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EFFECT OF USING NATURAL NON-TRADITIONAL GROWTH PROMOTORS: 2- EFFECT OF FENUGREEK AND MONENSIN AS GROWTH PROMOTORS ON BEEF STEERS PERFORMANCE.

ABO-DONIA1 ,F.M.A., ;G.H. ZAZA1 and A.M. MANSOUR2 1- Animal Production Research Institute, A.R.C., DOKKI, GIZA, EGYPT. 2- Faculty of Agriculture, Ain Shams University, CAIRO, EGYPT ABSTRACT Fifteen baladi calves at eight months of age were randomly divided into three groups, 5 animals each. The initial average live body weight values were 206.8, 205.6 and 206.4 kg for groups 1, 2 and 3 respectively. Three complete rations were formulated from concentrates mixture (65%), wheat straw (30%) and molasses (5%). The first ration had neither monensin nor fenugreek and served as control, while second and third represented rations were supplemented with monensin (125 mg/h/d) or fenugreek seeds (3%) respectively. The experimental period lasted for 180 days followed by ten days digestibility trial. Results obtained indicated that monensin and fenugreek fed groups were (P<0.05) higher in final body weight, total gain and average daily gain compared with control group. Groups fed monensin and fenugreek rations showed (P<0.05) less kg of DMI, DCPI, TDNI/kg gain as well as less TDNI kg/h/d, TDNI kg/100 kg LBW, TDNI kg /W75, DEI Mcal./h/d DEI Mcal./ 100kg LBW, DEI Mcal./ W75, and CPI/h/d, DCPI/h/d, DCPI g/100kg LBW, DCPI g/kgW75 compared with control. No significant differences were found among tested groups in digestibility of DM, OM, CP and CF. On the other hand fenugreek group and the control had (P<0.05) higher EE digestibility compared with monensin group. Fenugreek group had (P<0.05) higher NFE digestibility compared with control and monenesin groups. No significant differences found among three tested groups in rumen NH3-N. However, fenugreek group recorded the lowest values of rumen NH3-N. Also differences among treatments in pH and molar proportion of TVFA,s production were insignificant. Acetic acid, propionic acid and butyric acid molar proportion production for the three tested group showed that control group had (P<0.05) higher acetic acid production compared with other groups at all sampling time. On the other hand, monensin and fenugreek fed groups showed higher (P<0.05) production of propionic acid compared with control. While no significant differences were found among treatments in butyric acid production. No significant differences were found among treatments in T.P, AL., GL. GOT and GPT while monensin fed group had (P<0.05) higher value of Urea compared with fenugreek and control fed groups. The best economical return was achieved by the group fed ration contained fenugreek followed by the group fed ration contained monensin and the lowest was the control. INTRODUCTION Fenugreek is a leguminous plant cultivated in Egypt as well as many other countries in the Mediterranean. Seeds of fenugreek contain alcoholic compound act as oxytocin hormone and also have

