [m] .
mb > m: climben [klimbn] > climb [klaim]
mn > m: autumne [o:tumn] > [o:tm]
.
stl > sl: bustlen [bustln] > bustle [basl]
stn > sn: fastnen [fastnn] > fasten [fa:sn]
skl > sl: muscle [muskl] > muscle [masl]
ftn > fn: often [oftn] > often [ofn]
[kn], [gn], [wr]
[k], [g], [w] [n] [r].
knyf [kni:f] > knife [naif]
knowen [known] > know [nou]
gnat [gnat] > gnat [nt]
gnome [gnom ] > gnome [noum]
writen [wri:tn] > write [rait]
wrong [wro] > wrong [ro]

. 17 . ,
15 . t, d, s, z j
. : , , t, .
s+j>
ME translacyoun [transla`sjou:n] > NE translation [tr ns`lein]
ME sure [sju:r] > NE sure [u]
z + j > : decision, collision
ME pleasure [pl`zju:r] > NE pleasure [`ple]
[] .
, . []
, . :
jalousie [a:lu`zi:], beige [be:].
t + j > t
ME aventure [avn`tju:r] > NE adventure [d`ven t]
ME lecture [lek`tju:r] > NE lecture [`lek t]
d+j>
ME souldiour [ sou `dju:r] > NE soldier [`soul]
. ., ,
: I want you to [ai`wontju:t], would you [`wuu].
.
f > v: ca of > [v] , , off
, .. .
captif > captive [`kptiv], motif > motive [`moutiv]
s > z:
was [was] > [waz] > [woz]; foxes [foksis] > [foksiz]
[] > []:
the [e] > [e]; this [is] > [is]; with [wi] > [wi]
C (, , , ),
[], , .. : thought, thick, to
thank, three.
(, , ),
, []: this, these, that, those, they, with, then, there.
[t] > [ ]

ME knowleche > NE knowledge [`noli]


ME Greenwich [gre:ni t]> NE [`gri:ni]
[ks] > [gz]
, : exist [ig`zist], examination
[igzmi`nein].
, .
:
exhibition [eksi`bin] exhibit [ig`zibit]
execute [`eksikju:t] executive [ig`zekjutiv]
anxious [`ks] anxiety [`zaiti]
. ;
, , (..
) .

.
, , ,
. ;
, .

, i, y, y u
, e , o
, , a
: scip, fisc, drincan - td, wn, wrtan; nyht, fyllan - mys, bryd; helpan, sprecan - ft, t; bron, dg strt, s; sunu, cuman - tn, hs; folc, cos - bc, ft; caru, faran - bn, cnwan.
:
ea ea:
eo eo:
io io:
ie ie:
: healf hah, steorra dop, siolufr dor, scield heran.
. -.
. ,
, .

.

, h: sehan > son (),


: fon > afon
().

, , , .
. ,
(i-mutation).
.
, , ,
i j . i / j
[]. ,
. ., , ; .
.
-. .
:
:
[u] > [y]: fulljan > fyllan;
[o] > [e]: dohtri > dehter;
[a] > [e]: sandian > sendan; manniz > menn
:
[u:] > [y:]: msiz > ms, ms
[o:] > [e:]: tiz > t, t
[a:] > [:]: ni > ni, n
:
[a:] > [ie:] hahire > hehra
[eo:] > [ie:] cosi > ces
6-7 . ..., ..
. :
o (man men, foot feet),
(old elder eldest);
(long length, strong strength);
(blood to bleed, full to fill). ,
.
( ).
(u, a, o) . .
:
i > io hira > hiora, silufr > siolufr, sifon > siofon
e > eo hefon > heofon, efor > eofor

