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Systems Control Pag.

5
1. Introduction, blockdiagrams,
modelling, analogies
1.1 Itroduction
Systems, consisting of connected components, are build with a certain pupose. The behaviour of such a system
will be analysed and ways to do so will be introduced.
Systems Control will deal with analysing such systems and the design of automatic controllers in order to
improve the behaviour of such systems.
A system can hereby be interpreted in a wide sense; they can be traffic systems, chemical processes, robotic
systems etc. These systems must comply to very high standards, as can be seen next:
the Hubble telescope is being positionned with an inaccuracy of only 0.007 arcseconds!
This means that a laserbeam in Amsterdam can be pointed towards a mirror with a diameter
of 15 cm in Caro (Egypt)!
A controlled system consists of the connection of several systems in such a way that a desired behaviour will be
obtained. The controlled part, the process, can be represented as a block, see fig. 1.1:
Most times the transfer function of a process cannot be altered. In order to obtain a desired outputsignal, an
actuator is used. This way we get an open-loop system, see fig. 1.2:
In a closed-loop system (in contrast to an open-loop system) the output signal is measured and compared with a
desired value. The difference (error-signal) will be processed by a control unit and applied to the process, see
fig. 1.3:
R = Requested value
E = Error
C = Controlled value
U = Outputsignal
B = .
The specifics of such a closed- or controlsystem are:
the controlunits inputsignal is the difference between the wanted signal and the actual (measured)
signal; this is the so-called errorsignal (E)
there is a feedback loop
changes in systemparameters are (as good as possible) being compensated
noise- and errorsignals are (as god as possible) being eliminated.
The control unit will be designed in such a way that the errorsignal will become smaller (preferably E=0),
in a way that the outputsignal will be (as good as possible) equal to the reference signal (R).
J. van Dijken & J. Bilterijst
2003 Saxion Hogeschool Enschede inst. Elektrotechniek
input output
proces
Figure 1. 1 Proces
process actuator
output
desired
value
Figure 1. 2 Open-loop system (no feedback)
process control unit compare
measuring
desired
value
output
R
E
B
U
C
Figuur 1. 3 Controlled system (with feedback)
Systems Control Pag. 6
In practice, a number of names for a controlled system are used:
regulator system:
Is the outputsignal to be constant , than we call this a regulator system
(Example: waterlevel in a toiletflusher, thermostate in a car).
servo system:
Should the outputsignal follow a certain fysical quantity, than this is called a servosystem
(Example: the position of a rudder follows the turning of the steering wheel).
programmed system:
When the outputsignal must have a certain (programmed) profile, than this is called a programmed
system (Example: the temperature profile in a ceramic oven).
optimising system:
When the output signal is being optimised, than this is called an optimising system
(Example: a motormanagement system controls the gasmixture in such a way that the combustion will
be optimal).
The speciallity systems control deals with dynamic systems, i.e. systems in which the signals are changing as a
function of time (this in contrast to static systems).
the static behaviour:
The static behaviour of, for example an engine, can be described by algebraic equations.
In this way an engine will, for example, on applying an inputvoltage of 50V reach 1000 rpm and at a
voltage of 100V for example 2000 rpm, etc. This can be represented in a graphics, often non-linear
(for example the connection between voltage and current of a diode).
the dynamic behaviour:
The dynamic behaviour of the mentioned engine describes in which way a certain rpm will be obtained
as a function of time. This is mostly done by solving differential equations, valid for the (linearised)
