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CASE 1 The work involved during growth and expansion of the road crossing the bridge.

Before the accident occurred, approximately 30m of the existing drains in the street and next to the iron fence was torn down pedestrians. The contractor is demolishing iron fence on the promenade. During excavation work begins, it causes the foot rail that has been badly corroded fly with strong and fast and in contact with the employee who was standing near the pedestrian street. CAUSE OF ACCIDENT Accidents can happen if the employee fails to comply with all regulations. In this situation shows some of the mistakes that were made by the employer and the workers themselves in the course of the work. Among them are: The employee does not comply with the safe distance of 50meter away. Operator inexperience handling machinery. machinery operators negligent in the course of work. Employees did not wear proper safety equipment. machine operators did not check the machine first, before you disconnect the iron fence. it can lead to accidents. Current work is done, these workers did not identify the potential to cause skin and eyes of an accident. To be sure, the foot guard rail was badly corroded. Employees should first identify the rail situation before doing any work, it must be avoided an accident. HAZARD pinned down by the burden as being transported by crane. crushed between the machine and the object. contravention of iron fence between these machines.

SECURITY PLANNING Identify the hazards associated with the prior work. Interpretation of risk for each hazard identified. Set the prevention and control measures. Monitor work in progress. Taking into consideration: Weight of the load lifted. The size of the load lifted. The type of machinery to be used. The area / lift work. The type of lifting tackle (lifting tackle) to be used. Types of activities to be undertaken (lifting, moving)

OSHA LEGISLATION RESPONSIBILITIES OF EMPLOYER Every developer, main contractor, contractors and sub-contractors shall have a written statement of general policy relating to occupational safety and health of its employees in the workplace and other people who are not employees, who may be exposed to risk their safety and health. (Section 16, the Occupational Safety and Health Pekerjaan1994) Each principal contractor, contractors and sub-contractor shall prepare a health and safety manual which contains provisions to regulate the safety and health of employees and the public. (Section 15 (2) (a), the Occupational Safety and Health Act 1994) Each principal contractor, contractors and sub-contractors shall make an arrangement during the operation, handling, transportation, storage of plant and materials, to ensure the safety and health of employees and the public. (Section 15 (2) (b), the Occupational Safety and Health Pekerjaan1994) Every developer, main contractor, contractors and sub-contractors shall provide adequate provisions to ensure that the provisions to ensure the safety and health of its employees and the public to be implemented and maintained. Any owner, developer, main contractor, contractors and sub-contractors shall take adequate steps to develop and promote the health and safety program to ensure not only the safety and health at work, and even the public.

EMPLOYEE RESPONSIBILITIES Each employee is looking for a safe workplace, without the threat of health hazards and even other physical dangers. However, not all workers have a responsible attitude and the same willingness to ensuring their safety and health in the workplace. OSHA, 1994 also provides for the employee's responsibility to jointly deal with the injury employer (Satapah 1995) Pursuant to section 24 (I) OSHA, 1994, the employee is obligated as follows: a. Conscious regard for the safety and health of himself and the other person who may be affected by the acts or omissions at work b. Wear or use any equipment or clothing provided by the employer at all times for the purpose of preventing any risk to health and wellness. c. Comply with any direction or occupational health and safety measures introduced by the employer or other person by the Act or the regulations made thereunder. Section 25 AKKP 1994 stipulates that the obligation of employees to not interfere with or misuse anything provided or done in the interest of safety, health and welfare of workers.

CASE 2 An employee wishes to transfer the steel bar ties to job site with the help of two other employees. The employee is transferring bond steel bars used crane truck crane truck tires found that a shortage of the wind. The possibility that the employee did not realize the lack of wind on the crane truck. During the on going transfer of the bonds of steel bars fell upon the employee leaving the employee is injured and died.

SECURITY RISK MANAGEMENT The construction industry is among the most hazardous industrial surroundings, exposed to the risk of accidents. In order to ensure the safety of workers, construction companies are required to provide safety equipment and knowledge to their employees. In the construction industry, the level of security planning and management should be done carefully, follow the steps and procedures. Managers play an important role, especially at construction sites. Managers who are responsible can reduce accident risk by planning and responsive to employee safety. Level of employee awareness on safety at construction sites is one of the important things in the cause of accidents. CAUSE OF ACCIDENT Cause of accidents is very clear is that: . The crane operator negligent for not checking machinery used is safe or not safe to use before using it. machinery operators are not careful when carrying out work. Employees did not wear full safety equipment. The employer does not monitor during work in progress. machinery operators less skilled in handling these machines. During this work carried out, the machine operator did not identify the hazards that can cause accidents. Machines clear tires in control is less wind cause levels of truck stability is less stable and cause the steel bar fell. If the employee wishes to carry out the transfer of work steel workers must first identify the machinery that is used to pass transfer of the steel bar, it would be avoided if an accident occurs. HAZARD pinned down by the burden as being transported by the machinery. crushed between the machine and the object Being Hit by equipment or machinery

