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A very useful book on

Internet & dotcoms By GIJO & H.M.JADEJA

This book is for common people, who want to know about Internet.

This book is dedicated to common man, who feels that, he is left out in the Internet boom.

Dedication Why this book? How to use this book? Contents FUNDAMENTALS OF COMPUTER SOFTWARE & HARDWARE Basics of Internet Launch yourself into the World Wide Web Surfing the Internet? Fundamentals of web site designing Fundamentals of web marketing and search engine submissions How to make money from Internet? BEST WEB SITES IN INDIA INTERNATIONAL WEB DIRECTORY Find a romance online Go shopping online Find your dream job through Internet Resources for career development and online entrance preparation RESOURCES FOR GRE, TOEFL & OVERSEAS EDUCATION IN THE INTERNET How to publish your work through Internet? A brief introduction to cyber laws, cyber crimes & hacking MEDICAL RESOURCES IN INDIA Movie resources in Internet Music resources in Internet Spiritual resources in India Sports resources in Internet INTERNATIONAL WEB DIRECTORY Yoga & meditation resources in Internet A GUIDE TO DOT COM START-UPS AND VENTURE CAPITAL FUNDING Free resources available in the Internet Latest trend in Internet Fundamentals of e-commerce Glossary of common terms associated with Internet Conclusion

Why this book? Now days, you can find thousands of books on Internet in the market. Most of them are very elaborate complex and contain less practical information. Common people can't understand these books. So, there exist a very high digital divide in our society. This is a down to earth book, aimed at serving the common people who want to utilize Internet to improve their lives, but don't know how to go about. Our aim is to reduce the knowledge gap between the common man and the young products of the digital economy. This book gives accurate and pinpoint information on various topics using minimum number of words, to hit the nail on the head. The contents of this book will exactly tell you what is what in the simplest possible manner. And you are going to capture the entire world. GOOD LUCK GIJO & H.M.JADEJA

How to use this book? Carefully read through The contents at first Open the relevant page In which you are interested. Now, log on to the Internet, And type the URL address On the address bar Instantly you get what you want And becomes a hero or heroine On the spot Depending on your gender GIJO & H.M.JADEJA


Before knowing what is Internet, I want you to know the fundamentals of computer hardware & software, else it will be just like trying to write a sentence in English language without knowing the a, b, c, d. I have deliberately avoided the use of complex terms so that, the reader will not faint while reading through this book. Now read on BASICS OF COMPUTER HARDWARE What is a computer? A tool for managing information. There are basically two types of computers: Mainframes or Minicomputers, Microcomputers (Personal computers) Examples of some things a computer can do Create documents (letters, reports, brochures, publications) Store and analyze data (inventories, budgets, research data, lists) Create and edit graphics (pictures, drawings, photographs, artwork) Create and display multimedia (videos, sounds, animation, music, games) Connect to and interact with other computers around the world (the Internet) Control other devices (machinery, robots, musical instruments, transport vehicles) Hardware vs. Software Hardware: what you can touch and feel Software: electronic information used by the computer Hardware useless without software What are the parts of a computer? The Computer System consists of a. System Unit, Monitor, Keyboard, Mouse b. Disk drives

c. Diskettes-floppy disk drive d. Motherboard e. CPU microprocessor: It is the "brain", of any computer. It consists of millions of components that can process data. The major companies making microprocessors are Pentium, Motorola, Hyundai etc. the computer is also specified by the microprocessor used. For example 386, 486(old) Mac etc f. RAM: what it is? Temporary memory; therefore need to save! g. Slots, cards (serial, parallel, keyboard, mouse) Examples of Other Devices That Can Attach To A Computer a. Internal modem b. External Modem c. Ports (serial, parallel, mouse, keyboard) d. External hard disk e. CD ROM drive, CDs f. PCMCIA modem card g. Notebook computer h. Digital camera i. Printer What happens when you turn on the computer? 1. Operating system, programs documents all go into RAM 2. Everything you run or create gets put into RAM - First the operating system goes into RAM - Then programs, e.g. word processor, spreadsheet, etc... - Then data: too little RAM can stop software from working

b. More RAM means can run more programs & work with larger data; too little and programs can't run. c. RAM is temporary Types of Storage a. Types of diskettes: 3.5", 5.25", High/Low density b. Disk drive c. Taking care of diskettes d. Hard disk e. 5-1/4 inch floppy diskettes f. CD-ROM: stores much more data; most CD drives you can't write to disk Measuring RAM or Disks One Byte = 1 character 1 Kb = 1K = 1,024 bytes (but rounded to 1,000) 1 MB = 1 million bytes 1 GB = 1 billion bytes Examples: - 3.5 " diskette = 300 single spaced text; - most hard disks today: 500MB to 1Gb+ - typical minimum recommended RAM: 16MB (24 - 32MB better) Rule of thumb for RAM: More is Better! What is the configuration of an ordinary PC? You can determine the configuration of your PC according to your requirement. Suppose you want to see the configuration of the PC you want according to some criterion, log on to www.intel.com and type your requirement, you will get the configuration you require. Following is the simple example of the configuration of a HEWLETT PACKARD PC (Pentium-2) is given below. Microprocessor: Hard drive: Memory: Level 2 cache: CD-ROM Drive: 667MHz Intel Pentium-3 processor 10.2GB 64MB, 100Mz SD RAM 256 KB Advanced transfer cache 48* CD-ROM Max-speed

Diskette drive (Floppy disk drive) : 3.5 (1.44MB) DATA/FAX Modem: High velocity V.90 56kbps (33.6kbps send/ download up to 56kbps/14.4kbps fax, depending online condition and ISP Support. Sound: Industry compatible PCI 32 bit sound with 3D stereo and wave table synthesis. Speakers Slots (total) Drive Bays External ports Video graphics: Video memory MPEG: Keyboard: Mouse: : Premium Polk Audio stereo speakers with PowerPort technology. : (4) PCI : External: (3) 5.25 Internal: (1) 3.5 (1) Combo :(2) USB (2) Serial; Parallel, (1) game (1) TV-Out (S-video and PAL/NTSC) Integrated Intel Direct AGP 3D graphics. :Up to 11MB SD RAM Shared memory, Architecture for high resolution graphics. MPEG 1 for full screen, full motion digital video. HP pavilion enhanced one touch multimedia keyboard with internet access and media control. HP pavilion scrolling mouse.

Tips For Buying A New Computer Computer technology and prices change daily; the longer you wait, you will then get a better computer for less money. Talk to several different computer professionals first; don't just listen to a salesperson who is selling a particular brand of computer. BEFORE you buy, make sure you think about your short term/long term needs for both personal and business, make a list of the types of things you need to do. See the computer in action BEFORE you buy it to verify it does what you want. Note: When purchasing a personal computer you will need to make many decisions, such as, the microprocessor type and speed, amount of memory, capacity of the hard drive and much more. Deciding what to buy can be an arduous task! Common Components. The good news is that all computers have certain common components. What makes each one different are the specifications of the components, the amount and type of memory installed, the hard drive capacity, and the additional components installed, which you decide on, that

enhance the function of the computer. Every computer must have a few essential components. The Printer If you are going to want a hard copy of your work, you are going to need a printer. Printers come in various types to choose from. Some beneficial features that some printers have are producing letters, invoices, newsletters, transparencies, labels, packaging slips, and much more. What type of system do you need? You need a computer system that performs all of the tasks that you want to use it to do. For example: Use applications to complete class assignments. Communicate with family and friends. Search the Internet and World Wide Web. Play games. Once you have decided the main purpose for using your computer system you can then determine the type of microprocessor you should buy Pentium II System - Excellent Performance The price of your system will depend on the type and speed microprocessor you choose. For the best performance shop for an Intel Pentium II processor. The Pentium II is available in speeds of 400MHz, 350MHz, 333MHz, 300MHz, 266MHz or 233MHz. Pentium II - 400 MHz This is a serious computer chip, and with all that power comes a hefty price tag. Buy this microprocessor if you are seriously into image editing, computer-aided design (CAD) or any other CPU intensive work. This is a really high-end machine that should be purchased if you need a lot of processing power. Pentium II - 266 MHz This microprocessor is an average speed chip currently popular among vendors. It does not have the speed of the 400 MHz, but it is still quite a powerful competitor. This processor has ample power to run office applications and is an excellent choice for doing schoolwork. This middle ground processor will not have to be upgraded for a while. Pentium MMX - 200 MHz This is the slowest chip that a person should buy right now. Buy this chip if the only thing you will be doing on your computer is running office applications and surfing the web. If you plan on running CAD programs or doing any image editing, a faster processor would probably be a better choice. If budget is important this microprocessor will get you through creating term papers and spreadsheets and give you good performance.


Note: Now days, you can get processing speeds of 600MHz, 500MHz of the Pentium-2 computers and 667MHz, 933MHz versions of Pentium-3 computers. What is an Operating System (OS)? An operating system (from here on OS) is basically software that makes everything in the computer work together smoothly and efficiently (hopefully!). Basically, its controls the "overall" activity of a computer. Operating systems have three basic jobs they must do: (a)Control Hardware - The operating system controls all the parts of the computer and attempts to get everything working together. (b) Run Applications - Another job the OS does is run application software. This would include Microsoft Office, WinZip, games, etc. Manage Data and Files - The OS makes it easy for you to organize your computer. Through the OS you are able to do a number of things to data including copy, move, delete, and rename it. This makes it much easier to find and organize what you have. Types of Operating Systems There are a vast number of OS's out there. Let's briefly go over few of the more common ones: Windows 95/98 - This is what you will find on most new PC's today. It is a very popular OS, and there are many applications that run on it. It has an easy-to-use Graphical User Interface (GUI). Windows NT - Windows NT is another Microsoft operating system that is beginning to really catch on because of it's networking capabilities. Microsoft is trying to slowly phase out Windows 95/98 and replace it with some form of NT. Macintosh System 7/8 - This is the operating system found on the Macintosh brand of computers. This was one of the first GUI's to become popular. Macs have the history of being easy to use, and coming equipped with all the hardware you'll need. *NIX - This includes the OS's like UNIX, LINUX, etc. These are commonly called "workstations". UNIX is a command prompt OS, much like the now defunct Microsoft DOS operating system. Unix is by far the oldest of the operating systems, having been in existence for a good 20 years. *NIX systems are now becoming a little more popular as desktops with the invention of programs like X Windows, which allows *NIX systems to have a GUI. *NIX systems are still the kings of the networking world, and many of the world's servers run *NIX.


What is a supercomputer? Super computer is a computer that can process data millions of times faster than ordinary computers. It consists of special microprocessors, which can process billions of data at a time. Currently only five nations have the capability to make supercomputers and India is one among them. Param 10000 developed by CDAC, Pune is already in use for weather and military purposes. What is the latest in computers? There are lot of versions of computer you can see in the market at present. The most common among them is called the laptop computers. Here the monitor of the computer is that of LCD (liquid crystal display). It is very compact and light.

Hardware tutorial
The three main components of a personal computer: 1. System Unit 2. Monitor 3. Keyboard The System Unit The system unit is the entire computer as a whole. This includes the case and all the hardware that is installed inside. The rest of these pages will cover what is contained in the system unit. Be sure to use the Clickable List to learn more about each topic! More About the System Unit The system unit is the computer. Powerful electronic circuitry that makes up the computer is housed inside the case. The case can be opened by unscrewing the case screws and sliding off the cover. To avoid, the computer must be unplugged from the electrical outlet. Most system units consist of the computer case with a power supply, motherboard, memory (RAM), hard drive, floppy disk drive, CD-ROM drive, disk controller, input/output ports, video adapter, and soundboard. The variation of the components inside the system unit is what makes one personal computer more powerful than another personal computer. The Case The first decision we have to make is the type of case that we want our computer to have. The case also comes with the power supply needed to power itself, along with the other components that we add. The two styles that we have to choose from are a desktop or a tower case. All this decision is based on is your personal preference. One type of case will not out-perform the other. Sam prefers a mid-size tower case.


More About the Case A power supply is installed in the case to provide the voltage needed to power the electronic circuits in the system unit. Power supplies are rated in watts, and a typical computer case has a 200 watt power supply inside. A fan installed in the power supply helps to keep the computer and its components from overheating. All the hardware components are installed in the bays of the case. Usually not all the bays are filled when you purchase a new computer. Some are left unfilled so you are able to upgrade your machine in time, for example, you may want to add a ZIP drive, tape back up, or a CD-ROM burner. The Mainboard Selecting the mainboard is next. Every system has one: The motherboard is the largest circuit board in your computer. It generally houses the CPU chip (brains of your computer), the controller circuitry, the bus, memory (RAMRandom Access Memory) and sockets for additional boards, which are actually called daughterboards. If you have a desktop computer, the motherboard is generally the one at the bottom of the computer's case. If you have a towerconfiguration case, it's along one of the vertical sides. Clickable List System Unit Case Mainboard <Hardware_08-1.htm> More About the Mainboard The main circuit board, which is the largest single printed circuit board found inside the system unit, is called the motherboard or mainboard. The mainboard has connectors called expansion slots that will interface with other printed circuit boards such as sound and video adapter cards. The most commonly used connectors are the ISA and PCI expansion slots. Expansion Slots Below is a section of an ISA network card that highlights the teeth of the card, which will allow it to link with the motherboard (Teeth are Actual Size). The teeth will be seated into one of the ISA expansion slots located on the motherboard. The network cable will then attach to the card. This is a section of a PCI modem. Again, the highlighted region will connect into one of the motherboard's PCI expansion slots, linking the modem to the motherboard (Teeth are Actual Size). The phone line will connect to the card's exterior phone jack. Microprocessor On the motherboard, the CPU (Central Processing Unit) is contained on a single integrated circuit called the Microprocessor. The CPU is one of the most important elements of the personal computer; without a CPU, there is no computer. The CPU contains the control unit and the arithmetic/logic unit (ALU). The microprocessor is connected to the rest of the computer system through three buses: the data bus, the address bus, and the control bus. CPU's come in different speeds measured in Megahertz (MHz). The higher the number, the faster the processor is. There are many different company's that produce


CPU's, which include Intel, AMD, and Cyrix. Intel made the first CPU back in 1971. A CPU CONSIST OF Video adapter Input/output ports Hard disk drive Motherboard Adapter Fan Floppy disk drive CD ROM drive Memory The computer's primary memory (RAM) is also located on the motherboard. Most motherboards have open connectors for Single In-line Memory Modules (SIMMS) so you can add more memory quickly and inexpensively. You can purchase these memory chips whenever you decide to upgrade your computer's memory. SIMM chips come in various types, so you will want to be aware of what type you have. Additional important components on the motherboard include the BIOS (Basic Input Output System), cache memory, system clock, keyboard connector, battery, and support chips. The Hard Disk Drive Selecting the storage devices is next. For long term storage you need a Hard Disk Drive (HDD). The HDD stores your programs and files. You can't take it with you when you leave your computer; it is an internal drive. HDD's come in various sizes to choose from. Sam recommends a GODZILLA sized HDD. GODZILLA 8.4 Gb, GIGAN 6.4 Gb, MINYA 4.3 Gb The Floppy Disk Drive In order to take your files with you, you will need a secondary storage device. A 3.5" Floppy Disk Drive (FDD) is typical but limited to the amount of space one diskette can hold. One Floppy diskette can only hold 1.44 MB of information on it. Now there are special drives available which can run floppy discs of higher capacities like 10MB & 100 MB The CD-ROM Drive Every system unit assembled today includes a CD-ROM (Read Only Memory) drive. It consists of a spindle that revs up the disc, a laser that flashes onto the disc's uneven surface, a prism that deflects the laser beam, and a light-sensitive diode that reads the flashing light. There are many choices. CD-ROM, CD-R, CDRW, or DVD-ROM. Your choice will definitely effect the total price of your system unit.


The Video Card The Pentium II mainboard has an Accelerated Graphics Port (AGP) expansion slot for installing an AGP video card. The video card interfaces the monitor to the mainboard. An AGP card will allow game and 3D application developers to store and retrieve larger, more realistic textures in system memory rather than video memory, without incurring a dramatic performance hit. A 64-bit AGP video card with 4Mb of RAM is a great choice for your computer. The Sound Card Installing a soundboard is the only way to create quality sound output. It provides high-quality stereo sound. A "multimedia" PC usually includes a sound card, and one of the best known is the SoundBlaster by Creative Labs. The Modem In order to go online and surf the web, or check E-mail, you will need a modem to connect to an Internet Service Provider (ISP). A modem is a device that you connect to your computer and to a phone line that allows the computer to talk to other computers through the phone system. Basically, modems do for computers what a telephone does for humans. The Network Card If you would like to hook your computer up to another computer you will need a Network Interface Card (NIC). A NIC is an adapter card that physically connects one computer to a network cable and to another computer that has the same type of NIC. Sam says that this is mainly common in businesses and in University Computer Labs where everyone can access the same server. The Monitor All computers are connected with some type of display. We mainly use a monitor. Monitors are available in different types and sizes. When we purchase a new computer, a monitor is not always included. Understanding the concepts of a good monitor will help us to either purchase one, or evaluate the monitor that may come with our system unit. Some of these key concepts that need to be looked at are: pixels, refresh rate, resolution, and size. More About Monitors Monitors come in many different shapes and forms. Going out and looking at all the different types will help you find what you want. Types Of Monitors When we talk about screens, there are two different types to choose from:


CRT (Cathode Ray Tube): the most common type of screen. This is the traditional picture tube, a big glass bottle. This is just like a television. LCD (Liquid Crystal Display): flat and soft displays. The prices of these screens range higher than CRT's. They are called "soft" displays, because the image appears softer than the CRT. Concepts Behind Monitors The principles behind these screen types are different, but the screen image design is still based on the same concepts. These concepts consist of the following: Pixels: The screen image is made of pixels (tiny dots), which are arranged in rows across the screen. A screen image consists of between 480,000 and 1,920,000 pixels. Each pixel consists of three colors: red, green, and blue (RGB).If you look close, you can see them. Dot pitch: This is a measurement of how close together the phosphor dots are on the screen. The finer the dot pitch, the better image quality you will have; look for the smaller number. Most monitors today have a 0.28mm dot pitch. Some have a 0.25mm dot pitch, and this is quite good. Refresh Rate: The screen image is refreshed many times per second. Refresh rates are measured in Hertz (HZ), which means times per second. The higher the refresh rate, the screen image appears steadier. It may look like a steady picture, but actually it flickers every time the electron beam hits the phosphorcoated dots. (Also called vertical frequency or vertical refresh rate.) Colour Depth: Each pixel can display a number of different colors. The number of colors, which can be displayed, is called the colour depth. This is measured in bits. The higher the depth, more colors are able to be produced. Video RAM (VRAM): All video cards have some memory. How much depends on the desired colour depth you want your monitor set at. The more VRAM your video card has, the more the amount of colors can be displayed. The video card also sends out the refresh signal, thus controlling the refresh rate. Resolution: The greater the number of pixels in the screen, the better the resolution. The greater the resolution, the sharper the image will be. The lowest screen resolution on modern PC's is 640 x 480 pixels, which is called VGA. There are now SVGA (Super VGA) and XGA with resolutions all the way up to 1600 x 1200. The terms are not used much anymore; we mainly look at the resolution.


Screen Size: Monitor screen sizes are measured in inches, just like televisions. The most common sizes are 14", 15", 17", 19", and 21" screens, measured diagonally. Note that the visible size is actually smaller than the measurement size. Colors: Colors are a must!! Good PC's must be able to display many colors on the screen. The colors are created by varying the light intensity of the three basic colors (red, green, and blue). We traditionally work with the following degrees of color depth: 256 colors (8 bit color) 65,536 colors (16 bit color, also called 65K or HiColor) 16 million colors (24 bit color, also called True Color) 4 billion colors (32 bit color, also True Color) 24 and 32 bit colors should be the choice for graphic artists and professional Photographers. For application less than this 16-bit color will be sufficient. Standard Resolution # of pixels Rec. Size VGA 640 x 480 307,200 14" 60 - 72 HZ SVGA 800 x 600 480,000 15" 17" 75 SVGA 1024 x 728 786,432 17", 19" 75 XGA 1152 x 864 995,328 17", 19", 21" 75 XGA 1280 x 1024 1,310,720 19", 21" 75 XGA 1600 x 1200 1,920,000 21" 75 - 85 HZ Refresh Rate 85 85 85 85 HZ HZ HZ HZ

To sum it all up: The higher the refresh rate, the better quality monitor you need. If you want both high resolution and a high refresh rate, you will need both a high quality monitor and a high quality video card. The bigger the screen, the more it must be able to produce.


What is computer language? People like us communicate with each other in languages like Hindi, English etc to exchange our ideas with each other. Similarly the language that a computer understands, to perform various operations is called machine language. It is called binary system, which consists of two digits 0 and1. Suppose you write something in Microsoft word and save it, the computer will convert the entire stuff into machine language (001,100,10011 etc) and save it. Whenever you want to retrieve the information you have saved, a device in the computer known as the compiler will reconvert the machine language into text document and display the same in the monitor (desktop)


What is programming language? A programming language is a language like c, c++, Java etc using which software programs are written for specific applications. For example, using Java, you can create web pages and using c++, you can write programs to make computer games. What is computer software? It is a program, when loaded and run in a computer can do specific functions. There are thousands of softwares available in the market. For example, "windows 2000" is a software developed by Microsoft corporation, which has got multiple utilities ranging from surfing the internet to making documents. Softwares are basically divided into three categories a. Operating System b. Programs c. Data What are the most commonly used computer softwares and their uses? The commonly used computer software are MS office, Winzip, Adobe acrobat, Autoview, browsers, photo editing software, FoxPro, CAD etc.. MS office This is a software which comes in built with the Microsoft Windows operating system. It consists of 5 packages viz Word, excel, PowerPoint, access & binder. This software is used for general office purposes. Winzip This is a software which helps to compress files into smaller sizes. Adobe acrobat This is a software, which will give security to any document. Once it is converted to a pdf (adobe acrobat) file, nobody can tamper with it. Autoview This software helps to view graphics. It supports almost all graphics format. Editing of graphics can also be done with the help of this software. Browsers This software helps in extracting data from the Internet to be displayed in the computer, while surfing the net. The most commonly used browsers are Internet explorer and Netscape navigator.


Photo editing software These softwares help in manipulation of graphics. Some of the most common brands are Adobe PhotoShop, paintshop pro and Corel draw. FoxPro This software helps in creating and maintaining huge database. What is a computer and how it works? Computers can store information in either human-readable format or in machine readable or binary format. If you try to print, or open a binary format file, you will see a series of happy faces and other symbols that mean nothing to you. Within binary files, there can be open standards or proprietary formats. Different word processors use different symbols to indicate formatting--thus Microsoft Word may or may not be able to read and correctly format a Word Perfect file. For complete portability you should use a universal format like ASCII (text only) or HTML (allows formatting). Computers store all data as a series of ones and zeros. For numbers this leads to a fundamental difference between integers (the counting numbers) and real or floating point numbers. Integers can be stored exactly with a series of ones and zeros, but real numbers must be approximated. Computers store reals as an exponent and mantissa, which allows precision to a given number of decimal places depending on the number of bytes used. Real arithmetic requires much more computer processing power than integer arithmetic, which is why computers typically has a math coprocessor or floating point unit (FPU) designed to perform the calculations in hardware. Real numbers generally follow the standards of the IEEE (The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers), which provides both 4 byte and 8 byte floating point types.

Image formats: BMP: the standard Windows Bit Map Picture format. GIF: Graphics Interchange format, pioneered for CompuServe. JPEG: Joint Photographic Experts Groups, a compressed format in the public domain. TIFF: Tagged Image File Format, with both compressed and uncompressed variants. A special version (GEOTIFF) can contain ground co-ordinates associated with the image, making it applicable for satellite or map data.


Movie formats: MOV: the Apple QuickTime format. Apple has a viewer available for free download for Windows. Compressed format. GIF: Graphics Interchange format, pioneered for Compuserve. This movie format can only use 256 colors and does not support sound. Compressed format. AVI: AudioVisual Interleaved, the native Windows format. These can be uncompressed or compressed; if compressed, the viewing computer must have the correct code to decipher the file, and often this will not be the case. MPEG: Motion Picture Experts Group, a compressed format. Sound formats: WAV: Windows AudioVisual, basically a digital tape recorder format. Setting control the quality of the sound, and files can become very large very fast. MID: MIDI, where only the notes and instruments used are stored. Very compact for instrumental music, but cannot store vocals or sound effects. MP3: current MPEG format for sound only, with very good compression. Legal quagmire as people copy and post music illegally, but many struggling bands want to distribute their music to build up a following. Data Storage Sizes: Bit: the smallest element used by a computer. In electrical terms it represents on/off; in mathematical terms, a 0/1. Byte: eight bits. The can represent 28 (256) distinct values, or numbers from 0 to 255. Kilobyte: 1024bytes, often loosely considered to be 1000 bytes. Megabyte: 10242=1,048,576 bytes, often loosely considered to be 1,000,000 bytes Gigabyte: 10243=1,073,741,824 bytes, often loosely considered to be 1,000,000,000 bytes.


