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Image file formats

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Image file formats are standardized means of organising and storing images. This entry is about digital image formats used to store photographic and other images; (for disk-image file formats see Disk image). Image files are composed of either pixel or vector (geometric) data that are rasterized to pixels when displayed (with few exceptions) in a vector graphic display. The pixels that compose an image are ordered as a grid (columns and rows); each pixel consists of numbers representing magnitudes of brightness and colour.



1 Image file sizes

2 Image file compression


2.1 Lossless compression


2.2 Lossy compression

3 Exif

4 Major graphic file formats



4.1 Raster formats 4.1.1 JPEG 4.1.2 TIFF 4.1.3 RAW 4.1.4 PNG 4.1.5 GIF 4.1.6 BMP 4.1.7 PPM, PGM, PBM, PNM

4.2 Vector formats 4.2.1 CGM 4.2.2 SVG 4.2.3 Others

5 See also

6 External links

[edit] Image file sizes

Image file size—expressed as the number of bytes—increases with the number of pixels composing an image, and the colour depth of the pixels. The greater the number of rows and

columns, the greater the image r esolution, an d the larger the file. Als o, each pixe l of an imag e increases in size whe n its colour depth incre ases—an 8-b it pixel (1 b yte) stores 2 56 colours, a

24-bit pi xel (3 bytes)

stores 16 m illion color s, the latter

known as tru ecolor.

Image co mpression

produce large image files, rangin g from hun dreds of kilo bytes to me gabytes, per the camera' s resolutio n and the im age-storage format cap acity. High r esolution di gital camera s record 8

megapix el (1MP = 1 ,000,000 pix els / 1 milli on) images, or more, in truecolor. F or example, an image re corded by a n 8 MP cam era; since ea ch pixel use s 3 bytes to record truec olor, the

uncompr essed image would occu py 24,000,0 00 bytes of memory—a

storage f or one imag e, given that cameras m ust record a nd store man y images to be practica l. Faced wi th large file sizes, both within the c amera and a storage disc , image file formats we re develope d to store su ch large im ages. An ov erview of th e major grap hic file for mats follows


uses algorith ms to decre ase the size of a file. Hi gh resolutio n cameras

great amou nt of digital

[edit] Image file com pressio n

There ar e two types of image fil e compressi on algorith ms: lossless and lossy.

[edit] L ossless co mpression

Lossless compressio n algorithms reduce file size withou t losing ima ge quality, t hough they are not comp ressed as s mall a file as a lossy com pression fil e. When im age quality i s valued abo ve file size, lossless alg orithms are typically ch osen.

[edit] L ossy comp ression

Lossy co mpression a lgorithms ta ke advantag e of the inh erent limitat ions of the h uman eye a nd discard i nvisible info rmation. M ost lossy co mpression al gorithms all ow for vari able quality levels (c ompression) and as thes e levels are i ncreased, fi le size is red uced. At th e highest compres sion levels, i mage deteri oration bec omes notice able as "com pression art ifacting". T he images b elow demon strate the n oticeable art ifacting of l ossy compre ssion algori thms; select the thumbna il image to v iew the full size versio n.

art ifacting of l o ssy compr e ssion algori thms; select the thumbna il image

Lossless Image Com pression

Lossless Image Co m pression Lossy I m age Compr e ssion NOTE: compres sed RAW

Lossy Im age Compr ession


compres sed RAW i mage in Ad obe Photos hop CS2. T he lossy im age was rep eatedly ope ned

and then minimize vi sual


artifacti ng.

These two i mages are i llustrative only, both w ere conver ted from a lossless,


and resa ved using a low JPEG quality set ting to incr ease visual

as a PNG, while the " lossless" im age was sa ved once as a PNG to

[edit] Exif

M ain article: Exchangea ble image fi le format

The Exi f (Exchange able image file) format is an algori thm incorpo rated in the JPEG softw are used in m ost camera s. Its purpos e is to recor d and to stan dardize the exchange o f data betwe en digital ca meras and e diting and v iewing soft ware. The d ata is record ed for indiv idual image s and includes such things as: camera s ettings, tim e and date, s hutter speed , exposure, image size, compres sion, name o f camera, c olor informa tion, etc. W hen images are viewed or edited by image ed itors, such a s Paint Sho p Pro, all of this image i nformation can be displ ayed.

[edit] Major graphic file for mats

There ar e many grap hic file form ats, if we in clude the pr oprietary ty pes. The PN G, JPEG, a nd GIF form ats are mos t often used to display i mages on th e Internet. T hese graphi c formats ar e listed an d briefly des cribed belo w, separated into the tw o main famil ies of graph ics: raster a nd vector.

[edit] R aster form ats

These formats store images as bitmaps (also known as pixmaps). For a description of the technology aside from the format, see Raster graphics.

[edit] JPEG

JPEG (Joint Photographic Experts Group) files are (in most cases) a lossy format; the DOS filename extension is JPG (other OS might use JPEG). Nearly every digital camera can save images in the JPEG format, which supports 8 bits per color (red, green, blue) for a 24-bit total, producing relatively small files. When not too great, the compression does not noticeably detract from the image's quality, but JPEG files suffer generational degradation when repeatedly edited and saved. Photographic images may be better stored in a lossless non-JPEG format if they will be re-edited, or if small "artefacts" (blemishes caused by the the JPEG's compression algorithm) are unacceptable. The JPEG format also is used as the image compression algorithm in many Adobe PDF files.

[edit] TIFF

The TIFF (Tagged Image File Format) is a flexible format that normally saves 8 bits or 16 bits per color (red, green, blue) for 24-bit and 48-bit totals, respectively, using either the TIFF or the TIF filenames. The TIFF's flexibility is both blessing and curse, because no single reader reads every type of TIFF file. TIFFs are lossy and lossless; some offer relatively good lossless compression for bi-level (black&white) images. Some digital cameras can save in TIFF format, using the LZW compression algorithm for lossless storage. The TIFF image format is not widely supported by web browsers. TIFF remains widely accepted as a photograph file standard in the printing business. The TIFF can handle device-specific colour spaces, such as the CMYK defined by a particular set of printing press inks.

[edit] RAW

RAW refers to a family of raw image formats that are options available on some digital cameras. These formats usually use a lossless or nearly-lossless compression, and produce file sizes much smaller than the TIFF formats of full-size processed images from the same cameras. The raw formats are not standardized or documented, and differ among camera manufacturers. Many graphic programs and image editors may not accept some or all of them, and some older ones have been effectively orphaned already. Adobe's Digital Negative specification is an attempt at standardizing a raw image format to be used by cameras, or for archival storage of image data converted from proprietary raw image formats.

