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The olivine Mineral Series

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Olivine is one of the most common minerals in the earth, and is a major rock forming mineral. Despite this, good specimens and large crystals are uncommon and sought after. Only few localities yield large examples of this mineral, although small and microscopic grains are found worldwide. Olivine is also found in meteorites, and large grains have been reported in many of them. Olivine is not scientifically classified by the IMA as an individual mineral species, but is rather recognized as a mineral group with the Forsterite and Fayalite end members. Fayalite and Forsterite create a solid solution series, and most specimens identified as Olivine fall somewhere in between this series, almost always leaning more towards Forsterite with a greater content of magnesium. Pure Forsterite is uncommon, and pure Fayalite is very rare.

Chemical Formula The Olivine group is composed of the following primary members: Forsterite: Mg2SiO4 Olivine (Chrysolite): (Mg,Fe)2SiO4 Fayalite: Fe2SiO4 The intermediary variety, Olivine, is not scientifically recognized as a separate mineral, but is nevertheless well-established. The mineral Tephroite (Mn2SiO4), which many consider a member of the Olivine group, forms a series with Forsterite. There are other rarer members of the Olive group such as Tephroite. Composition Magnesium iron silicate. The series ranges from the magnesium end member, Forsterite (Magnesium silicate), through the intermediary member, Olivine (also known as Chrysolite), to the iron end member, Fayalite (Iron silicate). Forsterite and Olivine can be olive-green, light green, dark green, yellow-green, yellow-brown, and brown. Rarely white, gray, or orange. Pure Forsterite is colorless, but this is extremely rare. Fayalite is usually yellow-brown to brown. Colorless 6.5 - 7 Orthorhombic

Color

Streak Hardness Crystal System 3D Crystal Atlas


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Crystal Forms and Aggregates

Most often as rounded grains, in dense aggregates of grainy crystals, as fractured masses, and as rounded waterworn pebbles and grains. Large

crystals, which are prismatic and stubby, are uncommon except at a few select localities. Crystals often have rounded faces. Transparency Specific Gravity Luster Cleavage Fracture Tenacity Complex Tests In Group Striking Features Environment Popularity (1-4) Prevalence (1-3) Demand (1-3) Olivine ON EBAY Transparent to translucent 3.2 - 3.4 Vitreous 2,1 ; 3,1- forming a 90 angle Conchoidal Brittle Soluble in hydrochloric acid. Silicates; Nesosilicates Color, localities, and hardness Olivine occurs in mafic and ultramafic igneous rocks. It is also found in metamorphic rocks and Serpentine deposits as a primary mineral. 1 1 1

VARIETIES

Chrysolite - Describes a yellowish or yellowish green form of Olivine. May also be used as a synonym for Olivine, or to describe the intermediary member of the Olivine series. Chrysolite is also an old name occasionally used to describe yellow, transparent Chrysoberyl.

Dunite - Solid, grainy masses of Olivine. Usually classified as a rock.

Olivinoid - Extraterrestrial form of Olivine found in meteorites.

Peridot - Transparent green variety of Olivine that is used as a popular gemstone. POLYMORPHS Wadsleyite, Ringwoodite

USES Olivine has several industrial uses. It is used as a flux for steel production, and is also an important ore of the metal magnesium. Peridot, the transparent olive-green to yellow-green variety, is a well-known gemstone. It is very popular in jewelry, and is used in many jewelry items including rings, bracelets, necklaces, and earrings. Peridot is the birthstone for the month of August. For additional information, see the gemstone section on Peridot.

NOTEWORTHY LOCALITIES The most classic source of gem Peridot is St. John's Island (Zagbargad) in the Red Sea, Egypt, which once produced outstanding large crystals. This deposit has produced Peridot since ancient times and has long since been exhausted. The largest Peridot crystals now come from Pakistan at Sapat Gali, Mansehra, in the Kohistan District. Large gemmy Peridot crystals also come from Mogok, Burma (Myanmar). Other significant worldwide deposits of Olivine include the Eifel Mountains of Germany; Monte Somma, Vesuvius, Italy; Mt. Brianon, Langeac, Auvergne, France; the heim Quarry, Mre og Romsdal, Norway; Taganana, Tenerife, Canary Islands; and Katukubura, near Kolonne, Sri Lanka. In the U.S., the most significant and well-known deposit, which has produced excellent gem Peridot, is the San Carlos Indian Reservation, in Gila Co., Arizona. Two other important Peridot localities are Buell Park, Apache Co., Arizona; is the Kilbourne Hole, Doa Ana Co., New Mexico. The Day Book Quarry, in Burnsville, Yancey Co., North Carolina, has produced some good Olivine specimens. In Canada, large Olivine crystals come from the Parker mine, Notre-Dame-du-Laus, Qubec.

COMMON MINERAL ASSOCIATIONS Feldspars, Serpentine, Hornblende, Augite, Spinel, Diopside, Chromite, Magnetite, Spinel, Iron-nickel DISTINGUISHING SIMILAR MINERALS

Tourmaline - Different environment and crystal structure. Apatite - Softer (5), different crystal habits. Garnet - Occurs in different crystals, lacks cleavage.

The Mineral tephroite

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Tephroite is uncommon member of the Olivine group. It is the manganese counterpart of Forsterite, and forms a series with Forsterite. Tephroite gets it name from the Greek word "tephros", meaning ash-colored, referring to its ash-gray color habit.

Chemical Formula Mn2SiO4 Composition Variable Formula Color Streak Hardness Crystal System Crystal Forms and Aggregates Transparency Specific Gravity Luster Cleavage Fracture Tenacity In Group Striking Features Environment Popularity (1-4) Prevalence (1-3) Demand (1-3) Manganese silicate, sometimes with some magnesium and zinc. Forms a series with Forsterite. (Mn,Mg,Zn)2SiO4 Gray, grayish-green, olive-green, brown, reddish-brown, pink Light gray 6 Orthorhombic As rounded and fractured crystals, usually short and prismatic, but occasionally elongated. Also occurs grainy, massive, and in large cleavage fragments. Translucent. Rarely transparent. 4.0 - 4.1 Vitreous, greasy, waxy 2,1 ; 3,1- forming a 90 angle Conchoidal to uneven Brittle Silicates; Nesosilicates Cleavage angles, color, and hardness. In manganese-rich metamorphic deposits. 3 3 3

Tephroite ON EBAY

NOTEWORTHY LOCALITIES Worldwide localities for Tephroite include Broken Hill, New South Wales, Australia; the Wessels Mine, Hotazel, Kalahari manganese fields, South Africa; and Langban, Sweden. In the U.S., the most well-known Tephroite is from Franklin, Ogdensburg, and Sparta, all in Sussex Co., New Jersey. Tephroite is also found in the Jail Hill Quarry, Haddam, Middlesex Co., Connecticut.

