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Developed P D l d & Presented b d by: Prof. Ram N. Koner


Prof. Ram N. Koner

Digitally signed by Prof. Ram N. Koner DN: CN = Prof. Ram N. Koner, C = US Date: 2009.08.05 09:52:51 +05'30'

Tracing HR Development Ancient India

1. One can trace the ancient Indian education to the 3rd century BC. In the ancient days, sages and scholars imparted education orally, but after the development of letters, it took the form of writing. Palm leaves and barks of trees were used for education, and this in turn helped spread the written literature. 2. Temples and community centers took the role of school 3. With the spread of Buddhism, world famous educational institutions were established, th i tit ti t bli h d thus education b d ti became became available to all through, Nalanda, Vikramshila and Takshashila Takshashila.


Tracing HR Development Ancient India

4. Plastic Surgery was invented in India 125 types of surgical instruments existed 5. The science of mathematics was gifted to the world by India b I di 6. In the 11th Century, Muslims established elementary and secondar schools this led to the establishment secondary of Universities in cities like Delhi, Lucknow and Allahabad. Allahabad 7. With the arrival of the British, English education spread. p

Business Environment
1. Fierce competition 2. Rising demand for cost-effective solutions/services 3. Rising demand for higher quality of service/product 4. Stringent standards for adherence to regulatory requirements 4 S i d d f dh l i 5. Shortage of trained human resource There is Th i a continuous need f b i ti d for businesses t to: a) Evolve strategies for sustainable long-term growth b) Predict and manage changes in business environment c) Create unique identities that set them apart in the market d) Adopt sustainable strategies for continuous development of human resources

Present Indian Education System y

India has inherited a system of education from the British, which generates an aspiration for white-collar occupation. white collar occupation If India has to make best possible use of the industrial boom, boom the education system must produce multi-collar multi collar workforce. India has to look at its workforce along four collars
White collar: Its getting dirty Grey Collar: The knowledge workers are coming up y g g p Blue Collar: entry level, skilling, re-skilling before exit Rust Collar: This is the largest in our country (approx. 280 million the drop outs

Often Asked Questions Q

Are we in the right business? Do we have the right people? Are we in the right industries? Are we in the right states? Given the same country climate, why are we where we are? Is it because we have/lack? Purpose Standards of Behavior

Values Strategy

Definition of HRD
A set of systematic and planned activities designed by an organization to provide i members with the i i id its b ih h necessary knowledge and skills to meet current and future job demands demands. 1. Human Resource is the backbone of any organization 2. Properly trained and highly skilled human resource is the greatest asset of an organization g g 3. They contribute to efficiency, growth, increased p productivity and market reputation y p of an organization

Definition of HRD
To increase effectiveness and potential of human units
Individuals, Roles, Dyads Teams, Inter teams and Organization


Value Process of Human Resource Development p

INDIVIDUAL Self Management -Goal Orientation g Competence Building - KSA Advancement Potential Identification & Develop ROLE Optimal Stress Stretched Goals Linkages Importance Of Role Autonomy Decision, Initiatives DYAD (EMPLOYEE & SUPERVISOR) Trust Mutuality Helping Relationship Communication Give And Receive Feedback


HRD Systems y PMS Appraisal to Process Management pp g Career System Career Plan, Mentoring Reinforcement Reward & Recognition Development Development Of Human Units Culture Values in Action Self Renewal Self Examine, OD, Research Orientation


Developing Competencies p g p

What is Competency? Competency is the vital behavioral skills skills, knowledge and personal attributes that are translations of organizational capabilities and are deemed essential for success. They distinguish exemplary performers from adequate performers.



Components of Competency p p y
There are four major components of competency: Skill: capabilities acquired through practice. It can be a financial skill such as budgeting, or a verbal skill such as making a presentation. Knowledge: understanding acquired through learning. This refers to a body of information relevant to job performance. It is what people have to know to be able to perform a j b such as knowledge of policies and f job, h k l d f li i d procedures for a recruitment process.


Components of Competency p p y
Personal attributes: inherent characteristics which are brought to the job, representing the essential foundation upon which knowledge and skill can be developed. p g p Behavior: The observable demonstration of some competency, skill, knowledge and personal attributes. It p y, , g p is an essentially definitive expression of a competency in that it is a set of action that, presumably, can be observed, taught, learned, and measured.



