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ELEC2134 Circuits and

Signals
Dr Rukmi Dutta
Course outline
Brief course outline for week 7 to week 12:
1. Introduction to AC and phasor
2. AC circuit analysis
3. AC Power Analysis
4. Introduction to three phase system
5. Magnetically coupled coils
6. Series and Parallel resonances
Quiz 2
Quiz 2
When: Week 11, 3:00-4:00 pm, Friday, 18 May
Where: TBA
Course materials for the quiz 2 : from week 7 to week 10
(inclusive).
Introduction
WHAT IS A DIRECT CURRENT?
A Direct Current (or DC) power source moves electrons
through the wire in ONE DIRECTION ONLY.
WHAT IS ALTERNATING CURRENT?
ALTERNATING CURRENT (AC) means that the flow of
electrons is not in the one direction, but is constantly
alternate.
Ac power sources:
Generators in power plants, wind
turbine etc.
DC power sources : Battery, Solar cells
Why does AC predominate?
AC is more efficient and economical to transmit over long distances,
Higher is the voltage, lower will be the current for a fixed power.
Long distance transmission is done at very high voltage level.
How can we get high voltage ? Transformer !!
DC cannot be step up or down by a transformer !
Edison's original system was DC. It required many power generating stations close to the
population because the voltage couldn't be stepped up/down like AC for long distance
transmission. This is why Westinghouse's (Well, Tesla's IIRC. Westinghouse bought it.) AC
system lasted in the long run.
Sometimes high voltage DC is used for transmission, but it requires special equipment at both
ends.
Interesting reads :
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/War_of_Currents
From the IEEE Xplore database:
Carl L. Sulzberger, Triumph of AC: From Pearl Street to Niagara, IEEE Power & Energy Magazine, May/June 2003, pp. 64-67.
Carl L. Sulzberger, Triumph of AC, Part 2, The Battle of the Currents, IEEE Power & Energy Magazine, July/August 2003, pp. 70-73.
Heat Loss
2
P VI , I R = =
Mathematics of AC voltage
Alternating currents are caused by alternating voltages.
An AC voltage/current can be described mathematically
as a sine or cosine function of time- Sinusoid

m
v( t ) V sin t e =
V
m
= the amplitude or peak of the sinusoid
= the angular frequency in radians/s
t = the argument of the sinusoid
Periodic wave forms
A periodic function is one that satisfies f(t) = f(t + nT), for all t
and for all integers n.
Sinusoid repeats itself every T seconds and hence it is a periodic
function.
Which one is not a periodic function?
Sine wave
Half wave rectified
Full wave rectified
(a)
(b) (c)
Time period
The period T of the periodic function is time of one
complete cycle or the number of seconds per cycle.
(a) as a function of t, (b) as a function of t.
T 2
2
T
e t
t
e
=
=
Period=T
V
m
Frequency
The reciprocal of T is the number of cycles per second,
known as the cyclic frequency f of the sinusoid.
(Hertz)
1
f
T
=
and
(rad/s)
2
T 2 f 1 / T
T
2 f
t
e t e
e t
= = =
=
What is the frequency of power supply at your home??
(Angular frequency)
Summery of Sinusoidal AC voltage
Instantaneous value
Peak value frequency time
(angular speed)
Phase angle
v(t) may or may not start from t=0.
Thus , a general expression of sinusoid is
where | is the phase angle. The phase angle is in degree or
radian.
A sinusoid can also be expressed in cosine form.
( )
sin( )
m
v t V t e | =