Terabyte: 10244=1,099,511,627,776 bytes, often loosely considered to be 1,000,000,000,000 bytes. Text formats ASCII: American Standard Code for the Interchange of Information. A code that uses 128 values to transfer text data between computers. These include the alphabet (upper and lower case), 10 digits, punctuation marks, and some control characters (tab, beep, line return, escape). Since computers generally use bytes for efficient storage, IBM extended this character set to include some international characters and box drawing. The extra 128 characters should be available on most Windows machines. HTML: Hyper Text Mark up Language, the mainstay of the WWW. An ASCII coding that using special codes (<B> and </B> to start and stop boldface, for instance) to allow the transfer of formatting information in files. Standard word processors use proprietary codes for formatting that usually cannot be readily transformed to other machines. Color formats RGB model: computers and televisions used a red-green-blue model for colors; the monitors use three electron guns. CYM model: printers use a cyan-yellow-magenta model. Cyan is a light blue (the mixture of green and blue), yellow mixes red and green and magenta is purple (the mixture of red and blue). Mixing all three should give black, but this generally looks bad and most printers also include a fourth ink, black. 16 color: the 16 colors can be selected from the 16 million the monitor can display. 256 color: the 256 colors can be selected from the 16 million the monitor can display, although in some cases Windows forces about 30 of the colors to be its standard choices. 15 bit color: uses 5 bits for each color. 16 bit (high color): since storage must be in 8 bit (or byte) increments, 16 bit color is common. This does not divide evenly into three colors, but blue generally contains much less information than red or green and this provides very acceptable results. 24 bit (true color): 8 bits for each color, or a total of 16,777,216. This is the limit that can be displayed by most monitors. Most users cannot differentiate


anywhere near this number of colors, and cannot distinguish this mode from 15 and 16 bit modes. Storage media: Floppy disks: store 1.44 MB Zip disks: original version stores 100 MB; newer version larger. This has become a kind of standard because so many have been sold. You can get internal models, which are faster, or external models, which are easy to transport and hook up to the computer via the printer port. Made by IOMEGA. JAZZ disks: stores 1 GB. Only available in internal models. Made by IOMEGA. CD-ROM: store 650 MB, or 74 minutes of CD quality music (so about 9 MB/minute) CD-R: CD-Recordable; these can be burned once. The media cost about $1 each for 650 MB, so media cost is negligible. CD-RW: CD-Rewrite; these can be written over. They cost $10 or so each, and thus are a lot more costly than plain CD-R. DVD: store the equivalent of 5-6 CD-ROMs. The encryption system for movies has just been cracked in Scandinavia, setting off a legal battle about whether you can post a link to the location where the software is available.


What is Internet? Internet consist of a network of millions of computers all over the world connected through telephone lines and satellites, which can speak (communicate) to each other by exchanging data. The information is stored in a device called the "server" or the host, from which any computer connected to the internet can access the data stored in that server. Even the computer itself can act as a server. Or You can simply say that Internet is an international network of computers linked with each other to exchange information. Learn more about Internet at: www.learnthenet.com What are the components of Internet? Just consider Internet as a tree. A tree consists of leaves, branches roots stem etc. Like that, the Internet also has got several branches. The basic components of Internet are 1. world wide web 2. E-mail 3. Telnet 4. FTP 5. IRC (internet relay chat) 6. Usenet groups E-mail It is the short form of electronic mail. Using this facility you can send texts graphics etc to anybody who has got an e-mail account. a typical e-mail account looks like you@hotmail.com Now days there are lot of sites, which provide free e-mail services. Some major e-mail service providers are www.operamail.com www.hotmail.com www.yahoo.com www.mailcity.com www.netaddresses.com www.rediff.com www.aol.com


If you want to search for somebodys e-mail, use e-mail search engines. Some of the best e-mail search engines are www.bigfoot.com , www.iaf.net, www.whowhere.com, www.four11.com FTP Abbreviation for File Transfer Protocol. A special FTP program is used to transfer files from one computer to another. It is often used by Webmasters to upload their files to a Web site. It is also used to download files from Web sites. Usenet newsgroups A system of thousands of special interest groups to which readers can send or "post" messages; these messages are then distributed to other computers on the network. Usenet registers newsgroups, which are available through Internet Service Providers. IRC (Chat) It is the short form of Internet relay chat. Chat describes the way people communicate online in real time. The term "chat" is actually a misnomer. Typically, people in online chat sessions type messages to each other using their keyboards. The message then appears on the screens of all the participants. Chats can involve two or more people. Chat Room An electronic space, typically a web site or a section of an online service, where people can go to communicate online in real time. Chat rooms are often organized around specific interests, such as small business owners, gardening, etc. FTP This is an acronym for File Transfer Protocol -- a very common method of transferring one or more files from one computer to another. FTP is a specific way to connect to another Internet site to retrieve and send files. FTP was developed in the early days of the Internet to copy files from computer to computer. With the advent of the World Wide Web, and web browser software, you no longer need to know arcane FTP commands to copy to and from other computers. In your browser, you can use FTP by typing the URL into the location box at the top of your screen. For example, typing ftp://name.of.site/directory/filename.zip transfers the file filename.zip to your computer's hard disk. Typing ftp://name.of.site/directory/ gives you a listing of all the files available in that directory. If your web browser doesn't have built-in FTP capability, or if you want to upload files to a remote computer, you will need to use an FTP client program to transfer files. To use FTP, you need to know the name of the file, the computer where it resides, and the directory it's in. Most files are available via "anonymous FTP," which means you can log into the


machine with the user name "anonymous" and use your e-mail address as your password. Telnet Telnet is a software program that allows you to log in to other remote computers on the Internet to which you have access. Once you are logged into the remote system, you can download files, engage in conferencing, and perform the same commands as if you were directly connected by computer. You need an Internet account to be able to use a telnet program. What is World Wide Web? (WWW or W3) The World Wide Web is a group of Internet servers that supports hypertext (link) to access several Internet protocols on a single platform. Hypertext is a document containing words that connect to other documents. These words are called links. WWW contains a complex virtual web of connections among a vast number of documents, graphics, videos, and sounds. Producing hypertext for the Web is accomplished by creating documents with a language called HyperTxt Mark-up Language, or HTML. The example of a hypertext (link) is given below Eg: www.yahoo.com (if you click here, it will connect you to another document or web page) The World Wide Web was developed in 1989 by Tim Berners-Lee of the European Particle Physics Lab (CERN) in Switzerland. Or Simply you can say that the information available in the Internet is called World Wide Web. What are Internet protocols? This includes e-mail, FTP, Telnet, and Usenet News. In addition to these, the World Wide Web has its own protocol: HyperText Transfer Protocol, or HTTP. The World Wide Web provides a single interface for accessing all these protocols. This creates a convenient and user-friendly environment. It is no longer necessary to be conversant in these protocols within separate, command-level environments. The Web gathers together these protocols into a single system. Because of this feature, and because of the Web's ability to work with multimedia and advanced programming languages, the World Wide Web is the fastest-growing component of the Internet. HTTP: It is the short form of " hypertext transfer protocol". Please don't get frightened by hearing this term. In the Internet, there are two types of computers, one is the host computer (server) that store the database (web pages) and the other is the client computers (like your computer at homeconnected to the Internet) which request information from the host computers.


These two computers communicate with each other satisfying a special kind of protocol called " HTTP " or hypertext transfer protocol. What is a web site? A web site consists of web pages, which are made using software programs like Java, html, and ASP, which incorporate images and data in the digital form. Every web site has got a unique URL address. URL is the short form of " uniform research locator", which is actually a number (like ) which represents the web site. Just remember, like your home address, every web site has got a unique address in the World Wide Web to mark its identity. It is also called IP address or Internet protocol address. Since it is very difficult to remember the number, every site is known by a particular name of the format " http://www.abcd.com" Every page in the web site is also denoted by a unique URL of the format http://www.abcd.com/subject.html. The database incorporated in a web site is called contents. For example, the web http://www.yahoo.com site address of " yahoo" search engine is

Eg. The IP address (Internet protocol address) of www.wonderfulkerala.com is if you type this number on the address bar and press , the site www.wonderfulkerala.com will open. What is a server? A server is a machine in which web pages or computer data is stored for future use. A web server can be defined as that machine which is connected to Internet, in which web pages are stored. Whenever a client computer requests data from this server, it transfers the data satisfying a protocol called "http" or hypertext transfer protocol. Depending upon the configuration of the server, thousands of computers can access the data from the sever at a time. Some of the server manufacturing companies are IBM (International business machines): www.ibm.com What is a domain name? Just like your surname (like Patel, Sharma, Nair, Gupta, Singh etc) all the web sites in the Internet end up with a specific domain name. It indicates the nature of the web site and some times the country of its registration. For example, consider the web site " www.yahoo.com", the "com" part of it is called domain name. It also indicates that "yahoo" is a commercial organization. Following are some of the common domain names. Before registering a domain name, just see


whether that domain name is available for registration through the web site www.register.com . Domain names are very critical for business. If you have got a saleable domain name, you can make a lot of money. Recently, domain names like www.loan.com. www.fruit.com were sold for millions of dollars. If you want to do the same, register a domain name and try selling it, perhaps you too can make some money out of it. In India, you can register a domain name for just Rs.650 for a year. Two companies are offering this service. Visit the following sites to get more details www.net4domains.com www.pugmarks.com Note: while registering a domain name remember the following things It should be simple and catchy and if possible have some resemblance with your business. Dont go for long names, here the problem comes when a person may wrongly spell your site. Almost all the successful companies have short domain names, see www.yahoo.com or www.google.com. See more details in the site: www.useit.com.


Launch yourself into the World Wide Web

You have been reading a lot about Internet now a days, but are you a part of it? If no, read on. You don't need to have a web site to become a part of Internet. You can easily launch yourself into Internet using the free home page facility provided by many web sites. Web sites like " www.geocities.com & www.tripod.com are the best. You can build your free home pages in these sites. What is to be done? Log on to the Internet and open any of the above sites. Then you have to register yourself as a member. Then you can proceed further to build your home page in the Internet. In these sites, you will find lot of tools and templates for building home pages, utilize them and make a web page of your choice. You can upload (insert the contents) your page using a program called FTP (file transfer protocol), which you will find in the site itself. Suppose you have made a free home page in geocities, it will look something like http://www.geocities.com/yourself/ Following are some of the web sites in which you can create your own free home pages. If you are really crazy about Internet, you can make your free home pages in more than a dozen of sites. Now don't wait, launch yourself with a thundering impact into the Internet. You are the hero of tomorrow. GOOD LUCK. The major free home page services in the Internet are www.tripod.com www.geocities.com www.xoom.com www.spree.com www.rediff.com www.angelfire.lycos.com www.freecenter.com www.afreehome.com www.fg-a.com/webspace.htm www.freecenter.com/homepages.html www.freehomepages.com www.freechannel.net/freeweb.html www.webmy.com/homepage.html www.batcave.net http://members.asiaco.com http://members.onecenter.com

www.freecenter.com/tell.html www.wilsoninfo.com/webspace.htm www.freemania.net/homepage.htm http://www.sansuk.com/freehomepage.htm http://rsl.net/free_homepages.htm http://members.indiaspider.com www.freezone.com www.customcreate.com/freezone/index5.htm www.california.com/~sgeler/ www.freestuffworld.com/pages.html www.freewebspace.net/ www.y4i.com/freeusa.html www.freechannel.net/freeweb2.html www.cyber-nurse.com/homepages/ www.sunnet.net/copeland/free.htm www.moneyfromtheweb.com/dfreehomepages.html www.1000free.com/free/free_homepages.asp www.chickasha.com www.errorfree.eu.org

Surfing the Internet?


Now since you are connected to the Internet with the help of an Internet service provider (ISP), you can start surfing. The ISP will allot you a user name and password using which you log on to the net. Always remember that , when you are surfing, your telephone line will be engaged, so while you are surfing no body can contact through the phone through which you are connected to the internet. For surfing the Internet, you have to install a software program called "browser" in your computer. Browser is a software, which will extract contents from the world wide web and enable you to view as web pages. You can compare browser with a sponge that absorbs water on contact with it. The most commonly used browsers are "Microsoft Internet explorer & Netscape navigator". The Internet explorer comes in built with windows 2000 package. Both are excellent browsers for surfing the Internet. Other than these two, the other browsers available in the market are " opera, cyberdog, Ibrowse, lynx, echo, macweb etc. How to surf the Internet? Just click on to the browser program, soon the dial-up networking will be activated and you will hear a dial tone from the modem. If the line is established, a window will pop up, which will ask you to supply the user name and password. Once you have supplied the user name and password, if it is correct, you will log on to the net and become ready for surfing. Now just type the URL address of the web site you want to view on the address bar and soon the web pages of that particular site will be displayed before you. Note: * While typing the URL address on the address bar, you need not have to type the entire address like" http://www.yahoo.com". You can simply type yahoo and press enter button on the keyboard. The yahoo page will open before you. In the case of other web sites, you may have to type "website.com" and press the enter button to see the web pages of that site. * While you are surfing the web, your browser will automatically save all the pages that you have visited as "cache files" or temporary Internet files. You can view all these pages later by just clicking the "history" button in your browser. If you are surfing the net daily for hours together, a big history file will be generated, which may eventually slow down your computer. So occasionally click the "clear history" button in the browser settings to remove old pages. Also you can set the expiration date for the history files which will be stored


as cache files, using options in the browser settings. It is better that you keep the expiry date say 1 to 2 days, using browser settings. Surfing the Internet with the help of search engines and directories The best and easiest way to surf the net is by using search engines. If you go to web directories (yahoo, google, gobutton etc) and simply type the category of sites you want to see, say art, then the directory will list all the sites related with art in that category. Else, you can search for a particular topic in the search engines. Following are the top ten search engines in the Internet www.google.com www.altavista.com www.northernlight.com www.yahoo.com www.msn.com www.lycos.com www.excite.com www.snap.com www.hotbot.com www.euroseek.com Meta search engines These are search engines, which will give the combined search results of many search engines put together. Some major meta search engines are www.metacrawler.com www.webcrawler.com www.appuonline.com www.dogpile.com If you want to know more about search engines, visit www.searchenginewatch.com

Fundamentals of web site designing


Your success in cyberspace depends on the contents of your web site, its utility and navigability and time taken to download web pages. Following are the inevitable features of any successful web site in the Internet. Simplicity: A web site should be as simple as possible. It should not be packed with texts or graphics, which will confuse the visitor. Just visit www.google.com or www.yahoo.com, you will know what is a simple web site is. Downloading time: The web site should download very fast on entering the URL address. According to a recent research conducted, if your site will not open within 10-15 seconds, people will simply leave your site. So never include heavy graphics, Java applets in your front page. These things will hamper your business although it will add beauty to your site. Easy navigability Navigability means, finding what you want on the web site. If you visit some sites, you can see that things are very confusing. So make your site simple and user friendly. www.netscape.com is an easily navigable site. Browser viability and monitor resolutions: Your web site should look alike in all the major browsers. So, after designing your site, test the web page in all the major browsers like Internet explorer, Netscape etc. if some problems are there rectify them on the spot. The PC monitor resolutions are also very important. Now a days, 15"&14" monitors are commonly in use. After designing your pages just see, how your pages look in different monitor sizes. Some PC monitor resolutions are 640x480, 800x600, 1024x768 etc. The language used for web design There are lots of languages and tools using which you can design your web site. If you are a beginner, you can start with HTML. Now days mostly Java is used for web design since this language is more flexible and has got more features than HTML. If you are an advanced programmer, you can design your web pages in ASP (active server pages). Here the web pages become dynamic after downloading in the browser. That means the user can do settings in the web pages without affecting the contents of the web pages. The web pages can move, animate or respond to the user after downloading in the browser. There is another language called DHTML, which will also give the same properties like that of ASP, but with fewer features.


Learn more about good web designing at www.useit.com

Fundamentals of web marketing and search engine submissions


Now days, you can see millions of web sites in the Internet and this big network is growing at an amazing speed everyday. But the pity is that, only a few web sites are famous and others are simply in the dark even though they have good contents and utility. This happens because, the creators of these sites did not pay much attention in marketing the site. Unless and until people view your web site, there is no use of being in cyber space. So, if you have got a web site, start promoting it right from now. Here are some methods using which you can promote your web site. Announce your web site Make a three-line write-up of your site and send it to all your friends & well wishers and ask them to spread it. Join a mailing list You can simply join a mailing list and announce your site. There are thousands of newsgroups and mailing lists in the Internet. Some common mailing lists are www.egroups.com www.liszt.com If you want, you can start your own mailing list in www.coollist.com Register with whats new sites There are lots of sites, which will list what are the latest sites that has been added to the Internet. Simply log on to such sites and register your web site. Some such sites are www.stpt.com & www.whatsnu.com Register with web directories Web directories are the yellow pages of Internet. You can simply visit such web directories and register your site in such categories. Try with web directories like www.gobutton.com & www.questfinder.com Register with search engines Just remember that 80% of the traffic generated in any web site is through search engines. So, if you want to get good number of hits, you should be registered with top search engines and your ranking in the search engine should be high. Suppose you have got a web site on yoga, if anybody give a search for yoga, your site should come within the first ten or twenty. Else there is no use of being in the net. A poor ranking is as good as not existing in the web at all.

How to register with search engines?


Register free There are lots of sites, which will allow your site to be submitted free to many search engines. Some such sites are "www.addme.com & www.submitplus.com. In add me .com, you will have to paste the HTML code allotted by them in your site and you can submit your site to 36 search engines freely. In submitplus.com, you can freely register your site to 100 search engines. Hire a submission service There are web sites, which will submit your site to thousands of search engines by charging a small fee. You can hire their services. Some such sites are www.submit-it.com www.submitplus.com www.simplesubmit.com www.addme.com Use submission software There is particular software called submission software, which will automatically submit your site to search engines. You can buy this software at www.webposition.com Manual submission You can also manually submit your site to all the major search engines. For this, you have to go to "add URL" or "suggest a site" section in the search engine and register your site. You can simply type the above key words in any search engines and instantly all the pages in that category will come up, where you can add your site on the spot. Also when you submit your site, try to submit all your pages individually, this will help you to get a better ranking in the search engines. Use proper Meta tags or key words These are key words using which any search engine will pick your site from the World Wide Web when any body gives a search on a specific topic. Suppose you are having a site on yoga, with Meta tags as follows <META NAME = "yoga, meditation, kundalini, shirshasan. Etc> your sit is already listed in the search engine. Suppose I opened the search engine and type " shirshasan" and give a search, then the search engine will search the entire web to find out the pages containing that key word. Since your site is having that key word, your site will also come-up in the search result. Note:


While writing Meta tags, always remember that, you should not repeat a word again and again. If done like that, the search engines will blacklist your site or remove your site from the listing. So give synonyms of words. For example your site is about nature, the meta tags should be nature, greenery, trees, grass, clean air, geography, flora etc.. Re-submit You have submitted your site once to the search engines. After a few weeks, your site will be listed in the search engines. But don't be complacent with that. With the passage of time, your rank with the search engine will also lower. So re-submit your site again and again after a period of time. But remember that, if your ranking is 6 and you want the first ranking, dont re-submit. Actually in that case, your ranking will come down. Name your pages with key words Some search engines like yahoo will search for the name of the URLs while indexing pages. So, try to give key words in the URL pages. For example, if you have got a web site selling flowers, one of the pages of your site can be http://www.myflower.com/flowers/delivery.html. Here "flowers & delivery" will be considered as key words. Improve the site re-visit value Any user coming to your site should feel that your site is a useful one and should be tempted to visit again and again. To achieve this, your site should have good contents, easy navigability and less downloading time. If these things are not met, people will not visit your site again. So, strive to make your site attractive to the visitors. To know the precise needs of the customers, attach a feedback form in your site. Provide reciprocal link You can give other web site links in your site so that, your site will be linked in theirs. If such an arrangement is made, your site will generate more traffic. There is lot of sites promoting link exchange and banner exchange programs. The web site, www.linkexchange.com is the finest example in this category. Also find about more about banner exchange programs at www.beseen.com & www.bcentral.com. Advertise in e-mail newsletters You can join e-mail news letter, news groups etc.. Which will give details about various events in the web. You can effectively insert the information about your site in such sites. Join web ring Web rings consist of a collection of sites on common topics. Here each site is linked to one site before it and one site after it. So, a virtual ring ring of web sites will be formed in the cyberspace where each site is hyper linked to another


to form a cyber ring. Web rings can generate lot of hits. If you want to learn more, log on to www.webring.org. Print your site name in the stationery Don't forget to print the site's address in all the stationery you supply from your company. It will definitely help the promotion of your site. Other techniques If you have got lot of money to spend for advertising your site, simply give big advertisements in newspapers, magazines etc. it will generate huge traffic in your site instantly. Also if you pay the search engines, they will ensure that, your site will get very high ranking on searching for specific key words. Remember: don't forget to implement all these ideas, if you are planning to start a web site. To install a hit counter in your site, log on to http://hitometer.netscape.com. if you want to know, whether all the pages of the site is working properly, log on to www.internetseer.com and register, if your URL went erroneous, you will be informed through mail. If you want to know the web site traffic report of your site free, log on to www.websitetrafficreport.com and register, they will e-mail you the web site traffic report periodically.


How to make money from Internet?

Internet has become a major source for pumping money from anywhere in the world provided you know the simple tactics of e-commerce. Actually there are thousands of ways of making money through Internet. Let me explain to you briefly some of them. Selling goods and services through net: Suppose you are a merchant selling any sort of merchandise, with the help of Internet you can sell your goods online to any consumer anywhere in the world. The business done through Internet is called e-commerce. You can sell almost any goods and services through net. Suppose you are a doctor, you can give online prescriptions and consultations to your patients. www.amazon .com is the classic example of selling books through Internet. Connecting people, business and services (brokering) You can become an agent to connect people worldwide to meet their requirements for anything. Suppose you are connecting buyers and sellers of any type of goods, it is called B2B business to business e-commerce. You can earn commissions for each transaction-taking place through your site from the customers. The site www.ebay.com is the finest example of an online auction site that connects buyers and sellers of any kind. You can connect people, business and services and earn handsome commissions. Selling your talent: Suppose you have got a fairly good writing talent, write it down put it in the net and allow people to download it for a flat fee. You may earn thousands of dollars. In the net, you can find lot of people marketing their own music, movies, books, paintings etc. many kids are virtually making thousands of dollars per month by simply selling games online. If you want you can also do that.

Make a web site, popularize it and sell it off or sell domain names
high prices. The most famous e-mail service, www.hotmail.com was sold to Microsoft by Mr. Sabeer Bhatia at a whopping sum of $ 400 million. In India too, recently Satyam online bought five web sites of India world at a huge amount of 499 crores. If you take some pains, you can easily make a web site, popularize it and sell it off at


You can also sell domain names at high price provided you have got a catchy domain name. Recently domain names like www.fruit.com and www.loan.com were auctioned for millions of dollars. If you want, you can also book a domain name and put up for auction and see how will it work. Start a porn site If you are really craze about making money through net, then the worst, but the easiest way is to start a porn site. Although there are thousands of sites on pornography minting thousands of dollars daily. If you can come up with some innovative idea, you can also make it. Do you want to see the most successful porn site in the Internet, then log on to www.wetland.com; you will see the magic. Note: There are actually thousands of methods of making money through Internet, but it is not possible to explain all of these within the limited space. Some of the common merchandise sold through net is greeting cards, books, music, videos, computer games, e-book etc. if you are selling a downloadable product like ebook or computer games, the advantage is that, there is no cost of shipping. But the dark side is that, if some third person buy your book and start selling the same after putting it in his site with minor change, then you may not be able to do anything. You might be in India and he might be in Pakistan. Although you can put up a case in the international court, you may have to spend lot of money for that. So keep this in mind, when you put downloadable product in the net for sale.



