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Chemical Formula S Composition Color Streak Hardness Crystal System 3D Crystal Atlas

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Sulfur Bright yellow to yellow-brown White 1.5 - 2.5 Orthorhombic

Crystal Forms and Aggregates

Steep bipyramidal and tabular crystals are common, sometimes occurring as hollow skeletons. Curved and rounded distorted crystals are also common. Small grains, wheat sheaves, and encrustings occur. Massive, earthy specimens are prevalent, and may have bubbly holes throughout. Transparent to opaque 2.0 - 2.1 Adamantine on clean, clear crystal surfaces; otherwise resinous or dull 3,2 Conchoidal Brittle 1) Cracks when exposed to heat 2) Dissolves in warm water 3) May have a greasy feel 4) Gives off a mild, sulfuric odor. Odor becomes strong if heated. Melts at only 226 F (108 C) and gives off a blue flame with fumes that smell like rotten eggs Native Elements; Non-Metallic Elements Color, softness, very low density, and habit of cracking when exposed to heat In sedimentary environments in evaporite and salt dome deposits, where it often is a product of breakdown of sulfates caused by cetain bacteria. In volcanic deposits in hot springs and fumaroles as a product of sublimation. Also occurs in igneous basalt rocks of recent volcanic activity. 1 1 1

Transparency Specific Gravity Luster Cleavage Fracture Tenacity Other ID Marks

Complex Tests In Group Striking Features Environment

Popularity (1-4) Prevalence (1-3) Demand (1-3)

Sulfur ON EBAY

OTHER NAMES Brimstone Native Sulfur Native Sulphur Sulphur VARIETIES

Rosickyite - Uncommon polymorph of Sulfur. Rosikyite crystallizes in the monoclinic system, whereas Sulfur crystallizes in the orthorhombic system. Other than that, they share the same properties. Since Rosickyite and Sulfur crystallize differently, they are scientifically classified as separate minerals. POLYMORPHS Rosickyite USES Sulfur is a common element, with many uses. Although most sulfur is extracted from sulfides, Native Sulfur, being common, is also used as a source. The fine specimens from Agrigento and Cattolico in Sicily, Italy, are highly sought by mineral collectors and command very high prices. Sulfur has many industrial uses. It is used in the manufacture of black powder, matches and explosives. It is also used to create rubber, in dyes, and as an insecticide and fungicide. It is also used in the manufacturing of sulfuric acid. NOTEWORTHY LOCALITIES The most famous and classic specimens have come from the Italian mines on the island of Sicily, in the form of well crystallized and brightly colored gemmy crystals which are highly sought after. Specific Sicilian deposits include Agrigento (Girgenti), the Cozzodisi Mine (Casteltermini), Cianciana, and Cattolico. Another outstanding Italian locality is the Perticara Mine, Pesaro-Urbino Province, on the Italian mainland. Two other classic European localities are the Vodinskoye Deposit, Samarskaya Russia; and the Machw mine, Tarnobrzeg, Poland. Bolivia has recently been producing an unending source of fabulous specimens from the remote El Desierto mine in Potos Department. Specimens include crystal plates on a crumbly matrix as well as some fairly large sized crystals. A well-known Mexican occurrence is San Felipe, in Baja California Norte.

In the U.S. fine Sulfur specimens have been found at Maybee, Monroe Co., Michigan; Steamboat Springs, Washoe Co., Nevada; and at Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming. The salt domes of Texas and Louisiana also contain vast Sulfur deposits, but the industrial mining methods destroys all crystals. A few drill cores from mining operations deep into the earth have in Texas and Louisiana have been found with fine Sulfur crystals on them, indicating that indeed excellent crystals within the earth are all but destroyed by the mining operations. COMMON MINERAL ASSOCIATIONS Aragonite, Barite, Celestine, Realgar, Cinnabar DISTINGUISHING SIMILAR MINERALS Due to its unique properties, Sulfur is easily distinguishable from all minerals

Chemical Formula CuFeS2 Composition Color Streak Hardness Crystal System 3D Crystal Atlas
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Copper iron sulfide Brass yellow to golden yellow; sometimes dark brown to black. Tarnishes to a multicolored purple, blue, and red. Black with a slightly green tinge 3.5 - 4 Tetragonal

Crystal Forms and Aggregates

Crystals resemble tetrahedrons and octahedrons, but they are slightly asymmetrical and therefore are categorized in the tetragonal system. Also occurs massive, grainy, reniform, and as groups of small, distorted crystals. Crystals are commonly striated in different directions on different crystal faces. Opaque 4.1 - 4.3 Metallic Indiscernible Uneven Brittle Tarnishes to an iridescent purple, blue, and red. Soluble in nitric acid, tingeing the solution blue

Transparency Specific Gravity Luster Cleavage Fracture Tenacity Other ID Marks Complex Tests

In Group Striking Features Environment

Simple Sulfides Low hardness, crystal form, iridescent tarnish, and brittleness In the sulfide zones of copper deposits, in hypothermal veins and mesothermal veins, hydrothermal replacement deposits, metamorphic schists, and in igneous intrusions and dikes. 2 1 1

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Chalcopyrite ON EBAY

OTHER NAMES Copper Pyrites Cupropyrite Yellow Copper VARIETIES

Blister Copper - Chalcopyrite in a globular or botryoidal rounded form.