[edit] PNG

The PNG (Portable Network Graphics) file format was created as the free, open-source successor to the GIF. The PNG file format supports truecolor (16 million colours) while the GIF supports only 256 colours. The PNG file excels when the image has large, uniformly coloured areas. The lossless PNG format is best suited for editing pictures, and the lossy formats, like JPG, are best for the final distribution of photographic images, because JPG files are smaller than PNG files. Many older browsers currently do not support the PNG file format, however, with Internet Explorer 7, all contemporary web browsers fully support the PNG format. The Adam7-

interlacing allows an early preview, even when only a small percentage of the image data has been transmitted.

[edit] GIF

GIF (Graphics Interchange Format) is limited to an 8-bit palette, or 256 colors. This makes the GIF format suitable for storing graphics with relatively few colors such as simple diagrams, shapes, logos and cartoon style images. The GIF format supports animation and is still widely used to provide image animation effects. It also uses a lossless compression that is more effective when large areas have a single color, and ineffective for detailed images or dithered images.

[edit] BMP

The BMP file format (Windows bitmap) handles graphics files within the Microsoft Windows OS. Typically, BMP files are uncompressed, hence they are large; the advantage is their simplicity, wide acceptance, and use in Windows programs.

[edit] PPM, PGM, PBM, PNM

Netpbm format is a family including the portable pixmap file format (PPM), the portable graymap file format (PGM) and the portable bitmap file format (PBM). These are ASCII files that provide very basic functionality and serve as a lowest-common-denominator for converting pixmap, graymap, or bitmap files between different platforms. Several applications refer to them collectively as the PNM format (portable anymap).

[edit] Vector formats

See also: Vector graphics

As opposed to the raster image formats above (where the data describes the characteristics of each individual pixel), vector image formats contain a geometric description which can be rendered smoothly at any desired display size.

Vector file formats can contain bitmap data as well. 3D graphic file formats are technically vector formats with pixel data texture mapping on the surface of a vector virtual object, warped to match the angle of the viewing perspective.

At some point, all vector graphics must be rasterized in order to be displayed on digital monitors. However, vector images can be displayed with analog CRT technology such as that used in some electronic test equipment, medical monitors, radar displays, laser shows and early video games. Plotters are printers that use vector data rather than pixel data to draw graphics.

[edit] CGM

CGM (Computer Graphics Metafile) is a file format for 2D vector graphics, raster graphics, and text, and is defined by ISO/IEC 8632. All graphical elements can be specified in a textual source file that can be compiled into a binary file or one of two text representations. CGM

provides a means of graphics data interchange for computer representation of 2D graphical information independent from any particular application, system, platform, or device. It has been adopted to some extent in the areas of technical illustration and professional design, but has largely been superseded by formats such as SVG and DXF.

[edit] SVG

SVG (Scalable Vector Graphics) is an open standard created and developed by the World Wide Web Consortium to address the need (and attempts of several corporations) for a versatile, scriptable and all-purpose vector format for the web and otherwise. The SVG format does not have a compression scheme of its own, but due to the textual nature of XML, an SVG graphic can be compressed using a program such as gzip. Because of its scripting potential, SVG is a key component in web applications: interactive web pages that look and act like applications.

[edit] Others

Other image file formats of vector type include:

Encapsulated PostScript



Windows Metafile

[edit] See also

Comparison of graphics file formats

[edit] External links

Description of Bitmap graphics file

Educational treatment of GIF, PNG, and JPG file formats

Dave Coffin's dcraw Converting digital camera raw image format files into other formats.

Open Source Library supporting a large number of image formats

Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image_file_formats" Categories: Graphics file formats

Encapsulated PostScript

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Jump to: navigation, search

Encapsulated PostScript

Filename extension




Type code



Uniform Type




Extended from


Encapsulated PostScript, or EPS, is a DSC-conforming PostScript document with additional restrictions intended to make EPS files usable as a graphics file format. In other words, EPS files are more-or-less self-contained, reasonably predictable PostScript documents that describe an image or drawing, that can be placed within another PostScript document.

At a minimum, an EPS file contains a BoundingBox DSC comment, describing the rectangle containing the image described by the EPS file. Applications can use this information to lay out the page, even if they are unable to directly render the PostScript inside.

EPS, together with DSC's Open Structuring Conventions, form the basis of early versions of the Adobe Illustrator Artwork file format.



1 EPS previews

2 Beyond previews

3 Identifying EPS files

4 Saving to EPS file format

5 See also

6 References

[edit] EPS pr eviews

This articl e's section sources.

Please help i mprove this art icle by adding citations to re liable sources. Unverifiable material may b e challenged an d removed. (A pril 2008)

named "EP S previews " does not c ite any refe rences or

also freque ntly include a preview p icture of th e content, fo r on-screen display. The


to allo w a simple p review of t he final outp ut in any ap plication th at can draw a bitmap.

Without this preview the applica tions would have to dire ctly render the PostScri pt (PS) data

inside th e EPS, whic h was beyon d the capab ilities of mo st machines until recent ly.

When EP S was first implemente d, the only

machines wi dely using P ostScript w ere Apple

Macinto shes. These machines co uld not dire ctly render t he PostScri pt, which pr esented Ado be with the problem of how to prov ide a previe w image wh ile also incl uding the ac tual PS vers ion

for the p rinter. On th e Mac this t urned out to be easy to s olve, as the Mac file sy stem include s

(known as forks) that a re logically referred to a s one file. B y placing th e PostScrip t in

the data fork and a st andard Mac PICT resou rce in the re source fork, both image s could be

moved a bout togethe r invisibly a s if they we re one file.

While a PIC T preview o ften contain s a

bitmap it could also contain a ve ctor represe ntation of th e whole ima ge, providin g very high

quality p reviews.

Neither o f these tech nologies exi st on any ot her operatin g system, h owever. Wh en faced wit h the same pro blems on M icrosoft Wi ndows-base d versions o f their progr ams, Adobe chose to in stead include a TIFF file e ncoded into the header s ection of th e PostScript . Sometimes , though mo re rarely, th ey used the WMF (Win dows Metafi le) format i nstead. WM F has the po tential to pr ovide vector pr eviews, sim ilar to PICT on the Mac . Both of th ese PC form at EPS files have a parti cular


disadvan tage: becaus e the PostS cript data, h eader and pr eview are al l in the sam e file, they

cause pri nting errors if a program PostScri pt data.

does not u nderstand th e format we ll enough to extract onl y the

fourth format kno wn as a EPS I includes a n ASCII-enc oded previe w bitmap. T his format

allows fo r black-and -white previ ews only. It is mainly u sed on UNI X systems.