There are hundreds of sites in India about various topics, the top 50 sites in India are www.rediff.com-portal www.nic.in-government www.indiatimes.com -Portal www.timesofindia.com -News www.webindia.com -Portal www.india-today.com - News www.go4i.com -News www.samachar.com -News www.vsnl.net.in - ISP www.itihaas.com - Contents/History www.economictimes.com - News www.indiagov.org -Government www.chennaionline.com -Portal www.the-hindu.com - News www.pugmarks.com _ Portal www.hindustantimes.com -News www.bseindia.com -Stocks www.satyamonline.com -Portal www.indiaserver.com -News/Portal www.khoj.com -Search www.indiafm.com -Music www.naukri.com -Jobs www.indiaconnect.com -Hosting www.ciol.com -Portal www.dgreetings.com -Vortal www.careerindia.com -Vortal www.indiatravelog.com -Travel www.accessworldwide.com -Travel www.rediffmail.com - Mail www.equitymaster.com -Share www.eci.gov.in -Election www.pyara.com -Bollywood www.rbi.org.in -Bank www.dhan.com -Finance www.homeindia.com -Portal www.mtnl.net.in - ISP www.chaitime.com www.timepass.com -New


www.clubgreetings.com -Greetings www.zeenext.com -education www.timesjobsandcareers.com -Jobs www.mantraonline.com-ISP If you want to know the best sites in India, visit www.bestindiansites.com Some other interesting sites in India are Best Tourism Sites www.allindiaguide.com www.indiatravelog.com www.yatraindia.com www.indiagov.org www.tourindia.com www.indiatours.com www.tourismindiaonline.com www.tourismindia.com http://travel.indiamart.com http://planetindia.net/mti www.indiatourism.com www.businesstourism.com www.ypindia.com www.allindia.com/tourism www.indiatravelite.com INDIAN FOOD www.deliciousindia.com www.allindia.com/cuisine INDIAN GOVERNMENT www.nic.in BEST HOTELS IN INDIA www.oberoihotels.com www.indianhotels.com www.tajhotels.com www.theleela.com www.holidayinnbombay.com www.theparkhotels.com www.welcomegroup.com www.centaurhotel.com www.theashokgroup.com


www.neemrana.com www.siddhartha.de/english/hotels.htm www.indias.com/hotels.html www.grandhotelbombay.com www.fariyas.com www.presidenthotels.com www.cindrellahotels.com www.panchshil.com www.seaprincess.com www.nirula.com Airline Companies in India www.nic.in/indian-airlines/ www.airindia.com www.jetairways.com www.saharaairline.com www.lufthansa-india.com www.britishairways.com/india www.deccan-air.com www.swissairindia.com Indian Railway www.indianrailway.com www.southernrailway.org Map of India www.cslab.uky.edu/~prash1/html/bharat.html www.imapindia.com SALUTE OUR BRAVE SOLDIERS www.bharat-rakshak.com www.herosofkargil.com Indian Spices www.indianspices.com Indian Women www.indiawomanpower.com www.icleo.com Stunning Truths about India www.swordoftruth.com


Indian Books www.indiabookshop.com www.fabmart.com www.firstandsecond.com Newspapers of India www.timesofindia.com www.hinduonline.com www.samachar.com www.indiaexpress.com www.indiaabroad.com www.india-today.com GENERAL SITES www.india.com www.ciol.com www.indianstates.com www.ourindia.com Indian Festivals www.indiafestivals.com www.indiatouristoffice.org/Culture/Festivals.htm www.diwali.com Holiday Resorts www.sitaresorts.com/sitaholiday/m-food.htm www.goacom.com/realestate/asiatic/paraiso.html www.swagathresorts.com www.clubmahindra.com www.khavel-resort.com www.heritageresort.com www.vgpindia.com/Holiday.htm www.beaconholidays.com www.resortsindia.com Beaches of India www.indiagov.org/tourism/beaches/beaches.htm Indian Heritage www.tajmahal.com www.harappa.com www.khajuraho.com


GOA SPECIAL www.goacom.com www.goa-world.net www.goa-interactive.com www.goenkar.com INDIAN WILD LIFE http://wild.allindia.com Directory www.goidirectory.nic.in www.appuonline.com www.bigwebindia.com Indian History www.itihaas.com http://ancienthistory.miningco.com/msub7.htm Indian Music & Dance www.raga.com www.carnaticmusic.com www.darshanam.com www.kutcheribuzz.com www.bharathanatyam.com www.allindia.com/arts/dance.htm www.indiamusic.com Tour Operators of India www.uviholidays.com www.tcindia.com www.rajtours.com www.himalayanholidays.com www.beaconholidays.com www.kesaritours.com www.amantravels.com Indian Search Engines www.123india.com www.khoj.com www.rediff.com


www.mantraonline.com www.satyamonline.com http://in.orientation.com www.indiatimes.com Indian Law


Indian Religions & Mysticism www.osho.com www.secularindia.com www.hindunet.org www.rss.org www.hinduismtoday.kauai.hi.us/ashram/ www.iconsoftec.com/gita/ www.sikhnet.com www.siddhivinayak.org www.chinmaya.org STATE WISE TOURISM SITES www.up-tourism.com www.karnataka.com/tourism/index.html www.aptourism.com www.delhitourism.com www.ktdc.com



A web directory contains the list web sites on different topics. Following are some of the top web sites on various subjects, which you can use in your day to day life. Now go for the gold. TOP SEARCH ENGINES www.google.com www.infoseek.com www.altavista.com www.yahoo.com www.northernlight.com FREE E-MAIL SERVICES www.operamail.com www.hotmail.com www.usa.net www.rocketmail.com www.mailcity.com CREDIT CARD SERVICES www.cybercash.com www.authorizenet.com www.digicash.com www.netcash.com ONLINE PUBLISHING www.iuniverse.com www.publishingonline.com GET DIVORCED www.divorcecentral.com www.flyingsolo.com FIND A JOB www.jobsearch.co.uk www.hotjobs.com USE A CREDIT CARD www.visa.com www.mastercard.com www.americanexpress.com

GET MARRIED www.bridalpartner.com www.weddingworld.com www.findmatch.com BUY A CAR www.artcars.com www.autoweb.com www.traderonline.com SEND A PACKET www.dhl.com www.fedex.com E-MAIL SEARCH ENGINE www.iaf.net www.bigfoot.com HOME MAKER www.rdathome.com www.toiletology.com SELL YOURSELF www.collab.net www.guru.com www.hellobrain.com www.niku.com DOCTORS ONLINE www.allhealth.com www.mayohealth.org www.webmd.com www.drkoop.com FREE DISC SPACE www.freedrive.com www.freediscspace.com www.idrive.com www.docspace.com MONEY CONVERTER www.xe.net/currency/


SCHOLARSHIP www.worldwidescholarships.com www.scholarship.com MAKE A ROCKET www.rocketryonline.com GAYS AND LESBIANS www.datalounge.com www.planetout.com www.pridenet.com PC-MAGAZINES www.pcmag.com www.cnet.com www.pcworld.com DATING www.dating.com www.match.com www.mixnmatch.com MAKE SOME MONEY www.activeselling.com www.jobcash.com www.radiofreecash.com http://affiliate.backup.com GO SHOPPING www.etoys.com www.mothermall.com www.internetmall.com www.onsale.com FIND A HOME www.homefair.com www.homescout.com www.realtor.com www.homeadvisor.msn.com BROKERS ONLINE www.ameritrade.com


www.schwab.com www.datek.com www.etrade.com www.waterhouse.com MOVIES www.imdb.com www.oscars.org www.bollywood.com www.script-o-rama.com www.hollywood.com AUCTIONS www.ebay.com www.christies.com www.sothebys.com www.auctionuniverse.com www.onsaleauctions.com GREETING CARDS www.bluemountain.com www.hallmark.com www.cards4you.com www.123greetings.com www.lovingyou.com COMPUTER GAMES www.allgame.com www.planet.com www.uproar.com www.rexgames.com www.challenge.net HEALTH www.healthychoice.com www.thriveonline.com www.shapeup.org www.bodytrends.com www.dietitian.com DON'T COMMIT SUICIDE www.rochford.org


NO DRUGS www.drugwatch.org AIRPORT DIRECTORY www.airportsintl.com STOCK X-CHANGE www.londonstockexchange.com www.nyse.com SPORTS www.espn.com www.cnnsi.com CHAT www.mirc.com http://chat.yahoo.com RELIGION www.jewishmag.co.il www.shambhalasun.com www.hindu.org www.islam.org www.christ.net NATURE www.panda.org www.tnc.org www.nature.org www.nature.net www.greenpeace.org FREE WEB HOSTING www.homestead.com www.freeservers.com www.xoom.com www.tripod.com www.bizservers.com MAILING LISTS www.tbtf.com www.lsoft.com


www.egroups.com www.listbot.com www.websitepostoffice.com www.websitejournal.com BUY A COMPUTER www.hp.com www.compaq.com www.toshiba.com www.mitac.com www.nec.com www.egghead.com SET UP A STORE www.vstore.com www.affinia.com www.esaler.com www.econgo.com www.freemerchant.com www.bigstep.com FREE FAX SERVICES www.efax.com www.callwave.com www.fax4free.com TELEVISIONS www.tvguide.com www.discovery.com www.mtv.com WORLD NEWS www.bbc.co.uk www.cnn.com www.expressindia.com YELLOW PAGES www.bigyellow.com www.yellowpages.com www.canadayellowpages.com www.bigbook.com


ONLINE BANKS www.sfnb.com www.firstib.com www.wellsfargo.com www.wingspanbank.com FREE COLLABORATION www.hotoffice.com www.daytracker.com www.scheduleonline.com www.webex.com INTERNET www.internet.edu www.learnthenet.com www.searchenginewatch.com www.internic.net www.w3c.org BEST TRAVEL SITES www.travelocity.com www.mapquest.com www.previewtravel.com www.expedia.com www.triple1.com MONEY MATTERS www.hrblock.com www.moneycentral.com www.tradecard.com www.boler.com www.businessweek.com BUY MUSIC www.audiofind.com www.allmusic.com www.musicmaker.com www.mp3.com www.saregama.com ENJOY SEX www.playboy.com


www.cybersex.com www.boobs.com www.desibaba.com www.hotsex.com CAR COMPANIES www.honda.com www.ford.com www.mercedez-benz.com www.toyota.com www.maruti.com FIND A COLLEGE www.alumni.net www.findcollege.com REAL ESTATE www.ired.com www.propertyonline.com AIDS www.amfar.org www.cab.org DEATH CLOCK www.deathclock.com FREE PHONE SERVICE www.dialpad.com BLACKS ON LINE www.blackfamilies.com ADOPT A CHILD www.adoption.com ENCYCLOPAEDIA www.britannica.com LEANING TOWER OF PISA www.torre.duomo.pisa.it


NAME YOUR BABY www.babynamer.com CALCULATOR ON LINE www.calculator.com EMBASSY DIRECTORY www.embassy.org DOWNLOAD SOFTWARE www.download.com COMEDY DIRECTORY www.funny.co.uk YOGA www.timages.com/yoga.htm CELEBRITY www.celebrityweb.com GAMBLING www.casino-network.com MOUNTAIN CLIMBING www.craglink.com


Find a romance online

It is a sad fact that as technology advance, the material needs of the people are satisfied to a grater extend, but they become more lonely and miserable. In a nutshell you can say that the personal problem of people are increasing day by day. For example, two of the most industrialized nations in the world Japan & Taiwan have got the highest number of suicide rates in the world. There are millions of young boys in America and Western Europe who are born out of wed lock, who don't know their fathers. There is a dearth of love in this extremely cruel world. But with the advent of Internet another chapter in the history of romance has taken birth. It is called "online romance", through which you can establish a love affair with any body in cyberspace. You can express your love with each other using e-mail, chat or see each other using the video conferencing facility. But always remember that 40%of males online are females and many so called beautiful and young girls are either men or old women in their 40's or 50's. In Internet any body can project himself or herself as sweet 17 people and confuse you. So, when you establish an online romance, don't take it for granted that all said by the lover is true. A male disguised as a female can easily love you and drive you mad later. But, there are some cases where cyber lovers got married, recently one such marriage took place in Kochi in Kerala. But if you are interested you can give a try. Following are some of the best online dating and online romance resources. Now start loving. www.online-romance.com www.utahromance.com www.romanceclub.com www.singles-online.net www.paulnpaula.com www.romanceonline.com.br www.kiss.com www.rom101.com www.hungryminds.com www.webpersonals.com www.theromancereader.com www.singles.com www.americansingles.com www.indiansingles.com


Go shopping online
If you look around, you can find that, life has become very fast when compared to the past. Nobody has time for anything. All are racing ahead in the rat race of life. For those who have less time for shopping, shopping through Internet is an excellent option. You can shop with the help of Internet by simply clicking the mouse. The money transaction is usually done through credit card. There is lots of shopping sites in the Internet. You can purchase hairpin to aircraft through net (if you don't believe me log on to www.gulfstream.com recently one man from Hong Kong ordered an aircraft for 40 million $. Some of the best shopping malls in India are "www.fabmart.com, www.jaldi.com, www.firstandsecond.com etc. the supermarket in the web is called "virtual mall". When you enter a shopping site, by simply clicking the mouse on a particular item, you can simply add that item to your shopping cart. After paying the money (mostly through credit card) the goods will arrive at your doorstep by courier. A word about credit card transaction Now a days many people are afraid of purchasing goods through internet using credit card, because they fear that somebody will use their credit card number and misuse it, to drive them mad later. But actually that is not the case. Remember that all the data you submit regarding your credit card goes to your shopping web site in "encrypted form". And nobody can find out your details. In Western Europe and America, millions of people are using Internet to shop online. A reputed shopping site will never disclose the details about your credit card, because if they do so, no customers will buy again from them and they will be ruined totally within no time. So unnecessary fear about credit card is baseless. The following are some of the best shopping sites to do shopping in India and abroad. Just try once, you will be confident in future too. Major shopping sites in India www.fabmart.com www.firstandsecond.com www.jaldi.com www.shopinbangalore.com www.indiaartshopping.com www.deal-se.com www.fashionbistro.com www.shopinbangalore.com


www.totaram.com www.emahatmagandhi.com www.indiaplaza.com www.info1001.com www.mandani.com www.giftshop.com.pk/india/ www.lucknowmall.com www.indiavirtualshop.com www.bazaarno1.com www.indiashoppingmall.com www.netshoppe2000.com http://indiapoint.com www.jaipurmart.com www.officebazar.com www.india-mail.com www.valueindia.com www.india-mail.com Major international shopping sites www.amazon.com www.cdnow.com www.etoys.com www.buy.com www.bn.com www.reel.com www.beyond.com www.shopping.com www.thepubliceye.com www.ivillage.com/shopping www.excite.fr/shopping/ www.i-stores.com www.freeshoppingonline.com www.schoolcash.com www.ecomz.com www.epicurious.com www.latimes.pointshop.com www.shopping.sharelook.de www.guitarnotes.com www.shoppingideas.com www.majon.com www.onlineshoppingsites.com www.cooking.com www.looking4sales.com www.xtrasite.co.nz/shopping/


www.spree.com www.asia-shop.com www.jwolfeandco.com www.shoppinglist.com www.epubliceye.com www.dealtime.com


Find your dream job through Internet

Now days, job hunting is not a very tough task when compared to the past. Before the advent of Internet news papers and TV were the only source of employment opportunities. You had to send the application manually and wait for long time to get the interview call. Earlier, even though you had the talent, you were not aware of the opportunities available to you and simply because of that, you have missed lot of excellent opportunities available to you. But, Internet has changed all that. Now you can search for thousands of jobs all over the world with the help of Internet. You can break all the geographical barriers and expose your talent to the fullest extend using various sources available in the Internet. How to find your dream job through Internet? There are thousands of job search engines, which display a variety of jobs all over the world. You can simply search for the jobs of your criteria and if eligible, submit your resume online. The best part of the web is that, you can do freelance work like freelance writing and earn money by working from home. Sites like www.freelancwriting.com are the finest example in this category. There are web sites like " www.elance.com" where you can submit a project online and people will hire your services by paying you. But, the pity is that many people don't know where to search for jobs in Internet. Here I have made an attempt to co-ordinate the best INDIAN & INTERNATIONAL JOB RESOURCES available in the Internet. Now log on to these sites, search and find out your dream job. I am sure that you will get what you want. Best of luck. Best job sites in India and abroad are TOP JOB SITES IN INDIA www.jobsahead.com www.mykeystone.com www.noukri.com www.indobase.com www.employindia.com www.indianbiodata.com www.a1jobindia.com www.lajobs.com www.jobcentreindia.com www.smartindia.com www.career1000.com www.naukari.com

www.careerindia.com www.employindia.com http://altaindia.com/careers/index.html www.vedika.com/jobs/india.asp www.india-gate.com/career/career.htm www.careeradvisor.com www.careersandbusiness.com www.smartindia.com www.edgeindia.com www.placementindia.com www.career1000.com www.humanwareindia.com www.indianmanpower.com www.careersindia.com www.udyog.com www.timesjobsandcareers.com www.therightside.com/recruitment www.tarvindiajobs.com www.recruitmentindia.com www.indianindex.com/jobfinder www.surf4jobs.com www.rediff.com www.headstartexpress.com www.youngindia.com www.indianjobs.com www.techvilla.com www.jobhost-india.com www.geocities.com/akthar_1999 www.naukri2000.com www.indiaecommerce.net www.alltimejobs.com www.ezeejobs.com www.bharatcareers.com www.humanware-india.com www.indoaust.com/jobs.htm www.appointmentsindia.com www.sioindia.com/links/career/jobs.htm www.hrdclub.com http://in.jobstreet.com www.webindia.com/india/jobs.htm www.smartindia.com www.fastrakjobs.com http://indiaworld.jobstreet.com


SOFTWARE JOBS www.netpilgrim.com www.itspace.com www.sampoorna.com www.e-careerprofiles.com www.inputsindia.com www.oxfordcpl.com www.mahindia.com www.alto-infotech.com http://1webcareer.hypermart.net www.cioljobs.com www.winjobs.com www.it-people.com www.y-axis.com www.itplacement.com www.fitjobs.com www.3pjobs.com www.rediff.com/computer/jobs.htm www.it-appointments.com www.prizedjobs.com www.soft.net www.sheratonconsultancy.com www.nexusconsultants.com www.clickitjobs.com www.cniit.com www.dice.com www.cyberjobsonline.com www.cyber-jobs.com www.chooseindia.com/softwarejobs/index.htm http://www.globsyn.com/careers.htm www.mousetrapcareers.com www.it-people.com H-1B VISA RESOURCES www.h1bresources.com JOBS IN BIG COMPANIES www.hindujagroup.com/jobs.htm www.bpljobs.com www.hssworld.com www.birlaglobal.com


TEACHING JOBS ABROAD http://joyjobs.com www.academploy.com www.educationjobs.com www.teacherjobs.com http://chronicle.merit.edu/jobs/ www.higheredjobs.com www.k12jobs.com www.aft.co.uk www.greatteacher.net CAMPUS RECRUITMENTS www.india-web.net/nsit/recruitment.html www.hssworld.com/peoplenet/campus@net/peoplenet_campus.htm www.globsyn.com/technocampus/crprg.htm www.becs.ac.in/bec/manas/impact/campus-graph.html PART TIME JOBS www.indianparttimejobs.com ENGINEERING JOBS www.nriplacement.com http://business.vsnl.com/kbs/vacancies.html www.indiacore.com/jobs.html www.corecompt.com www.resourceindia.com BEST CAREER WEB SITES www.careerlauncher.com www.infomasala.com www.careersindia.com www.edurite.com www.padayi.com www.vidyalay.com www.trainingwhere.com www.padhayee.com www.knowledgecareer.com SITE FOR TALENT SEEKERS IN FILMS www.staryakalakaar.com PLACEMENT CONSULTANCIES www.stshahco.com www.exclusivesearch.com/hotjobs.htm


www.indobase.com/web/dhruv.htm www.maxpages.com/placements www.sunitaglobal.com www.swiftindia.com/careers/ www.angelfire.com/va/skf7/ www.cidronpeoplebank.com http://www8.bcity.com/kbsconsultants/ http://continentalcontractors.com/hrdindex.htm www.continentalcontractors.com/hrdindex.htm www.commercenetindia.com/placement/home.htm www.angelfire.com/az/zams/ www.wehelpindia.com/jobs/ http://members.tripod.com/~placements/index.html www.indiainfobase.com/newera/ne01.htm http://sconsultant.hypermart.net/ www.chimeratechnologies.com/cgi-bin/pinnacle.pl www.akp.hotresume.net www.assureconsulting.com www.careerage.com http://cloudninenet.com/jobs/ www.ajplacement.com www.pashaenterprises.com www.haleema.com http://members.tripod.com/~recruitments/index2.htm www.selpages.com www.selectedjobs.com www.pitampurainfo.com/amanplacement/ LIST OF PLACEMENT CONSULTANTS IN INDIA & ABROAD www.careerage.com/plcmt/index.shtml http://apply.homepage.com/Consultant.htm GULF JOBS www.continentalmanpower.com www.gulfjobs.com http://apexrecruitment-indiaa.com/ www.jmmjobs.com www.petrome.com www.mlinkindia.com www.backerassociates.com www.melcotech.com www.ihrcanada.com www.indiamanpower.com www.return2india.com


www.middleeastnews.com/indiajobseekers.html www.jobhuntdubai.com www.cmoverseas.com www.ihrcanada.com/jobs/kkngjobs.htm www.ksinternational.com JOB LINKS www.khoj.com/business/companies/employment/index.html www.indiaa2z.com/htmlPages/Employment/Default.htm http://apply.homepage.com/ http://www.dinesh.com/india/careers.shtml MBA JOBS www.coolavenues.com www.mbastyle.com http://members.tripod.com/iitd/index2.html www.foreignmba.com/getjob.shtml www.geocities.com/CollegePark/Quad/1109/jobs.html


TOP JOB SEARCH ENGINES www.topjobs.net www.careerbuilder.com www.usajobs.opm.gov www.flipdog.com www.jobbankusa.com www.nationjob.com www.hotjobs.com www.job-hunt.org www.jobweb.org www.careerspan.com www.cityjobs.com www.careerconnector.com www.jobnetwork.net www.jobsearchengine.com www.jobland.com www.jobs.co.za www.ajb.dni.us www.careermosaic.com www.careersonline.com.au www.coolworks.com


www.espan.com www.microsoft.com/jobs/ www.jobsearch.co.uk www.monster.com www.pricejam.com www.reed.co.uk www.dbm.com/jobguide/ www.topjobs.co.uk www.careers.org www.employer-employee.com www.jobsite.co.uk www.wideyes.com www.careerbuilder.com www.careerpath.com www.headhunter.net www.joboptions.com www.exp.com www.freeagent.com www.networker.com www.jobs-careers.com http://unpof.net www.hoovers.com www.careerbuilder.com www.usajobs.opm.gov www.flipdog.com www.jobbankusa.com www.nationjob.com www.job-hunt.org www.jobweb.org www.careerspan.com www.cityjobs.com www.jobvertise.com JOBS IN AMERICA www.alumni-network.com www.ajb.dni.us www.americanjobs.com www.bestjobsusa.com www.careercast.com www.careerexchange.com www.cweb.com www.developers.net www.futurescan.com


www.jobbankusa.com www.jobfind.com www.interbiznet.com/hunt/ www.helpwanted.com www.monsterboard.com www.softwaredeveloper.com www.techjobbank.com www.uscareers.com www.hire.com www.jobweb.org www.overseasjobs.com www.brassring.com www.dice.com www.jobweb.com www.jobsmart.org www.net-temps.com www.jobtrack.com www.resumeblaster.com www.1-jobs.com www.usahotjobs.com www.jobbankusa.com www.americanjobs.com www.monster.com www.kforce.com www.net-temps.com www.careercentral.com www.fedworld.gov www.jobweb.org www.thelinkzone.com www.recruitex.com www.jobs.com www.jobsfed.com www.ajb.org www.AmericanJobs.com www.job-source.com www.careercity.com www.careermag.com www.classifieds2000.com www.nationjob.com www.coolworks.com www.careershop.com www.lawjobs.com www.careermosaic.com www.4work.com


www.cweb.com www.careerbuilder.com www.eriss.com www.espan.com www.blackcollegian.com www.campuscareercenter.com www.jobtrak.com www.careerexperience.com www.occ.com www.headhunter.net www.staffhunter.com www.rileyguide.com www.jobweb.org www.job-hunt.org www.ed.gov www.dol.gov www.doleta.gov www.ttrc.doleta.gov www.skillsnet.org www.collegeview.com www.petersons.com www.bls.gov www.census.gov www.ed.gov www.mlinc.com www.bea.doc.gov www.stat-usa.gov MEDICAL JOBS IN AMERICA www.medsearch.com www.collegegrad.com www.ceweekly.wa.com www.headhunter.net www.careeravenue.com www.employmed.com BANK JOBS IN AMERICA www.frbatlanta.org www.frbchi.org www.clev.frb.org www.dallasfed.org www.ny.frb.org www.stls.frb.org


JOBS IN AUSTRALIA http://employment.byron.com.au www.monsterboard.com.au www.jobnet.com.au www.employment.com.au www.bitme.com.au/semployment/ www.seek.com.au www.zdnet.com.au/jobs/ www.zdnet.com.au/jobs/ www.jobs-engineering.com www.jobnet.com.au www.job-directory.com.au JOBS IN MALAYSIA www.jobstreet.com.my www.jobsmalaysia.com www.newmalaysia.com/job/ http://jobs.asiaco.com/malaysia/ www.datum-asiapacific.com http://jobs.malaysiadirectory.com www.jobpolitan.com.my JOBS IN CHINA & HONG KONG www.adsproject.com www.atlanticresearch.com/regions/zhongguo.htm www.china-plc.com/jobs/ www.careermosaic.com.hk www.jobchina.net www.chinacareer.com www.dragonsurf.com/careerwise/ www.hkjobs.com www.jobok.com www.shanghaijob.com www.recruitonline.com www.cc-jobs.com www.myjob.com.hk www.dailyjob.com JOBS IN SINGAPORE www.jobasia.com.sg www.careermosaic.com.sg www.recruitasia.com www.singseek.com/job/ www.recruit.net


www.jobpilot.com.sg www.catcha.com.sg/jobs/jobs.shtml www.singaporejobsite.com www.expertise.com.sg www.jobs.com.sg www.9to5.com.sg www.careerzone.com.sg www.microsoft.com/singapore/jobs/ www.singapore-careers.com.sg www.pceservices.com www.asia-jobs.com JOBS IN CANADA www.mediacorp2.com www.canadajobs.com www.canada-jobs.com www.kenevacorp.mb.ca www.canada-ny.org/english/employ.htm www.retailsale.com/main/jobs.htm www.jobs.ca www.jobfind2000.com www.jobbus.com www.canadajobs.com www.canadiancareers.com www.careerplace.com www.canada-wide.com www.jobsweb.com http://jobsearchcanada.about.com www.jobfind2000.com www.jobbus.com www.canadajobs.com www.canadiancareers.com www.careerplace.com JOBS IN UK www.e-job.net www.jobsunlimited.co.uk www.visioncr.co.uk www.jobserve.co.uk www.reed.co.uk www.e-job.net www.topjobs.co.uk www.netjobs.co.uk www.livein-jobs.co.uk


www.gti.co.uk www.planetrecruit.com/liveportal/mediauk/ www.dotjobs.co.uk www.monster.co.uk www.jobs.ac.uk www.1stjob.co.uk www.jobsite.co.uk www.cityjobs.com www.recruitlink.co.uk www.highstreetcentral.com/jobs.htm www.recruitlink.co.uk www.jobworlduk.co.uk www.microsoft.com/uk/jobs/ www.tsr.co.uk www.jobsunlimited.co.uk www.anancyweb.com/emp-uk.html www.gamejobs.co.uk www.stirlingjobs.co.uk www.jobserve.com www.retailcareers.co.uk www.cvserve.com www.london-jobs.net www.aboutjobs.co.uk www.ifi.co.uk http://jobs.asiaco.com/uk/ www.jobsdomain.co.uk www.hts.co.uk/UKJobs/ www.thejob.com www.jobs-by-email.co.uk www.datumeurope.com www.gradunet.co.uk www.ukjobs-backpackers.co.nz www.purcon.co.uk www.jobs.tes.co.uk www.coolwebjobs.co.uk www.jobsin.co.uk www.employmentservice.gov.uk www.search-beat.com/ukjobs.htm www.shorterm.co.uk www.jobs-at.co.uk ENVIRONMENTAL JOBS IN UK www.ends.co.uk