COMMON MINERAL ASSOCIATIONS Calcite, Rhodonite, Quartz, Spessartine, Willemite DISTINGUISHING SIMILAR MINERALS Willemite - Different cleavage, fluoresces bright green. Rhodonite - Usually pinker in color.

tephroite PHOTOS

ADDITIONAL RESOURCES

Mindat.org

Mineralogy Database (David Barthelmy)

The Mineral zircon

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Zircon is a well-known mineral that makes an important gemstone of of many colors. Its brilliant luster and fire, combined with good hardness, make it a desirable gem. Natural Zircon with good color and transparency is uncommon; most Zircon crystals are opaque and brownish. However, most Zircon gemstones, especially the blue and white forms, are enhanced by heat

treatment. Zircon often contains traces of radioactive elements in its structure, which causes it to be metamict. This unstable form of Zircon, called Cyrtolite, is characterized by rounded, almost dome-shaped crystals which are dull or pitchy in luster. When heated, these metamict Zircon crystals become stable, and revert to their normal crystal structure. Radioactive Zircon that has undergone a metamiction process is sometimes called "Low Zircon", and stable Zircon with an intact crystal lattice "High Zircon". The dark brown to black color observed in most Zircon crystals is caused from iron oxide impurities. The green coloring in many rounded pebbles usually indicates the Zircon is radioactive variety. An interesting habit occasionally exhibited in Zircon from a few localities is that their color darkens and their luster dulls upon prolonged exposure to sunlight. This effect can be reversed by giving the stones a second heat treatment. For additional information, see the gemstone section on Zircon.

Chemical Formula ZrSiO4 Composition Zirconium silicate, often with some hafnium and occasionally with some uranium, thorium, and yttrium. It can contain up to 20 percent of hafnium in its structure; if it exceeds that amount then it is no longer Zircon but Hafnon. (Zr,Hf)SiO4 ; (Zr,Hf,U,Th,Y)SiO4 The most common color is dark brown. Also black, gray, light brown, brownish-red, orange, pink, yellow, light blue, light green, light purple white, and colorless. Sometimes multicolored black and dark red, or multicolored with lighter and darker streaks. Colorless 7.5 Tetragonal

Variable Formula Color

Streak Hardness Crystal System 3D Crystal Atlas


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Crystal Forms and Aggregates

As short and stubby crystals, as well as prismatic which are sometimes elongated. Crystals are almost always terminated with a pyramidal termination. Crystals may be doubly terminated, and occasionally entirely pyramidal resembling an octahedron. Also grainy, as fibrous aggregates, and as rounded, waterworn pebbles. Twinned Zircon crystals are uncommon but do exist. Crystals can also be in a metamict where they exhibit rounded crystal faces. Transparent to opaque 4.6 - 4.8 Greasy to adamantine. Radioactive Zircon has a pitchy luster.

Transparency Specific Gravity Luster

Cleavage Fracture Tenacity Other ID Marks In Group Striking Features Environment

3,2 Conchoidal to uneven Brittle May be fluorescent orange-yellow in shortwave ultraviolet light. Silicates; Nesosilicates Crystal shape, hardness, and weight Most often in igneous environments, usually in granite pegmatites and in nepheline syenite pegmatites. Also in high-grade metamorphic rocks and in placer deposits. 1 2 1

Popularity (1-4) Prevalence (1-3) Demand (1-3) Zircon ON EBAY

VARIETIES

Cyrtolite - Variety of Zircon with traces of radioactive elements in its chemical structure. Cyrtolite is a metamict and unstable mineral.

Jacinth - Yellow, orange, brown, or red variety of Zircon. Also synonym of Hyacinth.

Jargon - Colorless, pale gray, or pale yellow variety of Zircon.

Seiland Zircon - Lustrous dark red Zircon from Seiland Island, Norway.

Starlite - Blue gem variety of Zircon.

USES Zircon is an important gemstone, with several color forms used in various forms of jewelry. Zircon is also the most significant ore of the element zirconium, and it is also the most important ore of the rare element hafnium, which can be present in considerable quantities in Zircon. In several localities, Zircon is also an ore of the radioactive element thorium.

NOTEWORTHY LOCALITIES Many good localities for Zircon are known worldwide. In Russia, excellent Zircon specimens come from the Lovozero Massif in the Kola Peninsula; and at Vishnevye in the Ural Mountains. Sharp, lustrous brownish-red crystals come from Pakistan in Gilgit, Chilas, and Harchu; and crystals of similar quality from Darra-i-Pech, Nangarhar Province, Afghanistan. Transparent gemmy green and brown Zircon comes from Mogok, Burma (Myanmar); and large elongated crystals from the Giant Crystal Quarry, Ratnapura, Sri Lanka. Important European Zircon localities include Store Kufjord, Seiland Island, Norway (famous for its fabulous transparent dark red crystals); the Nibbio mine, Mergozzo, Piedmont, Italy; the alluvials of Rochefort-Montagne, Puy-de-Dme, Auvergne, France; and the Laach lake volcanic complex, Eifel Mts, Germany (as strangely-colored white and light yellow crystals). Large, dull crystals come from Mud Tank in the Harts Ranges, Northern Territory, Australia; and short, stubby pyramidal crystals from Peixe, Goias, Brazil. Outstanding cream-colored Zircon crystals come from Mount Malosa, Zomba Region, Malawi; and large crystals have come from several of the Madagascar pegmatites, especially in the Amboasary District, Tular Province. In Canada, one of the most exceptional Zircon localities is the Bancroft District, Hastings Co., Ontario (especially in Dungannon Township). Large, well formed crystals are famous from Tory Hill, Wilberforce, Haliburton Co., Ontario. Lustrous sharp crystals come from the famous Poudrette quarry, Mont Saint-Hilaire, Qubec; and large crystals from the Kipawa Alkaline complex, Lac Sheffield, Tmiscamingue, Qubec. In the U.S., one of the most important localities is the Eureka Tunnel, St. Peters Dome, Cheyenne District, El Paso Co., Colorado. Very good Zircon crystals come from Pacoima Canyon in the San Gabriel Mts, Los Angeles Co., California; and an old Zircon locality that once produced fine large crystals is the Wichita National Wildlife Refuge near Indiahoma, Comanche Co., Oklahoma. Doubly terminated gray floater crystals come from Zirconia and Tuxedo, Henderson Co., North Carolina. Massive Cyrtolite comes from Spruce Pine, Mitchell Co., North Carolina; and large sharp crystals from the Tigerville Prospect, Greenville Co., South Carolina.