system.
As an example we will consider a heating process, see fig. 1.4.
In a container a
liquid is being
heated: applied
power =
removed power,
P(t) = Q(t),
with:
R the
heatresistance of
the wall to the
environment
C the
heatcapacitance of the system
T0 the outside temperature
T the temperature of the liquid
P the applied power
Q the removed power, with Q=(T-T0)/R
J. van Dijken & J. Bilterijst
2003 Saxion Hogeschool Enschede inst. Elektrotechniek
P(t)
T(t)
T
0
Q(t)
stirrer
T
P
T
0
C
R
0
0
Figure 1. 4 Heating process
Systems Control Pag. 7
For the static behaviour (equilibrium) of the system this means:
P = Q or: P = (T-T0) / R
so that T = T0 + R.P
In fig. 1.5 this relation is graphically shown.
This characteristic is called the static characteristic, and shows
the final relation between T and P , but not the way this is reached!
If we want to know how the temperature as a function of time changes, we have to determine the dynamic behaviour of
the system. Than we have to include the amount of heat, stored in the heatcapacitance C, in our equations.
Then: applied power = removed power + stored power
in formula: P(t) = Q(t) + C.dT(t)/dt
filling in gives: P(t) = ( T(t) - T0 ) / R + C. dT(t)/dt
thus follows: RC. dT(t)/dt + T(t) = R.P(t) + T0 (Vgl. 1.1)
This is a lineair differential equation of the first order, with a solution (fig. 1.6):
Exercise: Solve the differential equation Vgl. 1.1 with P(t)=1 , for t>0 (stepresponse)
and calculate an expression for the function T(t) in Fig. 1.6.
J. van Dijken & J. Bilterijst
2003 Saxion Hogeschool Enschede inst. Elektrotechniek
T
0
0
T
P
0
Figure 1. 5 Static characteristic
T
0
0
T(t)
P(t)
time
0
T
Figure 1. 6 Dynamic characteristic
Systems Control Pag. 8
The speciallity often is, based upon two parameters (namely the amount of lineairity of the system and the speed with
which measuring data is obtained e.g. continuity), split up into (see fig. 1.7):
Classic controls:
Classic controls deal with linear systems and continues signals. These systems can be described by linear
differential equations. Therefore the size of the signals have no influence on the behaviour of the controlled
systems.
Non-linear controls:
These systems are highly non-linear, and can only be estimated by linear differential equations. Furthermore
the size of the signals do influence the behaviour of the system.
Fuzzy controls:
These controls take the behaviour of a system and are mostly used where no (or very dificult) a mathematical
model of the system can be achieved. Mostly they deal with qualitative values of the signals.
Digital controls:
Digital controls are used when the interval between the measured signals (sample time) are relatively big in
respect to the timeconstants of the controlled system.
1.2 History of automatic controls
A brief view of the developpement and application of automatic controls followes:
1789: James Watt builds a control for a steamengine
(start of the Industrial Revolution).
1800: Eli Whitney shows the construction of interchangeble parts for the production of mukets (guns)
(start of the mass production).
1868: J.C.Maxwell states a mathematical model for the control of a steam engine.
1913: Henry Ford introduces an assembling machine for the production of cars.
1927: H.W. Bode analyses the feedback of electronic amplifiers.
1932: H. Nyquist designs a methode to analyse the stability of systems.
1952: Numeric Control (NC) is developped at the MIT.
J. van Dijken & J. Bilterijst
2003 Saxion Hogeschool Enschede inst. Elektrotechniek
High
High Low
Low
Continuity
Linearity
Digital
controls
Fuzzy controls
Classic
controls
Non-linear
controls
Figure 1. 7 Dividing the speciallity
Systems Control Pag. 9
1954: George. Devol developes programmed replacement of parts;
this is considered as the first industrial robot.
1960: The first Unimate-robot is being installed.
1970: State variable models are being developped (used in Matlab).
1980: Robust control systems are being studied worldwide.