HOTEL JOBS IN UK www.hotel-jobs.co.uk CHEMICAL JOBS IN UK www.chemjobs.net JOBS IN GULF www.continentalmanpower.com www.gulfjobs.com http://apexrecruitment-indiaa.com www.jmmjobs.com www.petrome.com www.mlinkindia.com www.backerassociates.com www.melcotech.com www.ihrcanada.com www.indiamanpower.com www.return2india.com www.middleeastnews.com/indiajobseekers.html www.jobhuntdubai.com www.cmoverseas.com www.ihrcanada.com/jobs/kkngjobs.htm www.ksinternational.com FREELANCE JOBS http://localweb.com/proaccess/FreeLancer/ www.freelancers.com/company_history.html www.worldcalendar.com/jobs.htm www.ework.com www.freelancewriting.com HR JOBS www.sap-hr-jobs.com www.jobs4hr.com www.pro-alt.com/se/hr_job.htm www.hrmjobs.com/links.html www.clevshrm.org/hrjobs.htm www.hrjobs.com www.dist.maricopa.edu/jobs/ www.hr-jobs.net www.edjob.com EDUCATIONAL & TEACHING JOBS http://faculty.web.waseda.ac.jp/vicky/jobs.html


http://scout18.cs.wisc.edu/NH/96-10/96-10-23/0033.html http://home.istar.ca/~cye/jobs.html www.metnet.state.mt.us/TeacherPlace.html www.aft.co.uk www.njschooljobs.com/index.html http://commlink.atlantic.county.lib.nj.us/educjob1.htm http://services.dese.state.mo.us/humanres/jobvacdir.html www.ejsinc.com/highfram.htm http://pe.central.vt.edu/jobcenter/edjobsites.html www.tealit.com www.privateschooljobs.com www.teachers-teachers.com www.dphelps.pe.kr www.academploy.com www.works.state.mo.us www.mav.net/phil/tchrjobs.shtml www.ncbe.gwu.edu/links/jobs.htm www.shu.ac.uk/schools/ed/tesol/tejob.html MANAGEMENT JOBS www.materialsmanagementjob.com/ www.practicemanagementjobs.com/ www.pmi.org/jobs/postings.htm www.dwtechnologies.com/jobs/JL-mgt.htm MEDICAL JOBS www.medicaleducationjobs.com www.medicaldevicejobs.com www.medicalsecretaryjobs.com www.medicaldirectorjobs.com www.medicalbillerjobs.com www.medicalassistantjobs.com www.medical-job.net www.medicalrecordsjobs.com www.nuclearmedicinejobs.com www.oncologistjobs.com www.healthmanagementjobs.com http://nurseoptions.com/top/nl003.html www.bchealthjobs.com www.job-source.com COMPUTER JOB SITES www.computerjobs.com


www.cweb.com www.apple.com/jobs/ www.webadvertisingjobs.com www.webdesignerjobs.com www.graphicdesignerjobs.com www.internetsalesjobs.com www.mediaplannerjobs.com www.multimediaemployment.com www.webmarketingjobs.com www.webmasteremployment.com www.webproducerjobs.com www.ecommerceemployment.com www.databaseprogrammerjobs.com www.internetdeveloperjobs.com www.softwaredeveloperjobs.com www.programmeranalystjobs.com www.technicalwriterjobs.com www.webdeveloperemployment.com www.webprogrammerjobs.com www.it123.com www.webjobsusa.com www.colorado-computerjobs.com www.jobauthority.com www.computerwork.com www.corporateskills.com/Jobs.htm www.jobs4it.com www.programmer-jobs.com www.software-jobs.net www.computerjobspage.com www.computerjobsportal.com www.computer-jobs-online.com www.computerjobfair.com www.staffsolutions.com www.dalmanjobs.com http://computerjob.scan-careerpath.com/search/ http://miami.computerwork.com/ www.lazytrader.com/feb14alf.htm www.n-s-i.com/computerjobs.html www.careermagazine.net/computer_jobs.html www.etcrecruiting.com/computer_jobs.htm www.computer-jobs-online.com/ www.occ-computing.co.uk/vpspace.htm www.sandiego-hightech.com www.contract-jobs.com


www.isjobbank.com www.prgjobs.com www.careerindex.com www.softwarejobs.com www.careermarthi-tech.com www.developers1.net www.sandiego-online.com/forums/careers/ www.computerwork.com www.surfn.com/bayjobs.html www.softmoonlighter.com www.cweb.com www.apple.com/jobs/ www.webadvertisingjobs.com www.webdesignerjobs.com www.graphicdesignerjobs.com www.internetsalesjobs.com www.mediaplannerjobs.com www.multimediaemployment.com www.webmarketingjobs.com www.webmasteremployment.com www.webproducerjobs.com www.ecommerceemployment.com www.databaseprogrammerjobs.com www.internetdeveloperjobs.com www.softwaredeveloperjobs.com www.programmeranalystjobs.com www.technicalwriterjobs.com www.webdeveloperemployment.com www.webprogrammerjobs.com www.it123.com www.webjobsusa.com www.colorado-computerjobs.com www.jobauthority.com www.computerwork.com www.corporateskills.com/Jobs.htm www.jobs4it.com www.programmer-jobs.com www.software-jobs.net www.computerjobspage.com www.computerjobsportal.com www.computer-jobs-online.com www.computerjobfair.com www.staffsolutions.com www.dalmanjobs.com


ENGINEERING JOBS www.nationjob.com/engineering www.engineerjobs.com www.phds.org www.engineering-jobs.net www.nerinc.com www.oingo.com/topic/8/8506.html www.engcen.com/turbo/entry.htm www.craigslist.org/eng/ www.ajob4engineers.com www.engcen.com www.engineering-jobs-here.com www.pnet.co.za/engineering/ www.1engineeringjobs.com http://valleyjobs.com/eng.html www.carnegieresources.com/engineerjobs.htm www.engineeringjobs.com www.slicknet.com/jobsearch.htm MAJOR JOB LINKS www.csustan.edu/Counseling/joblinks.html www.nationjob.com/education www.nau.edu/~career/jobs.html#TEACHING JOBS www.webster.edu/homecampus/homes/inter.htm http://web.utk.edu/~career/hotlinks/htlinks.htm www.larrysworld.com/jobs.htm


JOBS FOR COLLEGE STUDENTS www.jobdirect.com JOBS FOR COLLEGE STUDENTS www.jobdirect.com CAREER MAGAZINE www.careermag.com AVIATION JOBS www.aviationjobsonline.com www.nationjob.com/aviation


NURSING JOBS www.nursesjobdirectory.com COMPUTER JOBS IN ISRAEL http://www.jr.co.il/cji/ JOBS IN JAPAN www.ohayosensei.com JOBS IN SPACE www.highview.co.uk JOBS IN IRELAND www.exp.ie JOBS FOR SOCIOLOGISTS www.asanet.org/employlk.htm JOBS FOR GAYS www.gaywork.com SALES JOBS www.executive-recruiters.com LIBRARY JOBS www.lisjobs.com SELL YOURSELF www.collab.net www.ServiceByNet.com www.elance.com www.guru.com www.niku.com www.hellobrain.com HIRE A RECRUITING FIRM www.topechelon.com www.aapex1.com www.isearch.com


Resources for career development and online entrance preparation

Now days, the basic problem that any youth faces after school or graduation is the dilemma about the career. Now what? That is the question, which will come to their mind at that time. The decision you take after completing your twelfth standard and college is very critical. If you land in the correct path, you will be successful in life, else you may face problems in your career. You may be very good in singing, composing music, dance etc. But your misguided parents want you to become a doctor, engineer or IAS officer. This is totally wrong. If the youth don't get proper career guidance at crucial stages of their life, their talent will simply go down to the drains. Because of this reason only, millions of talented people land-up in professions, which they don't like. So, my personal suggestion is that all youth should undergo thorough career counseling before taking-up any profession. But always remember, if you can get into some profession, which really interests you, then it will be the best. The Internet can help you in a great way. There are lots of web sites dedicated to career counseling and online entrance preparation. Following is the list of such web sites through which you may get some advice for your career. Browse through them, I am sure that you will be more confident to face the challenges of tomorrow. WEB SITES ON CAREER DEVELOPMENT & ENTRANCE PREPARATION www.brilliant-tutorials.com www.careerlauncher.com http://deepam.hypermart.net www.careerpointgroup.com www.bansaliitjee.com www.toprankers.com http://symbiosisguidance.com www.tandem-group.com www.vignan.com www.srisankara.com www.jeewithiitians.com www.iosisguidance.com www.ourtvm.com http://coaching.cjb.net www.compassbox.com www.egurucool.com www.entrancemaster.com www.scholarsacademy.com


www.zephyreducation.com www.sachdevacollege.com www.tabla.org www.mumbaiclasses.com www.delhiclasses.com www.indiacoach.com www.lotusarts.com www.anugraham.com www.vidyainfo.com http://educationcare.com www.edurite.com www.iitsonline.com www.brainvisa.com www.mocktest.com www.primetutor.com www.entranceguru.com www.entranceonline.com www.eamcet.com www.iitjee.freeservers.com www.hotexams.com www.iitjeeguide.com DIRECTORY OF MEDICAL COLLEGES www.indiaedu.com/medical DIRECTORY OF ENGINEERING COLLEGES www.indiaedu.com/engineering DISTANCE EDUCATION www.ignou.com



In the Internet, there are lots of resources for GRE, TOEFL & overseas preparation, but many people dont know where they are located. Here I have made an attempt to co-ordinate the best resources available on net. Just browse through these sites, definitely your purpose will be served. From some of these sites, you download free materials for GRE & TOEFL preparation and study them. You can also give online sample tests too. The following are resources also give details about the resources for overseas education too. Just visit some of these site, I am sure that you will make it. BEST OF LUCK. FIND A COLLEGE www.collegeview.com www.findcollege.com www.alumni.net INFORMATION ON GRE www.gre.org www.testtutor.com/gre www.west.net/~stewart/logic.htm www.cuttsreviews.com/jcutt www.top-score.com www.editenglish.com WEB SITES ON TOEFL PREPARATION www.toefl.org www.testwise.com www.testtutor.com/toefl www.testden.com www.studint.net/toefl WEBSITES ON GMAT www.gmat.org/gmat_learn.html www.west.net/~stewart/rc.htm www.testtutor.com/gmat www.petersons.com/testprep/gmat.html www.scholarstuff.com/netguide/test/gmat.htm www.test-preps.com/gmat/software.html www.gmattutor.com


www.800score.com/gmat-home.html EDUCATIONAL FOUNDATIONS www.fsu.edu/~efpsweb/ www.usask.ca/education/edfdt/ www.uno.edu/~acse/catalog/courses/edfr.html www.educ.kent.edu/CoE/EFSS/Handbook/EFSSBOOK.HTM www.millersv.edu/~edfound/ www.education.uc.edu/programs/ed-found/ www.southernct.edu/catalogue/grad/EDF.htm www.soe.purdue.edu/edst/edfa/edfamain.html DISTANCE EDUCATION www.uwex.edu/disted/home.html www.cisnet.com/~cattales/Deducation.html www.uidaho.edu/evo/distglan.html www.adec.edu www.distance-educator.com www.utahsbr.edu/tech/intro.htm www.detc.org www.smartplanet.com GENERAL SITES ON INTERNATIONAL EDUCATION www.aei-india.org/aaeri.htm www.unimelb.edu.au/international/OverseasReps.html www.iecnet.com/english.html www.webpage.com/hindu/adverts/campus.htm www.iteachnet.com/employment/ www.cam.ac.uk/CambUniv/Overseas/ www.escapeartist.com/expatriate/education.htm www.9to5.com.sg/education/ovrseaedu.asp www.oecth.com SCHOLARSHIPS www.scholarship.com www.worldwidescholarships.com www.terry.uga.edu/insurance/insschol.html www.studentpilot.net/articles/financial_aid.html www.onassis.gr/amer/scholar.html www.aef.org www.salemohio.com/alumni/99scholar.html



STUDY IN EUROPE www.ciee.org/study/europe www.sussex.ac.uk/International/europe www.rochester.edu/College/study-abroad/europe.html www.istc.umn.edu STUDY IN USA www.foreignerinamerica.com/study_in_USA.html www.study-in-usa-universities.com/study_in_usa.html www.usa.or.th/services/study.htm http://ait.org.tw/study.html http://usinfo.org/study_e.htm www.ben2.ucla.edu/~shenyang/Contents.htm www.algonet.se/~cis/usa.html www.woonkyung.or.kr/infomd/study_in_usa.html STUDY IN AUSTRALIA www.international.rmit.edu.au/is/become.HTM www.gsm.com.au/study/ www.study-australia.com www.studylink.com.au STUDY IN CANADA www.studyincanada.com/english/index.htm www.fenghua.org/study.htm http://gateway1.gmcc.ab.ca/users/urdc/study.htm www.studyincanada.net www.studyin-canada.com www.vancouver-english-club.com/study-canada/ www.canadianembassy.org/studyincanada/index.html STUDY IN UK www.studyinuk.com www.educationuk.com http://chiron.latrobe.edu.au/www/artmedia/media/sis.html www.britishcouncil.fi/education/undergra.htm


STUDY IN NEW ZEALAND www.immigration.govt.nz/study/home.html http://pl.net/dlyon/advantage.html www.ljudmila.org/srce/is/is_nz.html www.nzeil.co.nz/index.htm www.nzeducation.co.nz/ed/study.html EDUCATION NEWS www.ed.gov www.education-channels.com


How to publish your work through Internet?

Internet is a medium through which anybody who has got writing talent can publish his or her work. But the pity is that many people don't know where to publish and how? Here I am going to give you the addresses and names of the precise web sites through which you can publish your work and earn lot of money and satisfaction. Before that, let me tell you few words on ebooks, e-zines, self publishing & on demand publishing On demand publishing Here the publisher will keep a soft copy or electronic version of the manuscript submitted by the author in a particular template. Then a few copies of the book will be printed and distributed to the book distributors in the market. Afterwards, according to the demand from the distributors, more and more books will be printed. Here the advantage is that, the publisher will not incur losses. If he feels that there is not much demand for the book in the market, its printing and distribution will be simply discontinued. The electronic version of the book is distributed through E-books and CD-ROMs. Usually the author receives 20% to 30% royalties on all the hard copy sales and 50% royalty on all the sales generated through soft copies. The majors on demand publishing companies in the Internet are www.iuniverse.com www.buybooksontheweb.com www.xlibris.com www.mightywords.com www.fatbrain.com E-Books It is the short form of electronic books. Here the contents of the book are stored in device in the electronic form or "soft form". The storage device has a LCD (Liquid crystal display) screen from which the reader can read the contents of the book. The advantage of e-books is that, one can store many books at a time in the device and read them whenever needed. The device is compact and the contents are interactive, that means you can even see movie clippings, hear music, which are the contents of the book. Moreover it is cheap when compared to the hard copy of the book and saves the use of precious paper, thus avoid the cutting of trees. E books have brought a revolution in the publishing industry and it is very predominant in USA & Western Europe. You can also download e-books from many web sites, after paying through credit cards. Recently, Stephen King, the famous author who write thrillers put his work on Internet and earned


millions of dollars by selling it on the net. If you want to know more about e books, just visit some of the companies like " www.glassbook.com" or " www.ebooks.com" Self publishing Earlier it was very difficult for a new author to publish his or her work. Normally many big publishers never accept manuscripts from new authors even though they are worth publishing. Either you should have a reputed literary agent to help you or lot of money with you for publishing your book. Almost all the new authors will get lot of rejection letters from major publishes initially. But times have changed with the advent of Internet. Now a stage has been reached, where anybody can publish a book at cheap rates through Internet. In self-publishing, the author has to spend some money to publish and market his book through Internet. There are lots of reputed agencies that will assist you to edit, print, publish and market your work at nominal fees. Minerva press (www.minervapress.co.uk) is the finest example of this sort. In self-publishing, you can simply write your book, put it on net and allow people to download it for a flat fee. The money is usually accepted through credit card and you can earn even while you are sleeping. E-zines The Internet has suddenly opened millions of writing opportunities to talented writers all over the world and e-zines comprises the largest market for the freelance writes. E-zine is the short form of electronic magazines. There are thousands of e-zines on various topics all over the world. Just see some of them at www.ezines.com Major publishing resources in Internet The following are the precise web sites through which you can become a published author. Just open your computer or go to the nearby cyber cafe and open the following web sites. You will immediately get more details on the spot. But, before that, I suggest you to open www.iuniverse.com at first and see the full details. TOP WEB SITES TO PUBLISH YOUR WORK www.mightywords.com www.iuniverse.com


www.xlibris.com www.upublish.com www.buybooksontheweb.com www.lighingsource.com www.trafford.com www.celebratelove.com/traterffordpub.htm www.aalbc.com/placesto.htm www.athomepublishing.com www.minerva-press.co.uk www.bhrpress.com/publish.htm www.adventurezine.com/Editorials/PublishYourWork.html www.1stbooks.com/probooks.htm www.darkroom-on-line.com/html/submit.htm http://boston.indymedia.org/publish.php3 www.sweet-petudie.com/publish.htm www.write101.com/epublish.htm www.happilypublished.com www.getpub.com PUBLISH POEMS www.reports-unlimited.com/publish.htm www.pw.org www.surfnetkids.com/pubpoem.htm www.poets.org ARTICLES ON HOW TO PUBLISH YOUR BOOK http://myks.sitesell.com www.jmcforum.com PUBLISH A MEDICAL WORK www.medicalmantra.com WRITE FOR CHILDREN www.write4kids.com www.kidnews.com http://mgfx.com/kidlit/ www.cs.bilkent.edu.tr/~david/derya/ywc.html www.stonesoup.com www.justwrite.org www.co-nect.net/Schools/Webzine/Sep99/Elementary/ www.childrensmagazine.com


WRITER'S RESOURCES www.rosedog.com www.garbl.com www.writers.net www.writers.com www.writersdigest.com www.quintcareers.com/writing www.writers-exchange.com www.inkspot.com www.wga.org www.ants.com www.writerswrite.com E-ZINE PUBLISHING www.e-zinez.com PUBLISH PHOTOGRAPHS http://mediadive.com/mediadive/pubyourwor.html ARTICLE ABOUT COPYRIGHT www.cla.co.uk/www/owncopy.htm WEB SITES ON SELF PUBLISHING www.wordassociation.com www.self-publishing.com www.rradream.com/sys-tmpl/faqaboutus/ www.ability.org.uk/self_publishing.html www.phoenixpublishinggroup.com/self-publishing/index.htm http://publishing.miningco.com/arts/publishing/msubselfpub.htm http://independentbookarts.com/Authors.htm www.hotyellow98.com/realitypress/publish.html www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/1568600593/chance22online http://aalbc.com/publishers.htm WEB SITES ON E-BOOKS www.ebookconnections.com www.ozemedia.com/ebooks.htm FREELANCE WRITING www.freelancewriting.com www.masterfreelancer.com www.freelanceworkexchange.com


WHY PUBLISH E-BOOKS? The real question should be, why aren't you? There are over 130 million Internet users in North America alone, and approx. 70,000 new users come online every day. The Internet is quickly becoming the 8th wonder of the world and a mega commerce platform. This is the easiest method to earn money and bring satisfaction to your soul, if you are a writer. GETTING PUBLISHED-FEW HARD FACTS Many first time authors attempt to get published by sending off their manuscripts to big publishing houses for review and hopefully a contract to publish their book. Meanwhile, they sit around waiting months for the dreaded rejection notice, and sometimes no notice shows up at all. They are under the impression that getting published by a big gun publisher carries with it a certain amount of prestige. The truth is, nobody cares who publishes your book. Most first timers believe that the publisher will promote their book. The truth is, the publisher puts up the money to manufacture the book and has rep's get the book into the stores, but that's it. You'll be responsible for promoting your book at your own expense if you can't negotiate a favorable promotion budget in the contract. As a first time author, you may not be able to negotiate much of a promotion budget into your first contract. So, you'll have to be ready with the money for this yourself and your publisher may want to know how much you have budgeted and a copy of your marketing plan. Another problem with traditional publishing is the time factor. It can take as long as 3 years to get your book published. Most publishers operate within an 18month production cycle. This means your publish date won't even begin until after a publisher accepts it. Whatever time you have invested shipping your manuscript around will be that much longer before your book gets to press. Once you agree to turn your book over to a publisher, you will lose most or even all control of your book. Most publishing contracts, especially with new authors, give the publisher a free hand in any changes to your book they see fit. Traditional publishers have 3 selling seasons. This means your book will be on the shelves for 4 months, after that, they pull it off the shelves to be replaced by other books for that season.


Your left over books will have to be "remaindered" meaning they will be sent to warehouse and generally sold in bulk at a fraction of the original manufactured price. Some new authors opt to hire literary agents to go to bat for them thinking that with an agent their bound to get published. This has some truth to it but here to there are problems. You really have to shop around for a good one and even then, depending on the material, agents will reject well over 90% of submitted book manuscripts, plus if they do accept it they take a healthy percentage of sales for their efforts. This is generally a 15% commission. Getting published can really become a daunting task to first time authors, even with the ferocious tenacity of a wolverine it won't happen overnight. On top of all this, as a first time author you really have no bargaining muscle. Even though self-publishing is a good choice, you'll still need to gather the information needed to do it yourself, and approx. $13,000 to $15,000 minimum needed to get started? $13,000 to $15,000 will probably cover printing, promotion, and some other expenses for about 4000 copies of a 100 to 250 page book. But, it's still $13,000 and not readily available to most struggling authors. Some first time authors will opt for the vanity publisher. The vanity publisher will be more than happy to look at your manuscript and even give you glowing reviews, but this I'm afraid is false praise. The only thing the vanity publisher wants to do for you is manufacture your book. An author using a vanity press will pay a lot more than printing costs and will only receive around 40 percent of the retail price of the book. This service will cost you around $12,000 to $30,000 or more, depending on the book. This doesn't include things like editing, promotion, or distribution. Copies sent to columnists for book reviews are generally trashed as soon as they see a subsidy publishers name on your book, and here's why. Review columnists are well aware of the problems associated with vanity presses. They know there was little attention paid to editing and that little if any promotional effort will take place. So the book will probably not be available in bookstores. Of all the choices before you, the best so far would be to self publish your book. The only problem would be gathering the know how and of course the $15,000 to get started. So what if you don't have $15,000? What's next? How in the world are you going to get published? Just a few short years ago the idea of distributing books in a digital format seemed a ridiculous notion to many. "It will never fly!", "Nonsense!", they bellowed. The large publishers in their shining glass towers ruled. They scoffed


at the very idea of such a scenario. They sat upon their thrones like they always have, decade after decade deciding on what you and I will read next. They would hurl the hard work of many would be authors to the circular file like flicking a piece of lint from a $900 dollar suit. The dream of being published once again dashed upon the jagged rocks of this "Impenetrable Conglomerated Fortress". OK, I got a little carried away. We will never know how many great books have been dispatched to the dumpster, but one thing is for sure, a lot less will be from now on. Enter E-Book Publishing The world is changing at a very rapid clip. So rapid in fact, that it's really not possible to predict anything at this point. We can speculate all we want, but the bottom line is, ever since the Internet explosion a few years ago the pace has been just a blur. To suggest any kind of logical destination for the Net, at this point, would be a wild guess at best. However, people will always have wants and needs. As the population continues to warm up to the Internet, it will become second nature for them to actively seek out the things they want and purchase them over the Internet. At no time in our recent history have book authors been in a better position to compete heads up with the Big Boys. The number 1 & 2 selling items on the Net in the United States are "Software and Books", in that order. So if you are going to write books and sell them on the Internet, you'll have a very large and responsive market. The only difference will be that your books will be in a digital format. But, before you do anything else you should determine whether or not you want to make a living as a book author. This is extremely important for a couple of reasons. Some authors just like to write, while others want to write books for a living. Deciding which one you are is very important because it may determine what kinds of books you begin to write. What are the advantages of publishing e books? SAVES RESOURCES With e Book publishing, the use of our resources such as Tree's, diesel fuel, electricity, etc. is greatly diminished. LOWER COSTS With no printing, storing, or shipping costs, publishers can sell the same quality at reduced prices to consumers, while at the same time earning more profits. It's a classic win-win situation.


SPEEDY DELIVERY Just download your book, and start reading. FedEx is a giant snail compared to this. In the time it takes you to start your car to go get a book, you could be reading it with no "Shipping and Handling" charges. PORTABILITY With the new electronic reading devices hitting the market, you can carry 20 or 30 maybe more, large books in a single device. A great way to travel. Manufacturers of reading devices are making them waterproof so you can read your books in the tub, no more wet pages.


