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1815 The German confederation is created by piecing together 35 small monarchies and 4 free cities that would be put

under the control of Austria. 1818 Prussian Customs Union created, abolishing internal tariffs in Prussia and allowing her to develop her economy. Internal tariffs in Prussia are abolished allowing for rapid economic expansion. 1818- Birth of Karl Marx 1819 Carlsbad Decrees laws used by Metternich to restrict press and University freedoms, stopping spread of nationalist ideas. 1834 A union of 18 German states, not including Austria is created, it is called Zollverein. Since Austria has no part in it, this allows Prussia to control the economics of these German states. 1836 Zollverein now includes 25 states (26 million people). 1844 Zollverein now includes 34 states. Austria stays out of the union. 1847 Crop failures and a rise in unemployment lead to increased food prices. 1848 March 13th The resignation of Metternich, Austria's dominance in the German states is cut even further March Riots in the German states and in Austria, however these revolutions are not successful because they are uncoordinated May Frankfurt Parliament created as a result from the march riots. It consisted of 596 liberals elected from the German Confederation meet to plan a constitution for a unified Germany. Nov Frederick Wilhelm IV rejects the revolutions (became a conservative/ reactionary) and regains control of Berlin. 1849 March - The Kleindeutschland is created by the Frankfurt Parliament. This is led by the King of Prussian and Austria had no say in the constitution. April Wilhelm IV, King of Prussia rejects the offer of a crown from the gutter. Wilhelm, King of Prussia refuses to become king of a bunch of un-united German states. June Frankfurt Parliament ends and Prussia proposes the Erfurt Union, a union of German States that excluded Austria. 1850 Nov 29th In Olmutz the Prussians face lots of pressure from the Austrians and they withdraw the Erfurt Union idea. 1851 May The German Confederation is re-established.

1860 New Prussian Minister of War Von Roon introduces military reforms by increasing mandatory military service and in turn increasing the size of the army. 1861 Wilhelm I becomes King of Prussia. 1862 Otto von Bismarck becomes the chancellor of Prussia 1863 King Frederick VII of Denmark dies. Bismarck sees an opportunity to gain Schleswig and Holstein. 1864 Jan Austria and Prussia wage war together against Denmark. April London Conference fails to establish a peaceful solution. July the capitulation of denmark 1865 Aug . At the Convention of Gastein, Prussia gives Austria Holstein and gains Schleswig even though Bismarck sees that this will lead to contention between the two countries in the near future. 1866 Bismarck provokes disagreements between Austria and Prussia over Holstein. 24th June Prussia and Austria go to war 3rd July Austria is defeated by Prussia August War ends with the peace of Prague 1867 July North German Confederation created. Prussia becomes the most powerful state in the German confederation. However southern German states are still under Austrian influence 1870 Feb Hohenzollern Candidate crisis Bismarck offends the French by attempting to place Leopold of Hohenzollern (a member of King Wilhelms family) on the throne of Spain. Jul 13th The Ems Telegram is published, edited by Bismarck to look as if King Wilhelm was rude to the French Ambassador whilst discussing the Spanish throne issue. July 19th France declares war Franco-Prussian War begins. Sept 1st French defeated by Prussia at Battle of Sedan, Napoleon III captured. Oct French Army surrenders at Metz. Nov Southern German states (apart from Austria) agree to join a German Empire, influenced by nationalist excitement.

1871 Jan 18th German Empire declared in Palace of Versailles Germany created! Wilhelm I is Kaiser, Bismarck is Chancellor. Jan 28th France signs an Armistice ending the war. May 10th Treaty of Frankfurt. France gives up Alsace and Lorraine and has to pay Germany 200 million. France lost its influence in southern Germany. required to pay 5 billion francs. Center party wins seats in Reichstag- Liberals wanted freedom of speech and a market economy, supported by the bourgeoisie. 2 parts to liberalism, nationals and radicals. Conservatives critical of Bismarck. 1872 Kulturkampf begins against Catholic power in Germany; Jesuit priests expelled from Germany. struggle between the roman catholic church and Bismarck. Bismarck was very suspicious of the pope based on past misgivings. 1873 May/ Falk Laws passed by Falk against Catholic Church; Priests had to attend a German University, Civil Marriage introduced. 4 laws were passed, they had to pay tax, they could no longer appoint members of the clergy. Closed half the seminaries in Prussia. 1873- Thee emperor's league- emperors of Austria, Prussia and France banded together to prevent France from rising to power. Austria and Russia competed for land in the Ottoman empire. 1878- Assassination attempts on Wilhelm. SPD was blamed and banned until 1890 1879-Dual alliance- Austria and Prussia, military support, later joined by Italy 1879 Kulturkampf against power of Catholic Church ends; Falk dismissed and some of the May Laws repealed. Birth of Albert Einstein 1888 Death of Kaiser Wilhelm I, Frederick III took the throne after the death of his father, he led the Germans into WWI, he dies soon after due to throat cancer. New Kaiser Wilhelm II died disagrees with Bismarck. 1889 many socialist laws passed introduced. 1890 the socialist party gains support, has increased support to 35 seats.
1890- Wilhelm II didn't agree with Bismarck's policies which led to many conflicts between the two. Bismarck fired. 101 "Activity" 104" Debrief Questions"