COMMON MINERAL ASSOCIATIONS Albite, Quartz, Biotite, Chlorite, Orthoclase, Nepheline, Monazite, Xenotime, Aegirine, Garnet DISTINGUISHING SIMILAR MINERALS Vesuvianite - Softer (6), lighter in weight. Cassiterite - Heavier. Spinel - Zircon in pseudo-octahedral form can be similar, though Spinel is lighter in weight (3.5 - 4.1). Anatase - Slightly different crystal habits, often striated, softer. Hafnon - Cannot be distinguished without complex tests.

The Mineral schorlomite

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Schorlomite is sometimes regarded as a titanium-rich variety of Andradite, but it is recognized by the IMA as a distinct mineral species. Schorlomite is a rare member of the Garnet group, and some specimens labeled as Schorlomite are really just the Melanite form of Andradite. Schorlomite is named for its resemblance to the black Tourmaline mineral Schorl.

Chemical Formula Ca3(Fe3+,Ti)2(Si,Ti)3O12 Composition Color Streak Hardness Crystal System 3D Crystal Atlas
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Calcium iron titanium silicate Dark brownish-black to black Colorless 7 - 7.5 Isometric

Crystal Forms and Aggregates Transparency Specific Gravity Luster Cleavage Fracture Tenacity In Group Striking Features

As small dodecahedral and trapezohedral crystals. Crystals are usually microcrystalline. Also grainy and massive. Opaque 3.8 - 3.9 Vitreous None Conchoidal to uneven Brittle Silicates; Nesosilicates; Garnet Group Color, crystals, and environment

Environment Popularity (1-4) Prevalence (1-3) Demand (1-3)

In alkaline-rich igneous environments. 4 3 3

Schorlomite ON EBAY

OTHER NAMES Ferrotitanite

NOTEWORTHY LOCALITIES Schorlomite is not a common mineral. Its type locality, which has produced good individual crystals, is Magnet Cove, Hot Spring Co., Arkansas. Other localities include Jabal BouAgrao, Khnifra Province, Morocco; Tanfit, Ouarzazate Province, Morocco; and Hillesheim, in the Eifel Mountains of Germany. COMMON MINERAL ASSOCIATIONS Calcite, Magnetite, Orthoclase, Nepheline, Apatite

The Mineral uvarovite

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Uvarovite is a rare member of the Garnet group that is consistently deep green in color. Its most widespread habit is as lustrous, tiny, emerald-green crystals densely coating a matrix. Uvarovite is the only true chromium Garnet; other forms of Garnet such as Andradite and Grossular may have a deep green color due to chromium impurities and can sometimes be mistakenly labeled as Uvarovite. Uvarovite was first discovered in 1832 by Germain Henri Hess, who named the new mineral after Count Sergei Semenovitch Uvarov (1765-1855), a Russian statesman and mineral collector.

Chemical Formula Ca3Cr2Si3O12 Composition Color Streak Hardness Crystal System Calcium chromium silicate Green to emerald-green Colorless 6.5 - 7 Isometric

3D Crystal Atlas
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Crystal Forms and Aggregates Transparency Specific Gravity Luster Cleavage Fracture Tenacity In Group Striking Features Environment

Most often in drusy groupings of dodecahedral crystals. Seldom in single crystals. Also in crusty and spiky aggregates of tiny crystals. Translucent 3.7 - 3.8 Vitreous to adamantine None Conchoidal to uneven Brittle Silicates; Nesosilicates; Garnet Group Color, crystal aggregates, and hardness In metamorphic chromium-rich environments, especially Serpentine deposits. 2 3 1

Popularity (1-4) Prevalence (1-3) Demand (1-3)

Uvarovite ON EBAY

OTHER NAMES Synonym of Uvarovite. May also refer to other green chromium-rich Chrome Garnet forms of Garnet such as deep emerald-green Demantoid and Grossular.

USES Uvarovite crystals are too small to be faceted into gemstones. However, plates of Uvarovite crystals are sometimes polished in cabochons and used as pendants. Also see the gemstone section on Uvarovite and Garnet. Uvarovite is also a rare mineral with a very interesting color, and is very well sought by mineral collectors. NOTEWORTHY LOCALITIES Uvarovite is a rare mineral, and its occurrences are limited. The largest crystals of this mineral come from Outukumpu, Finland, where they come as individual crystals often

embedded in a matrix. The most prolific Uvarovite and type locality is the Saranovskii Mine in Sarany, in the Ural Mountains of Russia, where it occurs as small emerald-green crystal grouping often covering a matrix. Small crystals are found in Val Malenco, Lombardy, Italy; and in the Kop Krom mine, Erzerum, Turkey. In the U.S., Uvarovite occurs in California in Jackson, Amador Co.; Jacksonville, Tuolumne Co.; and near Livermore, Alameda Co. COMMON MINERAL ASSOCIATIONS Chromite, Olivine, Serpentine, Diopside, Tremolite, Chalcopyrite DISTINGUISHING SIMILAR MINERALS Grossular - Usually in larger crystals, which are paler in color and are less lustrous. Demantoid - Usually occurs in larger crystals, color not usually as deep emerald-green; otherwise very hard to distinguish. Dioptase - Softer, occurs in different crystals and environments. Torbernite and Zeunerite - Softer, occur in different crystals forms and environments.