hypocholesterolemic and anti diabetic action (Petit et. al 1995; John and Sons 1996). Fenugreek seeds also rich in protein, fat and minerals (Ca, P, Fe, Zn and Mg) (James, 1984; Sharma, 1986 and Gupta et al, 1996). Monensin is a biologically active compound produced by a strain of streptomycin cinnamnesis (Haney and Hoehn, 1967) and belongs to the general class of compounds termed polyethers. Shumard and Callender, (1967) indicated that Monensin is effective in preventing coccidiosis in poultry, while, Fitzgerald and Mansfield (1973) found that it is effective against coccidiosis in ruminants and has moderate in-vitro activity against gram positive organism (Haney and Hoehn, 1967). Van Nevel et.al., (1969) indicated that fermentation of acetic and butyric acids is less efficient while fermentation of propionic acid is more efficient and theoretically reduces the large loss of methane associated with the production of acetic and butyric acid ( Wolin, 1960; Hungate, (1966). Blaxter (1962) refers to the efficiency of utilization of propionic acid in the ruminants tissue may be higher than that of the acetic acid. Nitrogen retention increased in ruminants by propionic more than either acetic or butyric acid (Eskeland et.al. 1974). Raun et al, (1976) reported that monensin was the first ionophore, which seemed to have a beneficial influence on ruminant nutrition. Decreasing rumenal ammonia production is the most important action of monensin in rumen (Chalupa, 1980). Van Nevel and Demeyer, (1977) found inhibition of proteolysis as a result of monensin addition in vitro. El-Waziry and Kamal (2001) found reduction in ruminal protein due to addition of monensen to sheep fed on berseem. A significant improvement in economic efficiency as well as (DM, OM, CF, NFE., CP AND EE) digestibility of lactating buffalo fed ration contained fenugreek (Khattab et al, 2001). The objective of this nutrients study was to investigate the effect of using fenugreek seeds and monensin as growth promoters on beef steers performance. MATERIALS and METHODS Fifteen baladi calves at eight months of age were randomly divided into three groups, 5 animals each. The initial average live body weight values were 206.8, 205.6 and 206.4 kg for groups 1, 2 and 3 respectively. Complete ration were formulated from concentrate mixture (65%), wheat straw (35%) and molasses (5%). The first ration had neither monensin nor fenugreek and served as control while second and third represented rations were supplemented with monensin (125 mg/h/d) or fenugreek seeds (3%) respectively. The experimental period lasted for 180 days followed by a ten days digestibility trial. Chemical composition of ingredients, concentrate mix as well as complete rations is presented in Table, 1, 2 and 3. Animals were fed individually twice a day at 8.00 a.m. and 2.00 p.m. while water provided 3 times/day. Weight of the animals were taken and recorded once every two weeks and feed intake was re-adjusted according to NRC (1984). Digestibility trial, rumen fluid samples and blood samples were carried out at the end of the experimental period. Fecal samples were collected from the rectum two times per day from 3 animals representing each group for 10 days to determine the digestibility of the nutrients by acid insoluble ash (AIA) method according to Van Keulen and Young (1977). Chemical analyses of feed and feces were determined according to A.O.A.C (1984). Rumen fluid samples were collected by using stomach tube from 3 animals per group before and after 4 h of feeding to determine ruminal pH, TVFA (Kromann et al., 1967), ammonia2

nitrogen concentration (Conway 1963) and molar proportions of TVFA (Erwin et al., 1961). Blood samples were drawn from jugular vein into heparinized tubes 4 hours after the morning feeding at the end of the digestibility trial and centrifuged for 20 min. at 1200 xg. The supernated was frozen at 20
o

C and stored for subsequent analysis. Plasma total protein (TP), albumin (AL), globulin (GL), urea,

GOT and GPT were determined by using kits. The experimental data were statistically analyzed as one way analysis of variance according to (SAS 1990). Significant differences among treatment means were detected using Duncans multiple range of test (1955). RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Chemical composition and feed formulation Chemical composition of ingredients, concentrate mixture, complete rations and its formulation are presented in Table 1 and 2. As shown in table 2, control, fenugreek and monensin rations have almost the same level of CP. Fenugreek seeds have been found to be a rich source of protein as demonstrated in Table 1 (Gupta et al, 1996; Udayasekhare and Sharma, 1987 and James , 1984) Animal performance As illustrated in Table 3, groups fed ration-contained monensin and fenugreek showed (P<0.05) higher final body weight, total gain and average daily gain compared with control group. Groups fed monensin and fenugreek rations showed (P<0.05) less kg of DMI, DCPI, TDNI/kg gain compared with control group. It is clear to notice in Table 4 that groups fed fenugreek and monensin rations showed less TDNI kg/h/d, TDNI kg/100 kg LBW, TDNI kg /W0.75, DEI Mcal/h/d, DEI Mcal/ 100kg LBW, kg DEI Mcal/ W0.75, and CPIg/h/d, DCPIg/h/d, DCPI g/100kg LBW, DCPI g/kgW0.75 compared with control fed group. No significant differences found among the three tested groups in average daily DMI (Fahmy et al, 2001). Boling et al (1977) reported that steers fed level 20 and 50mg/h/day monensin had higher ADG than control fed 25 mg/h/day. Oliver (1975) and Potter et al (1974) found significant higher increase in weight of steers fed 25, 50, 100 and 200 mg/h/day monensin. Byers (1980) found that DMI was reduced while growth gain and feed conversion of animal were not affected. He also reported that efficiency of utilizing feedstuff energy increased. Reduction in feed intake could be attributed to accumulation of rumenal lactic acid as the probable cause of digestive disturbance and the associated decline in intake (Burrin and Britton, 1986, 1988; Dunlop, 1972; Raun et al, 1976; Boling et al 1977, Duff et al, 1994 and El-Waziry and Kamel 2001, Davis and Erhart, 1976). Also, decline in feed intake from feeding monensin is believed to involve control via chemostatic mechanism resulted from an increased concentration of ruminal and blood propionate (Baile and Mayer, 1970). However, monenesin has also been shown to reduce the quantity of energy lost as methane, thereby increasing metabolizable energy of the diet. As a result of increased dietary metabolizable energy, monensin decreases the dry matter required for maintenance (Byers, 1980; Thornton and Owens, 1981; Wedegacrtner and Johanson, 1983). Fenugreek addition to beef and dairy animal found to increase growth performance and milk production (Abo-El-nor, 1999; Singh et al, 1991; El-Komy, 1996 and Allam et al, 1999). Khattab et al ( 2001) reported that lactating buffalo fed ration contained fenugreek had significantly higher milk yield than control. Abo-El-Nor (1999) found 3