Unfortun ately, with several diffe rent ways o f representin g the previe w, they hav e limited

portabili ty. An appli cation which

is unable t o interpret a n EPS file's preview wil l typically s how

print the fi le correctly.


an empty box on scr een, but it w ill be able to

The mos t widely sup ported kind of preview is a Window s format pr eview with a

previe ws

named "Be yond previe ws" does n ot cite any

[edit] Beyond

This articl e's section sources.

Please help i mprove this art icle by adding citations to re liable sources. Unverifiable material may b e

references o r

challenged an d removed. (A pril 2008)

In recent years, appli cations hav e started app earing whic h ignore the preview po rtion of an E PS

file, yet s till show th e preview o n screen. Th ey do this b y interpretin g the PostSc ript to get t heir

own prev iew. This h as become p ossible with the increas ed processin g power of modern

compute rs; when EP S was first d esigned this

typical c omputer, or too slow to have been a cceptable.

would hav e been eithe r beyond the abilities of the

The appl ication mig ht retain the PostScript p ortion for P ostScript pri nting, or it

using on ly its conver ted data. Th is has a pro blem in that device-spec ific tricks th at might ha ve

been hid den in the E PS may be l ost.

might discar d it,

Unfortun ately, in ma ny cases the PostScript interpreter i s of poorer q uality, or is limited,

compare d to the one in a printer. the new technology l ess useful th an the old. [

[citation needed]

This may m ean that no preview is s hown, leavi ng



versions of

Microsoft O ffice (startin g with Offic e 2003) incl ude this ne w method.

[edit] Identif ying EP S files

this ne w method. [ edit ] Identif y ing E P S files This articl

This articl e's section or sources .

Please help i mprove this art icle by adding citations to re liable sources. Unverifiable material may b e challenged an d removed. (A pril 2008)

named "Ide ntifying EP S files" do es not cite a ny referenc es

Because of the differ ent ways in which EPS previews ar e handled, th ere is no on e way to ide ntify an EPS f ile.


Windows- format EPS file containi ng a TIFF o r WMF prev iew must st art with the four

b ytes contain ing, in hexa decimal, C5 D0 D3 C6. Bear in min d these files are widesp read o n all platfor ms.

I n all other c ases an EPS file must st art with a lin

e %!PS-Ado be-a.b EP SF-c.d whe

re a,

b , c and d are all single d igit number s.



A Ma c-format EP S file is acc ompanied b y a resource fork. The p review is a


resou rce with ID 256. An EP S file on the Mac is expe cted to hav e a file type code of "E PSF", wheth er or not it h as a previe w.


An E PSI file will contain a li ne starting %


iew: in the DSC prolog .


In ma ny cases no preview is p resent at all .

[edit] Saving to EPS file for mat

A numbe r of progra ms will save or convert t o EPS form at. A popula r free soluti on is the GI MP

package (http://www .gimp.org/).

Port able

Docu ment F orma t


Wikipedia, the free e ncycloped ia

(Redire cted from P DF) Jump to: navigation, search "PDF" r edirects her e. For other uses, see P DF (disambi guation).


Portable D ocument

Format (P DF)


Filen ame extensio n


Inter net media ty pe

applic ation/pdf


Type code

'PDF '

(including a single



Un iform Type Identifier


com.ado be.pdf


M agic number




eveloped by


Adobe S ystems


Portable Document Format (P DF) is a file format crea ted by Adob e Systems i n 1993 for

documen t exchange. PDF is use d for represe nting two-d imensional

independ ent of the a pplication so ftware, har dware, and o perating sy stem. [1]

documents i n a manner

Each PD F file encap sulates a co mplete descr iption of a f ixed-layout 2-D docum ent (and, wit h Acrobat 3-D, embed ded 3-D doc uments) tha t includes th e text, fonts , images, an d 2-D vecto r graphics that compri se the docu ments.

PDF is a n open stand ard that has been offici ally publishe d on July 1, 2008 by th e ISO as ISO 32000-1: 2008. [2]



1 History

2 Technical foundations

o 2.1 PostScript

3 Technical overview


3.1 File structure


3.2 Imaging model

3.2.1 Vector graphics

3.2.2 Raster images

3.2.3 Text Fonts Encodings

3.2.4 Transparency


3.3 Interactive elements


3.4 Logical structure and accessibility


3.5 Security and signatures


3.6 Subsets


3.7 Mars

4 Technical issues


4.1 Accessibility


4.2 Security


4.3 Usage restrictions and monitoring


4.4 Saving form data


4.5 Missing PostScript features

5 Content

o 5.1 Base 14 fonts

6 Versions

7 Implementations

8 See also

9 References

10 External links

[edit] History

PDF's adoption in the early days of the format's history was slow. [3] Adobe Acrobat, Adobe's suite for reading and creating PDFs, was not freely available; early versions of PDF had no support for external hyperlinks, reducing its usefulness on the World Wide Web; the additional size of the PDF document compared to plain text meant significantly longer download times over the slower modems common at the time, and rendering the files was slow on less powerful machines. Additionally, there were competing formats such as Envoy, Common Ground Digital

Paper and even Adobe's own PostScript format (.ps); in those early years, the PDF file was mainly popular in desktop publishing workflow.

Adobe soon started distribution of its Acrobat Reader (now Adobe Reader) program at no cost, and continued supporting the original PDF, which eventually became the de facto standard for printable documents on the web (a standard web document).

The PDF file format has changed several times, as new versions of Adobe Acrobat were released. There have been eight versions of PDF with corresponding Acrobat releases [4] :

(1993) - PDF 1.0 / Acrobat 1.0

(1994) - PDF 1.1 / Acrobat 2.0

(1996) - PDF 1.2 / Acrobat 3.0

(1999) - PDF 1.3 / Acrobat 4.0

(2001) - PDF 1.4 / Acrobat 5.0

(2003) - PDF 1.5 / Acrobat 6.0

(2005) - PDF 1.6 / Acrobat 7.0

(2006) - PDF 1.7 / Acrobat 8.0

(2008) - PDF 1.7, Adobe Extension Level 3 / Acrobat 9.0

The ISO 32000-1:2008 PDF open standard was published by the ISO on July 1, 2008. PDF is now a published ISO standard titled: Document management -- Portable document format -- Part 1: PDF 1.7

According to the ISO PDF standard abstract:

ISO 32000-1:2008 specifies a digital form for representing electronic documents to enable users to exchange and view electronic documents independent of the environment in which they were created or the environment in which they are viewed or printed. It is intended for the developer of software that creates PDF files (conforming writers), software that reads existing PDF files and interprets their contents for display and interaction (conforming readers) and PDF products that read and/or write PDF files for a variety of other purposes (conforming products).