The Mineral grossular

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Grossular is member of the Garnet group, and is its most varicolored form, occurring in almost all colors except for blue. Grossular is often dark in color, but it also forms the lightest colored forms of Garnet, and can even be white or colorless. Although not as famous as Almandine and Pyrope, Grossular has some important gem varieties. These include the rare emerald-green Tsavorite and the orange to orange-brown Hessonite. Grossular forms a solid solution series with Andradite, and can be virtually indistinguishable from it in localities where they both occur together. In some localities such as Mali, a distinction between these two Garnets is sometimes too complex, and a specimen may just be called "Andradite/Grossular since its full identification is lacking. Grossular is named for its color resemblance to gooseberries, which are scientifically known as ribes grossularium.

Chemical Formula Ca3Al2Si3O12 Composition Variable Formula Color Calcium aluminum silicate, often with some iron, manganese, or chromium replacing some aluminum Ca3(Al,Fe3+,Mn,Cr)2Si3O12 Brown, orange, green, yellow-green, and gray. Less often pink, red, and yellow. Rarely white, and colorless. Some massive specimens may be multicolored white, light green, and pink. Colorless 6.5 - 7.5 Isometric

Streak Hardness Crystal System 3D Crystal Atlas


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Crystal Forms and Aggregates

Usually in sharp dodecahedral crystals and dense dodecahedral aggregates. Crystals often have growth patterns, etchings, and striations. Occasionally in trapezohedral crystal or trapezohedraldodecahedral modifications. Also massive and in dense growths of tiny crystals. Transparent to nearly opaque 3.6 Vitreous None Conchoidal to uneven Brittle Occasionally fluorescent in ultraviolet light. Silicates; Nesosilicates; Garnet Group Crystal forms and common association with Vesuvianite In contact metamorphic rocks in skarns and hornfels and in asbestos Serpentine deposits. 2 2 1

Transparency Specific Gravity Luster Cleavage Fracture Tenacity Other ID Marks In Group Striking Features Environment

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Grossular ON EBAY

OTHER NAMES Grossularite Wiluite VARIETIES

African Jade - Synonym of Transvaal Jade.

Hessonite

- Orange to orange-brown, transparent variety of Grossular Garnet.

Hydrogrossular - Synonym of Hydrogarnet

Leuco-garnet - Colorless, transparent variety of Grossular Garnet.

Mali Garnet - Garnet from the African country of Mali that ranges from green to yellow to brown (though most often a greenish-yellow). The deposit of these Garnets was discovered in Mali in 1994, and their scientific classification is not clearly identified; they can be either Grossular or Andradite depending on their chemical composition. X-ray analysis has determined most of these Garnets to be an intermediary form of the Grossular / Andradite series, though closer in chemical structure to Grossular. Although this is a relatively new term, it has become extensively used in the gem trade.

Raspberry Garnet - Raspberry-red Grossular Garnet from Coahuila, Mexico. the Lake Jaco area in Sierra de la Cruz,

Rosolite - Pink to raspberry-red variety of Grossular Garnet from the Lake Jaco area in Sierra de la Cruz, Coahuila, Mexico.

Transvaal Jade - Massive veins of opaque Grossular Garnet that resembles Jade. It is white to light green in color, and may be colored in a white, green, and pink combination. See Hydrogarnet for more details.

Tsavorite - Rare emerald-green, transparent variety of Grossular Garnet from Kenya and Tanzania in Africa. Tsavorite is a relatively recent gemstone, with the term "Tsavorite" first being coined by Tiffany and Co. in the 1970's. Though its name is not historically significant and has been only recently coined, this term has become widely used and accepted in the gemstone industry. For more detailed see the gemstone section on Tsavorite.

USES Although slightly softer than other Garnets, Grossular Garnets have good color and transparency and make good gemstones, though large cuttable crystals are uncommon. The most prized Grossular gemstone is the rare and valuable emerald-green Tsavorite. Hessonite is occasionally used as a gemstone, as well as the light green to yellowish-green variety. The massive, vein-like material usually categorized as Hydrogrossular is occasionally carved into ornaments and cabochons. See the gemstone section on Grossular, Tsavorite, and Garnet for more information. Grossular is a valuable mineral to collectors, and good transparent specimens can demand a high price.

NOTEWORTHY LOCALITIES Grossular has many good localities worldwide. This list describes some of the better-known locations. Italy is famous for its many Grossular occurrences, especially the Hessonite variety; noteworthy Italian localities include the Val D'Ala; where it occurs with outstanding Diopside; Condove, Val D'Susa; Bellecombe, in the Val D'Aosta; Carboneri, in the Val D'Pellice; and Urbe, Savona Province. Other European localities are Felskinn, Saas Fee, Wallis, Switzerland; and the Ocna de Fier-Dognecea District, Banat Mts, Romania. The desirable deep green Tsavorite variety comes from the Scorpion Mine, Tsavo National Park, Kenya (hence its name); and the Merelani Hills, Arusha, Tanzania. Large brown floater crystals come from the Kayes Region, Mali. Light green crystals, sometimes in a rare trapezohedral form, come from the the Vilyui River Basin, Yakutia, Russia. In Mexico, exceptionally large crystals and clusters are found near Lake Jaco, in Sierra de la Cruz, Coahuila. Most crystals are beige to light-greenish-gray, though a very attractive raspberry-red form is found there as well. Perhaps the most outstanding locality of Grossular is the Jefferey Mine in Asbestos, Qubec, Canada. This mine was famous for its lustrous transparent brown Hessonite crystals, as well as a chromium-rich deep green form. Other occurrences in Qubec include the Thetford Mines and nearby Black Lake, which produce deep green chromium-rich crystals; and the Orford Nickel mine, St-Denis-de-Brompton, where electric green microcrystals embedded on Diopside were found.

In the U.S., some of the finest Grossular crystals have come from Eden Mills, Orleans & Lamoille Cos., Vermont, in sharp transparent crystals. Orange-brown Grossular comes from Maine at the Pitts-Tenney Quarry, Minot, Androscoggin Co.; and at Sanford, York Co. Small Grossular crystals embedded in large massive Grossular matrix can be found at West Redding, Fairfield Co., Connecticut. Other U.S. localities include the Hunting Hill quarry, Rockville, Montgomery Co., Maryland; Vesper Peak, Sultan Basin, Snohomish Co., Washington; Bishop, Inyo Co., California; and Havila, Kern Co., California. Light greenishgray floater crystals come from the Wah Wah Mountains in Beaver Co., Utah.