a > ea saru > searu


. r, l, h
, . :
[] > [a] hldan > healdan, wrm > wearm, hta > eahta l, r, h + h: sh > seah;
[:] > [a:] nh > nah h;
[e] > [eo] melcan > meolcan, herte > heorte, fehtan > feohtan l, r, h + .
9 . [eo] > [io] ht hs: feohtan > fiehtan, cneoht > cnieht.
. ,
. :
ah + > a: slahan > sleahan > slan;
eh/ih + h > o: sehan > son, than > ton;
h + h > : fhan > fn;
, : se > s, ae > a.
. 9 . (
[i] [u] ) ld, nd, mb. H:
findan > fndan; cild > cld; wild > wld, climban > clmban;
bunden > bounden [bu:nden], funden > founden [fu:nden].
, , :
cildru . . . . 16 . [i:] > [ai], . .
: child > children.
, ,
, hind, behind [ai] hinder, hindrance [i]; wild [ai] wilderness, bewilder [i].
wind, [i].
windmill.
.
7-8 . k, j, sk
. :
[] > [a] clf > cealf; cster > ceaster, grd > geard
[e] > [ie] gefan > giefan; sceld > scield;
[:] > [a:] [sc:p] > [sca:p]; [g:r] > [ga:r]
.
. 10 . [:] [] [i:] [i].
:
nyht > niht; bysi > bisi; mys > ms
- , [u]:
mycel > much

blyscan > blushen


[u] > [], much blush, .
, . , bury
[beri] < OE byrgan - , .
busy [bizi] -, .
,
.
.
.
9 . [ie] > [y]: cnieht > cnyht, scieppan > scyppan
[ie:] > [y:]: hieran > hyran, geliefan > gelyfan
10 . [y] [y:] [i] [i:].
11-12 . [a] > > a: eal(l) > ll > all; wearm > wrm > warm
[eo] > [e] heorte > herte; sterra > sterra
[a:]> [:] gar > yer (yeer); brad > bred;
[eo:]> [e:] dop > deep; dor > deer
, [:]
.
.
n, m.
finf > ff, uns > s, gans > gons > gs, anar > onar > er
( 7 .),
. (. ).
h (.
).
.
,
n m.
7-8 . :
[e] < [i ] Lat pensare > OE pinsian, Lat niman > OE neman
[o] > [u] Lat monachus > OE munuc, Lat pondo > OE pund
, : [a] < [] mann >
monn.
[a] < [ ] ,
. 9 . , 10 , .. [],
[] , []. , mann > monn > mann; land > lond >
land.

, o, -. .
[] > [] [], [] : OE lang < ME
long > NE long; OE sang > ME song > NE song; OE strang > ME strong > NE strong
[a:] < [o:]: mno > mna; nmun > nmon.

.
,
.
.-. .
, ,
(-on, -an. un). 12-13 . , [a. o, e. u] >
[] . 12 . .
. , ,
(-as > -es; an > en; -a > -e), (-an >
-en), (-a > -eth) (-on > -en).
,
.
: ) ; )
. -, ,
[m] [n].
[m] > [n] 12 ., 13 . [n] ,
.
14-15 . [], .
, goode good ..
, ;
, ;
, , 3- . . . . .
.
, - , ,
, , . , , .. hs > .-. hous [hu:s] (13 ), hous [hu:s] (14 .). hs
12 14 ., .
. ,
, , , .. ,
( ).
12 ., 13 . . , , . :
[e] < [:] OE sprecan > ME 12 c. speken > 13 c. speken [`sp:kn]
[] < [:] OE nosu > ME 12 c. nose > 13 c. nose [`n:z]
[a] > [a:] OE caru > ME 12 c. care > 13 c. care [`ka:r]
, - [a:], 12 .
.-. [a:] > [:] [a].

. 13 ,
, ,
. : cpte > kepte; slpte > slepte; fdde > fedde, wsdom > wisdom.

, : to sleep slept, to keep kept, to feed fed . .
, : hs > hous [u:],
husbonde [u]; ws > wis [i:], wisdom [i].
, :
OE hlid > ME hlidai > hlidai; lferce > lverke > lrke.
, ld, nd, mb,
15 ., : cild > child [t:ild].
,
.
, ,
,
, .. .
. 12 . [a:] [:].
.-. [a:] < [:], , . :
OE ban > ME bon, boan
OE gan > ME gon, goon
OE hlaf > ME lof, loaf
[a:] + [w], [:] 13-15 .
[:].
OE tw > ME two > two [tw:] >[two:]
OE hw > ME who > hwo [hw:] >[hwo:]
[:] > [:], , , :
OE s > ME se, sea
OE ltan > ME leten, leeten
. 12-13 .
, ,
.