similar insignificant decrease in DMI as found in this study. This insignificant decrease in DMI could be attributed to the gum in fenugreek seeds (Udayasekhara and Sharma, 1987) while Tomar et al (1996), Allam et al (1999) found increase in DMI with animal fed diet contained fenugreek seeds. Nutrients digestibility and feeding values of experimental rations As shown in Table 5, no significant differences were found among tested groups in digestibility of DM, OM, CP and CF. Similar results were reported by El-Wazery and Kamel (2001), Singh et al (1991) and Fahmy et al (2001). On the other hand group fed ration-contained fenugreek and the control had (P<0.05) higher EE digestibility compared with monensin fed group. Group fed fenugreek ration had (P<0.05) higher NFE digestibility compared with control and monenesin fed groups. These results are in agreement with results obtained by Khattab et al (2001) with fenugreek fed to lactating buffalo. The improvement of EE digestibility as a result of adding fenugreek to the ration could be attributed to the high content of EE and fatty acids in fenugreek and the fatty acid constituents in fenugreek. Nutritive value expressed in term of TDN and DCP showed no significant difference among three-tested group. El-saadany et al, (1999) found improvement in DM, CP and CF digestibility as well as TDN, SV and DCP of lactating buffalo fed on fenugreek seed as feed additive. Ruminal Fermentation As presented in Table 7, no significant differences found among three tested groups in NH3N concentration. However, fenugreek group recorded the lowest values of NH3-N. Also differences among treatments in pH and molar proportion of total volatile fatty acids (TVFA, s) production were insignificant. Burrin and Britton (1986) and (1988) found response to monensin supplementation resulted in higher ruminal pH because of reduced volatile fatty acids concentration. While Nagaraja et al (1982) found reduction in ruminal lactate lead to increase in ruminal and blood pH. It could be concluded that steers fed diet-contained monensin may have experienced higher ruminal pH levels than control. For fenugreek, Allam et al (1999) reported that fenugreek fed to Zaribi does had less TVFA.s compared with control. Acetic acid, propionic acid and butyric acid molar proportion production for the three-tested group are shown in Table 7. Control group had (P<0.05) higher acetic acid production compared with other groups at all sampling time. On the other hand, monensin and fenugreek fed groups showed higher (P<0.05) production of propionic acid compared with control. While no significant differences were found among treatments in butyric acid production. Boling et al (1977) in study with beef steers found lower acetic acid while production of propionic acid increased significantly compared with control. The increased propionate is in agreement with previous reports by Richardson et al (1974); Perry et al (1976); Boling et al (1977); and Byers (1980). Richardson et al (1976) mentioned that monensin theoretically increases the efficiency of converting feed energy to energy in the acid end products, which are available for absorption. The significant increase in propionic acid production and decrease in acetic acid production in the rumen as a result of feeding diet containing fenugreek seeds may be due to saponins compound in the seed (Goodal 1980 and Voldez et al 1986). 4