Types and Levels of Competencies yp p

Technical/ Functional Managerial Human Relations Conceptual Administrative

Basic Intermediate Advanced Expert Trainer



Understanding Human Resource Development g p

1. Work-relevant Competencies have emerged as a promising concept for making human skills, knowledge and abilities manageable and addressable in a wide range of application areas 2. Such competencies provide adequate approximation of human performance as they can represent a set of skills, knowledge, and abilities that b l k l d d bili i h belong together and as h d competencies go beyond mere knowing towards workrelevant action 3. HR managers need to activate learning goals and outcomes thus connecting the individual and the organizational perspective via the competency abstraction


KSA Analysis for All Jobs

KSAs, Knowledge, Skills and Abilities are statements related to the unique qualifications and personal attributes necessary for the successful performance of a position. The primary purpose of KSAs is to measure those qualities that will set one candidate apart from the others. tf th th



Definition of KSA
Knowledge: an organized body of information, usually of a factual f t l or procedural nature which, if applied, makes adequate d l t hi h li d k d t performance on the job possible, e.g., knowledge of EEO and p personnel laws, regulations etc , g Skill: the proficient manual, verbal, or mental manipulation of data or things. Skills are measurable through testing, can be observed, and quantifiable, e.g., skill in counseling, negotiation Ability: the Abilit th power or capacity t perform an activity or t k at it to f ti it task t the present time. Abilities are evidenced through activities or behaviors that are similar to those required on the job, e.g., q j , g, ability to plan and organize work.



Organizations are driven by human capital and it is i crucial t h i l to have a scientific l k at thi f t i tifi look t this factor of production. HRM: Deals with optimum utilization of p human capital
An integrative & supportive function

HRD: Deals with development and up upgradation of human capital

An independent function


HRM vs. HRD HRM takes the stock of human capital as given and tries to optimally allocate it among different processes /activities such that output is maximized maximized. HRD on the other hand tries to bring about qualitative changes i thi stock of h lit ti h in this t k f human capital in accordance with the needs of the organization ( d strategic) and corporate i ti (read t t i ) d t objectives. It tries to mould the stock as per requirements i t


A Telescopic View of HRD

Managerial Functions of HRM Operative Functions of HRM Objectives & Policies of HRM

Employment Planning

HR Dev.

Comp. Mgmt.

Human Relations Motivaton

Perf. App. Org design Recruitment Training Job design g Selection Career pl Induction Job analysis y

Job Eva Morale Wages Job satisfaction Communication Grievance Quality of Life Discp. action 21



Industrial Relations

Relationship Between HRM & HRD p

Human resource management (HRM) encompasses many functions Human resource development (HRD) is just one of the functions within HRM



Primary Functions of HRM y

Human resource planning Equal employment opportunity Staffing ( St ffi (recruitment and selection) it t d l ti ) Compensation and benefits Employee and labor relations , y, y Health, safety, and security Human resource development


Secondary Functions of HRM y

Organization and job design Performance management/ performance pp y appraisal systems Research and information systems



Evolution of HRD
Early apprenticeship programs Early vocational education programs Early f t E l factory schools h l Early training for unskilled/semiskilled Human relations movement gp Establishment of training profession Emergence of HRD


Early Apprenticeship Programs y pp p g

Artisans in 1700s Artisans had to train their own workers Guild schools Early workmens unions)



Early Vocational Education Programs y g

1809 DeWitt Clintons manual school g 1863 President Lincoln signs the LandGrant Act promoting A&M colleges 1917 Smith-Hughes Act provides funding Smith Hughes for vocational education at the state level



Early Factory Schools y y

Industrial Revolution increases need for trained workers to design, build, and repair y machines used by unskilled workers Companies started machinist and mechanical schools in-house Shorter and more narrowly-focused than apprenticeship programs



Early Training for Unskilled & Semiskilled Workers

Mass production
Semiskilled and unskilled workers Production line one task = one worker

World War I
Retool & retrain Show, T ll D Ch k (OJT) Sh Tell, Do, Check



Human Relations Movement

Factory system often abused workers Human relations movement promoted better l i db working conditions Start of business & management education y Tied to Maslows hierarchy of needs



Establishment of Training Profession g

Outbreak of WWII increased the need for trained workers Federal government started the Training y (TWI) program )p g Within Industry ( 1942 American Society for Training Directors (ASTD) formed



Emergence of HRD g
Employee needs extend beyond the training classroom Includes coaching, group work, and problem solving p y p Need for basic employee development Need for structured career development ASTD changes its name to the American Society for Training and Development


Line vs. Staff Authority y

Line Authority given to managers directly responsible for the production of goods and services (direct function) Staff A th it St ff Authority given to units that advise i t it th t d i and consult line units



Limits of Authority y
HRM & HRD units have staff authority ( (Overhead function) ) Line authority takes precedence Scope of authority how far (how much) can you authorize?