. :
1. [ai] [j] [], : OE
d> ME dai, day; OE sde > ME saide;
2. [ei] [j] [e], : OE we
> ME wei, wey; OE sel > ME seil;
3. [au] :

) [] > [u] [a], : OE draan > ME drawen;


OE lau > lawe;
) [au] : cause [kauz ], fraud [fraud];
) [u] n m
: Fr chambre > ME chaumbre; Fr changer > ME chaungen.
4. [ou] > [u] :
a) [] > [u] [:] > [:], : en > ME owen;
) [w] > [u] [:] > [:], : OE cnawan > ME knowen;
OE snaw > ME snow;
) [u] [o:] [h] : OE bhte > ME boughte; OE
shte > ME soughte;
5. [eu] [w] [eo:], [a:], : OE cnow > ME
knw; OE trowe > ME trwe; OE daw > ME dw;
6. [oi] ,
: Fr joye > ME joie; Fr noise > ME noise.
,
, ,
, , .
.
(The Great Vowel Shift).
, .
(., .), 16 .
18 ., (, .) 15-17 ., ,
16 . , . ,
.
, ,
[i:], [u:], [a:], [:] .
:
ai i: i: i: u: u: au

e: e: ei ou o:

: :
a:
, ,
.
1. o: > u:, -
14 ., 15 . :

tooth [to:] > [tu:]; roof [ro:f] > [ru:f]; moon [mo:n] > [mu:n]
2. .-. [:] > [i:]:
see [se:] < [si:]; meet [me:t] > [mi:t]; sleep [sle:p] > [sli:p]
3. [:] 16 . [:], 17-18 . > [i:].
[:] > [i:]:
14 . mete [m:t] > 16 . meat [me:t] > 17-18 . [mi:t];
se [s:] > sea [se:] > [si:]; speak [sp:k] > [spe:k] > [spi:k].
4. [i:] 14 . [ij],
, [ei], [i], [ai], .. [i:] > [ai]:
like [li:k] > [leik] > [lik] > [laik]; my [mi:]>[mei] >[mi]>[mai].
5. C.-. [u:] 15 . > [ou], 16 . > [au], .. [u:] > [au]:
house [hu:s] > [hous] > [haus];
down [du:n] > [doun] > [daun].
6. [:] 16-17 ., [o:],
18 . [ou], [ :] > [ou]:
go [:] > [go:] > [gou]; ston [st:n] > stone [sto:n] > [stoun].
7. [:] > 14-15 . [:] > 15 . [:] > 16-17 .[e:] > 18 . [ei],
[a:] > [ei]:
name [na:m] > [na:m] > [n:m] > [n:m] < [ne:m] > [neim].
- take [ta:k] > [teik]; shake [a:k] > [eik].
, ,
: [i:] i [ai], o [ou], a [ei].
.
. ,
, .
, , ,
.
.
:
[e] >[a] r 15 .:
sterre > star; werre > war; person > parson
16-17 . [a] [e] [r] , : vartue, sartein,
sarvis vertue, certain, service. 18 .
, , service, certain, university, [a] [e],
[:]. , clerk [kla:k], sergeant