A brief introduction to cyber laws, cyber crimes & hacking

The biggest problem with the Internet is that, nobody is in charge of it and so, nobody can control it. Now days, using computer people create hell of a trouble all over the world. How they do it? Read on A word about cyber laws Although no government, individual or organization can control Internet, the governments of different countries have formulated "cyber laws" which are the laws, rules and etiquette to be followed, while using internet in that particular country. All the citizens of that country are bound to obey these laws, else they will be penalized under law. Recently, some "hackers" spent months in jail for breaking into some network and manipulating the data. If anybody misuses Internet or hurt another person directly or indirectly, then that person is tried in court in accordance with the cyber laws in that country. If you want to know more about cyber laws and cyber crimes, visit the following American government's web site. www.cybercrime.gov The major cyber crimes are as follows Hacking Cyber squatting Sending junk mails (spamming) Spreading unlawful, harmful and misleading information Intrusion onto privacy Hacking: It is an act by which, an unauthorized person accesses your network system by breaking your password, using various software tools. Recently, a boy from Sweden devised a method by which anybody can access any e-mail address in the web site www.hotmail.com without entering the password. Soon the web site was shut down and the company lost millions of dollars within few hours. A person who commits the act of hacking is called " hacker". Once the hacker enters into your network, he can do anything ranging from manipulation to deletion of the data. Banks and stores doing online stores are most vulnerable to hacking. If such establishments are hacked, they not only loose revenue, but also the customers.


If you want to know more about hackers and hacking resources, read through the resources given below. Hackers are also called cyber terrorists and the rendezvous conducted by them are called underground conventions. Cyber squatting: It is an act by which a third person registers the domain name of a famous person or reputed company (registered company) before being registered by the owners them selves. It is against the rules. Nobody can register the domain names like that. Whoever does it can be penalized under law. Recently somebody registered the domain name www.juliaroberts.com and the Hollywood actress "Julia Roberts counted stars. A few days before somebody from Mumbai registered the domain name " www.pramodmahajan.com" and the real Pramod Mahajan, the IT minister of India counted stars. But mind it, if you do it, you become a cyber criminal on the spot. Sending junk mails (spamming): Junk mails are unsolicited mails, which come to your e-mail account. If they come in large numbers, they will choke your e-mail account. Recently I had to leave an e-mail account registered with "yahoo" because it got filled with junk mails from all over the world. You can install junk mail filter software to filter all the unsolicited e-mails entering your e-mail account. Suppose anybody is caught for deliberately sending junk mails, he can be prosecuted under law. Spreading anti-national & harmful information through net This is also banned by law. Now days, you can see almost all the terrorist organizations all over the world have got their own web sites through which they spread the message of devil in this peaceful world. You can also see thousands of hate clubs, insane and sex clubs, which spoils the upcoming youth. The hate clubs on racism are the most prevalent in the net. Those who promote such activities can be penalized under "cyber laws". Intrusion into privacy Using Internet, a third person can easily harass you, if your details are available online. The finest example to this is the cheating through credit card or credit card fraud. Suppose anybody knows your credit card number and the PIN number, the result is that, somebody will buy goods and the bill will come to you to make you count stars. So be very careful while you disclose your details online. Just remember that many people are watching you without your knowledge. Recently in America a man murdered a girl, after collecting her details from the Internet.


The following are some of the best hacking resources in the Internet. But don't try to hack any site using these resources. KEVIN MITNICK- THE KING OF HACKERS www.kevinmitnick.com HOW TO BECOME A HACKER? www.tuxedo.org/~esr/faqs/hacker-howto.html THE HACKER FAQ www.plethora.net/~seebs/faqs/hacker.html HACKERS HALL OF FAME www.discovery.com/area/technology/hackers/hackers.html HACKING QUARTERLY www.2600.com HACKERS NEWS GROUPS www.cpsr.org/cpsr/privacy/crime/denning.hackers.html ANTI HACKERS (THE ENEMY OF HACKERS) www.hackers.com.br www.antionline.com HACK WITHOUT BREAKING LAW www.happyhacker.org HACKERS DEFENSE FOUNDATION www.hackerz.org UNDERGROUND CONVENTION www.defcon.org HACKING RESOURCES www.passthrough.com/privacy/hacking.html www.proac.com/crack/hack/hack.html www.elcono.co.uk www.inetsonic.com/lozzab/stuff.htm www.cgocable.net/~moores/hackz.htm www.i82hq.com/links/Hacking_Resources www.he.net/~jachim/hacking.htm www.hack.org http://hscool.netclub.ru/


www.hackers.co.za www.hip97.nl www.annexgrp.org/hr/ www.hf.ah.cn/computer/unixbook/index1.htm www.avk.org/alain/hacking.html www.crossbar.demon.co.uk www.angelfire.com/or/warz/index2.html www.translogik.com/sites/hyperdome/computer.htm http://www2.netdoor.com/~gold/link.html www.netice.com/Advice/Underground/Hacking/ www.hackcanada.com www.underground-book.com http://vcorp.hypermart.net/html/links.html HACKERS DIRECTORY www.infowar.com/hacker/hacker.shtml LIST OF HACKED SITES www.ultrapassword.com WONDERFUL HACKERS www.angelfire.com/ab2/aolsucks/hackers.html http://blackbrain.freeservers.com www.cyber-warriors.co.uk www.angelfire.com/in/hackersachin/ http://members.xoom.com/hackerindia/index.htm www.uha1.com www.casema.net/~nr9/ www.expage.com/page/gleeson http://hackersheaven.freehosting.net/ HIGHER LEARNING CENTER www.xs4all.nl/~l0rd/ EXPOSED HACKERS http://hackingexposed.com/links.html HACKING NEWS www.hackernews.com GENERAL SITES ON HACKERS www.hackers.com


www.anticode.com www.hackershomepage.com www.infosyssec.org/infosyssec/index.htm www.tt.rim.or.jp/~tatsushi http://w1.340.telia.com/~u34002171/hhd.html www.netindex.pt/links//HACKERS/index.html www.athens.net/~borremans/hackers.htm http://project.cyberpunk.ru:8101/idb/hackers.html www.juwelier-hacker.de www.cyberpunkproject.org WORLD WIDE HACKING RESOURCES www.hooked.net/users/jester/hacker.html www.kirche-muelheim.de/homepages/rpr/on_hackers.htm www.geocities.com/Area51/Crater/1856/index.html HACKERS CLUB www.home.sk/web/hackersclub www.ash.ch/hacker/hacker.htm www.hackersclub.net http://hackerclub.iscool.net www.geocities.com/SiliconValley/Lab/4605/chc.html HACKERS ONLINE www.grinse.de/gts/index2.html http://members.tripod.com/embarrass/Hackers.html THE HACKERS TOOL BOX http://pages.infinit.net/rave/htb.html http://flni.org/flni/tools.htm www.uncut.de/seiten/passwort.html


Cyberlaw is a much newer phenomenon having emerged much after the onset of Internet. Internet grew in a completely unplanned and unregulated manner. Even the inventors of Internet could not have really anticipated the scope and far reaching consequences of cyberspace. The growth rate of cyberspace has been enormous. Internet is growing rapidly and with the population of Internet doubling roughly every 100 days, Cyberspace is becoming the new preferred environment of the world. With the spontaneous and almost phenomenal growth


of cyberspace, new and ticklish issues relating to various legal aspects of cyberspace began cropping up. In response to the absolutely complex and newly emerging legal issues relating to cyberspace, CYBERLAW or the law of Internet came into being. The growth of Cyberspace has resulted in the development of a new and highly specialized branch of law called CYBERLAWS- LAWS OF THE INTERNET AND THE WORLD WIDE WEB. There is no one exhaustive definition of the term "Cyberlaw". However, simply put, Cyberlaw is a term, which refers to all the legal and regulatory aspects of Internet and the World Wide Web. Anything concerned with or related to, or emanating from, any legal aspects or issues concerning any activity of netizens and others, in Cyberspace comes within the ambit of Cyberlaw

Q.1. What is the introductory background for Cyberlaws ?

Since the beginning of civilization, man has always been motivated by the need to make progress and better the existing technologies. This has led to tremendous development and progress which has been a launching pad for further development. Of all the significant advances made by mankind from the beginning till date, probably the important of them is the development of Internet. To put in a common mans language, Internet is a global network of computers, all of them speaking the same language. In 1969, America's Department of Defense commissioned the construction of a Super network called ARPANET. The Advanced Research Projects Agency Network (ARPANET), basically intended as a military network of 40 computers connected by a web of links & lines. This network slowly grew and the Internet was born. By 1981, over 200 computers were connected from all around the world. Now the figure runs into millions. The real power of today's Internet is that it is available to anyone with a computer and a telephone line. Internet places at an individual's hands the immense and invaluable power of information and communication. Internet usage has significantly increased over the past few years. The number of data packets which flowed through the Internet have increased dramatically. According to International Data Corporation ("IDC"), approximately 163 million individuals or entities will use the Internet by the end of this year as opposed to 16.1 million in 1995. If left to its own measure, it is highly unlikely that such a trend can reverse itself. Given this present state of the Internet, the necessity of Cyberlaws becomes all the more important.



Why is there a need for Cyberlaw?

When Internet was developed, the founding fathers of Internet hardly had any inclination that Internet could transform itself into an all-pervading revolution which could be misused for criminal activities and which required regulation. Today, there are many disturbing things happening in cyberspace. Due to the anonymous nature of the Internet, it is possible to engage into a variety of criminal activities with impunity and people with intelligence, have been grossly misusing this aspect of the Internet to perpetuate criminal activities in cyberspace. Hence the need for Cyberlaws. Q.3. What is Cyberlaw ?

Internet is believed to be full of anarchy and a system of law and regulation therein seems contradictory. However, cyberspace is being governed by a system of law and regulation called Cyberlaw. There is no one exhaustive definition of the term Cyberlaw. Simply speaking, Cyberlaw is a generic term which refers to all the legal and regulatory aspects of Internet and the World Wide Web. Anything concerned with or related to or emanating from any legal aspects or issues concerning any activity of netizens and others, in Cyberspace comes within the ambit of Cyberlaw. The growth of Electronic Commerce has propelled the need for vibrant and effective regulatory mechanisms, which would further strengthen the legal infrastructure, so crucial to the success of Electronic Commerce. All these regulatory mechanisms and legal infrastructures come within the domain of Cyberlaw. Q.4. What is the importance of Cyberlaw?

Cyberlaw is important because it touches almost all aspects of transactions and activities on and concerning the Internet, the World Wide Web and Cyberspace. Initially it may seem that Cyberlaws is a very technical field and that it does not have any bearing to most activities in Cyberspace. But the actual truth is that nothing could be further than the truth. Whether we realize it or not, every action and every reaction in Cyberspace has some legal and Cyber legal perspectives. Q.5. Does Cyberlaw concern me?

Yes, Cyberlaw does concern me. As the nature of Internet is changing and this new medium is being seen as the ultimate medium ever evolved in human history, every activity of yours in Cyberspace can and will have a Cyber legal perspective. From the time you register your Domain Name, to the time you set up your web site, to the time you promote your website, to the time you conduct


electronic commerce transactions on the said site, at every point of time, there are various Cyberlaw issues involved. You may not be bothered about these issues today because you may feel that they are very distant from you and that they do not have an impact on your Cyber activities. But sooner or later, you will have to tighten your belts and take note of Cyberlaw for your own benefit. For example, you may knowingly or unknowingly book a Domain Name, say www.xyx.com which may be the trade mark of any other company, person or legal entity in any part of the world, say B. Domain Names are given to you on first come first served basis. But you may be involved by the other party being B in a Cyber legal dispute which may allege that you are deliberately involved in the practice of Cyber squatting (the practice of knowingly registering the trade mark of any legal entity, company or person with the intention of holding on to it and thereafter selling the same to the said legal entity, company or person at a handsome premium). You may also be involved in Cyber litigation as the concerned party, B, may approach the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) for adjudicating the matter and WIPO by a summary procedure may direct you to relinquish and release the said Domain Name to B, the concerned party. Needless to say, it shall be incumbent on the concerned party, B, to produce all documentary and other evidence to substantiate its claim to the concerned Domain Name. This is just one of the many examples that show the importance of Cyberlaw for you. Q.6. What is the general awareness about Cyberlaw today?

Today, the awareness about Cyberlaw is beginning to grow. Many technical experts in the beginning felt that legal regulation of Internet is not necessary. But with the rapid growth of technologies and Internet, it is crystal clear that no activity on Internet can remain free from the influence of Cyberlaw. Publishing a Web page is an excellent way for any commercial business or entity to vastly increase its exposure to millions of persons, organizations and governments world-wide. It is that feature of the Internet, which is causing much controversy in the legal community. Q.7. Is Cyberlaw constantly evolving?

Yes, Cyberlaw is constantly being evolved. As new and new opportunities and challenges are surfacing, Cyberlaw, being a constantly evolving process, is suitably modifying itself to fit the call of the time. As the Internet grows, numerous legal issues arise. These issues vary from Domain Names, to Intellectual Property Rights to Electronic Commerce to Privacy to Encryption to Electronic Contracts to Cybercrime to Online Banking to Spamming and so on. The list is very long.



What is the stage of development of Cyberlaw today?

Cyberlaw today, on a global scale, is at an early stage of development. Just as different civilizations and societies in history have taken time to develop and refine their legal systems, in the case of Internet too, it will take some time for Cyberlaws to be fully developed and refined. Different countries in different parts of the world are adopting their own strategies to this new field. Q.9. What do we intend to do by means of this interactive feature? By means of this interactive feature, every week we shall aim to look at various important issues relating to Cyberlaw. Next week we begin to look at the legal issues relating to domain names.

Q. 10.What is an IP address? The Internet is a network of computers. Each computer on the said network has its own distinct entity and presence. That is the reason why every computer is given a distinct Electronic Address called the Internet Protocol address or in short IP address. This IP address is given by numerical values like The IP address is just like any telephone number, which identifies a particular computer on the Internet. Q.11. What is a Domain Name?

Since it is not possible to remember each and every numerical value of an IP address, the system of domain names evolved. Internet domain names, in a common man's language, are used as an easy-to-remember alias which point to a specific IP address. The dominant purpose of the domain name is simply to provide an easy method for remembering another's electronic address. It's a unique name used to identify, among other things, a specific Web site. Thus a typical domain name would be http://www.indiainfoline.com. Q.12. What are the components of a Domain Name?

Any domain name consist of two components, namely the top level domain name(TLD) and a second level domain name. Thus in the said example, http://www.indiainfoline.com, ". com" would be the top level domain name while "indiainfoline" would be second level domain name.



What are the categories of Top Level Domain Names (TLDs)?

As on date, there are two categories of top-level domain names. In the first category comes the domain names .com, .net, .org, .edu. When the system of registering domain names began, the norms were that the .com name is to be given to commercial organizations, while others such as .org, .net, .gov and .edu are to be assigned to non-commercial organizations, network providers, government agencies and educational institutions respectively. However, as time has passed, due to the enhanced volumes of domain name registrations, the said norms have been abandoned and today anyone can, without any restriction of any kind whatsoever, can register any domain name. The second category of top level domain names is the country code TLDs denoted by a two letter country code. For instance, the top level domain name for India is .in. The responsibility for assigning the same is given in each country to a specified country domain name registrar. In India, the TLD.in is registered by NCST at Bombay. Q.14. Who registers Domain Names ? The domain names were initially registered by Network Solutions only, who had the sole monopoly to register the said TLDs. This monopoly of Network Solutions continued for many years and only in 1999, the Internet Corporation Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) allowed other accredited registrars to register domain names. Today there are more than 100 registrars with whom one can register a TLD.

Q.15. What is the unique feature of Domain Names? The unique feature of domain names is that the said domain names are given on "first come, first served" basis. This feature of domain names give rise to numerous legal issues and disputes. Thus the important thing in domain names registration is speed. To take an example, the domain name www.microsoft.org was available and was registered by Amit Mehrotra much before Microsoft Corporation could think of it. This led to numerous ticklish legal issues. Microsoft Corporation, despite having the trademark Microsoft, could not get the domain name www.microsoft.org because of the "first come, first served" criteria of domain name registration.


Q.16. How are Domain Names different from Trade Marks? To put it simply, Domain names are indeed different from trademarks. While it is possible that the same trademark may be registered by different persons in different categories and different lines of businesses, it may be possible to only register one domain name corresponding to such trademark. This aspect of domain names has led to numerous legal problems. Q.17. What is Cyber squatting ? Another legal issue surrounding domain names is that of Cyber squatting. Cyber squatting is the practice by means of which a person or legal entity books up the trade mark, business name or service mark of another as his own domain name for the purpose of holding on to it and thereafter selling the same domain name to the other person for valuable premium and consideration. Cybersquatters book up domain names of important brands in the hope of earning quick millions . Q.18. What are the recent trends relating to tackling Cyber squatters ? The Internet history has shown that while some corporate players have been willing to and have indeed coughed up money to get back their legitimate domain names, the recent trend is more towards taking the cybersquatters by the horns and fighting them out by legal processes. Courts throughout the world, including in India, have been proactive and have been granting injunctions to stop cybersquatters from operating their web sites. 19. What is the latest most effective remedy against Cybersquatting ? The latest breath of fresh air in the fight against Cybersquatting has been the Uniform Domain Name Dispute Resolution Policy, which has been duly approved by ICANN. Under the said Domain Names Dispute Resolution Policy, a summary procedure is adopted to adjudicate the complaint of any complainant relating to any domain name on payment of processing fees. This policy has been in operation since the end of last year. Q.20. Under the Uniform Domain Name Dispute Resolution Policy, have the Indian companies had any success ? Under the said policy, Indian companies are also beginning to get back their legitimate domain names. The domain name www.theeconomictimes.com and www.timesofindia.com have been won back under the said policy. Two recent


success for Indian Companies under the said policy include winning back the domain names www.tata.org and www.philipsindia.com by TATA and Philips India respectively. By means of this interactive feature, every week we shall aim to look at various important issues relating to Cyberlaw. Next week, we look at more issues concerning domain names.

Q.21. What is Cybercrime ? When Internet was developed, the founding fathers of Internet hardly had any inclination that Internet could also be misused for criminal activities. Today, there are many disturbing things happening in cyberspace. Cybercrime refers to all the activities done with criminal intent in cyberspace. These could be either the criminal activities in the conventional sense or could be activities, newly evolved with the growth of the new medium. Because of the anonymous nature of the Internet, it is possible to engage into a variety of criminal activities with impunity and people with intelligence, have been grossly misusing this aspect of the Internet to perpetuate criminal activities in cyberspace. The field of Cybercrime is just emerging and new forms of criminal activities in cyberspace are coming to the forefront with the passing of each new day. Q.22. Do we have any one exhaustive definition of Cybercrime ? There can be no one exhaustive definition about Cybercrime. However, any activities, which basically offend human sensibilities, can also be included in its ambit. Child Pornography on the Internet constitutes one serious Cybercrime. Similarly, online paedophiles, using Internet to induce minor children into sex, are as much Cybercriminals as any others. Q.23. What are the various categories of Cybercrimes? Cybercrimes can be basically divided into 3 major categories being Cybercrimes against persons, property and Government. Q.24. Tell us more information about Cybercrimes against persons? Cybercrimes committed against persons include various crimes like transmission of child-pornography, harassment of any one with the use of a computer such as e-mail, and cyber-stalking. The trafficking, distribution, posting, and dissemination of obscene material including pornography, indecent exposure, and child pornography, constitutes


one of the most important Cybercrimes known today. The potential harm of such a crime to humanity can hardly be overstated. This is one Cybercrime which threatens to undermine the growth of the younger generation as also leave irreparable scars and injury on the younger generation, if not controlled. Q.25. Is Cyber harassment also a Cybercrime ? Cyber harassment is a distinct Cybercrime. Various kinds of harassment can and does occur in cyberspace, or through the use of cyberspace. Harassment can be sexual, racial, religious, or other. Persons perpetuating such harassment are also guilty of cybercrimes. Cyber harassment as a crime also brings us to another related area of violation of privacy of netizens. Violation of privacy of online citizens is a Cybercrime of a grave nature. No one likes any other person invading the precious and extremely touchy area of his or her own privacy which the medium of Internet grants to the netizen. Q.26. What are Cybercrimes against property ? The second category of Cybercrimes is that of Cybercrimes against all forms of property. These crimes include unauthorized computer trespassing through cyberspace, computer vandalism, transmission of harmful programs, and unauthorized possession of computerized information. Q.27. Is hacking a Cybercrime ? Hacking and cracking are amongst the gravest Cybercrimes known till date. It is a dreadful feeling to know that a stranger has broken into your computer systems without your knowledge and consent and has tampered with precious confidential data and information. Coupled with this , the actuality is that no computer system in the world is hacking proof. It is unanimously agreed that any and every system in the world can be hacked. The recent denial of service attacks seen over the popular commercial sites like E-bay, Yahoo, Amazon and others are a new category of Cybercrimes which are slowly emerging as being extremely dangerous. Using one's own programming abilities as also various programs with malicious intent to gain unauthorized access to a computer or network are very serious crimes. Similarly, the creation and dissemination of harmful computer programs or virii, which do irreparable damage to computer systems, is another kind of Cybercrime. Software piracy is also another distinct kind of Cybercrime which is perpetuated by many people online who distribute illegal and unauthorized pirated copies of software. Q.28. What is Cybercrime against Government ?


The third category of Cybercrimes relate to Cybercrimes against Government. Cyber Terrorism is one distinct kind of crime in this category. The growth of Internet has shown that the medium of Cyberspace is being used by individuals and groups to threaten the international governments as also to terrorize the citizens of a country. This crime manifests itself into terrorism when an individual "cracks" into a government or military maintained website. Q.29. Is there any comprehensive law on Cybercrime today? Since Cybercrime is a newly specialised field, growing in Cyberlaws, a lot of development has to take place in terms of putting into place the relevant legal mechanism for controlling and preventing Cybercrime. As of now, there is absolutely no comprehensive law on Cybercrime any where in the world. This is reason that the investigating agencies like FBI are finding the Cyberspace to be an extremely difficult terrain. These various Cybercrimes fall into that grey area of Internet law which is neither fully nor partially covered by the existing laws and that too in some countries. Q.30. Is there any recent case which demonstrates the importance of having Cyberlaw on Cybercrime within the national jurisdictions of countries ? The most recent case of the virus "I love you" demonstrates the need for having cyberlaws concerning Cybercrimes in different national jurisdictions. At the time of the web publication of this feature, Reuters has reported that "The Philippines has yet to arrest the suspected creator of the 'Love Bug' computer virus because it lacks laws that deal with computer crime, a senior police officer said". The fact of the matter is that there are no laws relating to Cybercrime in the Philippines. The National Bureau of Investigation is finding it difficult to legally arrest the suspect behind the 'Love Bug' computer virus. As such, the need for countries to legislate Cyberlaws relating to Cybercrime arises on an urgent priority basis. Q.31. What is the approach adopted by US Courts regarding Cybercrimes ? The courts in United States of America have already begun taking cognizance of various kinds of fraud and Cybercrimes being perpetuated in Cyberspace. For the victims of various Cybercrimes, there is no one healing remedy. They can either file for civil damages or wait for the culprits to be nabbed and then to be tried under provisions, existing or envisaged which are not comprehensive at all. However, a lot of work has to be done in this field. Just as human mind is ingenious enough to devise new ways for perpetuating crime, similarly, human ingenuity needs to be channelised into developing effective legal and regulatory mechanisms to control and prevent Cybercrimes.


Q.32. Why do we need to fight Cybercrime ? We all must remember that Cyberspace is a common heritage of ours, which we have inherited in our life times from the benefits of ever growing technologies. This Cyberspace is the lifeline of the entire universe and given its irreversible position today, it is the duty of every netizen to contribute toward making the said cyberspace free of any trouble or cybercrime. To rephrase the famous words of Rabindra Nath Tagore in today's context, "Where the Cyberspace is without fear or crime and the head is held high, where knowledge is free, where tireless striving stretches its arms towards perfection, .. into that cyber heaven of freedom, O my father, let our humanity awake." By means of this interactive feature, every week we shall aim to look at various important issues relating to Cyberlaw. Next week we begin to look at the legal issues relating to domain names in India Pavan Duggal, our columnist, is a Cyberlaw Consultant and is one of the pioneers in the field of Cyberlaw in India. He is the President of Cyberlaws.Net, an online Cyberlaw Constancy and is also the Member of Membership Advisory Committee of The Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN). Pavan is the Founder President of Cyberlaw India and Cyberlaw Asia.