m
v( t ) V cos t e =
Phase angle : leading and lagging
Comparison between
( )
and =
1 m 2 m
v ( t ) V sin t v ( t ) V sin t e e | = +
The starting point of v
2
occurs first in
time. Therefore, v
2
leads v
1
by | or that v
1
lags v
2
by |.
If | is not zero, v
1
and v
2
are out of
phase. If | = 0, then v
1
and v
2
are said to
be in phase;
While comparing for phase, both
functions must be either sine or cosine of
positive amplitude.
if and
1 m1 1 2 m2 2
v ( t ) V sin( t ) v ( t ) V sin( t ) e | e | = + = +
What is the phase angle between v
1
(t) and v
2
(t)?
Practice problems 1
1. Find the frequency f, time period T of the voltages and the
phase angle between v
1
(t) and v
2
(t). Does v
1
(t) lead or lag
v
2
(t)?
and
and
1 2
1 2
( i ) v ( t ) 12sin( 314t 45 ) v ( t ) 6 sin( 314t 15 )
( ii ) v ( t ) 12sin( 314t 45 ) v ( t ) 6cos( 314t 105 )
= + =
= + =


Solution: (i) 50Hz, 20ms, 60
o
v
1
leads v
2
(ii) 50Hz, 20ms, 240
o
v
1
leads v
2
Useful trigonometry for practice problems:
sin(t 180) = sin t
cos(t 180) = cos t
sin(t 90) = cos t
cos(t 90) = sin t
( )
314
314
(2 ) 314 50
2
1/ 20
45 ( 15) 60
i
t t
f t t f Hz
T f mS
e
t
t
|

=
= = =
= =
= =
Practice problems 2
2. Find the phase angle between i
1
= 4 sin(377t + 25

)
and i
2
= 5 cos(377t 40

) .Does i
1
lead or lag i
2
?
Sol ut i on:
Since sin(t+90
o
) = cos t
therefore, i
1
leads i
2
155
o
.
) 50 377 sin( 5 ) 90 40 377 sin( 5
2
o o o
t t i + = + =
1
4sin(377 25 ) 4sin(377 180 25 ) 4sin(377 205 )
o o o o
i t t t = + = + = + +
How to measure AC waveform :Peak value of sine wave
Peak value occurs at two different points in a cycle.
One peak is positive and other is negative.
If the positive peak occurs at 90 then negative peak
occurs at 270.
If positive peak occurs at 0 then where will the negative
peak occur?
The positive and negative peaks have equal magnitudes.
Average values
Comparison of peak values
between two different type of
waves is misleading. Better way is
to find average value of the two
waveforms and then compare.
The average value of any time-
varying wave is the average of all
its instantaneous values over a
cycle or one time period T.
Mathematically, it is represented
as,
Average values of periodic wave form
In a symmetrical periodic waveform if the average value is calculated
over the full cycle, it would be zero as the positive and negative halves
will cancel each other out. So the average or mean value of periodic
waveform is calculated over a half cycle only.
Thus average value for periodic waveform,
Average value of AC wave form,
( ) ( )
/ 2
0 0
2 1 2
sin sin 0.637
T
av m m m m
V V t dt V t d t V V
T
t
e e e
t t
= = = =
} }
RMS / Effective Value
Another method of deriving an aggregate value for AC
waveform is based on the waveform's ability to do useful work
when applied to a load resistance.
Unfortunately, an AC measurement based on work performed
by a waveform is not the same as that waveform's average
value.
Work done is related to power .The power dissipated by a
given load (work performed per unit time) is not directly
proportional to the magnitude of either the voltage or current
impressed upon it. Rather, power is proportional to the square
of the voltage or current applied to a resistance (P = V
2
/R, and
P = I
2
R).
Hence, agregate value of voltage and current based on ability
to work done is Root Mean Square Value of the AC waveform.
RMS / Effective Value Contd.
It is defined as the equivalent value of DC that will
produce the same amount of power in a resistor, as that
of a sine wave or a periodic wave, i.e.,
As per definition of average value,
or
Thus,
square Root
Mean
Square
2
0
1 ( )
T
av
v t
P dt
T R
=
}
2
0
Similarly,
1
( )
T
rms
V v t dt
T
=
}
RMS value of sine wave
2
0
1
( )
T
rms
F f t dt
T
=
}
V
m
( )
( )
( )
1 1
2 2
1 1
2 2
1
2
2 2
2
2
0 0
2 2
2 2
2
0 0
1
2
2 2
2
0
1 1
( ) ( ) sin ( )
2 2
1
sin ( ) 1 cos 2 ( )
2 2 2
1
sin 2 2 0.707
4 2 4
2
RMS m
m m
m m m
m
V v t d t V t d t
V V
t d t t d t
V V V
t t V
t t
t t
t
e e e e
t t
e e e e
t t
e e t
t t
( (
= =
( (