[edit] Technical foundations

Anyone may create applications that read and write PDF files without having to pay royalties to Adobe Systems; Adobe holds patents to PDF, but licenses them for royalty-free use in developing software complying with its PDF specification. [5]

The PDF combines three technologies:

A sub-set of the PostScript page description programming language, for generating the layout and graphics.

A font-embedding/replacement system to allow fonts to travel with the documents.

A structured storage system to bundle these elements and any associated content into a single file, with data compression where appropriate.

[edit] PostScript

PostScript is a page description language run in an interpreter to generate an image, a process requiring many resources. PDF is a file format, not a programming language, i.e. flow control commands such as if and loop are removed, while graphics commands such as lineto remain.

Often, the PostScript-like PDF code is generated from a source PostScript file. The graphics commands that are output by the PostScript code are collected and tokenized; any files, graphics,

or fonts to which the document refers also are collected; then, everything is compressed to a

single file. Therefore, the entire PostScript world (fonts, layout, measurements) remains intact.

As a document format, PDF has several advantages over PostScript:

PDF contains tokenized and interpreted results of the PostScript source code, for direct correspondence between changes to items in the PDF page description and changes to the resulting page appearance.

PDF (from version 1.4) supports true graphic transparency; PostScript does not.

PostScript is an imperative programming language with an implicit global state, so instructions accompanying the description of one page can affect the appearance of any following page. Therefore, all preceding pages in a PostScript document must be processed in order to determine the correct appearance of a given page, whereas each page in a PDF document is unaffected by the others. As a result, PDF viewers allow the user to quickly jump to the final pages of a long document, whereas a Postscript viewer needs to process all pages sequentially before being able to display the destination page.

[edit] Technical overview

[edit] File structure

A PDF file consists primarily of objects, of which there are eight types: [6]

Boolean values, representing true or false




Arrays, ordered collections of objects

Dictionaries, collections of objects indexed by Names

Streams, usually containing large amounts of data

The null object

Objects may be either direct (embedded in another object) or indirect. Indirect objects are numbered with an object number and a generation number. An index table called the xref table gives the byte offset of each indirect object from the start of the file. [7] This design allows for efficient random access to the objects in the file, and also allows for small changes to be made without rewriting the entire file (incremental update). Beginning with PDF version 1.5, indirect objects may also be located in special streams known as object streams. This technique reduces

the size of files that have large numbers of small indirect objects and is especially useful for Tagged PDF.

There are two layouts to the PDF files—non-linear (not “optimized”) and linear (“optimized”). Non-linear PDF files consume less disk space than their linear counterparts, though they are slower to access because portions of the data required to assemble pages of the document are scattered throughout the PDF file. Linear PDF files (also called “optimized” or “web optimized” PDF files) are constructed in a manner that enables them to be read in a Web browser plugin, since they are written to disk in a linear (as in page order) fashion. [8] PDF files may be optimized using Adobe Acrobat software or pdfopt, which is part of GPL Ghostscript.

[edit] Imaging model

The basic design of how graphics are represented in PDF is very similar to that of PostScript, except for the use of transparency, which was added in PDF 1.4.

PDF graphics use a device independent Cartesian coordinate system to describe the surface of a page. A PDF page description can use a matrix to scale, rotate, or skew graphical elements. A key concept in PDF is that of the graphics state, which is a collection of graphical parameters that may be changed, saved, and restored by a page description. PDF has (as of version 1.6) 24 graphics state properties, of which some of the most important are:

The current transformation matrix (CTM), which determines the coordinate system

The clipping path

The color space

The alpha constant, which is a key component of transparency

[edit] Vector graphics

Vector graphics in PDF, as in PostScript, are constructed with paths. Paths are usually composed of lines and cubic Bezier curves, but can also be constructed from the outlines of text. Unlike PostScript, PDF does not allow a single path to mix text outlines with lines and curves. Paths can be stroked, filled, or used for clipping. Strokes and fills can use any color set in the graphics state, including patterns.

PDF supports several types of patterns. The simplest is the tiling pattern in which a piece of artwork is specified to be drawn repeatedly. This may be a colored tiling pattern, with the colors specified in the pattern object, or an uncolored tiling pattern, which defers color specification to the time the pattern is drawn. Beginning with PDF 1.3 there is also a shading pattern, which draws continuously varying colors. There are seven types of shading pattern of which the simplest are the radial shade (Type 2) and axial shade (Type 3).

[edit] Raster images

Raster images in PDF (called Image XObjects) are represented by dictionaries with an associated stream. The dictionary describes properties of the image, and the stream contains the image data.

(Less commonly, a raster image may be embedded directly in a page description as an inline image.) Images are typically filtered for compression purposes. Image filters supported in PDF include the general purpose filters

ASCII85Decode a deprecated filter used to put the stream into 7-bit ASCII

ASCIIHexDecode similar to ASCII85Decode but less compact

FlateDecode a commonly used filter based on the DEFLATE or Zip algorithm

LZWDecode a deprecated filter based on LZW Compression

RunLengthDecode a simple compression method for streams with repetitive data using the Run-length encoding algorithm

and the image-specific filters

DCTDecode a lossy filter based on the JPEG standard

CCITTFaxDecode a lossless filter based on the CCITT fax compression standard

JBIG2Decode a lossy or lossless filter based on the JBIG2 standard, introduced in PDF


JPXDecode a lossy or lossless filter based on the JPEG2000 standard, introduced in PDF


Normally all image content in a PDF is embedded in the file. But PDF allows image data to be stored in external files by the use of external streams or Alternate Images. Standardized subsets

of PDF, including PDF/A and PDF/X, prohibit these techniques.

[edit] Text

Text in PDF is represented by text elements in page content streams. A text element specifies that characters should be drawn at certain positions. The characters are specified using the encoding

of a selected font resource.