HRD Functions

Training and development ( g p (T&D) ) Organizational development Career development



Training & Development g p

Training improving the knowledge, skills and attitudes of employees for the short-term, particular to a specific job or task e.g.,
Employee orientation Skills & technical training g Coaching Counseling



Training & Development g p

Development preparing for future responsibilities and roles, while increasing the roles capacity to perform at a current job
Management training Supervisor development



Organizational Development g p
The process of improving an organizations g effectiveness and members well-being through the application of behavioral science concepts and techniques Focuses on both macro- and micro-levels HRD plays the role of a change agent



Career Development p
Ongoing p g g process by which individuals y progress through series of changes until they achieve their personal level of maximum achievement.
Career planning Career management

W at What about retention of employees? Whose ete t o o e p oyees? W ose ROLE and RESPONSIBILITY is it?


Critical HRD Issues

Strategic management and HRD g g The supervisors role in HRD Organizational structure of HRD



Strategic Management & HRD g g

Strategic management aims to ensure organizational effectiveness for the foreseeable future e.g., maximizing profits in the next 3 to 5 years HRD aims to get managers and workers ready for new products, procedures, and materials



Supervisors Role in HRD p

Implements HRD programs and procedures On the job On-the-job training (OJT) Coaching/mentoring/counseling Career and employee development C d l d l t A front-line participant in HRD



Org. Structure of HRD Division g

Depends on company size industry and size, maturity No single structure used Depends in large part on how well the HRD manager b becomes an i tit ti l part of the institutional t f th company i.e., a revenue contributor, not just a revenue user



HRD Organization in a Large Corporation

Director Human Resource Development

HRD Research & Evaluation Specialist p

HRD Program Developer g p

Management Development Specialist

Skills Training Administrator

Organization Development Specialist

Career Development Counselor

On-the-job Training Coordinator

Safety Trainer

Sales Trainer



HRs Strategic Advisor Role g

Consults with corporate strategic thinkers Helps to articulate goals and strategies l i l l d i Develops HR plans Develops strategic planning education and gp g training programs



HR Systems Designer/Developer y g p
Assists HR manager in the design and development of HR systems p y Designs HR programs Develops intervention strategies Plans HR implementation actions



Organization Change Agent g g g

Develops more efficient work teams D l ffi i k Improves quality management Implements intervention strategies p g p Develops change reports



Organization Design Consultant g g

Designs work systems Develops effective alternative work designs l ff i l i kd i Implements changed systems



Learning Program Specialist g g p

Identifies needs of learners Develops and designs learning programs l dd i l i Prepares learning materials and learning aids Develops program objectives, lesson plans, g and strategies



Presents learning materials Leads and facilitates structured learning experiences pp p Selects appropriate instructional methods and techniques Delivers instruction



Individual Development & Career Counselor

Assists individuals in career planning Develops individual assessments Facilitates F ilit t career workshops kh Provides career guidance



Performance Consultant (Coach) ( )

Advises line management on appropriate interventions to improve individual and group p g p performance Provides intervention strategies Develops and provides coaching designs Implements coaching activities I l t hi ti iti




Assesses HRD practices and programs Determines HRD program effectiveness i ff i Develops requirements for changing HRD programs to address current and future problems



Challenges for HRD g

Changing workforce demographics Competing in global economy Eliminating the skills gap Need for lifelong learning N d f lif l l i Need for organizational learning



Need for Organizational Learning g g

Organizations must be able to learn, adapt, and change Principles:
Systems thinking Personal mastery Mental models Shared visions Team learning


A Framework for HRD Process

HRD efforts should use th f ll i four ff t h ld the following f phases (or stages): Needs assessment g Design Implementation Evaluation ( A DImE) (A DImE )



Summary of HRD y
HRD is too important to be left to amateurs HRD should be a revenue producer, not a producer revenue user HRD should b a central part of company h ld be t l t f You need to be able to talk MONEY



Thank You!!!