Blood Parameter As shown in Table 6, no significant differences were found among treatments in T.P, Al., GL. GOT and GPT while monensin fed group had (P<0.05) higher value of Urea compared with fenugreek and control fed groups. In agreement with previous experiments, monensin did not significantly increase blood glucose concentration (Johanson et al., 1986; Van Maanen et.al., 1978). While Armestrong and Spears, (1988) reported that i.v. monensin at non-physiological doses increased plasma glucose. Theurer et. al., (1990) reaffirmed that, in, cattle, glucose available for extrasplanclinic tissues is derived primarily via hepatic synthesis. Ionophores increase propionate production (Prange et al, 1978) which should provide more substrate for gluconeogensis. Raun et al (1976) reported that monensin caused small increased in urea N in steers. Duff et al (1994) found no major differences were observed for serum total protein, albumin or albumin- globulin ratio. Also GOT and GPT , the plasma enzymes (Galyean and Hallford 1983). Rashwan (1998) and Zeid (1998) found no significant effect on blood constituents while Nazar (1994) found significant effect as a results of using fenugreek as feed additive in feeding buffalo and goats. Economical evaluation As shown in Table 9 the best economical return was achieved by the group fed rationcontained fenugreek followed by the group fed ration contained monensin while the lowest was the control. These possitve economic and growth performance results of tested animal may encourage us to recommend using fenugreek as a natural feed additive at level of 3% of the concentrate ration and monensin as a non-natural feed additive at level of 150 mg/h/d of beef cattle without any adverse effect on their growth performance. REFRERENCES A.O.A.C. (1984). Association of Official Analytical Chemist. Official Methods of Analysis. 13 ed. Assoc. Offic. Anal. Chem. Washington, DC. Abo-El-Nor, S.A.H. (1999). Influence of fenugreek seed as galactagogues on milk yield composition and different blood biochemical of lactating buffaloes during mid lactation. Egypt J. dairy Sci., 27 (2): 231-238. acids in rumen digesta. J. Dairy Sci. 50: 73. Allam, M. Sabbah; Hoda, M El-Hosseiny; a.m. Abdel-Gwad; S.A. El-Sadany and A.M.M. Zeid (1999). Medicinal herbs and plants as feed additives for ruminants. 1. Effect of using some medicinal herbs and plants as feed additives on Zaraibi goat performance. Egyptian J. Nutrition and Feeds. 2; 349. Armstrong, J.D. and J.W. Spears. 1988. Intravenous administration of ionophores in ruminants. Effect on metabolism independent of rumen. J.Anim. Sci. 66:1807. Baile, C.A. and J. Mayer. 1970. Hypothalamic centers feed back and receptor sites in the short term central feed intake. In: A.T Phlipson (Ed.) Physiology of digestion and metabolism in the ruminant. P 254- Oriel Press. Blaxter, K. L. (1962). The energy metabolism of ruminants. Charles C. Thomas, Springfield, Illinois. P. 258. Boling, J. A. N. W. Bradly and L. D. Campell (1977). Monensin level for growing and finishing steer. J. Anim Sci. 44. No. (5): 867 871. Burrin D. G.; R. A. Stock and R. A. Britton (1988). Monensin level during grain adaptation and finishing performance in Cattle. J. Anim. Sci. 66: 513 521. Burrin, D.G; R.A. Stock and R. Britton. 1986. Response to monensin in cttle during subacute acidosis. J. Anim. Sci. 63: 888. Byers F .M. (1980). Determining effects of monensin on energy value of corn silage diets for beef cattle by linear semi-log method. J. Anim. Sci. Vol. 51 No. 1: 158 168. 5