SECURITY ROLE: Identify the hazards associated with the work. Assessment of risks identified hazards Set the control measures. Monitor the measures implemented Taking into account factors weight of the load to be in foster the size of the load to be lifted the type of machinery used the type of hoist to be used in amulets types of activities to be undertaken

HOW TO WORK SAFE. 1. USE OF PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT While performing or conducting a job at construction sites or anywhere that we should use personal protective equipment which is equipment needed to provide protection to the wearer so that we can prevent accidents from happening. Some examples of personal equipment is the helmet, gloves, safety shoes, and others. 2. CREATING A SAFE WORK ENVIRONMENT. Even where we work we should be worked out on a safe and healthy. Therefore, it is entirely the responsibility of employers to provide a safe working environment clean and supervisors should ensure that all employees are given responsibilities. Among the work environment safe and healthy are: -

i. ii. iii. iv.

Ensure that tools, machines and vehicles safe. Fastened with regular check points and record monitoring results. Ensure that work procedures are carried out correctly, properly, safely, and in no way detrimental to health. Provide information, work instructions and training required for the work carried out properly.

3. RESPONSIBILITIES OF EMPLOYERS AND EMPLOYEES In the authorities, at least two written law relevant here, the Occupational Safety and Health Act 1994 (referred to as OSHA, 1994) and the Factories and Machinery Act 1967 (referred to as the FMA 1967). In the OSHA 1994, emphasized the general duties of employers and employees on safety. Section 15 AKKP 1994 stressing that it is the duty of every employer to ensure as far as possible, the safety of its employees, which include system issues and safe work procedures, safety equipment (used or the presence in situ) and place and atmosphere safe work. In particular, pursuant to Section 15 (1) AKKP 1994, the task of the safety of employees (including on the construction site) include: i. ii. iii. iv. Provision and maintenance of machinery and equipment, and safe systems of work, and no health risk. Establish and ensure the operation and use of machinery and equipment is safe. Provide information, instruction, training and supervision appropriate to the employee related to their safety while at work. Maintenance work and working conditions that are safe and is also a safe working environment as a whole to the employee.

KAJIAN KES 3 A subcontractor was engaged to carry out block laying and plastering works at blocks A and B of a building site. the foreman had given introductions to a worker at block A to clear some wooden palette at the work place after which he walked towards block B. about 5 minutes later,the foreman was seen sitting on top of a pile of debris at the second storey of block B. he was bleeding on the left side of his head and was pronounced dead by an ambulance officer.

Tidak berhati-hati semasa melakukan kerja. Pekerja tidak memakai pakaian keselamatan semasa melakukan kerja di tapak bina. Palet yang tidak disusun dengan kemas di bahagian bawah dan tidak meletakkan di kawasan yang selamat. Puing diletakan di kawasan yang tidak selamat.Jika puing ini jatuh boleh mengakibatkan kecederaan di atas kepala. Penyelia dipercayai telah terjatuh di bahagian sisi yang terbuka .Penyelia tersebut berkemungkinan telah hilang keseimbangan badanya semasa melakukan kerja-kerja di bahagian terbuka tersebut dan tidak memakai tali pinggang keselamatan semasa berada di hujung bangunan . Dengan itu, penyelia tersebut telah jatuh ke bawah

PENGENALPASTIAN HAZARD Semasa perancangan kerja, petaksiran yang sesuai perlulah dilakukan terlebih dahulu dan melaksanakan selepas pentaksiran dilakukan dan direkodkan.Bahan dan peralatan pula perlulah disusun dengan lebih teratur untuk menyingkirkan atau meminimumkan risiko di tempat kerja. Majikan bertanggungjawab melaksanakan penaksiran risiko supaya kemalangan tidak akan berulang lagi. Prinsip penaksiran risiko yang disenaraikan di bawah haruslah dipatuhi semasa menentukan kaedah dan jujukan kerja. a) Pengenalpastian hazad yang wujud daripada kerja yang dicadangkan; b) Pentaksiran risiko (kebarangkalian dan keterukan) apa-apa kemudaratan yang mungkin timbul; c) Pengalihan risiko, jika boleh dengan menukar kaedah atau proses yang dicadangkan d)Risiko perlulah dikawal atau disemak semula dan jika sesuai, kemaskini