COMMON MINERAL ASSOCIATIONS Vesuvianite, Calcite, Diopside, Serpentine, Chlinoclore, Clinozoisite, Wollastonite, Quartz DISTINGUISHING SIMILAR MINERALS Spessartine - Very difficult to distinguish without complex methods, though Spessartine usually forms in trapezohedral crystals whereas Grossular forms in dodecahedral crystals. Andradite - Very difficult to distinguish without complex methods. Uvarovite - Usually darker green and in denser aggregates, and found only in chromium-rich deposits. Tourmaline - Lighter in weight, forms different crystals. Vesuvianite - Forms different crystals.

The Mineral pyrope

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Pyrope is a member of the Garnet group, and it makes a popular dark red gemstone. Pyrope is often free of flaws with good transparency, making it an important jewelry gemstone. Pyrope is much rarer than its Almandine counterpart, but it is generally more transparent and has less flaws than Almandine. A well-known environment of Pyrope is kimberlite pipes, where it can be associated together with Diamonds.

Chemical Formula Mg3Al2Si3O12 Composition Variable Formula Color Streak Hardness Crystal System 3D Crystal Atlas
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Magnesium aluminum silicate. The magnesium is often partially replaced with some iron, and sometimes also with manganese. (Mg,Fe,Mn)3Al2Si3O12 Deep red to nearly black; rose-red to violet. Colorless 7 - 7.5 Isometric

Crystal Forms and Aggregates

As single dodecahedral and trapezohedral crystals, and sometimes with slight growth modifications. Crystals are usually rounded or distorted, and are only occasionally well-formed. Also in dense crystal aggregates and in grainy form. Crystals are usually embedded unless found in placer deposits, where they are single and rounded. Transparent to nearly opaque 3.5 - 3.6 Vitreous None Conchoidal to uneven Brittle Silicates; Nesosilicates; Garnet Group Color, crystal form, hardness, and localities In intrusive igneous ultramafic rocks such as peridotite and kimberlite. Also in ultrahigh-pressure metamorphic rocks and in placer deposits. 2 2 1

Transparency Specific Gravity Luster Cleavage Fracture Tenacity In Group Striking Features Environment

Popularity (1-4) Prevalence (1-3) Demand (1-3) Pyrope ON EBAY

OTHER NAMES Arizona Ruby Bohemian Garnet Colorado Ruby Elie Ruby VARIETIES

Rhodolite - In gemstone terms, the expression Rhodolite usually refers to a rose-red form of Garnet that has a lighter color or more purplish color than typical Garnet gemstones. In mineral terms, it refers to an intermediary variety between the Pyrope and Almandine series, usually containing more magnesium than iron thus leaning closer towards Pyrope. See the gemstone Rhodolite for more detailed information.

USES The main use of Pyrope is as a gemstone. Its deep red color gives it special distinction, and it is a very popular Garnet gem. Pyrope is also crushed for use as an abrasive for the production of Garnet paper. See the gemstone section on Pyrope, Rhodolite, and Garnet for more information.

NOTEWORTHY LOCALITIES Pyrope is not a common mineral, and there are fewer localities for this Garnet than all other common Garnets except Uvarovite. European localities include Vestrev, Bohemia, Czech Republic; Gorduno, Ticino, Switzerland; and Elie Ness, Fife, Scotland ("Elie Ruby"). Important African deposits of gem Pyrope include the Umba River Valley, in the Tanga Region, Tanzania; and Lokirima, Turkana District, Kenya. Pyrope is also found in many of the South African Diamond mines, such as the famous Kimberly Mine. In the U.S., the most significant Pyrope deposit is near San Carlos (in the San Carlos Indian Reservation), Gila and Graham counties, Arizona. Significant deposits also exist near Fort Defiance (Buell Park and Garnet Ridge), Apache Co., Arizona. The variety Rhodolite comes from Cowee Creek, Macon Co., North Carolina. In Canada, Pyrope is found in Joli Township, Quebec.

COMMON MINERAL ASSOCIATIONS Olivine, Phlogopite, Hypersthene, Olivine, Arsenopyrite, Magnetite, Diamond DISTINGUISHING SIMILAR MINERALS Almandine - Usually in different environments, and often browner in color; otherwise difficult to distinguish. Grossular - Rarely as deep red as Pyrope. Andradite - Usually occurs in crystal groupings, whereas Pyrope occurs in individual crystals; otherwise indistinguishable by ordinary means Spinel - Occurs in different crystal types than Pyrope. Ruby - Harder (9), usually lighter in color, different crystal forms.

The Mineral almandine

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Almandine is the most common member of the Garnet group. It is also a popular gemstone and the most widely used Garnet in the gem trade. More gemstones are faceted from Almandine than any other type of Garnet. Only a small amount of Almandine crystals are transparent and light enough for gemstone use; most of the Almandine found is rough and opaque and not gem quality. Some Almandine Garnets display asterism when polished as cabochons, and are known as "Star Garnets".

Almandine is often embedded in a mica schists, and forms very nice matrix pieces with perfectly formed symmetrical crystals. The schist matrix often breaks up due to weathering, resulting in the Almandine crystals breaking loose into individual, perfectly formed floater crystals which may be quite large.

Chemical Formula Fe3Al2Si3O12 Composition Variable Formula Color Streak Hardness Crystal System 3D Crystal Atlas
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Iron aluminum silicate. The iron is sometimes partially replaced with magnesium and manganese. (Fe,Mg,Mn)3Al2Si3O12 Dark red, reddish-brown, black. May also be multicolored black with reddish edges or tinges. Rarely pink or purple. Colorless 7.5 - 8.5 Isometric

Crystal Forms and Aggregates

As well-formed dodecahedral and trapezohedral crystals, and occasionally in modified combinations of the two. Crystals may be striated or with stepped growth layers, and are sometimes warped into rounded ball-like forms. Also in dodecahedral crystal aggregates, grainy, massive, and as rounded waterworn crystals. Transparent to opaque 4.3 Vitreous None. May exhibit parting. Conchoidal to uneven Brittle Paramagnetic (becomes magnetic upon heating). Silicates; Nesosilicates; Garnet Group Crystal form, color, and hardness In regional metamorphic environments in mica schist, and in contact metamorphic hornfels. Also in igneous rocks in diorite and granite pegmatites, and as a sedimentary mineral in alluvial deposits. 2 1

Transparency Specific Gravity Luster Cleavage Fracture Tenacity Other ID Marks In Group Striking Features Environment

Popularity (1-4) Prevalence (1-3)

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Almandine ON EBAY

OTHER NAMES Alamandine Almandite Oriental Garnet VARIETIES

Common Garnet - Refers to dark, brownish-red to black, opaque Almandine Garnet.