Chalupa, W. (1980). Chemical control of rumen microbial metabolism. In Y. Ruckebusch and P. Thivend (Ed), digestive physiology and metabolism in ruminants. PP, 325, MTP Press Limited Lancaster. Conway, E.J., 1963. Micro-diffusion analysis and volumetric Error, pp 90-101. Davis, D. V. and A. B. Erhart (1976). Effects of feeding monensin and implanting diethylstilbestrol on the performance of finishing steers. Cattle feeders Day. Kansas Agri. Expr. Sta. Rep. Prog. 234. P.3 Duff, G.C.; M.L. Galean; M.E. Bronine and D.M Hallford. 1994. Effects of Duncan, D.B., 1955. Multiple Range and Multiple F. Test Biomet. 11:1. Dunlop,R.H. 1972. Pathogensis of ruminant lactoc acidosis. Adv. Vet. Sci. Comp.. Med. 16:259 El-Komy, A.G. (1996). Effect of black seed (Nigella sativa L.) during pregnancy and lactation on mammary gland development in rat.Alex-J.Agric. Res. 41 (1): 63. El-saadany, S.A.; M.M. Mohey El-Din; I.A. Abu-Ismail; S.M. Mohamed and N.M.El-Kholy (1999). Effect of some medicinal herbs as feed additives on buffalo milk. Egyptian J. Nutrition and feeds 2 (special issue): 505-512. El-Waziry, A. M. and H. E. M. Kamal, (2001). Effect of monensin supplementation on breseem hayprotein degradability, ruminal fermentation and nitrogen synthesis in sheep. Egyptian J. nutrition and feed (4): 3-12. Erwin, E.S, G.J. Macro and E.M Emery. 1961. Volatile fatty acids analysis of blood and serum fluid by gas chromatography. J. Dairy Sci. 44: 1788. Eskeland, B.; w. H. Pfander and r. L. Perston (1974). Intravenous energy infusion in lambs: effect on nitrogen retention, plasma free amino acids and plasma nitrogen. Brit. J. Nutri. 31: 201. Fahmy, A.A; S.A. attiaIsmail and Afaf M. Fayed 2001. Effect of monensin on salt plants utilization and sheep performance. Proc.8th Conf. Anim. Nutr., 23-26 October 2001, Sharm El-Sheikh, EGYPT. Fitzgerald, B. W. and M/ E. Mansfield (1973). Efficacy of monensin against bovine coccidiosis in young Holstein Friesian calves. J. Protozool. 20 (1): 121 126. Galyean, M.L. and D.M. Hallford. 1983. Serum profiles of beef steers in different production situations. Agri. Practice 4:33. Goodal, S.R. (1980). Sarsaponin effect upon ruminant digestion and feedlot performance. Ph.D. Diss. Colorado State Unive. Fortcollins. Gupta, K.; Thakral, K. K.; Arora, S.K. and Chowdhary, M.L. (1996). Structural carbohydrate and mineral contents of fenugreek seeds. Indian Coca, Arecenut- and Species Journal- 1996, 20: 4, 120. Haney, M. E. and M. M. Hoehn ( 1967). Monensin, a new biologically active compound. 1. Discovery and isolation. Anitmicrob. Agent Chemoster. P. 349. Hungate, R. E. (1966). Quantities of carbohydrate fermentation products. In R. e. Hungate (Ed.).in early lactation. J. Dairy Sci. 74:3047-3054 James, A.D. (1984). CRC Handbook of medicinal herbs, 490. Johanson, D.D.; G.E. Michell; R.E. Tuker and R.B Muntifring. 1986. Pancreatic amaylase, plasma glucose and insulin responses to porpionate or monensin in sheep. J. Dairy Sc. 69:52. John, W. and Sons, Inc. (1996). Encyclopedia of common natural ingredients. 243- 245. Khattab, H.M.; H.A. El-Alamy; S.A.H. Abo EL-Nor; F.A.F Salem and M.M.A. Abdou. (2001). Milk production response of lactating buffalo to ration supplemented with some medicinal plant feeds. Egyptian J. Nutrition and Feeds (2001) 4 (special issue): 527-528. Kromann, R.P., D.J. Meyer and W.J. Stielu. 1967. Steam distillation of volatile fatty acids in rumen digesta. J. Dairy Sci. 50: 73. Nagraja, T.G.; T.B. avery; E.E. Bartley; S.K. Roof and a.D. Daylon, 1982. Effect of lasalocid, monensin or thiopeptin on lactic acid acidosis in cattle. J Anim.Sci. 54:649. Nazar, F. A. A. (1994). The use of some medicinal plant as ruminant tonics of sheep. M.V.Sc. Thesis. Fac. of Vet. Med. Moshtohor, Zagazig Unive. NRC, 1984.Nutrient Requirements of Domestic Animals. No. 4. Nutrients Perry, T.W; J.W.M. Beeson and M.T. Mohier 1976. Effect of monensin on beef cattle performance. J Anim. Sci. 42:761. Petit, P.; Y Sauvaire; M. H. Jllaire; G. ponsin and G. Ribes (1995). Steroid saponins from fenugreek seeds. Extraction, purification and pharmacological investigation on feeding behavior and plasma cholesterol. Steroids. 60: 674. Potter E. I; C. O. Cooly; L. F. Richardson; A. P. Raun and R. P. Rathmacher, (1976). Effect of monensin on performance of cattle fed forage. J. Anim. Sci. Vol. 43. No. 3: 665 669. 6