Peacock Ore - Term used to describe Chalcopyrite or Bornite with a colorful iridescent tarnish effect, which is usually artificially enhanced with acid. Most Peacock Ore is sold as a variety of Bornite, when in fact most Peacock Ore is actually Chalcopyrite.

USES Chalcopyrite is the main ore of copper. Chalcopyrite is sometimes polished into beads and pendants as cheap jewelry. NOTEWORTHY LOCALITIES Chalcopyrite is a fairly common mineral, and therefore only the finest of localities will be mentioned. Large, well shaped crystals occur in numerous places in Cornwall, England, especially at the Carn Brea area. Baia Sprie (Felsobanya) and Kapnick both in Maramures Co., are famous Romanian occurrences. Very large crystals come from Krushev Dol, in the Rhodope Mountains of Bulgaria. In the Dreislar Mine, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany,

small Chalcopyrite crystals on white coxcomb Barite occur as an excellent combination with beautiful contrast. In China, large crystals occur at the Yaogangxian Mine, Hunan Province. Many fine crystals occur in Zacatecas Mexico, noteworthy are Concepcin del Oro and San Martn. The Huaron Mine in Cerro del Pasco, Peru is also a classic locality. In the U.S., the Tri-state district of Kansas, Oklahoma, and Missouri provides the notable localities of Joplin, Jasper Co., Missouri; Picher, Ottawa Co., Oklahoma; and Treece, Cherokee Co., Kansas. Other excellent occurrences are the Gilman District, Eagle Co., Colorado; Ouray, Ouray Co., Colorado; the Sweetwater Mine, Reynolds Co., Missouri; and Ellenville, Ulster Co., New York. The Chimney Rock Quarry in Bound Brook, Somerset Co., New Jersey, has produced unique reniform blobs, and the the French Creek Mine in Chester Co., Pennsylvania has produced huge crystals, many distorted and highly tarnished, which are highly sought after by collectors.

COMMON MINERAL ASSOCIATIONS Pyrite, Sphalerite, Bornite, Chalcocite, Barite, Dolomite, Fluorite, Quartz, Calcite DISTINGUISHING SIMILAR MINERALS Pyrite and Marcasite - Paler color, harder (6 - 6). Gold - Nonbrittle, much heavier (15.5 - 19.3). Bornite - Usually darker in color, more tarnish.

Chemical Formula SiO2 Composition Color Silicon dioxide White, blue, red, green, yellow, orange, brown, pink, purple, gray, black, colorless, and multicolored. Often banded in many different color combinations, and a few rarer forms are iridescent. White 7 Hexagonal Chalcedony, being a microcrystalline variety of the mineral Quartz, does not occur in visible crystals. It occurs in botryoidal, mammilary, stalactitic, massive, nodular forms, as smooth rounded pebbles, as banded masses, as amygdules, and as the linings of geodes. Transparent to opaque 2.6 - 2.7 Vitreous, waxy, or dull None

Streak Hardness Crystal System Crystal Forms and Aggregates

Transparency Specific Gravity Luster Cleavage

Fracture Tenacity Other ID Marks

Conchoidal Brittle 1) Commonly fluorescent, usually green or white. 2) Triboluminescent 3) Piezoelectric Dissolves in hydrofluoric acid Silicates; Tectosilicates; Silica Group Hardness and form Occurs in all mineral environments, especially in igneous environments. 1 1 1

Complex Tests In Group Striking Features Environment

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Chalcedony ON EBAY

OTHER NAMES Chalcedon Chalcedonite Chalcedonyx Microcrystalline Term used for Chalcedony, microcrystalline form of Quartz, to distinguish it from crystalline Quartz. Quartz VARIETIES Varieties for Agate and Jasper are listed separately.

Agate Jasper - Form of banded Jasper; a variety of both Agate and Jasper.

Agate - Banded variety of Chalcedony.

Aventurine - Opaque form of compact Quartz or Chalcedony containing small Mica, Hematite, or Goethite scales which cause a glistening effect. Aventurine is most often green but may also be other colors such as gray, orange, and brown. Although technically Aventurine is classified as rock due to its composition of several minerals, it most often is regarded as a variety of Quartz or Chalcedony.