[sa:nt] heart hearth, ,


.
[a] < []. , - 15 .,
16 :
cat [kat] > [kt]; land [land] > [lnd];
[a] > [ :]. [w],
w, wh, qu:
was [was] > [wz], want [want] > [wnt]
E [a] [g] [k], [a] > []: wag [wg], wax [wks].
[u] > [] 16-17 .: run [run] < [rn]; come [kum] > [km].
, , , [u]
, [], : bull, bush, full, pull, put, push, pudding, wolf. ,
, [u] []: bulb, pulse, pulp .
[u] > [] . , []
.
.
[u:] [:].
1. [u:] 16 . [v],
[d], []:
(16 .) [o:] > (16 .) [u:] > (16 .) [u] > (17 .) []
blood [blo:d] > [blu:d] > [blud] > [bld]
glove [glo:v] > [glu:v] > [gluv] > [glv]
2. 17 . 18 . [u:]
[k] [d] [t]: :
14 . book [bo:k] > 15-16 . [bu:k] > 17 18 . [buk];
foot [fo:t] > [fu:t] > [fut]; stood [sto:d] > [stu:d] > [stud]
3. [:] [e:] 16 . , , [:]
[d], [t], [], [:] [e], :
deed [d:d] > [de:d]; breed [br:d] > bread [bre:d]; heed [h:d] > head [he:d]
[:] [d], [t], [] , [:]
> [e:] > [i:]:
reden [r:dn] > read [re:d] > [ri:d]; beten [b:tn] > [be:t] > [bi:t]
. 16 .
[a:] [o:], [:].
1. [:] . .-. []

) [] > [] > [:] > [a:] [f], [s], [], [r] , : pass [ps] >
[p:s] > [pa:s]; after [ftr] > [:ftr] > [a:ft];
, [f], [s], [] [:], : [p:s] [:ftr].
) [a] > [au] > [a:] lm, lf. [u]:
calm [kaulm] > [kaum] > [ka:m]; half [haulf] > [hauf] > [ha:f]
a, , , : [] > []
> [:] > [a:]:
calf [kaf] > [kf] > [k:f] > [ka:f]; half [haf] > [hf] > [haf].
.
) .-. [] > [:]
, :
branch [brant] > [bra:nt]; plant [pla:nt]
2. [ :].
) [au] >[ :] 16-17 .: cause [kauz] > [k :z]; draw [drau] > [dr :]
) [a] >[au] >[ :] l, lt, lk: hall [haul] > [h :l], talk [taulk] < [tauk] > [t:k]
) [ ] > [ou] > [au] > [ :] h, t:
thoghte [ xt] > thoughte [ouxt]> thought > [:t]
) [ ] > [ :] f, s, , r: port [port] > [p :t], ford [ford] > [f :d]
3. [:] 16-17 . i + r: fir, sir, first, bird;
e + r: serve, certain, vertue;
u + r: fur, turn, hurt, burn;
o +r: worm, word, worse;
+ r: learn, heard
e + r ,
. , , certain, perfect [:],
, : varsity university, dezarve
deserve, sarvant servant .
[:], [e + r] [u + r] []. : fur [fur] > [fr] >
[f:]; certain [sertain] > [sartn] > [sertn] > [s:tn].
er ar er
ur ar :
ir ir

.
:
1. [] 14 . morwe [morw] >15 . morrow [morou]
14 . sparwe [sparw] >15 . sparrow [sprou]
2. [w]. , ,
[] [u]. . [] []: ,
.
[w] , [:] [u:]. :
n [a:n] (12 .) > [:n] > [o:n] (13-14 .) > [u:n] (15 .) > [wu:n] (15 .) > [wun] (16 .) > one [wn] (17-18 .).
nly [w] [ounli].
. [ai] [ei] .-.
[i], o [ei]: [dei, wei].
[ei] [ei] .-. [:].
: tail () tale (); maid () made (); pail () pale ()
..
.-. [eu] ( eu, ew) [iu],
, [ju:] :
14 c. knew [kniu] > 15 c. [knju:] > 16 c. [nju:];
14 c. dew [diu] > 15 c. [dju:] > 16 c. [dju:]
, u
[ju:] [iu]: pure, nature, duke ..:
duke [dy:k] > [diuk] > [dju:k]
, [r], [l], [t] [] [ju:] , :
blue [bliu] > [blju:] > [blu:]; fruit [fry:t] > [frju:t] > [fru:t]
[au] [:] 16 ..
[ou] [:], [u] 18 .,
[u], .-. [:]. :
14-15 . snow [snou] > 15-16 . [sno:] > 18 .[snou]
14-15 . low [lou] > 15-16 . [lo:] > 18 .[lou]