( (
= =
( (

(
(
| |
= = = =
(
( |
\ .
(

} }
} }
/ 2
2
0
2
( )
T
rms
F f t dt
T
=
}
In general,
or
Check out
Effective or RMS value is 70.7
% of Peak value.
Average value is 63.6% of
peak value.
Interesting !!
Form and Peak Factors
RMS Value
Form factor =
Average Value
Maximum Value
Peak factor =
Average Value
Introduction to concept of phasor
Both the voltage and the current are sinusoids with the same radial
frequency , but different magnitudes, and different phase angles.
Passive circuit elements such as R, L,C cannot change the frequency
of a sinusoid. Only the magnitude and the phase change at the
output.
Why then do we need to write in every equation, when it doesnt
change? For that matter, why do we need to write out the cos( )
function, if that never changes either?
we don't need to write these things every time. Instead, engineers have
produced a short-hand way of writing these functions, called
"phasors".
Linear circuit
Sinusoid
Sinusoid
( )
( )
( ) cos
( ) cos
m v
m i
v t V t
i t I t
e |
e |
= +
= +
Phasor representation
Waveform
Phasor
Phasor is similar to vector , but represents amplitude of a sinusoid. The direction of
the phasor with respect to a reference is given by the phase angle.
At any time, a sinusoid can be converted into a phasor , and vice versa.
Note that the phasor notation does not include the information about radial
frequency e.
( )
( ) cos

or
2
m
m
m
rms rms
v t V t
V
V
V
e |
|
| |
= +
= Z
= Z = Z
V
V
( ) v t V
Phasor and Sine wave
Phasor (phase vector) represents amplitude (V
m
), and
phase (|) of a sinusoid.
A sinusoidal function can be
considered to be directly related to a vector of length V
m
revolving in a circle with angular velocity and | is the
starting angle at t = 0.
( )
( ) cos
m
v t V t e | = +
time
V
m
Benefit of Phasors
Phasor allows us to focus our attention on the quantities
that changes in a circuit i.e. phase angle and magnitude.
By using phasor, linear combination of number of sine
waves can be done algebraically rather than
trigonometrically.
Phasor reduces the liner differential equations of RLC
circuits (with AC source) to simpler algebraic equations.
However, note that phasor is a complex number so you
will be dealing with complex number algebra.
Two questions:
Why and how a phasor is a complex number ?
How does a sinusoid becomes a complex number?
Eulers Identity
An important mathematical rule that needs to be
understood for this discussion is Euler's identity:
It is representation of a complex number in exponential
form.
( )
( ) ( )
( )
cos sin
or cos sin
j t
j
Ae A t j t
A j A e
e |
u
e | e |
u u

= + + (

=
(cos sin ) z x jy A j u u = =
Real Imaginary
( )
( )
cos Re
sin Im
j
j
x A Ae
jy jA Ae
u
u
u
u

= =
= =
Where,
Complex number
A complex number can be
represented in one of the following
three forms:
z A u = Z
j
z Ae
u
=
(cos sin ) z x jy A j u u = + = + a. Rectangular
b. Exponential
c. Polar
2 2
A x y = +
1
tan
y
x
u

=
where,
A
u
( )
( ) os c
m m
v t V t V e | | = + = Z V
Can you now recognize that
phasor V is a complex number?
Rectangular
Polar
Exponential
Practice Problem
a) Represent 5Z36.87
o
in rectangular form
b) Represent 4+j3 in polar form and (c) in exponential form
( )
2 2 1
Recall:
A (Polar form)
x jy = Acos sin Rectangular form
, tan
(Exponential form, in radian)
j
jA
y
A x y
x
re
u
u
u u
u
u