[edit] Fonts

A font object in PDF is a description of a digital typeface. It may either describe the

characteristics of a typeface, or it may include an embedded font file. The latter case is called an embedded font while the former is called an unembedded font. The font files that may be embedded are based on widely used standard digital font formats: Type 1 (and its compressed variant CFF), TrueType, and (beginning with PDF 1.6) OpenType. Additionally PDF supports

the Type 3 variant in which the components of the font are described by PDF graphic operators.

[edit] Encodings

Within text strings characters are shown using character codes (integers) that map to glyphs in the current font using an encoding. There are a number of built-in encodings, including WinAnsi, MacRoman, and a large number of encodings for East Asian languages. (Although the WinAnsi and MacRoman encodings are derived from the historical properties of the Windows and Macintosh operating systems, fonts using these encodings work equally well on any platform.)

The enco ding mecha nisms in PD F were desi gned for Ty pe 1 fonts, a nd the rules for applyin g

them to

TrueType fo nts are com plex.

For large fonts or fo nts with non -standard gl yphs, the sp ecial encodi ngs Identity -H (for

horizont al writing) a nd Identity- V (for vertic al) are used. With such

provide a ToUnicode table if sem antic infor mation abou t the charact ers is to be

fonts it is ne cessary to


[edit] Tr ansparency

The orig inal imaging model of P DF was, lik e PostScript 's, opaque: e ach object d rawn on the page com pletely repl aced anythi ng previousl y marked in the same lo cation. In P DF 1.4 the

imaging model was

interact with previou sly marked objects to pr oduce blend ing effects. The additio n of

transpare ncy to PDF was done b y means of new extensi ons that wer e designed t o be ignored in

products written to t he PDF 1.3


amount o f transparen cy might vi ew acceptab ly in older v iewers, but files makin g extensive

of transp arency coul d view com pletely wron g in an olde r viewer wit hout warnin g.

extended to allow transp arency. Wh en transpare ncy is used, new objects

and earlier s pecification s. As a resul t, files that u se a small

The tran sparency ext ensions are based on th e key conce pts of transp arency grou ps, blendin g

modes, s hape, and al pha. The m odel is close ly aligned w ith the featu res of Adob e Illustrator

version 9 . The blend modes were

PDF 1.4 specificatio n was publis hed the for mulas for ca lculating ble nd modes w ere kept sec ret

by Adob e. They hav e since been published. [

based on t hose used by


Adobe Pho toshop at th e time. Whe n the

[edit] I nteractive elements

at t h e time. Whe n the [ edit ] I n teractive elements P

P lease help i mprove thi s section by expanding it. Further i nformation might be fo und

o n the talk pa ge or at req uests for exp ansion. (Ma

y 2008)

PDF file s may conta in interactiv e elements s uch as anno tations and form fields.

[edit] L ogical str ucture and accessibi lity

y 2008)

P lease help i mprove thi s section by expanding it. Further i nformation might be fo und

o n the talk pa ge or at req uests for exp ansion. (Ma

PDF m ay contain structure inf ormation to enable bette r text extrac tion and ac cessibility.

[edit] S ecurity an d signatur es

P lease help i mprove thi s section by expanding it. Further i nformation might be fo und

o n the talk pa ge or at req uests for exp ansion. (Ma

y 2008)

A PDF fi le may be e ncrypted for security, or digitally si gned for aut hentication.

The standard security provided by Acrobat® PDF consists of two different methods and two different passwords, "user password" and "owner password". A PDF document may be protected by password to open ('user' password) and the document may also specify operations that should be restricted even when the document is decrypted: printing; copying text and graphics out of the document; modifying the document; and adding or modifying text notes and AcroForm fields (using 'owner' password).

[edit] Subsets

Proper subsets of PDF have been, or are being, standardized under ISO for several constituencies:

PDF/X for the printing and graphic arts as ISO 15930 (working in ISO TC130)

PDF/A for archiving in corporate/government/library/etc environments as ISO 19005 (work done in ISO TC171)

PDF/E for exchange of engineering drawings (work done in ISO TC171)

PDF/UA for universally accessible PDF files

A PDF/H variant (PDF for Healthcare) is being developed. [10] However, it may consist more of a set of "best practices" than of a specific format or subset.

[edit] Mars

See also: Page description markup language

Adobe is exploring an XML-based next-generation PDF codenamed Mars. [11] Information about the Mars file format is published by Adobe at http://www.adobe.com/go/mars and also [2].

The format of graphic elements of Mars is sometimes described simply as "SVG" [citation needed] , but according to the version 0.8 draft specification of November 2007 (§3 Mars SVG Support) the format is actually merely similar to SVG: it contains both additions to and subtractions from SVG, so it is in general neither viewable by nor creatable with standard SVG tools: some things will look noticeably different between SVG viewers and Mars viewers.

[edit] Technical issues

[edit] Accessibility

PDF files can be created specifically to be accessible for disabled people. Current PDF file formats can include tags (XML), text equivalents, captions, audio descriptions, et cetera. Some software, such as Adobe InDesign, can automatically produce tagged PDFs. Leading screen readers, including JAWS, Window-Eyes, Hal, and Kurzweil 1000 and 3000 can read tagged PDFs; current versions of the Acrobat and Acrobat Reader programs can also read PDFs aloud. Moreover, tagged PDFs can be re-flowed and magnified for readers with visual impairments. Problems remain with adding tags to older PDFs and those that are generated from scanned

documents. In these cases, accessibility tags and re-flowing are unavailable, and must be created either manually or with OCR techniques. These processes are inaccessible to some disabled people. PDF/UA, the PDF/Universal Accessibility Committee, an activity of AIIM, is working on a specification for PDF accessibility based on the PDF 1.6 specification.

One of the major problems with PDF accessibility is that PDF documents have three distinct views, which, depending on the document's creation, can be inconsistent with each other. The three views are (i) the physical view, (ii) the tags view, and (iii) the content view. The physical view is displayed and printed (what most people consider a PDF document). The tags view is what screen readers read (useful for people with poor eyesight). The content view is displayed when the document is re-flowed to Acrobat (useful for people with mobility disability). For a PDF document to be accessible, the three views must be consistent with each other.

[edit] Security

PDF format attachments carrying viruses were first discovered in 2001. This virus, which was named "OUTLOOK.PDFWorm” or “Peachy”, uses Microsoft Outlook to send itself as an attachment to an Adobe PDF file. Virus researchers found that the PDF file viruses activated with Adobe Acrobat, but not with Acrobat Reader. [12]

[edit] Usage restrictions and monitoring

PDFs may be encrypted so that a password is needed to view or edit the contents. The PDF Reference defines both 40-bit and 128-bit encryption, both making use of a complex system of RC4 and MD5. The PDF Reference also defines ways in which third parties can define their own encryption systems for use in PDF.