Potter, E.L.; C.O. Cooley; A.P. Raun; L.F. Richardson and R.P. Rathmacher. 1974. Effect of monensin on daily gain of cattle on pasture. J.Anim. Sci. 18:1344 (Abstr.). Prange, R.W.; C.L. Davis and J.H. Clark. 1978. Propionate production in the rumen of Holstein steers fed either a contriol or monensin supplemented diet. J.Anim. Sci:46: 1120. Rashwan, A.A.(1998). Effect of dietary addition of anise, fenugreek and caraway on reproductive performance of New-Zealand white rabbit does. Egytian J. of rabbit Science. 8:2 157-167. Raun. A.P.; C.O. Coley; E.L.Potter; R.P. Rathmacher and L.F. Richardson 1976. Effect of monensin on feed efficiency of feedlot cattle. J. Anim. Sci. 43. 670. Richardson I. F., A. P. Raun; E. L. Potter; C. O. Cooley and R. P. Rathmachter (1974). Effect of monensin on rumenal fermentation in vitro and in vivo. J. anim. Sci. 39, 250 (Abstr.). Richardson, L.E.; A.P. Raun; E.L. Potter; C.O. Cooley and R.P. Rathmacher. 1976. Effect of monensin on ruminal fermentation in-vitro and in-vivo. J Anim. Sci. 43: (3). 657-664. SAS, 1990. SAS Statistics. Analysis System: SAS User's guid3: Inst., Inc., Cary N.C. U.S.A. Sharma, R. D. (1986). Effect of fenugreek seeds and leaves on blood glucose and serum insulin responses in human subject. Nutrition Research 6: 1353. Shumard, R. F. and M. E. Callender, (1967). Monensin a new biologically active compound. V. I. Anticoccidail activity. Antimicrobial agents and Chemste. P. 369. Singh, N.; R. Kumar; R. S. Yadau; M. A. Akbar and B. P. Sengupta (1991). Effect of some commonly used galactagogues on milk production and biogenic amines in buffaloes. Indian Vet. Med. J., 15:20. Theurer, C.B.: G.B. Huntington; A.T. Hubr; M.H. Pocre and R.S. Swingle. 1990. Net glucose and L-lactate absorption and visceral oxygen use in beef steers fed diet containing 77% dry rolled DR or steam-falked (SF) sorghum grains. J Anim. Sci. 68 (Suppl.1): 540 (Abstr.). Thornton, J.H. and F.N Owen. 1981 Monensin supplement and in-vivo methane production by steers. J. Anim. Sci. 52:628. Tomar, K.S.; V.P. Singh and R.S. Yadav (1996). Effect of feeding maithy (Trigonilla foenum graccum) and chandrasoor (Lepidum sativum)seeds on milk and blood constitunts of Murrah buffaloes. Indian J. Anim. Sci. 66:11 1192-1193. Udayasekhara, Rao. P and R.D. Sharma (1987). An evaluation of protein quality of fenugreek seeds 9trigomilla foenum graecum) and their supplementary effects. Foiod Chem. 24. 1-9. Valdez, F. R.; L. J. Bush; A. L. Goetsch and F. N. Owens (1986). Effect of steroidal sapogeneins on ruminal fermentation and on production of lactating dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 69 : 1568. Van Keulen, J. And Young, B. A. , 1977. Evaluation of acid insoluble ash a natural marker in ruminant digestibility studies. J. Anim. Sci. 44 282 287. Van Maanen, R.W.; J.H. Herbein; A.D. Mc Gilliard and J.W. Young, 1978. Efffectc of monensin on in-vivo rumen proionate production and blood glucose kinetic in cattle. J Nutr. 106:1002 Van Nevel, C. J and D. I Demeyer, (1977). Effect of monensin on rumen metabolism in vitro. Appl. Enver. Microbial,34:251. Van Nevel, C. J; H.K. Henderick; D. I Demeyer and J. Martin, 1969. Van Nevel, C. J; R.A Prins and D. I Demeyer, 1974. On the inverse relationship between methane and propionate in the rumen. Z.Tierphysiol. tierernahr. Futtermtteil. 33:121. Wedegacrtner, T.C. and D.E. Johanson. 1983. Monensin effect on digestibility, methanogensies and heat increment of a cracked corn silage diet fed to steers. J. Anim. Sci. 57: 168. Wolin, M. J. (1960). A theoretical rumen fermentation balance. J Dairy Sci. 43, 1452. Zeid, A.M.M. (1998). Effect of using some medicinal plants on goats performance. PH.D. Thesis. Fac. Agric. Cairo University.

Table (1): Chemical analysis of the feed ingredients on fresh matter basis:

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Ingredients DM OM CP CF EE NFE Ash NDF ADF Cell H-Cell ADL __________________________________ % _____________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ Soybean M. 93.22 83.30 44.00 4.89 0.47 37.94 5.92 35.85 27.01 23.30 8.82 7.73 Linseed C. 91.50 80.94 30.62 8.25 6.76 35.31 10.56 35.64 27.32 23.10 8.63 4.23 Yellow corn 90.37 80.39 8.98 4.57 4.78 62.06 9.98 32.63 22.93 20.68 9.70 2.25 Fenugreek 92.40 89.22 24.59 1.63 5.80 57.20 3.18 34.21 22.62 18.83 11.59 3.79 Wheat bran 90.49 85.13 11.87 10.83 2.68 59.75 5.36 44.63 31.56 27.35 13.07 4.21 NaCl 98.00 97.04 Lime stone 97.50 96.14 Min-mix 97.20 96.02 Molasses 69.27 58.02 3.01 0.1 54.91 11.25 Wheat straw 93.11 82.93 1.67 36.90 0.58 43.78 10.18 71.31 56.84 45.22 14.47 11.62