Internet has helped a lot of people in curing the disease all over the world because it gives the information, where is what. Medical services offered through Internet are usually known as tele-medicine and it is very popular and it has become very popular all over the world. The Internet technology has become so advanced that a surgery was performed in USA by a main doctor through his subordinates, sitting in Australia. The Internet has suddenly opened thousands of new sources of medicine all over the world, breaking all geographic barriers. Recently, one woman from Austria came for Ayurvedic treatment in Ahamadabad, after initial consultation with a doctor who was online. In India there are lot of doctors and hospitals online. But many people dont know where are they. Here I have made an attempt to bring together some hospitals, doctors and health related web sites so that you will be benefited to the fullest extend. The data given below is not complete, so in the next edition of this book, you will be getting more data. Hope you will get some benefit for the time being. BEST HOSPITALS www.apollo-ihc.com www.choithram.org www.links2001.com/indianhospitalpage.htm www.meditrackindia.com/hosclinics.htm www.hostindia.com/srmc/hospital.htm http://meditrackindia.com/hosclinics.htm www.delhiguide.com/medical/hospitals.htm www.health-india.com/home.htm www.devipolymers.com/hospitals.htm http://amitysoft.com/hospitals.htm www.mvdiabeticfoot.com/services.htm www.calicutnet.com/OtherLinks/hospitals.htm www.healthlibrary.com/india_file.html www.indianindex.com/Health/Hospitals/ www.spanindmart.com/medical/ www.coimbatore.com/organ.htm www.rareherbsindia.com/health.htm www.madrasnet.com/Health/Hospitals/ www.ranchiexpress.com/hospitals_ranchi.htm www.virtualpune.com/punehelp/help.htm www.woodlands-hosp.com

DOCTORS ONLINE www.dentalindia.com/patlinks.html(dental) www.indiandoctors.com/ http://123india.com/health_and_medicine/doctors www.indiawebchakra.com/web_search/www/noncom/general/28Aug235215.html www.insurat.com/doctors http://medinfo.webindia.com/ www.doctorsdelhi.com www.surfindia.com/mohanrao/profilemohan.htm www.tamilnadudoctors.com/doclist.htm www.indiamart.com/sunandsnow/ayurvedatour.html DIRECTORY OF MEDICAL COLLEGES http://indiafocus.indiainfo.com/education/medical.html MEDICAL WEBSITES http://indiafocus.indiainfo.com/health www.health-search.org/p38.htm www.heartinfo.com/reviews/web/web__427175834.htm www.qmedin.com/medsites www.mahesh.com/india/health/ www.indianindex.com/Health www.healthlibrary.com/news/ www.mic.ki.se/India.html www.wellmedia.com/news/week16/indianmed.html www.investindia.com/newsite/medicine/siddha.htm www.nic.in/ismh/ www.greyowlcrafts.com/indian_medicine.htm www.indiamart.com/himalaya/ http://meditrackindia.com/index.htm HEALING www.solemn.com/incenses.htm www.naturalhealthdirect.com.au/markets/product/itm00264.htm www.aegis.com/pubs/woalive/1998/wo980402.html www.mindbodyhealing.com/index2.html CHRISTIAN MEDICALCOLLEGE - VELLORE www.vellorecmc.org All India Institute of Medical Sciences www.aiims.ac.in


KASTHURBA MEDICAL COLLEGE - MANIPAL www.manipalgroup.com/news HOSPITAL JOURNALS www.elisda.com/health/journals.html


Movie resources in Internet

Movie is another field, which is on the path of revolution through Internet. Now days, you can find out anything about movies through World Wide Web, like, details about the forth coming movies, stars, studios, movie scripts, screenwriters, acting, careers in movies, technicians, latest technology adopted in movie making etc. you can also join online courses on movie making, actin, screenwriting and a variety of other subjects related to movies. With the advent of Internet, millions of people can buy movies from online shops in Internet. www.reel.com is the finest example of this kind. At the same time, you can also download lot of movie clippings, trailers, previews and lot of other details from the net. In Western Europe and America, movie business is largely done through some thing called "video on demand". Suppose, if you want to see a particular movie at a particular time, you can do so by hiring a video on demand service. Here you have to pay the video service provider some fee, who will then allow you to see the move stored in his server through internet. Here the advantage is that, the cost of viewing a movie is much cheaper compared to buying a VIDEO CD or going to a movie theatre. You will also get a variety of movies to watch at nominal rates at your convenience. The following are some of the best movie resources available in the World Wide Web. Just browse through some of these sites, it will be a difference experience for any movie lover. Note: the movie clippings are usually stored as "mpg" or "avi" files in the computer. For example Titatnic.mpg Predator.avi


HOLLY WOOD MOVIES www.hollywood.com www.eonline.com www.imdb.com www.allmovie.com www.movies.com www.hollywoodreporter.com www.bigstar.com


GERMAN MOVIES www.ukans.edu/cwis/units/video/germov.html http://hs.riverdale.k12.or.us/movies/boot/tinseltown.html RUSSIAN MOVIES www.russianet.net/movies.htm www.colby.edu/russian/movies.html BRITISH MOVIES www.britishpictures.com www.britmovie.co.uk KOREAN MOVIES www.cinecrew.com/film/koreanfilms/noname1.htm http://ispl.korea.ac.kr/~wikim/films/chorok/chorok.html CHINESE MOVIES www.wit.com/chinascape/china/enter/movie/ www.coolvcd.com/chinese-movies/index.shtml IRANIAN MOVIES www.iranianmovies.com FRENCH MOVIES www.discoverfrance.net/France/vid_index.shtml SWEDISH MOVIES www.sfi.se/eng/efilm/mefilm.htm www.sverigeturism.se/smorgasbord/lifestyle/film.html JAPANESE MOVIES www.j-video.com/enterE.html http://members.xoom.com/hamasaki AFRICAN MOVIES www.liunet.edu/cwis/cwp/library/african/movies.htm http://watarts.uwaterloo.ca/FINE/juhde/stonm941.htm FILM FESTIVALS www.filmfestivals.com www.film.com/reviews/rev_ff/ www.canoe.ca/FilmFest/home.html


CELEBRITIES www.women-celebrities.com www.mencelebs.


India makes the largest number of movies in the world, in almost 15 different languages. Most of the films are churned out from Mumbai. The Hindi film industry is popularly known as BOLLYWOOD. Some of the Indian film makers such as Satyajit Ray, Mrinal Sen, Adoor Gopalakrishnan produce realistic movies depicting the true culture of India as a whole. Many of their movies have won national and international awards, several times. The Indian film heroines are almost coming in par with their counterparts in Hollywood by wearing minimum amount of clothes. HINDI FILMS www.gobollywood.com www.bollywoodonline.com ADDRESSES OF ACTORS AND ACTRESSES IN BOLLYWOOD www.planetbollywood.com/address.html TAMIL FILMS www.tamilcinema.com www.tamilnet.net.au TELUGU FILMS www.telugucinema.com MALAYALAM FILMS www.malayalacinema.com BENGALI FILMS www.bengalicinema.com


Music resources in Internet

Before the origin of Internet, for a talented musician or singer, it was very difficult to become successful in the profession. It took long years of painful practise and hard work to get recognition and respect in the society. But, times have changed with the advent of Internet. Now, if you have got some talent in composing music or singing, you can simply record it, and put it in Internet. Anybody from anywhere in the world with an Internet connection can download your music and enjoy your talent. Now days you can see lot of amateurs selling their talent through Internet. If you have got some talent and could not make it till now, don't weep. Just get into cyber space and give a try. Definitely somebody will appreciate your talent. To play music in your computer, you should have a multimedia kit, which contains video cared, sound card, speakers etc. the sound card will convert the digitally stored music (mp3 or wav files) into sound. With the help of multimedia kit and some softwares, you can even record your voice and put it in Internet. You can even take part in programs conducted by various Internet radio services. If you want to hear music, there are thousands of sites from which you can download music and enjoy. Just give a try at www.real.com & www.freemusic.com. Now days, you can find all sorts of music resources in the Internet. Following are some of the best music resources in the world wide web, browse through some of the sites and see how they works. Music is a vast ocean in which one can not find any boundaries. It is the spontaneous expression of heart in a rhythmic manner. Music has no language, religion, culture or race. It is simply divine. Recent researches prove that music has got healing power. There is a separate branch of treatment called music therapy. Following are some of the web sites on music. Hope you will find what you want. Just download it, listen to it and then dwell in wonderland for some time. BUY MUSIC AT www.cdnow.com www.mp3.com www.buymusic.com www.shopnow.com www.real.com BHANGRA www.punjabilink.com/bhangra/main.htm www.desiclub.com/BhangraAddicts/


www.bhangranet.com www.novapeer.co.uk/gravesend/jugnu.html REGGAE http://niceup.com www.vprecords.com www.bobmarley.com www.reggaeambassadors.org www.caribbeanmusic.com www.ireggae.com/reggae.htm www.dread-connexion.com WORLD FAMOUS SYMPHONIES www.chicagosymphony.org www.orchestranet.co.uk www.cincinnatisymphony.org www.lso.co.uk www.avid.com www.bso.org www.orsymphony.org INSTRUMENTAL MUSIC www.savageresearch.com/jester/inst.html www.instrumentalmusic.com/index.html www.arrowrecords.com www.columbus.k12.oh.us/brookhaven/instrmus.html www.bca-online.com/music/instrum.htm CARNATIC MUSIC www.saigan.com/heritage/music/carnatic.htm www.carnatic-music.com/intro.html www.sangeetham.com/_disc1/0000017f.htm www.webindia.com/india/music.htm http://artindia.net/carnatic.html www.carnaticmusic.com CLASSICAL MUSIC www.classical.net www.classicalmusic.about.com www.gprep.org/classical www.classicaliscool.com www.classicalsearch.com www.classicalmusic.co.uk


ROCK MUSIC www.rockhall.com www.sjoki.uta.fi/~latvis/rockdata.html www.rockDaily.com www.dmxmusic.com www.musi-cal.com MUSIC DIRECTORY www.musicalonline.com http://dmoz.org/Arts/Music/Directories/ www.piano-pal.com/pop.htm www.offbeat.com/la_music_directory_home.html www.mooremusic.com.au/mooremen.htm www.americangospel.com HINDUSTANI MUSIC www.medieval.org/music/world/hindustani.html www.webcom.com/raag www.allindia.com/arts/hcm.htm POP MUSIC www.audioreview.com/passion/messages/10715.html www.bluebirds.co.uk/bluebook/muspop.html www.cdspider.com/music/pop.htm www.wfmu.org/MACrec/pop.html RAP MUSIC www.b-boys.com www.cdspider.com/music/rap.htm CHINESE MUSIC http://darkwing.uoregon.edu/~felsing/cstuff/tunes.html www.chinese-music.com LATIN MUSIC www.picadillo.com http://eleaston.com/latin_music.htm www.latinmusicmag.com/index.html www.musicandmore.com Note: recorded music is stored as "wav" file and big music files are stored as "mp3" files in the computer e.g. Fluteraga.mp3, drumbeat.wav


Spiritual resources in India

India is the land of four religions, namely Hinduism, Sikhism, Jainism and Buddhism. India is the birthplace of thousands of great saints, who enriched the culture and tradition on India. The great-unknown saints of Himalayas had supernatural powers. Some could foretell future and some could even fly. Many saints lived up to 500 years or more. There are such saints, still alive in unknown parts of Himalayas and Tibet, who are completely naked and surviving in temperatures as low as -40 degree Celsius. Saints like Valmiki and Veda Vyasa wrote epics "Ramayana" and "Mahabharata" which forms the essence of Indian culture. Saints like "Charaka" and "Susrutha" enriched "Ayurveda" The traditional medicinal healing system In India. Saints like "swami Vivekananda", "Osho Rajneesh" and "Aurobindo Ghosh" are the spiritual ambassadors of India to the west. Dalai Lama, the Buddhist spiritual leader lives in Dharmasala in India. India is the land of temples too. You can find thousands of huge temples built on rock and wood all over India. The rock temples of Tamilnadu are the largest. At the same time one can find lot of Buddhist temples, mosques and churches too in parallel with Hindu temples. THE GREAT SPIRITUAL MASTERS OF INDIA SATYA SAI BABA www.crystalinks.com/saibaba.html www.self-realization.com/satyasaibaba.htm www.sathyasai.org www.saibaba.sk SHIRDI SAI BABA www.saibaba.org www.shirdisai.org www.baba.org OSHO www.osho.com http://oz.sannyas.net/books/ www.immortalbooks.com.au/am_osho.html www.oshorisk.dk/osho.htm AUROBINDO GHOSH www.esonet.org/pg/seeker/Aurobindo.htm http://sriaurobindosociety.org.in


RAMANA MAHARSHI www.bluedove.com/ramana.html www.self-realization.com/ramana.htm http://vedanta.com/18d.html www.neelam.org/ramana_maharshi.htm SRI RAMA KRISHNA PARAMAHAMSA www.ramakrishna.org www.mihira.com/mihfeb99/RAMKISHN.HTM http://ramakrishnamath-mlore.org/srklife.htm www.vedanta-seattle.org/pages/ramakrishna.html www.om-guru.com/html/saints/ramakrishna.html MAHARSHI MAHESH YOGI www.self-realization.com/maharishi.htm www.maharishi-india.org MATHA AMRITHANANDAMAYEE DEVI www.ammachi.org www.hindunet.org/ammachi/ SWAMY CHINMAYANANDAN www.chinmaya.org www.globalserve.net/~chinmaya/ www.chinmaya-aa.org www.chinmayapublications.org SREE NARAYANA GURU www.sngm.org www.sndp.org SWAMY NARAYAN www.swaminarayan.org www.akshardham.com ISKCON - A SPIRITUAL ORGANISATION www.iskcon.org www.iskcon.net www.hkw.iskcon.net GURUVAYOORAPPAN http://guruvayoorappan.homepage.com/guruvayoor.html


DALAI LAMA www.insidechina.com/tibet/lamabio.php3 www.tibet.com/DL/index.html http://dalailama.web-discovercard.com www.globalcensus.org/dalai_lama.htm www.tibet.com GURU NANAK / GURU GOVIND SINGH www.sikhnet.com www.pugmarks.com/gallery/golden/ www.sikh-history.com http://webpunjab.com/sikhheritage/page5.htm www.srigurugranthsahib.org/audio/g10.htm MAHAVIRA www.chs.chico.k12.ca.us/~drabut1/religion/mahavira.htm www.dd-b.net/~raphael/jain-list/msg00949.html http://adaniel.tripod.com/Jainism.htm www.india4u.com/religion/jainism.htm GAUTAMA BUDHA www.fundamentalbuddhism.com/buddhism.htm http://maxpages.com/lisaliu/Chinese_Budhism http://jbe.la.psu.edu SANKARACHARYA OF KALADY www.advaita-vedanta.org/avhp/ www.eaisai.com/baba/docs/sankara.html HINDU MYTHOLOGY www.hindumythology.com KAMAKOTIPEETAM www.kamakoti.org SARADAPEETHAM http://users.erols.com/ramakris/sringeri/sringeri.html TEMPLES OF INDIA www.templenet.com www.india-biz.com/indian_temples.htm www.saranamayyappa.org www.siddhivinayak.org www.hindunet.org


www.chennaionline.com www.kanchipuram.net http://vlink.webjump.com www.pujaseva.com/default.asp www.srirangamtemple.org www.orissa-tourism.com/temples.htm www.balaji.net


Sports resources in Internet

In the Internet era, all walks of life have undergone dramatic change including sports. Suddenly, there was an explosion in knowledge everywhere. Thousands of web sites on various sports keep us informed second by second the events taking place in the sports around the world. For example, if a cricket match is being played between India & Pakistan, you can know the scores and comments on the game on the spot through Internet. At the same time, there is a very huge database available in the net about any sport item. Following are some of the major web sites on sports from which you may get more details about any particular sport. ATHLETICS www.siu.edu/~athletic/ www.iaaf.org www.british-athletics.co.uk ASIAD www.kualalumpur2006.com/asiad2006/asiad/thelogo_1.htm www.pusanasiad.org AIR GLIDING www.rdg.ac.uk/AcaDepts/sn/wsn1/dept/av/en10.html www.web-partners.com/paragliding/ www.raf.mod.uk/life/rafgsa.html BILLIARDS www.bca-pool.com www.masterbilliards.com www.billiardworld.com BOXING www.houseofboxing.com www.femboxer.com www.boxingonline.com www.boxing.com BADMINTON www.badminton.org www.badminton.ch


www.intbadfed.org www.usabadminton.org BULL FIGHTING www.prorodeo.com/nfr/html/1.9photo_wbf.html www.imagehouse.com/rodeo/events/wrangler.htm www.superbull.com www.bullfights.org BASKETBALL www.loveandbasketball.com www.basketball.net.au www.basketballworldinc.com BASE BALL www.baseballamerica.com http://baseballhalloffame.org/index.htm www.baseball1.com CRICKET www.cricinfo.com www.clickcricket.com www.cricket.com CYCLING www.cyclery.com www.usacycling.org www.adv-cycling.org CHESS www.uschess.org www.chesscafe.com www.chessmail.com www.chessclub.com CIRCUS www.circuscircus-lasvegas.com COMPUTER GAMES www.cdmag.com


www.gamesdomain.com www.gamespot.com www.won.net www.cgda.org www.nikita.ru www.geliosoft.com FOOTBALL www.football.com www.fifa.com www.footballcentral.net www.asian-football.com GOLF www.pga.com www.golftoday.co.uk www.golfcircuit.com www.golfmag.com GYMNASTICS http://directory.netscape.com/Sports/Gymnastics/ www.ncaachampionships.com www.nadn.navy.mil/GymnTeam/ HORSE RACING www.blood-horse.com www.sports-days.com www.horseracing.com HOCKEY www.nhl.com www.inthecrease.com www.chlonline.com LAWN TENNIS. www.wimbledon.com www.indianewsnetwork.com/200001/lawn_tennis.htm www.pavilion.co.uk/sclta/welcome.htm MOTOR RACING www.bmrc.co.uk www.mrnnet.com


www.formula1.com www.motorsport.com MOUNTAIN CLIMBING www.mountain-climbing-rock-climbing.com/guide/index.html www.adventures.ca/gasnet/mtc.htm www.millenniumwriters.com/mountain/index.html www.visit-america.com/vermont/north/outdoors/mountain.htm OLYMPICS www.specialolympics.org www.sydney2000.com www.olympics.com ROWING www.usrowing.com www.ul.ie/~rowing/ SEX GAMES www.ozemail.com/~teekataylor/freepics/sex-games.html www.sexpace.net/sex-game-hb.html www.telesouth1.com/~avatar/sexinfo/sexgames.htm SPORTS NEWS www.sportsforwomen.com www.sportscom.com www.foxsports.com www.espn.com SQUASH www.kisco.com/squash.htm www.ffsquash.org SKATING www.usfsa.org www.championsonice.com www.isu.org SPORTS DIRECTORY www.onlinesports.com/pages/top,dept.html http://toronto.planeteer.com/~cowin/sports.htm www.sportsinfinity.com


SUMO WRESTLING www.3zcompany.com/sumo_wrestling.htm http://misterinflatable.com/sumo_wrestling.htm www.sports-fun.com/html/sumo_wrestling.htm www.edgamesandart.com/japanesesumo.html SWIMMING www.usswim.org www.swimnews.com www.trials2000.com www.usasynchro.org www.pacswim.org VOLLEY BALL www.fivb.ch www.volleyhall.org www.volleyballmag.com WINTER OLYMPICS www.winterolympics.com www.sportingnews.com/winterolympics/articles/54548.html WATERPOLO www.scoreboard-canada.com/e-zine/waterpolo.htm www.usawaterpolo.com www.waterpoloaus.asn.au www.scafwp.org www.scarboroughwaterpolo.com WEIGHT LIFTING www.justlift.com www.powerlifting.com www.wlinfo.com



A web directory contains the list web sites on different topics. Following are some of the top web sites on various subjects, which you can use in your day to day life. Now go for the gold. TOP SEARCH ENGINES www.google.com www.infoseek.com www.altavista.com www.yahoo.com www.northernlight.com FREE E-MAIL SERVICES www.operamail.com www.hotmail.com www.usa.net www.rocketmail.com www.mailcity.com CREDIT CARD SERVICES www.cybercash.com www.authorizenet.com www.digicash.com www.netcash.com ONLINE PUBLISHING www.iuniverse.com www.publishingonline.com GET DIVORCED www.divorcecentral.com www.flyingsolo.com FIND A JOB www.jobsearch.co.uk www.hotjobs.com USE A CREDIT CARD www.visa.com www.mastercard.com www.americanexpress.com


GET MARRIED www.bridalpartner.com www.weddingworld.com www.findmatch.com BUY A CAR www.artcars.com www.autoweb.com www.traderonline.com SEND A PACKET www.dhl.com www.fedex.com E-MAIL SEARCH ENGINE www.iaf.net www.bigfoot.com HOME MAKER www.rdathome.com www.toiletology.com SELL YOURSELF www.collab.net www.guru.com www.hellobrain.com www.niku.com DOCTORS ONLINE www.allhealth.com www.mayohealth.org www.webmd.com www.drkoop.com FREE DISC SPACE www.freedrive.com www.freediscspace.com www.idrive.com www.docspace.com MONEY CONVERTER www.xe.net/currency/


SCHOLARSHIP www.worldwidescholarships.com MAKE A ROCKET www.rocketryonline.com GAYS AND LESBIANS www.datalounge.com www.planetout.com www.pridenet.com PC-MAGAZINES www.pcmag.com www.cnet.com www.pcworld.com DATING www.dating.com www.match.com www.mixnmatch.com MAKE SOME MONEY www.activeselling.com www.jobcash.com www.radiofreecash.com http://affiliate.backup.com GO SHOPPING www.etoys.com www.mothermall.com www.internetmall.com www.onsale.com FIND A HOME www.homefair.com www.homescout.com www.realtor.com www.homeadvisor.msn.com BROKERS ONLINE www.ameritrade.com


www.schwab.com www.datek.com www.etrade.com www.waterhouse.com MOVIES www.imdb.com www.oscars.org www.bollywood.com www.script-o-rama.com www.hollywood.com AUCTIONS www.ebay.com www.christies.com www.sothebys.com www.auctionuniverse.com www.onsaleauctions.com GREETING CARDS www.bluemountain.com www.hallmark.com www.cards4you.com www.123greetings.com www.lovingyou.com COMPUTER GAMES www.allgame.com www.planet.com www.uproar.com www.rexgames.com www.challenge.net HEALTH www.healthychoice.com www.thriveonline.com www.shapeup.org www.bodytrends.com www.dietitian.com DON'T COMMIT SUICIDE www.rochford.org


NO DRUGS www.drugwatch.org AIRPORT DIRECTORY www.airportsintl.com STOCK X-CHANGE www.londonstockexchange.com www.nyse.com SPORTS www.espn.com www.cnnsi.com CHAT www.mirc.com http://chat.yahoo.com RELIGION www.jewishmag.co.il www.shambhalasun.com www.hindu.org www.islam.org www.christ.net NATURE www.panda.org www.tnc.org www.nature.org www.nature.net www.greenpeace.org FREE WEB HOSTING www.homestead.com www.freeservers.com www.xoom.com www.tripod.com www.bizservers.com MAILING LISTS www.tbtf.com www.lsoft.com


www.egroups.com www.listbot.com www.websitepostoffice.com www.websitejournal.com BUY A COMPUTER www.hp.com www.compaq.com www.toshiba.com www.mitac.com www.nec.com www.egghead.com SET UP A STORE www.vstore.com www.affinia.com www.esaler.com www.econgo.com www.freemerchant.com www.bigstep.com FREE FAX SERVICES www.efax.com www.callwave.com www.fax4free.com TELEVISIONS www.tvguide.com www.discovery.com www.mtv.com WORLD NEWS www.bbc.co.uk www.cnn.com www.expressindia.com YELLOW PAGES www.bigyellow.com www.yellowpages.com www.canadayellowpages.com www.bigbook.com ONLINE BANKS www.sfnb.com www.firstib.com


www.wellsfargo.com www.wingspanbank.com FREE COLLABORATION www.hotoffice.com www.daytracker.com www.scheduleonline.com www.webex.com INTERNET www.internet.edu www.learnthenet.com www.searchenginewatch.com www.internic.net www.w3c.org BEST TRAVEL SITES www.travelocity.com www.mapquest.com www.previewtravel.com www.expedia.com www.triple1.com MONEY MATTERS www.hrblock.com www.moneycentral.com www.tradecard.com www.boler.com www.businessweek.com BUY MUSIC www.audiofind.com www.allmusic.com www.musicmaker.com www.mp3.com www.saregama.com ENJOY SEX www.playboy.com www.cybersex.com www.boobs.com www.desibaba.com


www.hotsex.com CAR COMPANIES www.honda.com www.ford.com www.mercedez-benz.com www.toyota.com www.maruti.com FIND A COLLEGE www.alumni.net www.findcollege.com REAL ESTATE www.ired.com www.propertyonline.com AIDS www.amfar.org www.cab.org DEATH CLOCK www.deathclock.com FREE PHONE SERVICE www.dialpad.com BLACKS ON LINE www.blackfamilies.com ADOPT A CHILD www.adoption.com ENCYCLOPAEDIA www.britannica.com LEANING TOWER OF PISA www.torre.duomo.pisa.it NAME YOUR BABY www.babynamer.com


CALCULATOR ON LINE www.calculator.com EMBASSY DIRECTORY www.embassy.org DOWNLOAD SOFTWARE www.download.com COMEDY DIRECTORY www.funny.co.uk YOGA www.timages.com/yoga.htm CELEBRITY www.celebrityweb.com GAMBLING www.casino-network.com MOUNTAIN CLIMBING www.craglink.com