Z

| |
= + =
|
\ .
Solution
(a)
(b)
0.643
5
j
e
(c)
(exponential form)
Mathematic operation of complex number
1. Addition
2. Subtraction
3. Multiplication
4. Division
5. Reciprocal
6. Square root
7. Complex conjugate
) ( ) (
2 1 2 1 2 1
y y j x x z z + + + = +
) ( ) (
2 1 2 1 2 1
y y j x x z z + =
2 1 2 1 2 1
| | + Z = r r z z
2 1
2
1
2
1
| | Z =
r
r
z
z
| Z =
r z
1 1
2 | Z = r z
j
z x jy r re

-
= = Z =
2 2
y x r + =
x
y
1
tan

= |
where
* Sign indicates complex conjugate.
Practice: complex number
Practice problem
Solution
Cosine and Sine Convention
It is important to remember which trigonometric function
your phasors are mapping to.
Since a phasor only includes information on magnitude
and phase angle, it is impossible to know whether a given
phasor maps to a sin( ) function, or a cos( ) function.
Your text book by Alexander and Sadiku, uses cosine
convention i.e. all phasors map to cosine functions.
Sine convention could just as well be used, but it is
important to pick a single convention and stick with it.
Contd.
Thus, whenever a sinusoid is expressed as a phasor, the
term e
jt
is present but implicitly.
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( ) cos
Re Re
Re
where,
m
j t j t
m
t j
j
m
j
m
m
v t V t
V e e
e
V e V
V e
| e | e
e
|
e |
|
+
= +
= =
=
= = Z
V
V
Cosine convention:
Sine convention: ( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( ) sin
Im Im
Im
where,
m
j t j t
m
t j
j
m
j
m
m
v t V t
V e e
e
V e V
V e
| e | e
e
|
e |
|
+
= +
= =
=
= = Z
V
V
Sinusoid-phasor transformation
With cosine convention,
Practice
( )
( ) 8cos 70 v t t e

= +
( )
( ) 5cos 126.87 i t t e

= +
Practice problem with sine convention
Express the followings as phasors:
(a)
(b)
[ cos t sin ( t 90)] e e =
(Ans)
Phasor diagram
Graphical representation of the phasors
m m
V I | u = Z = Z V I
5 Thumb rules for phasor diagram:
Rule 1. The length of the phasor is directly
proportional to the amplitude of the wave depicted.
Rule 2. In circuits which have combinations of L,
C & R in SERIES, it is customary to draw the
phasor representing CURRENT horizontally, and
call this the REFERENCE phasor. This is because
the current in a series circuit is common to all the
components.
Rule 3. In parallel circuits, the phasor representing
the SUPPLY VOLTAGE is always drawn in the
REFERENCE direction. This is because in a
parallel circuit it is the supply voltage that is
common to all components.
Rule 4. The direction of rotation of all phasors is
considered to be ANTICLOCKWISE.
Rule 5. In any one diagram, the same type of value
(RMS or peak )is used for all phasors, not a
mixture of values.
Convention is positive direction of rotation is
anti clock-wise.
Two sinusoids with a phase difference
|
V
1
V
2
Phase shift
Phase Difference
Consider two phasors,
Phase difference
= (+u)
Phasor addition
( ) ( )
2 2 1
6 0 8 90 6cos 0 6sin 0 8cos90 8sin90
6 8
8
6 8 10, tan 53.13
6
j j
j
r |


Z + Z = + + +
= +
| |
= + = = =
|
\ .
How ?
Practice problem 2
Given i
1
(t) = 4 cos(t + 30) and i
2
(t) = 5 sin(t 20),
find their sum. Also draw the phasor diagram.
Solution:
( )
2
4 30
( ) 5sin( 20 ) 5cos( 20 90 )
5 110
3.464 2 ( 1.71 4.698) 3.218 56 1.754 2.698 .97
i t t t
j j j
e e