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Table (2): Formula of concentrate feed, experimental rations and its chemical composition on dry matter basis __________________________________________________________________________________ Items CM* CM** Control Monensin Fenugreek __________________________________________________________________________________ CFM* --------65 ----65 CFM** ------------65 ----Molasses --------5 5 5 Rice straw 30 30 30 Chemical composition on DM basis DM 91.27 91.33 90.72 90.75 90.72 OM 86.80 86.90 87.40 87.50 87.40 CP 19.60 20.00 13.60 13.80 13.60 CF 6.90 6.60 13.60 13.80 13.60 EE 4.20 4.30 2.90 3.00 2.90 NFE 56.10 56.00 54.20 54.10 54.20 Ash 13.20 13.10 12.60 12.50 12.60 Cell wall constituents NDF 38.10 37.70 48.50 48.20 48.50 ADF 27.50 27.10 36.80 36.50 36.80 ADL 3.40 3.40 6.10 6.00 6.10 Cellulose 24.10 23.80 30.70 30.50 30.70 H-Cellulose 10.60 10.60 11.70 11.70 11.70 Gross energy Mcal/Kg 4.469 4.351 4.415 __________________________________________________________________________________ *CFM1= Concentrate feed mixture 1: consistes of 15% soybean meal., 16% Linseed cake, 45% yellow corn, 20% wheat bran, 1% NaCl, 2% lime stone, ***1% Vit & Min. Mix. **CFM2 = Concentrate feed mixture2: consistes of 15% soybean meal., 16% Linseed cake, 45% yellow corn, 17% wheat bran, 3% fenugreek seeds, 1% NaCl, 2% lime stone, ***1% Vit.& Min. Mix. ***Each Kg of Vit. and Min. mix contains 97% NaCl, 0.35% Zn, 0.2% Mn, 0.2 Fe, 0.15% Mg, 0.03% Cu, 0.007% I, 0.0005% Co and 0.002% Se, 7511 IU/g Vit. A and 8800 IU/g Vit. D3

Table (3): Performance of calves fed rations contained Monensen and fenugreek _________________________________________________________________________________ Treatments Item Control Monensin Fenugreek SE Sign. __________________________________________________________________________________ No. of animal 5 5 5 Experiment duration/days 180 180 180 Initial L.B.W. (Kg) 206.8 205.6 206.4 7.9 Final L.B.W. ( kg) 376.2b 401.1a 410.4a 6.8 * Total gain (Kg) 169.4 195.8 204 Average daily gain (Kg) 0.941b 1.088a 1.133a 0.05 * Relative gain (% of Initial W) 81.82 95.23 98.84 Average daily DMI/h/d 6.25 6.24 6.15 0.19 Average daily DMI/100 kg 2.14a 1.63b 1.60b 0.01 * Average daily DMI/kg W0.75 89a 72b 71b 0.14 * Feed conversion Average DMI kg/kg gain 6.64a 5.74b 5.43b 0.30 * a b Average TDNI kg/Kg gain 5.15 4.26 4.14b 0.28 * Average DCPI kg/Kg gain 0.601a 0.502b 0.497b 0.11 * __________________________________________________________________________________ a,b,c Means in the same row or column within each parameter having different superscripts differ significantly (P<0.05) Table (4): Energy and nutrients intake of experimental groups __________________________________________________________________________________ ______________ Treatments_____________ Items Control Monensin Fenugreek SE Sign. __________________________________________________________________________________ TDNI Kg/h/d TDNI Kg/100 kg LBW TDNI /Kg W0.75 GE Mcal/h/d DE Mcal/h/d DE Mcal/ 100 kg LBW DE Mcal Kg W0.75 4.85 1.66 69 27.93 21.29 7.30a 30.20a 4.64. 1.21 54 27.15 20.36 5.31b 23.50b 4.69 1.22 54 27.15 20.58 5.37b 23.70b 0.19 0.01 0.14 1.17 1.15 0.22

* *

CPI g/h/d 855 861 836 DCPI g/h/d 565.60 546.60 563.30 0.44 DCPI g 100 Kg LBW 194.00a 142 53b 146.90b 0.21 * DCPI g /Kg W75 8.02a 6.31b 6.50b 0.08 * _______________________________________________________________________________ a,b,c Means in the same row or column within each parameter having different superscripts differ significantly (P<0.05)