Perancangan keselamatan Jika kita lihat pada Akta Kilang dan Jentera 1967 (AKJ 1967), terutama Bahagian II Akta, ia menekankan langkah-langkah atau aktiviti-aktiviti keselamatan pekerja yang perlu diambil oleh semua pihak di dalam industri (terutama oleh majikan). Ini temasuklah: (a)Menentukan kekukuhan binaan,lantai,atas,laluan,tangga,tempat berkerjaya selamat untuk pekerja; (b)Barang dan bahan yang disimpan selamat kepada pekerja; (c)Kaedah kerja (seperti cara mengangkat beban) yang tidak menyebabkan/memungkinkan mencederakan pekerja; (d)Keselamatan daripada kebakaran; dan mesin, jentera dan alatan kerja yang dipasang, dibaiki dan diselenggara perlulah mengambilkira keselamatan pekerja.

Secara lebih terperinci lagi, berkaitan penggunaan atau pemakaian alatan kerja, Peraturan Kilang dan Jentera (Keselamatan, Kesihatan dan Kebajikan) 1970 menyenaraikan peralatan-peralatan berkaitan yang termasuklah: (a)Alat pelindung muka (goggles) yang sesuai bagi kerja-kerja yang memerlukan ia dipakai (seperti kerja pemeterian); (b)Penutup telinga, (c)Pakaran keselamatan seperti baju, seluar, topi dan sarung tangan

PERUNDANGAN OSHA. KEWAJIPAN AM MAJIKAN Setiap pemaju, kontraktor utama, kontraktor dan sub-kontraktor hendaklah mempunyai satu kenyataan bertulis dasar amnya berkaitan dengan keselamatan dan kesihatan pekerjanya di tempat kerja dan orang lain yang bukan pekerjanya, yang mungkin terdedah kepada risiko keselamatan dan kesihatan mereka. (Seksyen 16, Akta Keselamatan dan Kesihatan Pekerjaan1994) Setiap kontraktor utama, kontraktor dan sub-kontraktor hendaklah menyediakan sesuatu manual keselamatan dan kesihatan yang mengandungi peruntukan untuk mengawal keselamatan dan kesihatan pekerja dan orang awam.

(Seksyen 15(2)(a), Akta Keselamatan dan Kesihatan Pekerjaan 1994) Setiap kontraktor utama, kontraktor dan sub-kontraktor hendaklah membuat suatu perkiraan semasa operasi, pengendalian, pengangkutan, penyimpanan loji dan bahan, bagi memastikan keselamatan dan kesihatan pekerja danorang awam. (Seksyen 15(2)(b), Akta Keselamatan dan Kesihatan Pekerjaan1994) Setiap pemaju, kontraktor utama, kontraktor dan sub-kontraktor hendaklah memastikan bahawa semua pekerja telah dimaklumkan dengan jelas berkaitan hazad pekerjaan mereka dan langkah berjaga-jaga yang perlu dan penyeliaan secukupnya untuk mengelakkan kemalangan, kecederaan dan risiko kepada kesihatan, khususnya kepada pekerja muda, pekerja yang baru diambil bekerja, pekerja yang buta huruf dan pekerja asing.

(Seksyen15(2)(c), Akta Keselamatan dan Kesihatan Pekerjaan 1994) Setiap pemaju, kontraktor utama, kontraktor dan sub-kontraktor hendaklahmenyediakan peruntukan yang secukupnya bagi memastikan bahawaperuntukan untuk memastikan keselamatan dan kesihatan pekerjanya danorang awam dilaksanakan dan dipelihara.7.6 Setiap pemilik, pemaju, kontraktor utama, kontraktor dan sub-kontraktor hendaklah mengambil langkah secukupnya untuk membangun danmenggalakkan program keselamatan dan kesihatan untuk memastikan bukansahaja keselamatan dan kesihatan pekerjanya, malah orang awam juga. KEWAJIPAN AM ARKITEK, JURUTERA DAN PEREKA BENTUK Di peringkat perancangan apa-apa kerja pembinaan atau kejuruteraan awam yang dicadangkan, pertimbangan khusus hendaklah diberikan, oleh mereka yang bertanggungjawab terhadap reka bentuk dan pembinaan, kepada keselamatan pekerja dan orang awam yang kemudiannya akan terjejas disebabkan oleh loji yang berkaitan dengan proses pembinaan struktur tersebut.

CADANGAN Membangunkan penyata kaedah yang betul untuk meletakkan penghadang. Menumpukkan bahan dengan betul. Perlu ada penyeliaan yang rapi untuk memastikan bahawa perlindungan diri peralatan digunakan dengan betul.