PDF files may also contain embedded DRM restrictions that provide further controls that limit copying, editing or printing. The restrictions on copying, editing, or printing depend on the reader software to obey them, so the security they provide is limited. Printable documents especially might be saved instead as bitmaps and subject to OCR.

The PDF Reference has technical details or see [3] for an end-user overview. Like HTML files, PDF files may submit information to a web server. This could be used to track the IP address of the client PC, a process known as phoning home. After update 7.0.5 to Acrobat Reader, the user will be notified "via a dialogue box that the author of the file is auditing usage of the file, and be offered the option of continuing". [13]

Through their LiveCycle Policy Server product, Adobe provides a method to set security policies on specific documents. This can include requiring a user to authenticate and limiting the time frame a document can be accessed or amount of time a document can be opened while offline. Once a PDF document is tied to a policy server and a specific policy, that policy can be changed or revoked by the owner. This controls documents that are otherwise "in the wild." Each document open and close event can also be tracked by the policy server. Policy servers can be set up privately or Adobe offers a public service through Adobe Online Services.

[edit] Saving form data

With the release of Acrobat 8 Professional, users can now enable the save feature in a PDF file for distribution to people with Adobe Reader 7.0 and later thus eliminating the need for Reader Extensions for this particular application. According to Adobe, this feature only applies to ad- hoc forms distribution and data collection. The license agreement for Acrobat 8 Professional limits this functionality to 500 unique users, or 500 submissions (see paragraph 14.13.3 of the End User License Agreement for Acrobat 8 Professional). Other privileges remain the domain only of LiveCycle Reader Extensions, and it is also needed for bulk or automated operations.

[edit] Missing PostScript features

Compared to the PostScript format, PDF lacks e.g. the notion of "tray selection"; this can be used

to indicate that some pages of a document must be printed on a different type of paper.

Such features are not omissions from the PDF format, whose scope only covers electronic documents. The JDF standard covers such aspects; however, it is a complex standard, which as

of 2007 is still not widely implemented. This hinders the replacement of PostScript by PDF.

[edit] Content

A PDF file is often a combination of vector graphics, text, and raster graphics. The basic types of

content in a PDF are:

text stored as such

vector graphics for illustrations and designs that consist of shapes and lines

raster graphics for photographs and other types of image

In later PDF revisions, a PDF document can also support links (inside document or web page),

forms, JavaScript (initially available as plugin for Acrobat 3.0), or any other types of embedded

contents that can be handled using plug-ins.

PDF 1.6 supports interactive 3D documents embedded in the PDF.

Two PDF files that look similar on a computer screen may be of very different sizes. For example, a high resolution raster image takes more space than a low resolution one. Typically higher resolution is needed for printing documents than for displaying them on screen. Other things that may increase the size of a file is embedding full fonts, especially for Asiatic scripts, and storing text as graphics.

[edit] Base 14 fonts

There are fourteen typefaces that have a special significance to PDF documents: Times Roman (in standard, italic, bold, and bold italic), Courier (in standard, oblique, bold and bold oblique), Helvetica (in standard, oblique, bold and bold oblique), Symbol and Zapf Dingbats. These

should always be present (actually present or a close substitute) and so need not be embedded in a PDF. [14] PDF viewers must know about the metrics of these fonts. Other fonts may be substituted if they are not embedded in a PDF.

[edit] Versions


Year of


Supported by Reader version



New features







Acrobat Reader 3.0



Digital signatures; ICC and DeviceN color spaces; JavaScript actions

Acrobat Reader 4.0



JBIG2; transparency; OCR text layer

Acrobat Reader 5.0



JPEG2000; linked multimedia

Adobe Reader 6.0



Embedded multimedia; XML forms; AES encryption

Adobe Reader 7.0




Adobe Reader 8, Adobe Reader 9

[edit] Implementations

Readers for many platforms are available, such as Adobe Reader, Foxit, Preview, Sumatra PDF, Xpdf, Evince, Okular, KPDF, Drumlin PDF reader and ePDFView; there are also front-ends for many platforms to Ghostscript. PDF readers are generally free.

There are many software options for creating PDFs, including the PDF printing capabilities built in to Mac OS X and some versions of Linux, the multi-platform OpenOffice.org, Microsoft Office (an additional free download from Microsoft is required) [citation needed] , Wordperfect since

version 9, numerous PDF print drivers for Microsoft Windows, the pdfTeX typesetting system, the DocBook PDF tools and Adobe Acrobat itself.

There is also specialized software for editing PDF files, though the choices are much more limited and often expensive. Adobe Acrobat Professional is one example of software that allows the user to annotate (highlight, add notes to) already created PDF files. A free one is PDFedit. As of version 0.46, Inkscape also allows PDF editing through an intermediate translation step involving poppler.

AGFA introduced and shipped Apogee, the very first prepress workflow system based on PDF in


PDF was selected as the "native" metafile format for Mac OS X, replacing the PICT format of the earlier Mac OS. The imaging model of the Quartz graphics layer is based on the model common to Display PostScript and PDF, leading to the nickname "Display PDF". The Preview application can display PDF files, as can version 2.0 and later of the Safari web browser. System-level support for PDF allows Mac OS X applications to create PDF documents automatically, provided they support the Print command. When taking a screenshot under Mac OS X versions 10.0 through 10.3, the image was also captured as a PDF; in 10.4 and 10.5 the default behaviour is set to capture as a PNG file, though this behaviour can be set back to PDF if required.

Some printers also support direct PDF printing, which can interpret PDF data without external help. Currently, all PDF capable printers also support PostScript, but most PostScript printers do not support direct PDF printing.

The Free Software Foundation consider one of their high priority projects to be "developing a free, high-quality and fully functional set of libraries and programs that implement the PDF file format and associated technologies to the coming ISO standard, ISO 32000." [15]

[edit] See also

Web document

List of PDF software

Scalable Vector Graphics

XML Paper Specification

XSL Formatting Objects

[edit] References

1. ^ Adobe Systems Incorporated, PDF Reference, Sixth edition, version 1.23 (30 MB), p. 33

2. ^ Orion, Egan (2007-12-05). "PDF 1.7 is approved as ISO 32000" (HTML). The Inquirer. The Inquirer. Retrieved on 2007-12-05.; "Adobe wins backing for PDF 1.7". vnunet.com.