Binghamite - Chalcedony with dense, parallel inclusions of Goethite. Its color is a multicolored yellowish to reddish, and it exhibits chatoyancy. Binghamite was found in the Cuyuna Iron Range in Minnesota, and is used as a rare gemstone.

Bloodstone - Dark green to greenish blue variety of Chalcedony speckled with red or brown spots. (May also refer to Hematite with red or brown spots.)

Carnelian - Red to amber-red translucent variety of Chalcedony.

Chert - Compact form of Chalcedony typically found as nodules in sedimentary rocks, usually with an off-white, gray, or cream color. Although technically Chert is classified as a rock due to its composition of other mineral impurities, it most often is regarded as a variety of Chalcedony.

Chrysoprase - Apple green variety of Chalcedony.

Fire Agate

- Form of Agate, or more properly Chalcedony, that is iridescent with a play of colors or "fire" similar to that of Opal. The play of color is caused by inclusions of Goethite or Limonite.

Flint - Massive, uniformly colored form of Chalcedony that is somewhat impure. Flint is wellknown for its sharp edges and usage as tools such as arrowheads by the early Native Americans. Although technically Flint is classified as a rock due to its composition of other mineral impurities, it most often is regarded as a variety of Chalcedony.

Hawk's Eye - Pseudomorph of compact Quartz after the fibrous mineral Crocidolite, with a chatoyant sheen, very similar to Tiger's Eye. It has a bluish-gray color, which differentiates it from Tiger's Eye which has a yellow-brown color.

Holly Blue - Translucent, violet-blue variety of Chalcedony, often used as a gemstone. It is sometimes banded.

Jasper - Opaque form of Chalcedony, most often used to describe brown, yellow, or reddish colors.

Moss Agate - Chalcedony containing dense inclusions of green Hornblende that cause the pattern to resemble moss. Moss Agate is not true Agate as it lacks the banding patterns of Agate.

Myrickite - Agate/Chalcedony or Opal with red bands or red spots of the mineral Cinnabar. It is named after Myrick Spring, San Bernardino Co., California.


- Form of Chalcedony or Agate that has a black base and white banding or a white upper layer. May also refer to a solid black Chalcedony. Occasionally also refers to banded Travertine or Tufa in the mineral form of Calcite or Aragonite with black and white bands.

Petrified Wood - Petrified Wood is wood that chemically replaced by a mineral substance. The replacement is usually Chalcedony, but Opal and a few other minerals are also known to replace the wood. When the wood becomes petrified, its original mold remains intact, but an entire new substance takes the place of what was once wood. When the mineral replacement of the wood is Chalcedony or Opal, the substance is also called "Silicafied Wood".

Plasma - Dark green variety of Chalcedony. It often contains small white or yellow spots.

Prase - Light to emerald green, transparent to translucent Quartz, with coloring caused from inclusions of green minerals, such as Actinolite, Hedenbergite, Chlorite, or Malachite.

Sard - Brownish to brownish-red, transparent to translucent form of Chalcedony.

Sardonyx - Form of Agate with parallel bands of brownish to red alternating with white or sometimes black bands.

Tiger's Eye - Pseudomorph of compact Quartz after the fibrous mineral Crocidolite. Tiger's Eye is famous for its chatoyant effect.

USES Chalcedony is a very important ornamental stone. The varieties Agate, Chrysoprase, Carnelian, Sard, Tiger's Eye, Bloodstone, Jasper, and Moss Agate are all carved into

cabochons and beads, making fine yet inexpensive gems. The apple-green variety, Chrysoprase, has a distinct color and commands a higher price than the other varieties. Light blue Chalcedony has also recently become popular as a gemstone. The Chalcedony varieties are very popular among amateur collectors and sold in tourist shops worldwide, especially in tumbled form. NOTEWORTHY LOCALITIES Chalcedony is extremely common and found worldwide in abundance. The localities of the banded variety Agate will be mentioned on a separate page. The original source of Chrysoprase is Szklary, Zbkowice, Poland; and significant deposits are in Marlborough, Queensland, Australia. The only significant deposits of Tiger's Eye are in Northern Cape Province, South Africa. Blue Chalcedony comes from the Chikwawa District, Malawi; and from Blinkpan, Namibia. Nice Chalcedony also comes from the Deccan Basalts of India, such as in Nasik and Jalgaon. Excellent Chalcedony pseudomorphs after coral come from several places in western Florida; notably the Tampa Bay, Hillsborough Co.; Tarpon Springs, Pinellas Co.; south of New Port Richey, Pasco Co; and along the banks of the Suwanee River in Hamilton, Columbia, and Suwanee Counties. COMMON MINERAL ASSOCIATIONS Quartz, Calcite DISTINGUISHING SIMILAR MINERALS Few minerals can be distinguished from Chalcedony. Opal may have similar forms, but its lower hardness can distinguish it