1994: Control systems are used widely in cars.
Nowadays more than 200,000 engineers are working as control specialists worldwide. And the number is still
increasing.
The future evolution of control systems and robotics is displayed in fig. 1.8:
Man versus an automatic machine:
Tasks, difficult for a machine Tasks, difficult for man
J. van Dijken & J. Bilterijst
2003 Saxion Hogeschool Enschede inst. Elektrotechniek
High
High Low
Low
hand tools
Fixed Automation
NC machines
Robotics
Elektric tools
Digital control
systems
Programmable
control systems
Mechanical master/slave
manipulators
Unilateral
manipulators
Flexibility
Autonomy
Intelligent
systems
Improvements:
Sensors
Vision
Languages
Artificial
intelligence
Improvements:
Vision
Man-machine
interface
Supervisory
control
Extended tools
Figure 1. 8 Futur evolution of control systems and robotics
Systems Control Pag. 10
Inspecting seedlings in a nursery garden
Steering a car in difficult terrain
Selecting valuable juwelry
Inspecting systems in a hot and poisonous environment
Assembling clocks continuously
Landing an airplane at night, in bad weather
Exercise: Determine, in your environment, which processes might be considered for automation,
and choose the appropriate controller to be used.
J. van Dijken & J. Bilterijst
2003 Saxion Hogeschool Enschede inst. Elektrotechniek
Systems Control Pag. 11
1.3 The designflow of an automatic control unit
The purpose of the speciallity Systems Control is to design a controller for an existing process, or to conclude that this
is impossible.
In doing so, one starts with a model of the process and a numer of design specifications. These specifications describe in
which way the controlled system has to behave; such as:
insensitivity for disturbances in the process
wanted response to input signals
realistic signals to the actuator
low sensitivity for interruptions and noise
robustness
reducing tolerances
Figure 1.9 shows the design flow:
First we have to determine what has to be controlled;
for example the speed of a car.
Then check with which variables this can be done, for
example position of throttle, rpm of engine
Next determine the accuracy of the signals; this
specifies the choice of a sensor
Now a first configuration is made; an actuator is
choosen and the total is being modelled
An appropriate control unit is choosen and by means of
calculations and simulations the proper parameters are
being optimised, until the specifications are met (if
possible!).
1.4 Linearisation and the use of Matlab in
system control
Systems control deals with the dynamic behaviour of (controlled) systems.
These systems are normally somewhat non-linear; in this case we make (if possible) use of a linearised model in order to
do the necessary calculations, after which the differential equations of the system are stated (in the time-domain) so we
can check if the desired responses are being obtained.
On evaluating the results we must always take in consideration a possible error due to this linearisation!
As an example we will check the influence (error) if we treat a quadratic process as if it was linear.
Such a process is, for example, the dissipation
of electric energy in an Ohmic resistor (see
fig. 1.10).
J. van Dijken & J. Bilterijst
2003 Saxion Hogeschool Enschede inst. Elektrotechniek
Determine what in the controlled system has to
be controlled
Determine the signals to be controlled
Determine the specifications for these signals
Determine the structure of the process and find
the actuator
Optimize the parameters and analyse the
behaviour of the controlled system
Choose a suitable control unit and choose the
parameters to be set
Find a model of the process, the actuator and
the sensor
specifications are not met:
change the structure ans/or the actuator.
specifications are met:
finish the design
Figure 1. 9 The design flow of a controlled system
U
R
P
U
P
U
0
P
0
P
U
Figure 1. 10 A non-linear process
Systems Control Pag. 12