3. ^ Laurens Leurs. "The history of PDF". Retrieved on 2007-09-19.

4. ^ Wisdom of the PDF Sage » History of PDF Openness


^ Adobe Systems, PDF Reference, p. 51

7. ^ Adobe Systems, PDF Reference, pp. 39-40

8. ^ [http://www.adobe.com/devnet/pdf/pdf_reference.html Adobe – PDF Developer Center: PDF reference

9. ^ PDF Blend Modes Addendum [1]

10. ^ AIIM (2006-10-20). "New Best Practices Guide Addresses Exchange of Healthcare Information". Retrieved on 2007-03-09.

11. ^ Jackson, Joab (2006-12-07). "Adobe plunges PDF into XML". Government Computer News. Retrieved on 2008-01-12.

12. ^ Adobe Forums, ANNOUNCEMENT: PDF Attachment Virus "Peachy", 15 August 2001

13. ^ New features and issues addressed in the Acrobat 7.0.5 Update (Acrobat and Adobe Reader for Windows and Mac OS)

14. ^ http://www.planetpdf.com/planetpdf/pdfs/pdf2k/03e/merz_fontaquarium.pdf

15. ^ Goals and Motivations - GNUpdf

[edit] External links

PDF Specifications, including the PDF Reference for PDF 1.7, PDF 1.6 (ISBN 0-321- 30474-8), PDF 1.5, PDF 1.4 (ISBN 0-201-75839-3), PDF 1.3 (ISBN 0-201-61588-6)

White Paper: PDF Primer PDF (167 KiB) — A white paper from PDF Tools AG with an introduction into what PDF is and its strengths and weaknesses.

Adobe: PostScript vs. PDF - Official introductory comparison of PS, EPS vs. PDF.

A brief history of PDF Security — White paper on the beginnings of PDF Security from passwords to access controls, DRM and lifecycle management

Adobe PDF 101: Quick overview of PDF

ISO 32000-1:2008 Document of the PDF Standard at the International Organization for Standardization (chargeable)

ISO 19005-1:2005 Document of the PDF/A-1 Standard at the International Organization for Standardization (chargeable)

Portable Document Format: An Introduction for Programmers - Quick one-page intro to PDF vs. PostScript and PDF internals (up to v1.3).

Planet PDF: The PDF User Community

The Camelot Paper — the paper in which John Warnock outlined the project that created PDF

AIIM — Information about PDF/E and PDF/UA specification for accessible documents file format

White Paper: Comparing PDF and XPS


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Jump to: navigation, search This article is about the file format .swf. For other uses, see SWF (disambiguation).

Ad obe Flash (SWF)

Ad obe Flash (SWF)
Ad obe Flash (SWF) Fi lename ex tension .swf Inte r net media type applicati on/x-
Ad obe Flash (SWF) Fi lename ex tension .swf Inte r net media type applicati on/x-

Fi lename

ex tension



Inter net media type

applicati on/x-shoc kwave- flash

applicati on/x- s hoc k wave- flash

Dev eloped by

FutureWave Software, later taken o ver by Macro media and Adobe Syste ms

FutureWave Software , later taken o v er by Macro media and Adobe Syste ms


of format

Vector graph ic animation

Adobe Syste ms Type of format Vector graph ic animation SWF (ac ronym of " S

SWF (ac ronym of "S hockwave

multime dia and espe cially vecto r graphics d eveloped by FutureWav e Software, and now

controlle d by Adobe . Intended to

contain a nimations o r applets of varying deg rees of inter activity and function. S WF is also sometim es used for c reating ani mated displa y graphics a nd menus fo r DVD mov ies, and

televisio n commerci als.

Flash", [1] pro nounced sw if) is a parti ally open fil e format [2] f or

be small en ough for pu blication on the web, S WF files can

SWF is c urrently the dominant f ormat for di splaying ani mated vecto r graphics o n the web, f ar

exceedin g the W3C impleme ntations.

open standar d SVG, whi ch has met with proble ms over com peting

On 1 Ma y 2008, Ado be dropped its licensing

part of th e Open Scr een Project. However, R ob Savoye, a member o f the Gnash developmen t

team, ha s pointed to some parts

Adobe re leased a co de allowing search engin e giants, G oogle and Y ahoo, to ind ex and craw l

data in S WF files. [4]

Conte nts


on the SW F format spe cifications, as

of the Flash format whic h remain cl osed. [3] On J uly 1, 2008


1 Description

2 Licensing

3 See also

4 References

5 External links

[edit] Description

Originally limited to presenting vector based objects and images in a simple sequential manner, the newer versions of the format allow audio, video and many different possible forms of interaction with the end user. Once created, SWF files can be played by the Adobe Flash Player, working either as a browser plugin or as a standalone player. SWF files can also be encapsulated with the player, creating a self-running SWF movie called a "projector".

The file format was first created by FutureWave, a small company later acquired by Macromedia with one primary objective: to create small files for displaying entertaining animations. [5] The idea was to have a format which could be reused by a player running on any system and which would work with slower network connection.

Plugins to play SWF files in web browsers are available from Adobe for most desktop operating systems, including Microsoft Windows, Apple Mac, and Linux on the x86 architecture. A free software implementation of a SWF player is Gnash, which as of 2007 is undergoing intensive development. Another FOSS implementation is swfdec.

Based on an independent study conducted by Millward Brown, over 99% of web users now have an SWF plugin installed, with around 90% having the latest version of the Flash Player. [6] Sony PlayStation Portable consoles can play limited SWF files in its web browser, beginning firmware version 2.71. Both the Nintendo Wii and the Sony PS3 consoles can run SWF files through their Internet browsers. [citation needed]

[edit] Licensing

A full specification of SWF is available. Until May 1, 2008, it was not an open format, as

implementing software that plays the format was disallowed by the specification's license [7] . On that date, however, as part of its Open Screen Project, Adobe dropped all such restrictions on the SWF and FLV formats. [8] Implementing software which creates SWF files has always been permitted, on the condition that the resulting files render "error free in the latest publicly

available version of Adobe Flash Player." [9]

A free software SWF player called Gnash is currently being developed by GNU under the GNU

General Public License (GPL). Another player is the GNU LGPL swfdec.