Yoga & meditation resources in Internet

In this fast moving world, nobody has got time for anything. All are running a mad race in the rat race of life. Because of the irregular ways of life tension and insanity of the soul, lots of physical and mental problems develop in the individual over a period of time. One of the methods to get slight relief from all such problems is through practicing "yoga" and meditation. Following are some of the best yoga and meditation resources in the Internet. Utilize them to the maximum, surely it will enable you to lead a better life. MEDITATION RESOUCES www.maharishi-india.org www.osho.com www.trancenet.org www.zebra.net/~tbryogam http://minet.org www.delphi.com/awayoflife http://indserve.com/siddhyog.org www.magicsw.com/yoga www.videographics.net/spirit/ www.magicsw.com/yoga www.com.org/itv/video.html www.sivananda.org http://earth.path.net:80/osho/ www.artofliving.org www.kriyayoga.com/welcome.html www.maharishi.org www.3ho.org www.srcm.org http://www.dhamma.org www.spiritweb.org http://www.shambhala.org VEDAS AND UPANISHADS www.friesian.com/upan.htm www.vedanet.com/Gayatri.htm www.hinduism.co.za/vedas-.htm www.sivanandadlshq.org/religions/vedas.htm www.mala.bc.ca/~mcneil/vedas.htm www.eu.spiritweb.com/Spirit/vedas.html www.magna.com.au/~prfbrown/katha_up.html www.rit.edu/~mrreee/shaastra/upanishad.html www.swami-krishnananda.org/mand_pre.html


SAINTS ONLINE www.cosmicharmony.com/Av/AVmain.htm www.quanyin.com/eng/article/hima.html www.sivanandadlshq.org/download/nayanar.htm www.meaus.com/Women_Saints_and_Masters.html www.ajayan.com/himretreat.htm INDIAN PHILOSOPHY http://www.kfa.org TANTRA http://www.tantra.com http://www.kundalini-tantra.com/Page_1x.html http://www.hubcom.com/tantric/ http://www.spiritweb.org/Spirit/pranayama.html http://www.tantra.org http://tantramag.com AWAKENING OF SPIRITUAL CONSCIOUSNESS www.geocities.com/Athens/Olympus/3588/yotaveda.html YOGA RESOURCES www.sivananda.org www.ssy.org www.yogalinks.mtx.net www.yogaclass.com www.yogamalika.org www.KundaliniYoga.com www.zebra.net/~tbryogam www.vkyogas.org.in http://indserve.com/siddhyog.org www.indiawatch.org.in/yoga/ http://gallery.uunet.be/Rammanu www.angelfire.com/ok/yogavidyadham www.sahajayoga.org www.ytoc.org www.yogacenters.com/yoga/ www.abhidhyan.org www.sandiegoyoga.com www.ashtanga.com www.spiritweb.org/Spirit/siddha-mahayoga.html


http://aloha.net/~bpeay/kundalini/awaken.html www.yogibhajan.com/index.html http://hmt.com/kundalini/index.html www.iyi.org.uk www.agniyoga.net http://bksiyengar.com TRAVEL TO HIMALAYA www.templenet.com/hima1.html MANTRAS www.sanskritmantra.com http://w3.gwis.com/~ajmani/gayatri.html BOOKS ON MEDITATION http://home.earthlink.net/~dmswanson/books.html INDIAN INSTITUTE OF DRUGLESS THERAPIES www.indiamart.com/druglesstherapies PURANAS www.indiawise.com/catalogues/puranas/puranas.html www.sukhdai.com/prod03.htm http://vedanta.com/14e.html www.acornis.com/india/imystica/purana.html www.hssworld.org/all/great_people/puranas.html www.hindumythology.com/purana.htm www.indiancultureonline.com/Mystica/html/purana.htm http://indiatravelog.com/bookshelf/book34-puranas.html CATALOGUE ON SAINTS www.bluedove.com/advaita.html TOP 100 YOGA SITES www.topsitelists.com/world/awareness/topsites.html YANTRAS http://ccat.sas.upenn.edu/george/yantra.html



With the advent of Internet, India has been gripped by the dot com fever. Now days you can see lot of start-ups every day. If you glance through any newspapers or magazines, you will see lot of news on new ventures. Recently a newspaper reported that, in Mumbai, in every hour ten domain names are registered. Also India is one of the top ten countries in the world in domain name registration and dot com start ups. Now days e-commerce is the core area in which people focus their attention. If you have got a sound idea to generate money by doing business in the net, but dont have the money and other infrastructure, the venture capitalists and angel investors are here to help you. Angel investor is usually a wealthy individual who will fund your business personally. K.B. CHANDRASEKHAR of exodus communications is fine example in this category. Venture capitalists are big companies with assets worth millions of dollars, who invest in start up business. GOLDMAN SACHS is a fine example. How to approach a venture capitalist and when? At first, you should make a brief and powerful presentation of your idea with all details and methods to earn revenue. Then consult some body who is already in the dot com business to rectify any errors. If everything is fine, you can approach a venture capitalist or angel investor. If you need a few lakhs of rupees, then it is better to approach an angel investor for your start-up. But, if you need money in the tune of millions of dollars, it is better to approach a venture capitalist. All the venture capitalists are interested in fast retrieval of money they have put into your start-up. So convince them without exaggerating too much, how you will earn revenue from your start-up. Dos Explain your ideas clearly to the venture capitalists with minimum number of words Submit only feasible business plans, else you will be rejected on the spot Convince the VC about your talent in your field Donts Dont lie and overestimate your business proposal


Dont make a very elaborate write-up of your plans, brevity is the soul of wit. Make only executable plans, dont chase empty butterflies Where can you find the venture capital resources in India? You must have read many books on venture capital funding and dot com startups. But most of these books contain detailed description without much essence in it. They also will not tell you exactly where to go in order to get your work done. These books are costly too. But here in this book, I will exactly take you to the precise web sites from where you can get all the details you want. The following are the addresses of the major venture capital resources in India. ALLIANCE VENTURE CAPITAL- MUMBAI CONTACT: P.D.SHEDDE PHONE: 2834016,2850775 FAX:2045702 E-MAIL: avcaltd@bom3.vsnl.net.in APIDC VENTURE CAPITAL- HYDERABAD CONTACT:SARATH NARU PHONE:3299951, 3299952 FAX: 3297449 E-MAIL: apidcvcl@hd1.vsnl.net.in BARING PRIVATE EQUITY PARTNERS -NEW DELHI CONTACT: RAHUL BHASIN PHONE: 3739663-65 FAX : 335863 E-MAIL: promila.karnani@ing-barings.com CANBANK VENTURE CAPITAL FUND-BANGLORE CONTACT: T.BHAGWANDAS PHONE: 2264390,2260132 FAX:2251165 CDC ADVISORS - NEW DELHI CONTACT: DONALD PECK PHONE: 4691691-92 FAX:4691693 E-MAIL: imm@intnet.mu CHRYSALIS CAPITAL - MUMBAI


CONTACT: KUNAL SHROFF PHONE: 2306600 FAX: 2306601 E-MAIL: kunal@chrysaliscapital.com DRAPER INTERNATIONAL - BANGLORE CONTACT: KIRAN.S. NADKARNI PHONE: 5550325 FAX: 5550461 E-MAIL: kiran.nadkarni@draper.sprintrpg.ems.vsnl.net.in E-VENTURES INDIA - MUMBAI CONTACT: RAJESH JOG PHONE:2883793 FAX:2883796 E-MAIL: rjog@hotmail.com GUJARAT VENTURE FINANCE - AHMEDABAD CONTACT: VISHNU VARSHNEY PHONE: 6581285,6580704 FAX: 6585226 E-MAIL: vishnu@ad1.vsnl.net.in URL: www.gvfl.com HSBC PRIVATE EQUITY MANAGEMENT - NEW DELHI CONTACT: JONATHAN.R.A.BOND PHONE: 3731234 FAX: 3328501 E-MAIL: hsbcpemm@vsnl.com ICF VENTURES - BANGLORE CONTACT:VIJAY ANGADI PHONE:2267272,2288525 FAX:2251133 E-MAIL: icfund@vsnl.com ICICI VENTURE FUNDS MANAGEMENT - BANGLORE CONTACT:A.J.V.JAYACHANDER PHONE: 5583681,5584471 FAX: 5580741 E-MAIL: tdici@giasbg01.vsnl.net.in






OTHER USEFUL SITES ON VENTURE CAPITAL INFORMATION www.e1947.com www.indiaventure2000.com www.indialine.com/net.columns/column74.html www.tie.org/india-today-1199.htm www.indianentrepreneurs.com/venture.htm http://venturefundindia.mit.gov.in/new_vcf.htm www.ey-india.com www.businessweek.com/1998/49/b3607011.htm www.vdashtech.com/india/bizdir/cookies.htm www.wiig.com/locations/india/india_articles.htm http://dqindia.com/nov3099/angel.html www.jumpstartup.net INTERNATIONAL VENTURE CAPITALISTS www.garage.com www.nvst.com www.theelevator.com www.edie-online.com www.compareitall.com www.startupzone.com www.inc.com www.e-loan.com www.livecapital.com NOTE: please familiarise with the following terms, it will help better understanding of venture capital and dot coms. Brick & mortar companies: these are companies of the old economy, which are built from foundation from brick and mortar. Companies like TATA, BIRLA & RELIANCE are the finest examples. Click & mortar stores: these are online stores though which you can do shopping by just clicking the mouse. Payment is done through credit card and the goods will generally reach your home through courier. www.fabmart.com is the finest example of this category.


Vertical portal: A web site or dot com company that deals with only one subject is called a vertical portal. For example, the site www.sharekhan.cm is a vertical portal. it deals with money and share market news. Horizontal portal: A web site or dot com company that deals with a variety of subjects at a time is called a vertical portal. For example, the best Indian search engine, www.rediff.com is the finest example in this category. B2C: A business involving transfer of goods and services from a company to the consumer directly. All online stores fall into this category. B2B: A business involving transfer of goods and services from one company to another company. All the business auction companies fall in this category.


Free resources available in the Internet

In the Internet, you can get lot of free stuff. They are generally called "freebies". You can download almost any software free of cost. The anti virus kit of Mcafee (www.mcafee.cm ) is the finest example. Also you can download thousands of e-books, games, movie clippings, graphics, greeting cards, research reports and other useful information from the net. But remember that most of the software you download from the net is of "test version" that means, you may not be able to use it for more than a stipulated time after which it expires automatically. Suppose if you want to save a particular page you are viewing in the internet, go the "file" in the left of your browser, then go to "save as" and click, then you can save that page by some name. Below is the list of some of the best freebies available in the Internet. Utilize them and improve your net value. DOWNLOAD FREE FONTS www.1001freefonts.com THE BEST FREEBIES IN INTERNET www.coolfreebielinks.com/cfl/freebees.htm www.keyscreen.com www.freesite.com DOWNLOAD COREL WORD PERFECT 3.5 www.corel.com/products/macintosh/wpmac35/pack_freedownload.htm DOWNLOAD WINZIP www.winzip.com OTHER FREEBIE SITES www.freewareplus.com www.freebiestuff.com/free/la0lpd1043.htm www.cnet.com www.freehound.com www.bestfreeware.com www.freelinks.org www.thefreesite.com www.varatek.com/free.html www.bcpl.net/~wnidiffe/free.html www.sunshinevalley.com/subzero/downloads.shtml www.desktopnews.com/download/


www.hungrysoftware.com/ducks.html DOWNLOAD PAINTSHOP PRO www.visitorinfo.com/software/paint.htm DOWNLOAD CHAT SOFTWARE www.ichat.com/plugin/download/rooms.html DOWNLOAD ADOBE ACROBAT READER www.foolmart.com/market/library/Research_Sample.asp DOWNLOAD THE BEST DRAWING SOFTWARE-SMART DRAW www.smartdraw.com/sander.htm DOWNLOAD SCREENSAVERS www.screensavershot.com DOWNLOAD JAVA APPLETS www.nedernet.nl/~rvdb DOWNLOAD ANTI-VIRUS SOFTWARES http://antivirus.cai.com DOWNLOAD INTERNET TELEPHONY SOFTWARE www.besttelephonerates.com/download.html DOWNLOAD FREE GRAPHICS www.freegraphics.com/download.html www.mccannas.com DOWNLOAD COMPUTER GAMES www.weboshawa.com/gamesframes/main.html www.thefreesite.com/freegames.htm www.free-games.to www.portalmix.com/indexin.htm www.gamespot.co.uk www.cdmag.com DOWNLOAD TURBOZIP www.the-void.dk/pro/cm.htm DOWNLOAD LINUX RELATED SOFTWARES www.linuxarchives.com


FREE PORN DOWNLOADS www.geocities.com/lfentt/023.htm DOWNLOAD HTML TUTORIAL http://web.mit.edu/afs/athena/user/w/s/wsmart/WEB/HTMLtutor.html DOWNLOAD JAVA TUTORIAL http://java.sun.com/docs/books/tutorial/information/download.html DOWNLOAD MCAFEE ANTIVIRUS KIT www.mcafee.com DOWNLOAD MOVIES www.acdlabs.com/download/movies/mov_spec.html www.tidalwave.net/~mrware/services_1997_goals/Download_Movies/ www.best-of-web.com/computer/screensavers_people_2.shtml DOWNLOAD CELEBRITY PICTURES www.celebrity-wallpaper.com www.cworldonline.com/copyright.html www.celebritypics.com/index.html www.best-of-web.com/computer/screensavers_people_2.shtml DOWNLOAD MUSIC http://homepages.go.com/homepages/b/r/a/bramos/mp3.htm DOWNLOAD ADULT MOVIES www.naughtystudents.com/newanal3.html www.dailyxxxmovies.com DOWNLOAD ADULT PC GAMES www.gamegab.com/forums/codes-and-cheats/messages/6256.html http://www.movielord.com DOWNLOAD VIDEOGAMES www.cade.com.br/lajogvid.htm www.videogames.com www.portalmix.com/indexin.htm DOWNLOAD CLIPART www.clipart.com


www.clipartconnection.com DOWNLOAD NETSCAPE TOOLS www.netscape.com/computing/download/ HOW TO INSTALL AND RUN REGCLEAN? www.createwindow.com/wininfo/regclean.htm UNIT CONVERSION SOFTWARE www.lawrencegoetz.com/programs/convert.htm DOWNLOAD VISIO 2000 http://www.visio.com/support/downloads/default.asp DOWNLOAD WINARJ 98 www.jps.net/ilmaestro/Downloads.html


Latest trend in Internet

The face of Internet is changing day by day. More and more utilities are invented day by day. The latest trend in Internet can't be defined exactly because, by the time I explain one, a new invention has already taken place. Recently a modem was developed with a processing speed of 2 giga bytes per second. In every 18 months, there is a very important invention-taking place in the PC hardware. Recently a company named AMD came out with a processor of 1000Mhz. The changes taking place in the field of Internet and computer technology is faster than that of light. But still let me tell you about the latest trend in Internet, it is called WAP, using which mobile Internet and cell phones receiving e-mails work. Now read on and see how it works. What is wireless Internet? In Western Europe and America, wireless Internet has already invaded the market. In a cell phone like device, you can receive e-mails and see web pages at any time. So even while you are travelling, you can make a hotel booking, know the news around the world and the share values etc..This phenomenon is going to revolutionize the internet utility. Lots of companies including Microsoft is providing such services in Western Europe and America. How it works? Recently a new technology in communication has emerged and it is known as wireless application protocol (WAP). Using this technology, you can receive emails in mobile phones and carry a laptop with an Internet connection anywhere in the globe. Using this technology, HTML (the contents of the web pages) is converted into a language called XML and is displayed in the screen of the handy device. The message transmission takes place with the help of satellites like that of wireless phones. If you want to know more about WAP, here is a small tutorial What is WAP? WAP bridges the gap between the mobile world and the Internet as well as corporate intranets and offers the ability to deliver an unlimited range of mobile value-added services to subscribersindependent of their network, bearer, and terminal. Mobile subscribers can access the same wealth of information from a pocket-sized device as they can from the desktop. WAP is a global standard and is not controlled by any single company. Ericsson, Nokia, Motorola, and Unwired Planet founded the WAP Forum in the summer of 1997 with the initial purpose of defining an industry-wide specification for developing applications over wireless communications networks. The WAP specifications define a set of protocols in application, session, transaction,

security, and transport layers, which enable operators, manufacturers, and applications providers to meet the challenges in advanced wireless service differentiation and fast/flexible service creation. There are now over one hundred members representing terminal and infrastructure manufacturers, operators, carriers, service providers, software houses, content providers, and companies developing services and applications for mobile devices. For more information, visit the WAP Forum at http://www.wapforum.org WAP also defines an application environment (WAE) aimed at enabling operators, manufacturers, and content developers to develop advanced differentiating services and applications including a microbrowser, scripting facilities, e-mail, World Wide Web (WWW)tomobile-handset messaging, and mobile to telefax access. The WAP specifications continue to be developed by contributing members, who, through interoperability testing, have brought WAP into the limelight of the mobile data marketplace with fully functional WAPenabled devices (see Figure 1). Based on the Internet model, the wireless device contains a microbrowser, while content and applications are hosted on Web servers. BENEFITS OF WAP Operators For wireless network operators, WAP promises to decrease churn, cut costs, and increase the subscriber base both by improving existing services, such as interfaces to voice mail and prepaid systems, and facilitating an unlimited range of new value-added services and applications, such as account management and billing inquiries. New applications can be introduced quickly and easily without the need for additional infrastructure or modifications to the phone. This will allow operators to differentiate themselves from their competitors with new, customized information services. WAP is an interoperable framework, enabling the provision of end to end turnkey solutions that will create a lasting competitive advantage, build consumer loyalty, and increase revenues. Content Providers Applications will be written in wireless markup language (WML), which is a subset of extensible markup language (XML). Using the same model as the Internet, WAP will enable content and application developers to grasp the tagbased WML that will pave the way for services to be written and deployed within an operator's network quickly and easily. As WAP is a global and interoperable open standard, content providers have immediate access to a wealth of potential customers who will seek such applications to enhance the service offerings given to their own existing and potential subscriber base. Mobile consumers are becoming more hungry to receive increased functionality and value-add from


their mobile devices, and WAP opens the door to this untapped market that is expected to reach 100 million WAPenabled devices by the end of the year 2000. This presents developers with significant revenue opportunities. End Users End users of WAP will benefit from easy, secure access to relevant Internet information and services such as unified messaging, banking, and entertainment through their mobile devices. Intranet information such as corporate databases can also be accessed via WAP technology. Because a wide range of handset manufacturers already supports the WAP initiative, users will have significant freedom of choice when selecting mobile terminals and the applications they support. Users will be able to receive and request information in a controlled, fast, and low-cost environment, a fact that renders WAP services more attractive to consumers who demand more value and functionality from their mobile terminals. As the initial focus of WAP, the Internet will set many of the trends in advance of WAP implementation. It is expected that the ISPs will exploit the true potential of WAP. Web content developers will have great knowledge and direct access to the people they attempt to reach. In addition, these developers will likely acknowledge the huge potential of the operators' customer bases; thus, they will be willing and able to offer competitive prices for their content. WAP's push capability will enable weather and travel information providers to use WAP. This push mechanism affords a distinct advantage over the WWW and represents tremendous potential for both information providers and mobile operators. 3. Why Choose WAP? In the past, wireless Internet access has been limited by the capabilities of handheld devices and wireless networks. WAP utilizes Internet standards such as XML, user datagram protocol (UDP), and IP. Many of the protocols are based on Internet standards such as hypertext transfer protocol (HTTP) and TLS but have been optimized for the unique constraints of the wireless environment: low bandwidth, high latency, and less connection stability. Internet standards such as hypertext markup language (HTML), HTTP, TLS and transmission control protocol (TCP) are inefficient over mobile networks, requiring large amounts of mainly text-based data to be sent. Standard HTML content cannot be effectively displayed on the small-size screens of pocket-sized mobile phones and pagers.


WAP utilizes binary transmission for greater compression of data and is optimized for long latency and low bandwidth. WAP sessions cope with intermittent coverage and can operate over a wide variety of wireless transports. WML and wireless markup language script (WMLScript) are used to produce WAP content. They make optimum use of small displays, and navigation may be performed with one hand. WAP content is scalable from a two-line text display on a basic device to a full graphic screen on the latest smart phones and communicators. The lightweight WAP protocol stack is designed to minimize the required bandwidth and maximize the number of wireless network types that can deliver WAP content. Multiple networks will be targeted, with the additional aim of targeting multiple networks. These include global system for mobile communications (GSM) 900, 1,800, and 1,900 MHz; interim standard (IS)136; digital European cordless communication (DECT); time-division multiple access (TDMA), personal communications service (PCS), FLEX, and code division multiple access (CDMA). All network technologies and bearers will also be supported, including short message service (SMS), USSD, circuit-switched cellular data (CSD), cellular digital packet data (CDPD), and GPRS. As WAP is based on a scalable layered architecture, each layer can develop independently of the others. This makes it possible to introduce new bearers or to use new transport protocols without major changes in the other layers. Summary WAP provides a markup language and a transport protocol that open the possibilities of the wireless environment and give players from all levels of the industry the opportunity to access an untapped market that is still in its infancy. The bearer-independent nature of WAP has proved to be a long-awaited breath of fresh air for an industry riddled with multiple proprietary standards that have suffocated the advent of a new wave of mobile-Internet communications. WAP is an enabling technology that, through gateway infrastructure deployed in mobile operator's network, will bridge the gap between the mobile world and the Internet, bringing sophisticated solutions to mobile users, independent of the bearer and network. Backed by 75 percent of the companies behind the world's mobile telephone market and the huge development potential of WAP, the future for WAP looks bright.


The Future of WAP The tremendous surge of interest and development in the area of wireless data in recent times has caused worldwide operators, infrastructure and terminal manufacturers, and content developers to collaborate on an unprecedented scale, in an area notorious for the diversity of standards and protocols. The collaborative efforts of the WAP Forum have devised and continue to develop a set of protocols that provide a common environment for the development of advanced telephony services and Internet access for the wireless market. If the WAP protocols were to be as successful as transmission control protocol (TCP)/Internet protocol (IP), the boom in mobile communications would be phenomenal. Indeed, the WAP browser should do for mobile Internet what Netscape did for the Internet. As mentioned earlier, industry players from content developers to operators can explore the vast opportunity that WAP presents. As a fixed-line technology, the Internet has proved highly successful in reaching the homes of millions worldwide. However, mobile users until now have been forced to accept relatively basic levels of functionality, over and above voice communications and are beginning to demand the industry to move from a fixed to a mobile environment, carrying the functionality of a fixed environment with it. Initially, services are expected to run over the well-established SMS bearer, which will dictate the nature and speed of early applications. Indeed, GSM currently does not offer the data rates that would allow mobile multimedia and Web browsing. With the advent of general packet radio services (GPRS), which aimed at increasing the data rate to 115 kbps, as well as other emerging highbandwidth bearers, the reality of access speeds equivalent or higher to that of a fixed-line scenario become evermore believable. GPRS is seen by many as the perfect partner for WAP, with its distinct time slots serving to manage data packets in a way that prevents users from being penalized for holding standard circuit-switched connections. Handset Manufacturers and WAP Services It is expected that mobile terminal manufacturers will experience significant change as a result of WAP technologya chance that will impact the look and feel of the hardware they produce. The main issues faced by this arm of the industry concern the size of mobile phones, power supplies display size, usability, processing power, and the role of personal digital assistants (PDAs) and other mobile terminals. With over 75 percent of the world's key handset manufacturers already involved in the WAP Forum and announcing the impending release of WAPcompatible handsets, the drive toward new and innovative devices is quickly gathering pace. The handsets themselves will contain a microbroswer that will serve to interpret


the byte code (generated from the WML /WMLS content) and display interactive content to the user. The services available to users will be wide-ranging in nature, as a result of the open specifications of WAP, their similarity to the established and accepted Internet model, and the simplicity of the WML / WMLS languages with which the applications will be written. Information will be available in push and pull functionality, with the ability for users to interact with services via both voice and data interfaces. Web browsing as experienced by the desktop user, however, is not expected to be the main driver behind WAP as a result of time and processing restraints. Real-time applications and services demand small and key pieces of information that will fuel the success of WAP in the mobile marketplace. Stock prices, news, weather, and travel are only some of the areas in which WAP will provide services for mobile users. Essentially, the WAP application strategy involves taking existing services that are common within a fixed-line environment and tailoring them to be purposeful and user-friendly in a wireless environment. Empowering the user with the ability to access a wealth of information and services from a mobile device will create a new battleground. Mobile industry players will fight to provide their customers with sophisticated, value-added services. As mobile commerce becomes a more secure and trusted channel by which consumers may conduct their financial affairs, the market for WAP will become even more lucrative. WAP in the Competitive Environment Competition for WAP protocols could come from a number of sources: subscriber identity module (SIM) toolkitThe use of SIMs or smart cards in wireless devices is already widespread and used in some of the service sectors. Windows CEThis is a multitasking, multithreaded operating system from Microsoft designed for including or embedding mobile and other spaceconstrained devices. JavaPhoneSun Microsystems is developing PersonalJava and a JavaPhone API, which is embedded in a Java virtual machine on the handset. NEPs will be able to build cellular phones that can download extra features and functions over the Internet; thus, customers will no longer be required to buy a new phone to take advantage of improved features. The advantages that WAP can offer over these other methods are the following: open standard, vendor independent network-standard independent transport mechanismoptimised for wireless data bearers


application downloaded from the server, enabling fast service creation and introduction, as opposed to embedded software


Fundamentals of e-commerce
What is e-commerce? E-commerce is the buying and selling of goods and services across the Internet. An e-commerce site can be as simple as a catalogue page with a phone number, or it can range all the way to a real-time credit card processing site, where customers can purchase downloadable goods and receive them on the spot. E-commerce merchants can range from the small business with a few items for sale all the way to a large online retailer such as www.amazon.com. E-commerce has altogether brought a revolution in the business dealings all over the world. In 1998 alone consumers spent $8 billion to buy goods and services online. This figure is expected to reach $130 billion in the next four years. Last year alone transactions worth $43 billion have taken place between business to business (B2B) online all over the world. According to a recent research the business to business e-commerce will touch $1.3 trillion. This is ten times more than the business to consumer (B2C) value and greater than the gross domestic product of Britain or Italy. Using the techniques of e-commerce, you can link dealers and factories online, reducing both lag time and paperwork. You can move procurement online by setting up an extarnet that links directly to vendors, cutting inventory and carrying costs and becoming more responsive to your customers. The payment for all the transactions is done through secured credit card system. What is the end result of e-commerce? While building customer royalty, companies can reduce costs by improving orderprocessing efficiency, with reduced cost. It means higher margins of profit. For example, the cost of processing an airline ticket through conventional method is $8, while the cost of processing an airline ticket booked online is just $1. A word about online payment processing When a customer purchases an item with a credit card, a two step process begins. Step1 The merchant or the web site requests an authorization from the customer's credit card account to ensure that the card is valid and the customer has enough available balance for the purchase. The customer bank sends an authorization number back to the merchant or web site and the order is captured.