Precious Garnet - Refers to a deep red, transparent form of Almandine or Pyrope Garnet.

Syrian Garnet - Almandine Garnet with a slightly purplish tinge.

USES When transparent, Almandine Garnet makes a very popular gemstone. Almandine Garnets are used in all forms of jewelry, and along with Pyrope make the most popular dark red jewelry gemstone. For more information, see the gemstone sections on Almandine and on Garnet. Well formed Almandine crystals are very popular among mineral collectors. Almandine is also industrially important for use as an abrasive, and when used as a sandpaper, it is known as garnet paper. NOTEWORTHY LOCALITIES Almandine is a very common mineral, and is found worldwide. Only those localities which have produced excellent specimens are mentioned. Some of the best crystallized Almandine embedded in mica schist come from the classic locality of the Ziller valley, in the North Tyrol, Austria. Also high up in the Alps, in an occurrence spanning two countries, is the

Granatenkogel Mountain, with the northern slope in the tztal, North Tyrol, Austria, and the southern slope in the Passiria Valley, Bolzano Province, Italy. Other important worldwide occurences include umperk, Moravia, Czech Republic; the Altay Mine in the Koktokay pegmatite field, Xinjiang Autonomous Region, China; the Thackaringa District, Yancowinna Co., New South Wales, Australia; and Serrote Redondo, Pedra Lavrada, Paraba, Brazil. In the U.S., perhaps the most well-known occurrences are Garnet Ledge and the Sitkine River on Wrangell Island, Alaska. This locality produces excellent crystals embedded in a shiny mica schist matrix. The Barton Garnet Mine, in Gore Mountain, North River, Warren Co., New York, touts itself as the world's largest Garnet mine, producing extensive amounts of Almandine for use as garnet paper. Very large crystals have come from there, they are all crude and incomplete. Large and historic Almandine crystals were found in various construction projects on the island of Manhattan (New York Co.) in New York City, New York over the past two centuries. In fact, one the largest complete Almandine crystals ever found in the U.S. originated from Midtown Manhattan, and is dubbed the "Subway Garnet". The New England states have a number of outstanding Almandine occurrences, including Green's Farm, Roxbury, Litchfield Co., Connecticut; the Nathan Hall Quarry, East Hampton, Middlesex Co., Connecticut; the Russell Garnet mine, Russell, Hampden Co., Massachusetts; Greenwood, Oxford Co., Maine; and Mt. Apatite, Auburn, Androscoggin Co., Maine. Excellent trapezohedral crystals came from the Hedgehog Hill Quarry, Peru, Oxford Co., Maine. Enormous Almandine crystals were found in the Sedalia Mine, Salida, Chaffee Co., Colorado, often coated with a mica layer; and lustrous dark crystals come from Garnet Hill, Ely, White Pine Co., Nevada. North Carolina has several localities, most noteworthy is Spruce Pine, Mitchell Co. Large Almandine crystals, including those that display asterism, are found at Emerald Creek, Latah Co; and Fernwood, Benewah Co., Idaho.

COMMON MINERAL ASSOCIATIONS Biotite, Muscovite, Quartz, Staurolite, Andalusite, Hornblende, Epidote, Magnetite, Nepheline, Leucite, Corundum DISTINGUISHING SIMILAR MINERALS Pyrope - Can be indistinguishable by ordinary means, though Pyrope is much rarer and limited in its localities. Grossular - Usually lighter in color than Almandine, and often found in specific localities where Almandine is not found; otherwise indistinguishable by ordinary means. Andradite - Other than locality differences, Andradite and Almandite cannot be indistinguishable by ordinary means. Spinel - Forms different crystals than Almandine. Ruby - Harder (9), usually more intense red, different crystal forms.

The Mineral spessartine

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Spessartine is member of the Garnet group, and is known for its aesthetic orange and reddish-orange colors. This form of Garnet was once much rarer, but new abundant finds in Tanzania, China, and Pakistan have really put Spessartine on the map, making it very well regarded. Spessartine forms a solid solution series with Almandine, and can be virtually indistinguishable from it in localities where both these Garnets occur together. Spessartine is named after the Spessart Mountains, in Bavaria, Germany, which is the type locality for this mineral.

Chemical Formula Mn3Al2Si3O12 Composition Variable Formula Color Streak Hardness Crystal System 3D Crystal Atlas
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Manganese aluminum silicate. The manganese is often replaced by some magnesium and iron. (Mn,Mg,Fe)3Al2Si3O12 Orange, brown, brownish-red, red, dark red, pink, yellowish-brown, yellow, gray, black. Sometimes multicolored red and black. Colorless 7 Isometric

Crystal Forms and Aggregates

Occurs in single trapezohedral crystals, often well developed. Less often in dodecahedral crystals or in trapezohedral-dodecahedral combinations. Also in dense crystal clusters, in grainy aggregates, drusy, massive, and in veins in host rock. Crystals are occasionally striated and are sometimes in heavily etched complex forms. Transparent to translucent 4.2 Vitreous None Conchoidal to uneven Brittle Silicates; Nesosilicates; Garnet Group Color, crystal forms, and hardness In igneous rocks in granite pegmatites, and in contact and regional metamorphic schists and hornfels.

Transparency Specific Gravity Luster Cleavage Fracture Tenacity In Group Striking Features Environment

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Spessartine ON EBAY

OTHER NAMES Spessartite VARIETIES

Malaya Garnet - Gemstone trade name for a reddish-orange form of Spessartine Garnet (or a more accurately a mixture intermediary between Spessartine and Pyrope) that originates in the Umba River Valley in Tanzania and Kenya. This term is sometimes also used as a synonym for Spessartine. Although this is a relatively new term, it has become accepted in the gem trade.

USES Transparent Spessartine can be faceted as a gemstone and used in jewelry. It is the most widely used orange and reddish-orange Garnet. Spessartine specimens, especially those recently found in Tanzania, are very popular among mineral collectors. Also see the gemstone section on Spessartite and Garnet.