= Z
= =
= Z
+ = + + = = Z
1
2
1 2
I
I
I I
Summery
The differences between v(t) and V:
v(t) is instantaneous or time-domain representation .
V is the frequency or phasor-domain representation
v(t) is time dependent, V is not.
v(t) is always real with no complex term, V is generally
complex.
Note:
Phasor analysis applies only when frequency e is
constant;
When it is applied to two or more sinusoids, they must
have same frequency.
Relationship between differential, integral operation in phasor
( ) ( )
( )
0 9 9 0 0 9
( ) cos( )
( )
sin( ) cos( 90)
Re Re Re ,
( )
(phasor domain)
m
m m
j t j j t j t j j j
m
v t V t
dv t
V t V t
dt
e e e e j
dv t
e j e
j
dt
V e
e e | e
e |
e e | e e |
e e e
e
= +
= + = + +
= = = =

V V
V

0 90 9
( ) cos( ) sin( ) cos( 90 )
Re Re Re Re
(Phasor domain)
m m
m
j t j j t j t j t j j
m
V V
v t d
e
t V t dt t t
e e e e e
j
vdt
j
V
e
j
e e e e |
e | e | e |
e e
e e e e
e


= + = + = +
| | | | | |
| |
= = = =
| | |
|
\ .
\ . \ . \ .

} }
}
V V V
V

Contd.
) (t v
m
V = Z V

dt
dv
jeV

}
vdt
je
V

Practice Problem
Use phasor approach and determine the current i(t) in a
circuit described by the integro-differential equation.
Answ er :
}
+ = + ) 75 2 cos( 50 3 8 4 t
dt
di
idt i
( )
( )
2,
8
4 3 50 75
4 4 6 50 75
50 75 50 75
4.64 143.2 A
4 10 10.77 68.2
4.64cos(2 143.2 ) A
o
j
j
j j
j
i t t
e
e
e

=
+ = Z
= Z
Z Z
= = = Z
Z
= +
I I I
I
I
i(t) = 4.64cos(2t + 143.2
o
) A
R C L
v(t)
i(t)
Phasor relationships for Resistor
Resistor
i = I
m
cos(t + |) I=I
m
Z|
v = iR = RI
m
cos(t + |)
V = RI
m
Z|
Or, V = RI
I and V are in phase
Phasor relationships for Inductor
2. Inductor
I lags V by 90
( )
( )
( )
( )
cos
sin cos 90
90
m m
m m
m
i I t I
di
v L LI t LI t
dt
j L LI
e | |
e e | e e |
e e |

= + = Z
= = + = + +
= = Z +
I
V I
Phase difference between V and I is 90 degree.
Phasor relationships for Capacitor
3. Capacitor
I leads V by 90
( )
( )
( )
cos
cos 90
90
m m
m
m
v V t V
dv
i C CV t
dt
CV
j C j
j C C
e | |
e e |
e |
e
e e

= + = Z
= = + +
= Z +
= = =
V
I
I I
I V V
Phase difference between V and I is 90 degree.
Phasor relationships for circuit elements
Resistor:
Inductor:
Capacitor:
I and V in phase I lags V by 90 deg
I leads V by 90 deg
Summary of voltage-current relationship
Element
Time domain Frequency domain
R
L
C
Ri v =
R = V I
dt
di
L v =
j L e = V I
dt
dv
C i =
j
j C C e e
= =
I I
V
Practice Problem
Calculate the current through the resistor.
V = 36.8052 -20.5018
o
volts.
Therefore, I = V/R=3.68052 -20.5018
o
mA
Practice Problem
If voltage v(t) = 6sin(100t 30
o
) is applied to a 50 F capacitor,
calculate the current, i(t), through the capacitor.
( ) ( )
6
( ) 6sin(100 30 )
6 60
100 50 6 60 0.03 60 90
( ) 30sin(100 60 ) mA
v t t
j CV j e
i t t
e