Table (5):Digestibility of experimental rations

____________________________________________________________________
Item ___________ Treatments______________ % Control Monensin Fenugreek SE Sign. __________________________________________________________________________________ DM 81.34 79.13 80.73 0.63 OM 85.58 81.65 84.54 1.1 CP 66.53 63.46 67.37 1.7 CF 61.52 60.12 62.10 1.7 NDF 61.17 60.94 60.62 0.99 ADF 55.53 55.42 55.48 1.19 CELLULOSE 58.34 58.32 58.36 1.26 H-CELLULOSE 74.58 74.01 72.92 0.74 EE 79.30a 77.22b 79.96a 0.39 * NFE 76.73c 78.91b 80.51a 0.74 * GE 76.21 75.0 75.81 8.70 Nutritive value TDN 77.67 74.34 76.21 10.21 DCP 9.05 8.76 9.16 1.33 a,b,c Means in the same row or column within each parameter having different superscripts differ significantly (P<0.05) Table (6): Blood parameters __________________________________________________________________________________ Item _______________ Treatments ____________ Control Monensen Fenugreek SE Sign. __________________________________________________________________________________ Total protein (g/ml) 6.13 6.2 6.25 0.23 Albumin (g/100ml) 3.33 3.20 3.28 0.15 Globulin (g/100 ml 2.80 3.00 2.80 0.12 UREA (mg/100 ml) 25.83b 27.40a 25.77b 0.27 * GOT (IU/L) 10.58 10.59 11.37 1.4 GPT (IU/L) 1.25 1.25 1.42 0.18 __________________________________________________________________________________ a and b Means in the same row or column within each parameter having different superscripts differ significantly (P<0.05) Table (7): Rumen parameters __________________________________________________________________________________ Item ____________ Treatments ______________ Sampling time/ H Control Monensen Fenugreek SE NH3-N mg/100ml RL PH 0 4 8 0 4 8 19.3 23.78 20.66 6.29 5.88 6.14 19.47 22.85 20.49 6.33 5.89 6.12 17.95 21.65 19.62 6.38 5.86 6.11 0.56 0.65 0.51 0.004 0.002 0.005

TVFAs meq/100ml RL

0 11.68 11.93 11.59 0.12 4 14.27 14.62 14.26 0.21 8 12.54 13.23 12.74 0.21 __________________________________________________________________________________ a,b,c Means in the same row or column within each parameter having different superscripts differ significantly (P<0.05)

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Table (8): Volatile fatty acids Fraction __________________________________________________________________________________ Item _______________ Treatments ___________ Sampling time/H Control Monensen Fenugreek SE Sign. Acetic acid 0 4 8 0 4 8 45.79a 52.69a 47.73a 13.03b 17.77b 13.89b 39.89b 43.78b 40.58b 22.57a 27.21a 23.20a 40.87b 46.69b 41.81b 19.50a 23.48a 20.48a 1.06 1.47 1.28 1.55 1.58 1.57 * * * * * *

Propionic acid

Butyric acid

0 4.5 4.09 3.60 2.03 4 6.56 6.74 5.96 0.21 8 4.91 4.52 4.22 0.16 __________________________________________________________________________________ a,b,c Means in the same row or column within each parameter having different superscripts differ significantly (P<0.05) Table (9): Economic evaluation ________________________________________________________________________________ _______________ Treatments ____________ Items Control Monensen Fenugreek _________________________________________________________________________________ Price of Conc. Mix./ton/LE 666.0 667.0 714.0 Price of molasses /ton/LE 200.0 200.0 200.0 Price of rice straw /ton/LE 60.0 60.0 60.0 Price of total ration ton/LE 465.0 466.1 496.6 Daily feed intake Kg/H/d 6.9 6.8 6.9 Cost of feed/d/LE 3.21 3.20 3.43 ADG Kg/h/d 0.941 1.088 1.133 Price of kg/LBW/LE 7.5 7.5 7.5 Price of daily gain/LE 7.10 8.16 8.50 *Return LE 3.90 5.00 5.10 **REE % 100 130 132 __________________________________________________________________________________ R1=control; R2= Monensin ration and R3= fenugreek ration * Return= price of daily gain cost of feed (LE). ** REE = relative economic efficiency.

2:-( 0
11

,1 ,1

1- 2- 51 8 3 5 8.602 6.502 4.601 . )56%( ) 53 %( )5%( . 3% )051 / / (. 081 . . / / . . . . PH . . GOT, GPT . .

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