NOTEWORTHY LOCALITIES A new outstanding occurrence of bright orange Spessartine crystals in Tanzania was first brought to the market in 2008. The deposit is in Nani, Loliondo, Arusha Region, near the Serengeti National Park. Bright orange crystals once came from Marienfluss, Kunene Region, Namibia, but these high quality Spessartine forms are very hard to come across today. Another important African locality is the Jos Plateu, Nigeria. Malaya Garnet (a trade name for Garnet intermediary between Spessartine and Pyrope) is well-known from Mwakaijembe in the Umba River Valley, Tanzania. Another recent outstanding discovery of Spessartine was in China, where it first discovered in the late 1990's in Tongbei and Yunling, Zhangzhou Prefecture. The Chinese Spessartine is often in dense aggregates of small gemmy crystals coating Smoky Quartz. The finest dark red Spessartine, usually associated with contrasting white Albite, comes from Pakistan at Shengus and the Shigar Valley, Skardu District; and in the Gilgit District. Spessartine of similar quality is also found in Darra-i-Pech, Nangarhar Province, Afghanistan.

Lustrous Spessartine, sometimes in complex crystals with deep etchings, comes from several of the gem pegmatite in Minas Gerais, Brazil, especially at Conselheiro Pena, So Jos da Safira, and Galilia, all in the Doce valley. Especially noted is the Navegadora Mine in So Jos da Safira which produces heavily etched contorted crystals. Other worldwide Spessartine occurrences include Broken Hill, New South Wales, Australia; Val Codera, Sondrio, Italy; San Piero in Campo, Elba Island, Italy; and Iveland, Aust-Agder, Norway. In the U.S., the most well-known occurrences of Spessartine are the Little Three Mine, Ramona, San Diego Co., California; the Pack Rat Mine, Jacumba, San Diego Co., California; Ruby Mountain, Nathrop, Chaffee Co., Colorado; East Grants Ridge, Cibola Co., New Mexico; and the Thomas Range, Juab Co., Utah.

COMMON MINERAL ASSOCIATIONS Quartz, Albite, Microcline, Orthoclase, Muscovite, Schorl, Topaz, Riebeckite, Magnetite, Rhodonite DISTINGUISHING SIMILAR MINERALS Pyrope - Color is usually deeper red. Grossular - Very hard to distinguish without complex methods, although Grossular crystals are rarely trapezohedral, whereas Spessartine is more often trapezohedral. Andradite - Very hard to distinguish without complex methods.

The garnet Mineral Group

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Garnet is not a single mineral, but a group contains closely related, isomorphous minerals that form a series with each other. The Garnet members form intermediary minerals between each member, and may even intergrow within a single crystal. The Garnets vary only slightly in physical properties, and some of the members may be so similar that they are indistinguishable from one another without x-ray analysis. The common Garnets can be divided into two subgroups: Group 1: Garnets containing aluminum (Al) as their second element. These include Pyrope, Almandine, and Spessartine. ("Pyralspite") Group 2: Garnets containing calcium (Ca) as their first element. These include Uvarovite, Grossular, and Andradite. ("Ugrandite") The members of each group freely intermingle among one another. For example, the magnesium in Pyrope may be partially replaced by some iron from Almandine or by some manganese from Spessartine. However, between the two groups of Garnets, it is much rarer for them to intermingle.

Chemical Formula The Garnet Group is composed of several minerals with related chemical formulas. The generic formula for the common Garnets is: X2+3Y3+2Si3O12 X represents Ca, Fe2+, Mn, or Mg

Y represents Al, Cr, or Fe3+ A more comprehensive list can be found in The chemical formula of Garnet. The chemical formula for the main individual members of the Garnet group are: Pyrope: Mg3Al2Si3O12 Almandine: Fe2+3Al2Si3O12 Spessartine: Mn3Al2Si3O12 Grossular: Ca3Al2Si3O12 Andradite: Ca3Fe3+2Si3O12 Uvarovite: Ca3Cr2Si3O12 Composition Pyrope: Magnesium aluminum silicate Almandine: Iron aluminum silicate Spessartine: Manganese aluminum silicate Grossular: Calcium aluminum silicate Andradite: Calcium iron silicate Uvarovite: Calcium chromium silicate Red, brown, black, green, yellow, orange, pink, white, and colorless. (Garnets come in all colors with the exception of bluish shades.) Massive specimens from certain localities can be multicolored white, pink, and/or light green. Colorless 6.5 - 8.0 Isometric

Color

Streak Hardness Crystal System 3D Crystal Atlas


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Crystal Forms and Aggregates Transparency Specific Gravity Luster Cleavage Fracture Tenacity In Group

In well-formed, distinct, dodecahedral and trapezohedral crystals. Also in compact crystal groupings, grainy, massive, as rounded crystals, and as groups of small crystals. Transparent to opaque 3.5 - 4.3 Vitreous, adamantine, dull None. May exhibit parting. Conchoidal to uneven Brittle Silicates; Nesosilicates; Garnet Group

Striking Features Popularity (1-4) Prevalence (1-3) Demand (1-3) Garnet ON EBAY

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USES The Garnets are important minerals, and are primarily known for their gemstone uses. The transparent varieties are used in all forms of jewelry, with the most extensively used color being dark red. Other Garnet forms such as the reddish-orange Spessartine, yellow Grossular, and the green Tsavorite and Demantoid also make fine gemstones. See the gemstone section on Garnet for more detailed information, as well as the individual Garnet gemstone variety pages on Almandine, Pyrope, Rhodolite, Spessartite, Grossular, Tsavorite, Andradite, and Uvarovite for more detailed gemstone information on each Garnet gemstone form. Garnets with a high hardness are used as an abrasive, and can be made into sandpaper known as Garnet paper. Well formed crystals and interesting aggregates very popular among mineral collectors. NOTEWORTHY LOCALITIES See the individual Garnet member pages for detailed locality information for each form of Garnet.

COMMON MINERAL ASSOCIATIONS See Individual Garnets

The Mineral andradite

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Andradite is a member of the Garnet group, and although not as well-known as other Garnets such as Almandine or Pyrope, it is still fairly abundant and can produce fine Garnet gemstones. A valuable gem form of Andradite is the rare Demantoid, which is a transparent green variety that is highly lustrous with an adamantine luster. Andradite is named in honor of Jos Bonifcio de Andrada e Silva (1763-1838), a Brazilian mineralogist, statesman, professor, and poet, famous for his discovery of Andradite as well as several other important minerals such as Spodumene.