Step2 The merchandise is sent and the merchant informs the bank where they have a merchant account. The bank deposits funds to the merchant's account, while the customer's account is debited for the amount of the purchase. At that time, the customer's bank takes out the required fees and the transaction is complete. Note: Credit cards are an important part of enabling business through Internet. The easiest process to integrate into an existing business is an offline authorization and settlement process. Who are the credit card processing agencies? There is lot of credit card processing agencies in the Internet. Some major ones are www.cybercash.com www.authorizenet.com www.clickbank.com www.ibill.com www.paypall.com These service providers will generate authorization request when the customer places an order. If the merchant is selling hard goods, which have to be shipped to the customer, then the order is saved securely for later settlement. Once goods are shipped, the merchant can settle the order and the transaction is completed. If the merchant is selling downloadable goods like computer games and software, then the order can be authorized and settled in real time, without any intervention by the merchant.

Introduction Welcome to the e-Commerce Tutorial. Would you like to be able to accept secure, real time credit card transactions on your web site? Well, here's how! This tutorial will show you how to get started in the complex and exciting world of Electronic Commerce. This is how E Commerce works. The consumer moves through the Internet to the merchant's web site. From there, he decides that he wants to purchase something, so he is moved to the Online transaction server, where all of the information he gives is encrypted. Once he has placed his order, the information moves through a private gateway


to a Processing Network, where the issuing and acquiring banks complete or deny the transaction. This generally takes place in no more than 5-7 seconds. There are many different payment systems available to accommodate the varied processing needs of merchants, from those who have a few orders a day to those who process thousands of transactions daily. With the addition of Secure Socket Layer technology, e Commerce is also a very safe way to complete transactions. There are several basic steps involved in becoming Commerce Enabled. Getting an Internet Merchant Bank Account Web Hosting Obtaining a Digital Certificate Finding a Provider of Online Transactions Creating or purchasing a Shopping Cart Software E Commerce Directory Welcome to the e Commerce Directory. Below you will find a listing of e Commerce Companies that are prominent in the industry. These will not include resellers or consultants; only those companies that provide Payment Gateways for Online Transactions. www.AuthorizeNet.com www.MasterMerchant.com www.CambistSolutions.com www.MerchantOnline.com www.CyberCash.com www.ICVerify.com www.CyberSource.com www.OpenMarket.com www.FirstSecurity.com www.PaymentNet.com www.iTransact.com www.GeneSys.com Web Hosting Web hosting is a very important step in this process, as this is how you gain a presence on the Internet in the first place. It is important that the web hosting company is capable of providing you with the level of service that you need to maintain your Web Store. A few things to look for are:


Good uptime Good technical support Fast connection to the Net Staff that is knowledgeable about e Commerce Compatibility with major e Commerce providers It is always good to spend some time when choosing a web hosting company, as there are many 'fly-by-night' businesses out there. For the money you're spending, make sure that the company is reputable. Getting an Internet Merchant Bank Account In order to be able to accept credit cards over the Internet, you must apply to your bank for an Internet Merchant Bank Account. This can be relatively easy or somewhat difficult, depending on which country you live in and what bank you are with. U.S.A. In the US, this is a fairly simple procedure. Many banks offer Internet Merchant Accounts, and most Online Transaction Providers will support them. See your bank for details. International: Since the vast majority of Online Transaction Providers are located in the US and are restricted in their ability to interact with banks outside their own country, international merchants have very little choice. An international merchant has to find a way to get a US merchant account, embark on the equally difficult task of finding a local Online Transaction Provider, or utilize one of the few companies that services the international market. Also, many banks outside the US have very restrictive policies regarding Internet accounts. Luckily, the situation is improving, and most Online Transaction Providers will help you with this if you get in touch with them. In the ratings section, I have included information on which providers give international service. Here are some additional issues to keep in mind when you apply for a Merchant Bank Account:


A US merchant account can take up to a month to come through. If you already have a merchant bank account, you will probably also need to upgrade it to an Internet account. Ensure that your bank accepts Internet merchant accounts and has credit card processors that can connect to wwww.Paymentech.com or www.CyberCash.com Your account must be able to handle Card Not Present transactions. Obtaining a Digital Certificate (SSL) A digital certificate, also known as a SSL Server Certificate, enables SSL (Secure Socket Layer encryption) on the web server. SSL protects communications so you can take credit card orders securely and ensure that hackers cannot eavesdrop on you. Any e Commerce Company will require you to have SSL before you can use their services. Thankfully, for most people obtaining a digital certificate is not a problem. For a minimal fee, one can usually use the certificate owned by the web hosting company where your page resides. If you are a larger company, however, you may want to get your own digital certificate. A certificate costs about $125.00 and can be obtained from www.Thawte.com or www.Verisign.com Finding a Provider of Online Transactions Before you start looking for a provider, you should stop for a moment and consider what exactly you need. How many transactions do you expect to be completing in a month? How many products do you have to put on your web site? How complex does the software need to be? How much are you willing to spend? There are a lot of online transaction providers out there, and they all have varying packages. Deciding on a provider's package that fits your needs is perhaps the most important aspect in creating an E Commerce web site. The Directory page provides a good cross section of the companies out there. It is a good idea to go through a few of them and compare their prices and services. For a quick breakdown of the most popular packages these companies provide, visit the Summary section.


Shopping Cart Software Shopping cart software is an operating system that can be used to allow people to purchase your items, keep track of your accounts, and tie together all of the aspects of your e Commerce site into one cohesive whole. While there are many other types of software that you can use in it's place, such as catalogue software or a flat order form, shopping cart software is the most popular and the most widely known. Many Online Transaction Providers will have shopping cart software that comes with their service, but it can often be very expensive, so be warned. If you cannot afford to spend at least a couple of hundred dollars on this software, you should be looking for a package that offers it as a rental included in the monthly service charge, or one that offers a simple flat order form. Conclusion E Commerce can be a very rewarding venture, but it should not be undertaken lightly. There is a lot of information to absorb. Here are some additional tips on creating a successful Online Store: If you know nothing about web design, it is probably a good idea to hire a designer. Marketing your site is very important on the web. Here are some useful tips: Submit your site to as many search engines as possible. Try finding web sites with similar themes and make deals to create reciprocal links. Create an advertising banner and purchase space from a popular web site to display it. Put your URL in the signature file of your email and the header of all business correspondence. Word of mouth is very powerful on the Net; tell all of your friends about your page. Avoid spamming - it is a sure way to get a very bad reputation. Investigate the web sites that are possible rivals and formulate a strategy for competing against them.


If you anticipate a lot of growth in the amount of orders coming through your site, figure out how you are going to cope with the increased load before you get swamped. Now that you know the basics, you should be able to make some informed decisions about how to proceed. Remember that you can ask for further advice from the company that you decide to employ.


Glossary of common terms associated with Internet

Backbone A backbone is a high-speed line or series of connections that forms a major pathway within a network. For example, NSFNET was the backbone of the Internet for many years. BOOKMARK A term used with Netscape Browsers. A saved address to a Web site that has been added to a list of saved addresses. Instead of retyping an address again, you can go to your bookmarks and click on the address to return to the site. BROWSER (WEB BROWSER) A software program that enables you to see, and hear content on the World Wide Web. This includes, text, graphics, sound, and video. Popular browsers are Netscape, and Internet Explorer. CHARACTER MAP A string of characters to create a character that is not on your keyboard. For example to create the character you hold down the Alt key on your keyboard and type 0169 into your number pad, then release the Alt key. CHAT ROOM A place where you can talk to another person or group of people in real time. Communication is usually through typing. COPY AND PASTE A procedure where you copy text on a page into a temporary holding spot called your clipboard, then paste it into another area on the page or into another application. DIRECTORY A directory of links to Internet sites. These directories may be searchable. Links to other sites are gathered and sorted by category. Examples of directory sites are About.com and Yahoo. DNS (DOMAIN NAME SYSTEM) A system of numbers that are actually used by computers instead of Domain Names to locate a Web Site. When you type in http://familyinternet.about.com the browser looks for a DNS number that matches the address. Computers deal


with numbers easier, while humans remember names easier, so computers use the numbers while humans use an address. An example DNS number is DOWNLOAD Where you copy a file from another computer to yours. Every time you access a page, you download the information on the page and temporarily store it on your computer. EMOTICONS A string of characters that represent and emotion when you type. ie. :) Happy, :( Sad, :o Shocked Learn More About Emoticons FAQ Abbreviation for Frequently Asked Questions. Many Web sites try to gather questions that are frequently asked and put them in one place. FAVORITES A term used with Internet Explorer Browser. A saved address to a Web site that has been added to a list of saved addresses. Instead of retyping an address again, you can go to your bookmarks and click on the address to return to the site. FTP Abbreviation for File Transfer Protocol. A special FTP program is used to transfer files from one computer to another. It is often used by Webmasters to upload their files to a Web site. It is also used to download files from Web sites. HARDWARE Term used for the physical components of a computer. HISTORY Your browser keeps a record of sites that have been loaded by the browser. HOME PAGE A Web page that is about you or a page that you create with your favorite links. Also this term is used for the start page that loads whenever you open your browser. HYPERTEXT TRANSFER PROTOCOL A standard used by World Wide Web servers to provide rules for moving text, images, sound, video, and other multimedia files across the Internet.


ICON A small picture on a Web page that represents the topic or information category of another Web page. Frequently, the icon is a hypertext link to that page. INTERNET A world wide collection of computer networks that allows people to find and use information and communicate with others. ISP (Internet Service Provider) A generic term for any company that can connect you directly to the Internet. LINK (HYPERTEXT LINK) A term used on the Internet for a clickable address or word that will send you to another area of the site you are at, or to a different Internet site. MODEM A device that allows computers to communicate with each other over telephone lines or other delivery systems by changing digital signals to telephone signals for transmission and then back to digital signals. Modems come in different speeds: the higher the speed, the faster the data is transmitted. There are also cable modems where you can connect to the Internet through your cablevision. NETIQUETTE Rules or manners for interacting courteously with others online (such as not typing a message in all capital letters, which is equivalent to shouting). ONLINE SERVICE A company that provides Internet access with extras, like their own chat rooms and services. Examples are www.aol.com and www.earthlink.com PIXEL A very tiny dot of information that is displayed on a picture or screen. Refer to Resolution. POST An act of putting information on the Internet. You usually post to newsgroups or bulletin boards. You can also post a Web page. RESOLUTION You can adjust your computer's resolution, so you can fit more on the screen. Resolution refers to the number of pixels that fit on the screen. Usual configurations include 640x480, 800x600, 1024x768. With 640x480 it is 640


pixels wide by 480 pixels tall, for a total of 307,200 pixels (640*480) being shown on your screen. SEARCH ENGINE A program that performs keyword searches for information on the Internet. The program sends a robot to an Internet site and it gathers keywords and stores them. When you search, it's search results are gathered by relevance to your query. Some of the more popular search engines are Altavista, Go, Thunderstone etc SOFTWARE A computer program or set of instructions. System software operates on the machine itself and is invisible to you. Application software allows you to carry out certain activities, such as word processing, games, and spread sheets. SPAM An expression for unsolicited email, generally from a company trying to get you to visit their web site or an offer to make money. URL (Uniform Resource Locator) The World Wide Web address of a site on the Internet. For example, the URL for the White House is http://www.whitehouse.gov. USENET NEWSGROUPS A system of thousands of special interest groups to which readers can send or "post" messages; these messages are then distributed to other computers on the network. Usenet registers newsgroups, which are available through Internet Service Providers. VIRUS A piece of programming code inserted into other programming to cause some unexpected and usually undesirable event, such as lost or damaged files. Viruses can be transmitted by downloading programming from other sites or can be present on a diskette. The source of the file you're downloading or of a diskette you've received is often unaware of the virus. The virus lies dormant until circumstances cause its code to be executed by the computer. WALLPAPER The picture or design that is present on your screen when you don't have any windows open. WORLD WIDE WEB (Web or WWW) A hypertext-based system that allows you to browse through a variety of linked Internet resources organized by colorful, graphics-oriented home pages.


Bandwidth Bandwidth is the maximum amount of data that can travel a communications path in a given time, usually measured in seconds. If you think of the communications path as a pipe, then bandwidth represents the width of the pipe that determines how much data can flow through it all at once. Bit Short for binary digit, a bit is the smallest unit of data a computer can handle. Bits are used in various combinations to represent different kinds of data. Each bit has a value of 0 or 1. Byte A byte is a series of bits of a particular length, usually 8. Computer storage space is measured in bytes. A Kilobyte (or 1 K) represents 1024 bytes and a Megabyte (1 Mb) represents one thousand "K" bytes, or one million bytes. Bps This is an abbreviation for bits per second and a measurement of how fast data is transmitted. Bps is usually used to describe modem speeds or the speed of a digital connection. Browser A browser is a software program that allows you to view and interact with various kinds of Internet resources available on the World Wide Web. A browser is commonly called a web browser. Cache When you download a web page, the data is "cached," meaning it is temporarily stored on your computer. The next time you want that page, instead of requesting the file from the web server, your web browser just accesses it from the cache, so the page loads quickly. But if the web page is updated frequently, as are pages with news, sports scores or financial data, you won't see the most current information. Use the Reload button on your browser to download fresh data from the server. CD-ROM An acronym for Compact Disk read-only Memory, a CD-ROM is a storage medium for digital data. CD-ROMs can hold 650 Mb. Chat Chat describes the way people communicate online in real time. The term "chat" is actually a misnomer. Typically, people in online chat sessions type messages to each other using their keyboards. The message then appears on the screens of all the participants. Chats can involve two or more people.


Chat Room An electronic space, typically a web site or a section of an online service, where people can go to communicate online in real time. Chat rooms are often organized around specific interests, such as small business owners, gardening, etc. Clickable Image A clickable image is any image that has instructions embedded in it so that clicking on it initiates some kind of action or result. On a web page, a clickable image is any image that has a URL or more than one URL embedded in it (i.e. hidden behind it). This can be accomplished simply by including an <A HREF> anchor tag in an HTML <IMG> (image) tag. Embedding more than one URL in an image requires constructing an image map. Computer Virus A computer virus is a program created specifically to invade computers and networks and wreak havoc on them. The mischief caused can be very minor, such as causing a funny image or cryptic message to be displayed on your screen, or it can do some serious damage by altering or even destroying files. Cyberspace Cyberspace is a term coined by science fiction author William Gibson to describe the whole range of information resources available through computer networks. Domain Name The domain name is the unique name that identifies an Internet site. The Internet is made up of hundreds of thousands of computers and networks, all with their own domain name or unique address. Domain names always have two or more parts separated by dots. A given server may have more than one domain name, but a given domain name points to only one server. For example, whitehouse.gov is the domain name belonging to the White House computer system. Once a system administrator registers a unique domain name, sub addresses can be assigned to the machines and people on the local network. Thus, the President's e-mail address is president@whitehouse.gov, the VicePresident's is vice-president@whitehouse.gov, and so on. Encryption A way of coding the information in a file or e-mail message so that if it is intercepted by a third party as it travels over a network it cannot be read. Only the person or persons that have the right type of decoding software can unscramble the message.


Firewall A firewall is a combination hardware and software buffer that many companies or organizations have in place between their internal networks and the Internet. A firewall allows only specific kinds of messages from the Internet to flow in and out of the internal network. This protects the internal network from intruders or hackers who might try to use the Internet to break into those systems. Floppy Disk Also called a diskette, a floppy disk is the magnetic storage medium used to store and transfer data, usually between personal computers that are not networked. FTP This is an acronym for File Transfer Protocol -- a very common method of transferring one or more files from one computer to another. FTP is a specific way to connect to another Internet site to retrieve and send files. FTP was developed in the early days of the Internet to copy files from computer to computer. With the advent of the World Wide Web, and web browser software, you no longer need to know arcane FTP commands to copy to and from other computers. In your browser, you can use FTP by typing the URL into the location box at the top of your screen. For example, typing ftp://name.of.site/directory/filename.zip transfers the file filename.zip to your computer's hard disk. Typing ftp://name.of.site/directory/ gives you a listing of all the files available in that directory. If your web browser doesn't have built-in FTP capability, or if you want to upload files to a remote computer, you will need to use an FTP client program to transfer files. To use FTP, you need to know the name of the file, the computer where it resides, and the directory it's in. Most files are available via "anonymous FTP," which means you can log into the machine with the user name "anonymous" and use your e-mail address as your password. Hits This term refers to the number of files that are downloaded from a web server. Keeping track of hits is a way of measuring traffic to a web site that can be misleading. Number of hits a site receives is usually much greater than the number of actual visitors. That's because a web page can contain more than one file. For example, each graphic element is a separate file, so a page with nine graphics would count as ten hits one for each graphic and one for the HTML file. In this scenario, a page may have 10,000 hits, but only 1,000 visits. Gopher Gopher is an application that was developed at the University of Minnesota to help organize files on the Internet. Named after the school's football mascot,


Gopher is a subject-based, menu-driven guide to finding and retrieving directories of information on the Internet Home Page Also referred to as a web page, the home page is the starting point of a Web presentation. It is a sort of table of contents for what is at the web site referring direct links to the different parts of the site. HTML An acronym for Hypertext Mark-up Language, HTML is the computer language used to create hypertext documents. HTML uses a finite list of tags that describe the general structure of various kinds of documents linked together on the World Wide Web. Http Http stands for Hypertext Transfer Protocol -- the method used to transfer hypertext files across the Internet. On the World Wide Web, pages written in HTML use hypertext to link to other documents. When you click on hypertext, you jump to another web page, sound file, or graphic. Hypertext transfer is simply the transfer of hypertext files from computer to computer. Hypertext transfer protocol is the set of standards used by computers to transfer hypertext files (web pages) over the Internet. Internet Service Provider Also called an ISP or access providers, Internet service providers refers to the remote computer system to which you connect your personal computer and through which you connect to the Internet. Internet service providers that you access by modem and telephone lines are often called dial-up services. Internet Telephony Internet telephony is the conversion of analogue speech signals used on current telephone systems into digital data, allowing calls to be sent over the Internet, bypassing long distance charges. While the Internet was first devised as a way of transmitting data, it is now being used to make voice calls. Internet telephony is projected to explode as the costs plummet. ISDN An acronym for Integrated Services Digital Network, ISDN lines are connections that use ordinary phone lines to transmit digital instead of analogue signals, allowing data to be transmitted at a much faster rate than with a traditional modem.


LAN An acronym for Local Area Network, LAN refers to a local network that connects computers located on the same floor or in the same building or nearby buildings. Mailing List A mailing list is a way of having a group discussion by electronic mail and distributing announcements to a large number of people. A mailing list is very much like a conference on a BBS, except that the conversation comes to you in your e-mail box. Each time you or any member of the list posts a reply to the conversation, it is distributed to the e-mail box of every member of the list. All of this traffic is automated and managed by programs called mailing list managers (MLMs). The two most frequently used programs are Listserv and Majordomo. Modem Short for Modulator/Demodulator, a modem is a device that allows remote computers to communicate, to transmit and receive data using telephone lines. Netiquette Netiquette is a form of online etiquette -- an informal code of conduct that governs what is generally considered to be the acceptable way for users to interact with one another online. Multimedia Multimedia refers to the simultaneous use of more than one type of media such as text with sound, moving or still images with music, and so on. PDF An acronym for Portable Document Format, PDF is a file type created by Adobe Systems, Inc. that allows fully formatted, high-resolution, PostScript documents to be easily transmitted across the Internet and viewed on any computer that has Adobe Acrobat Reader software (a proprietary viewer is available for free at the Adobe site). Corporations that have invested in brand name identification use PDF to display the original look of their logos and advertising. Publishers can create a high-quality brochure and then "publish" it as is, without converting it to HTML. Anyone interested in presenting documents with the highest possible resolution or a complex layout might choose to use PDF. PDF files can be distributed via e-mail, web pages, CD-ROMs, online services and LANs. They can also contain hyperlinks, QuickTime movies, and sound clips. POP An acronym for Point of Presence, a POP is the local telephone exchange from which you receive service.


PPP An acronym for Point-to-Point Protocol, PPP is a communications protocol used to transmit network data over telephone lines. It allows you to connect your computer to the Internet itself, rather than logging on through an Internet service provider's host computer and using UNIX commands through a shell. This type of connection lets you communicate directly with other computers on the network using TCP/IP connections. It is part of the TCP/IP suite of programs necessary to connect to and use the Internet. Protocol A protocol is the standard or set of rules that two computers use to communicate with each other. Also known as a communications protocol or network protocol, this is a set of standards that assures that different network products or programs can work together. Any product that uses a given protocol should work with any other product using the same protocol. For example, TCP/IP, PPP, and SLIP. Search Engine A search engine is a type of software that creates indexes of databases or Internet sites based on the titles of files, keywords, or the full text of files. The search engine has an interface that allows you to type what you're looking for into a blank field. It then gives you a list of the results of the search. When you use a search engine on the Web, the results are presented to you in hypertext, which means you can click on any item in the list to get the actual file. Server A server is a computer that handles requests for data, e-mail, file transfers, and other network services from other computers (i.e., clients). SPAM Originally just a canned sandwich filler product, Spam now also refers to the practice of blindly posting commercial messages or advertisements to a large number of unrelated and uninterested newsgroups. TCP/IP TCP/IP stands for Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol, the language governing communications between all computers on the Internet. TCP/IP is a set of instructions that dictates how packets of information are sent across multiple networks. It also includes a built-in error-checking capability to ensure that data packets arrive at their final destination in the proper order. IP, or Internet Protocol, is the specification that determines where packets are routed to, based on their destination address. TCP, or Transmission Control Protocol, makes sure that the packets arrive correctly at their destination address. If TCP determines that a packet was not received, it will try to re send the packet until


it is received properly. You must be running TCP/IP to have full Internet access. In UNIX, TCP/IP is a part of the operating system. In the DOS and Windows world, the functionality of TCP/IP is handled by WinSock. This piece of software takes care of your TCP/IP configuration information. Telnet Telnet is a software program that allows you to log in to other remote computers on the Internet to which you have access. Once you are logged into the remote system, you can download files, engage in conferencing, and perform the same commands as if you were directly connected by computer. You need an Internet account to be able to use a telnet program. Uploading Often confused with downloading, uploading a file means loading it from your computer onto a remote one. Most people do a lot more downloading than uploading. See Downloading URL An acronym for Uniform Resource Locator, a URL is the address for a resource or site (usually a directory or file) on the World Wide Web and the convention that web browsers use for locating files and other remote services. Virtual Reality Virtual reality, sometimes called VR, refers to computer simulations of real-world "environments" that use 3-D graphics and external devices like a dataglove or helmet to allow users to interact with the simulation. Users move through virtual reality environments as though they were navigating in real worlds -walking through structures and interacting with objects in the environment. WAN An acronym for Wide Area Network, WAN refers to a network that connects computers over long distances via telephone lines or satellite links. In a WAN, the computers are physically and sometimes geographically far apart. Web Page A web page is a document created with HTML (Hypertext Markup Language) that is part of a group of hypertext documents or resources available on the World Wide Web. Collectively, these documents and resources form what is known as a web site. You can read HTML documents that reside somewhere on the Internet or on your local hard drive with a software program called a web browser. Web browsers read HTML documents and display them as formatted presentations, with any associated graphics, sound, and video, on a computer screen. Web pages can contain hypertext links to other places within the same


document, to other documents at the same web site, or to documents at other web sites. They can also contain fill-in forms, photos, large clickable images, sounds, and videos for downloading. World Wide Web You can think of the Web as a worldwide collection of text and multimedia files and other network services interconnected via a system of hypertext documents. Http (Hypertext Transfer Protocol) was created in 1990, at CERN, the European Particle Physics Laboratory in Geneva, Switzerland, as a means for sharing scientific data internationally, instantly, and inexpensively. With hypertext, a word or phrase can contain a link to other text. To achieve this, CERN developed a programming language called HTML that allows you to easily link to other pages or network services on the Web SSL An acronym for Secure Socket Layer, SSL is a protocol developed by Netscape communications Corporation for securing data transmission in commercial transactions on the Internet. Using public-key cryptography, SSL provides server authentication, data encryption, and data integrity for client/server communications Cryptography The process of securing private information that is passed through public networks by mathematically scrambling (encrypting) it in a way that makes it unreadable to anyone except the person or persons holding the mathematical "key" that can unscramble (decrypt) it. The two most common types of cryptography are "same-key" and "public-key." In same-key cryptography, a message is encrypted and decrypted using the same key, which is passed along from one party to another in a separate transmission. A more secure method is public-key cryptography, which uses a pair of different keys (one public, one private) that have a particular relationship to one another, such that any message encrypted with one key can only be decrypted with the other key and vice versa.


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