[edit] See also


SWF & FLV Player

SWF2EXE Software

FutureSplash Animator

[edit] References

1. ^ The Telltale SWF

2. ^ Open Screen Project

3. ^ Free Flash community reacts to Adobe Open Screen Project

4. ^ http://www.streamingmedia.com/article.asp?id=10523

5. ^ "The History of Flash: The Dawn of Web Animation". Adobe Systems. Retrieved on 2008-01-


6. ^ "Flash Player Penetration: Flash content reaches over 98 percent of Internet viewers". Adobe Systems. Retrieved on 2008-01-21.

7. ^ "SWF and FLV File Format Specification License Agreement". Adobe Systems (2007-06-27). Retrieved on 2008-01-05. “You may not use the Specification in any way to create or develop a runtime, client, player, executable or other program that reads or renders SWF files.

8. ^ "Open Screen Project Press Release". Adobe Systems (2008-05-01). Retrieved on 2008-05-01.

9. ^ "Adobe Player Licensing: Flash Player Developer SDKs". Adobe Systems. Retrieved on 2008-


[edit] External links

Adobe Systems Flash SWF reference

SWF File Format Specification (Version 9)

Windows Metafile

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Jump to: navigation, search

Windows Metafile

Filename extension

.wmf, .emf, .wmz, .emz

Developed by


Type of format Image file formats
Type of format
Image file formats

Windows Metafile (WMF) is a graphics file format on Microsoft Windows systems, originally designed in the early 1990s. Windows Metafiles are intended to be portable between applications and may contain both vector and bitmap components. In contrast to raster formats such as JPEG and GIF which are used to store bitmap graphics such as photographs, scans and graphics, Windows Metafiles generally are used to store line-art, illustrations and content created in drawing or presentation applications.

Essentially, a WMF file stores a list of function calls that have to be issued to the Windows graphics layer GDI in order to display an image on screen. Since some GDI functions accept pointers to callback functions for error handling, a WMF file may include executable code.

WMF is a 16-bit format introduced in Windows 3.0. It is the native vector format for Microsoft Office applications such as Word, PowerPoint, and Publisher. A newer 32-bit version with additional commands is called Enhanced Metafile (EMF). EMF is also used as a graphics language for printer drivers.

There are also compressed versions of Windows Metafiles known as Compressed Windows Metafile (WMZ) & Compressed Windows Enhanced Metafile (EMZ) [1] .



1 Patents

2 Windows Metafile vulnerability

3 Alternative implementations

4 See also

5 References

6 External links


6.1 Tutorials and articles


6.2 Applications


6.3 Libraries

[edit] Patents

As for other Microsoft file formats, no specification of the format was previously available, and alternative implementations had to reverse engineer existing WMF files, which was difficult and error prone. [2] In September 2006, Microsoft published the WMF file format specification [3] in the context of the Microsoft Open Specification Promise, promising to not assert patent rights to file formats implementors. [4]

[edit] Windows Metafile vulnerability

Main article: Windows Metafile vulnerability

In December 2005, a vulnerabilty was reported to Microsoft by Symantec. It was assessed and classified as critical. In certain cases, the graphics rendering engine allowed remote code execution. This vulnerability was resolved in a security update on January 5, 2006 on Microsoft TechNet (MS06-001) and generally released January 10, 2006. Details can be found in Microsoft Knowledge Base Article "Vulnerability in Graphics Rendering Engine Could Allow Remote Code Execution" (912919). It was also referred to as the WMF (Windows Meta File) vulnerability.

[edit] Alternative implementations

The WMF format was designed to be executed by the Windows graphics layer GDI in order to restore the image, but as the WMF binary files contain the definition of the GDI graphic primitives that constitute this image, it is possible to design alternative libraries that render WMF binary files, or convert them in other graphic formats.

For example, the Batik library is able to render WMF files and convert them to their SVG equivalent. The Vector Graphics package of the FreeHEP Java library allows to save Java2D drawings as EMF files.

EMZ is gzipped EMF. One program that directly unpacks EMZ and WMZ files into EMF and WMF files is SpeedCommander 12.

[edit] See also

Scalable Vector Graphics


[edit] References

1. ^ "You receive a "This file is an unsupported graphic format" error message when you try to insert a picture into a PowerPoint for Mac presentation". Microsoft. Retrieved on 2008-06-01.

2. ^ Caolan McNamara. "Window Metafile (wmf) Reference". Retrieved on 2008-06-01. “These opcodes are unimplemented, for the reason that i dont know what they are, no known documentation

3. ^ "MS-WMF: Windows Metafile Format Specification". Retrieved on 2008-06-01.

4. ^ "Microsoft Open Specification Promise". Retrieved on 2008-06-01.

[edit] External links

[edit] Tutorials and articles

Windows Metafile Format Specification from Microsoft

Enhanced Metafile Format Specification from Microsoft

Windows GDI

File Format Summary at fileformat.info

WMF operand documentation

FAQ about Windows Metafile

[edit] Applications

Metafile Companion is an editor for Windows metafiles (WMF, EMF)

VincentDraw generates WMF (site is in French)

EmfPrinter free virtual EMF/WMF printer driver

META FLY free WMF Viewer for Windows

WMF Viewer for MacOS X

[edit] Libraries

Batik Java library : the WMF to SVG transcoder package allows to convert WMF Metafiles to SVG

FreeHEP Java library : the Vector graphics package allows to convert EMF Metafiles to SVG, or Java2D drawings to EMF

libWMF, a library for reading WMF Metafiles, which is able to display them or convert them to SVG

libEMF, a C/C++ library which provides a drawing toolkit to create vector graphics files on POSIX systems

wmf2svg, a small Java class to convert WMF Metafiles to SVG

Pixie Java library

Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Windows_Metafile"


Technical details


" Comparison Technical details Format A G P A I Compres sion algorith Raster / Vector

















/ Vector Index ed color Multi - page Color depth Trans- parency Meta data Inter- lacing*







- page Color depth Trans- parency Meta data Inter- lacing* m Ani- mation L a y
- page Color depth Trans- parency Meta data Inter- lacing* m Ani- mation L a y



mation Layers

Meta data Inter- lacing* m Ani- mation L a y e r s Color mana ge-
Meta data Inter- lacing* m Ani- mation L a y e r s Color mana ge-





mation L a y e r s Color mana ge- ment Exten d- able HDR format




r s Color mana ge- ment Exten d- able HDR format RLE Lossy & Lossless Raster



mana ge- ment Exten d- able HDR format RLE Lossy & Lossless Raster 32 No Yes


Lossy &















1, 8, 24,