Chemical Formula Ca3Fe3+2Si3O12 Composition Calcium iron silicate, sometimes with some aluminum, chromium, or

titanium replacing some iron Variable Formula Color Ca3(Fe3+,Al,Cr,Ti)2Si3O12 Brown, reddish-brown, bronze, orange, yellow, green, brownish-green, gray, and black. Occasionally iridescent and multicolored with streaks of brownish yellow, reddish-brown, and black. Colorless 6.5 - 7.5 Isometric

Streak Hardness Crystal System 3D Crystal Atlas


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Crystal Forms and Aggregates

Most often as dodecahedral crystals and intergrown dodecahedral crystal groups. Occasionally trapezohedral, and sometimes in complex combinations of dodecahedral and trapezohedral crystals. Also occurs grainy, massive, and in dense spiky crystal agglomerates and balls. Transparent to opaque 3.8 - 3.9 Vitreous, adamantine, submetallic None Conchoidal to uneven Brittle Silicates; Nesosilicates; Garnet Group Crystal forms, color, hardness, and luster In contact metamorphic rocks in hornfels, metamorphosed limestones, and Serpentine deposits; also in igneous rock in basalt and in granite pegmatites; and in sedimentary placer deposits. 2 3 1

Transparency Specific Gravity Luster Cleavage Fracture Tenacity In Group Striking Features Environment

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Andradite ON EBAY

VARIETIES

Demantoid - Emerald-green to green, transparent variety of Andradite Garnet.

Mali Garnet - Garnet from the African country of Mali that ranges from green to yellow to brown (though most often a greenish-yellow). The deposit of these Garnets was discovered in Mali in 1994, and their scientific classification is not clearly identified; they can be either Grossular or Andradite depending on their chemical composition. X-ray analysis has determined most of these Garnets to be an intermediary form of the Grossular / Andradite series, though closer in chemical structure to Grossular. Although this is a relatively new term, it has become extensively used in the gem trade.

Melanite - Lustrous black opaque variety of Andradite Garnet.

Rainbow Garnet - Iridescent form of Andradite Garnet.

Schorlomite - Rare form of Garnet that is sometimes classified as a titanium-rich variety of Andradite. However, Schorlomite is scientifically classified as a individual mineral species.

Topazolite - Lemon-yellow to yellow-green variety of Andradite Garnet.

USES Andradite can be very lustrous, more so than the other Garnet forms, and makes good gemstones despite it being slightly lacking in hardness. The yellow, orange, brown, and black varieties can all faceted as Garnet jewelry, but the Demantoid variety is the main gem form of

Andradite (as well as one of the most valuable forms of Garnet). Also see the gemstone section on Andradite and Garnet. Andradite specimens, especially those in well-crystallized forms, can be highly sought after by mineral collectors. NOTEWORTHY LOCALITIES Though Andradite is a less common form of Garnet, there are many fine localities for this mineral. The most historical and well-known occurrence of the Demantoid variety is the Val Malenco, Sondrio, Italy. Another Italian Demantoid locality is the Val D'Ala. Good single crystals of Demantoid come from the Ural Mountains of Russia, especially at Korkodinskoe. A toothpaste-green Demantoid was recently discovered in Ghazni Province, Afghanistan; and deep emerald-green Demantoid from Soghan, Kerman Province, Iran. Two important African Demantoid occurences are Antetezambato, near Ambanja, Antsiranana Province, Madagascar; and the Tubussis 22 farm and Usakos, Karibib, Erongo Region, Namibia. Andradite of all colors comes from the famous occurences of Dal'negorsk, Primorskiy Kraj, Russia (especially at the Sinerechenskoye skarn occurrence). A dark greenish-brown Andradite comes from Marki Khel, Nangarhar Province, Afghanistan; and excellent dark lustrous crystals from Dashkesan, Azerbaijan. Good crystals, including an iridescent type, were found in the Kohse mine, Tenkawa, Japan. Very good Topazolite comes from Condove, Val D'Susa, Italy; and Melanite from San Vito, Monte Somma, Vesuvius, Italy. A rusty-brown Andradite comes from Mega Xhorio, Serifos Island, Greece; and sugary-textured crystals from Monforte, Portalegre District, Portugal. Very large brown and black Andradite crystals come from the Kayes Region, Mali, especially at Trantimou. An exceptional pink and red variety comes from the Kalahari manganese fields in South Africa, most notably in the Wessels Mine (Hotazel) and in the N'Chwaning Mines. In Canada, a rich emerald-green Demantoid in amphibole came from a find in the Jefferey Mine in Asbestos, Qubec. Also in Quebec is the famous Mont St. Hilaire deposit; and the Thetford Mines (and nearby Black Lake), which produce fine Andradite including deep green Demantoid. Lustrous black Melanite comes from the Ojos Espanoles Mine, Lzaro Crdenas, Chihuahua, Mexico. In the U.S,. a famous Andradite locality of brownish-green crystals and bronze Topazolite in dense crystal groupings is Stanley Butte (and Quartzite Mountain), in the San Carlos Indian Reservation, Graham Co., Arizona. Very large Andradite crystals come from Garnet Hill, Calaveras Co., California; and excellent lustrous black Melanite and Topazolite from several mines in the New Idria District in the Diablo Range, San Benito Co., California. Brownishred crystals come from the Nightingale District, Pershing County, Nevada. Good large single crystals of Melanite come from Magnet Cove, Hot Spring County, Arkansas; and the Cornwall Iron Mines, Lebanon Co., Pennsylvania. Andradite is abundant in Franklin and Ogdensburg, Sussex Co., New Jersey, and though mostly in massive form, good crystals have come from there as well. COMMON MINERAL ASSOCIATIONS Albite, Orthoclase, Calcite, Tremolite, Wollastonite, Serpentine, Biotite, Chlorite, Hedenbergite, Magnetite, Diopside, Epidote

DISTINGUISHING SIMILAR MINERALS Almandine, Spessartine, and Grossular - Can be very difficult to distinguish it from these other Garnets, although locality is often a good indicator. Uvarovite - Occurs in deeper colored green crystals and in aggregates of tiny crystals, as well as in a different environment.

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