=
= Z
= = Z = Z +
= +

V
I
Solution : ( ) 30sin(100 60 ) mA i t t

= +
Impedance
Generalized Ohms Law in phasor form for any element,
The impedance Z of a circuit is the ratio of the phasor
voltage V to the phasor current I, measured in ohms .
( )
1 1
R R
j L j L
j C j C
e e
e e
= =
= =
| | | |
= =
| |
\ . \ .
V
V I
I
V
V I
I
V
V I
I
Z =
V
I
Admittance
The admittance Y is the reciprocal of impedance,
measured in Siemens (S).
Admittance is commonly used in parallel circuits.
1
Y
Z
= =
I
V
Impedances and admittances of passive elements
Element Impedance Admittance
R
L
C
R Z =
L
Z j L X e = =
1
C
Z X
j C e
= =
1
Y
R
=
1
Y
j L e
=
Y j C e =
Note that resistive impedance is real number whereas inductive and
capacitive impedances are imaginary number.
Capacitive and inductive impedances are also known as reactance
and represented by X.
Impedance in combined RLC circuit
When a circuit has resistance and reactances (i.e. inductive
and capacitive impedances), the total impedance must be a
complex number.
where R = Re( Z )is the resistance and X = Im(Z) is the
reactance. Positive X is for L and negative X is for C.
Z R jX = =
V
I
2 2 1
,
, tan
z
z
X
Z R jX
R
Z
Z X
R
u
u

Z

| |
= + =
|
\
=
.
=
L
j L jX e =
1 1
C
j jX
j C C e e
= =
Contd.
Z is complex number but not a phasor.
It is frequency dependent because,
( )
v
z v
m m
m m
i
i
V V
Z
I I
u
u u u
u
=
Z
Z
Z
= Z
cos , sin
z z
R Z X Z u u = =
Also,
1
or X L
C
e
e
=
Impedance angle u
z
is also the phase difference between voltage and
current.
Impedance triangle
Admittance in combined RLC circuit
Admittance is also a complex number,
where G = Re(Y) is the conductance and B = Im(Y) is the
susceptance.
Positive B is for C and negative B is for L.
1
Y G jB
Z
= = = +
I
V
Relationship between Z and Y
Z Measure of how much alternating current is impeded
(obstructed)
Y Measure of how much current is admitted
Note: The admittance
triangle is upside-down
compared to the impedance
triangle
Relationship between R and G
Frequency dependence
X j L e =
1
X
j C e
=
0; 0
;
X
X
e
e
= =

0;
; 0
X
X
e
e
=
=
Practice
Impedance Combination
Z1
Z
1
Z
2
Z
n
1 2
1 2 1 2
...
( ... ) ( ... )
eq n
eq eq eq n n
Z Z Z Z
Z R jX R R R j X X X
= + + +
= + = + + + + + + +
Z
1
Z
2
Z
n
Z1
eq
eq
n n
eq
n eq
Y
Z
B B B j G G G jB G
Y Y Y Y
Z Z Z Z
1
) ... ( ) ... (
...
1
...
1 1 1
2 1 2 1
3 2 1
2 1
=
+ + + + + + + = +
+ + + =
+ + + =
Series Connection:
Parallel Connection:
Practice 1
Determine the input impedance of the circuit in figure below at
=10 rad/s.
Answer: Z
in
= 32.38 j73.76
Solution
Z
2
Z
1
Z
3
1
3
1 1
20 20
10 2 10
Z j j
C e

| | | |
= =
| |

\ . \ .
( )
2
50 Z j L e = +
3
3
1
10 4 10
Z j

| |
=
|

\ .
( )
2 3
1 2 3 1
2 3
in
Z Z
Z Z Z Z Z
Z Z
= + = +
+

Answer: Z
in
= 32.38 j73.76
Practice 2
Calculate the total impedance of the circuit
60, 2
245.044
1768.388
250
L
C
f f
X j L j
j
X j
C
R
e t
e
e
= =
= = + O

= = O
=
04
1/ 0.004
1/ 0.0041
1/ 5.655 10
0.004 0.0035 0.0053 41.2
1/ 188.68 41.2
R
L L
C C
R L C
X
Y R
Y X j
Y X j
Y Y Y Y j
Z Y

= =
= =
= = +
= + + = + = Z
= = Z O
Practice
Solutions