R
U
P
2

Around an adjusted voltage U0


is valid:
P
U
R
0
0
2

If, around this adjusted voltage U0 (working point) the voltage increases slightly with U , than:
R
U
U
R
U
R
U
R
U U U U
R
U U
P P
2
0
2
0
2
0
2
0
2
0
0
) (
.
2 ) ( . 2 ) (
+ +
+ +

+
+
It follows that:


P
U
R
U
U
R
+
2
0
2
.
( )
(this is an exact calculation of the change)
When we linearise this quadratic process, than the slope of the tangent in (U0,P0) will be:
dP
dU
U
R
U U

0
2
0
, then:
dP
U
R
dU
2
0
.
, so (linearity assumed):
P
U
R
U
2
0
.
The difference (the error) with the true value is:
( ) U
R
2
or relatively in respect to P0 :
U
U
0
2

_
,

If the variation is small, e.g.


U
U
0
10% , than the relative error
1%
,which is generally acceptable, but if the
variation is large, e.g.
U
U
0
33% , than the relative error
10%
, which generally will be to large!
If the non-linearities are small, or the signal variations around a setting are small, than linearisation can be used!
When the variations in the signals are large, than the calculated results are not directly appliccable to the fysical reality,
and the system must be treated as a non-linear process!
In this case we can possibly divide the area into several smaller parts, in which linearisation is possible; otherwise we
have to apply non-linear methodes!
J. van Dijken & J. Bilterijst
2003 Saxion Hogeschool Enschede inst. Elektrotechniek
Systems Control Pag. 13
Linearisation of a system has great advantages; in case of a linear system the superposition principle is valid!!
Also linear differential equations can be stated, so that responses to input signals can be computed relatively easy by
means of known mathematical methodes.
As an example we will, for the linear system of fig. 1.11, compute the steprespons in the time domain.
Valid is: u t i t R u t
i u
( ) ( ). ( ) +
and:
u t
C
i t dt
u
( ) ( ).

1
Differentiating and elimination of i(t) gives us the linear
differential equation of this system:

RC
du t
dt
u t u t
u
u i
( )
( ) ( ) +
For the unit stepresponse it is valid that: ui(t) = 0 , for t<0 and ui(t)=1, for t>0.
Because here we have a linear differential equation, the superposition principle is valid and the result for Uu(t) can be
considered as the sum of two parts, namely the characteristic and the particular solution.
The characteristic solution follows from:
0 ) (
) (
,
,
+ t u
dt
t du
RC
k u
k u
0 ) ( ). ( ) ( .
, ,
+ t d t u t du RC
k u k u
=>
dt
u
t du
RC
k u
k u

,
,
) (
=>
dt
RC u
t du
k u
k u
1
) (
,
,

Integration gives: RC
t
k u
e B t u

. ) (
,
, with B an integration constant (yet to be determined)
The characteristic solution describes the transition of the signals!
The particular solution has the same form as the inputsignal, so that we can assume this to be A t u
p u
) (
,
This is the most common form for a constant voltage with a value of A volt.
Then is valid:
0
) (
,

dt
dA
dt
t du
p u
Entering this in the differential equation, we get:
RC A .0 1 +
, so that: A = 1, and 1 ) (
,
t u
p u
The particular solution describes the steady-state behaviour, e.g. the output signal for t
The total solution is the sum of both parts, being:
1 . ) (
, ,
+ +

RC
t
p u k u u
e B u u t u
At time t=0 the outputvoltage = 0, so it must be valid that
u B e
u
RC
( ) . 0 1 0
0
+

,
therefore obviously B = -1 , so that the total solution finally will be:
J. van Dijken & J. Bilterijst
2003 Saxion Hogeschool Enschede inst. Elektrotechniek
U
i
(t)
R
C
i(t)
U
u
(t)
Figure 1. 11 A linear RC-network
u t e
u
t
RC
( )

1
, voor t>0
Systems Control Pag. 14
Solving differential equations of higher order is far from easy! The use of Matlab, in solving differential equations helps
us a lot. Starting from the differential equation that describes the system, it will be possible to calculate by using Matlab
the outputsignals.
In using Matlab the following parameters are being used:
ui(t) are the inputsignals, ci(t) the
outputsignals and xi(t) the internal
state variables. xi(0) are the starting
values (on t=0).
At a given present state of the system, the
inputsignals and the dynamic connections, the state variables, describe the future response of the system.
The number of states must be choosen as small as possible, but are minimal equal to the number of energy reservoirs in
the system.
As an example of this approach the response of a RLC-network will be computed, using Matlab.
We need two state variables: x1(t) en x2(t).
Choose x1(t) = iL(t)
and x2(t) = uC
Than is valid:
C
L
L i
u
dt
di
L R i u + + . . en
i C
du
dt
L
C
.
Substituting of x1(t) and x2(t) gives:
2
1
1
. . x
dt
dx
L x R u
i
+ + =>
i
u
L
x
L
x
L
R
dt
dx 1 1
2 1
1
+
x C
dx
dt
1
2
.
=>
dx
dt C
x
2
1
1

Lets take the outputsignal c1(t) = uC(t) = x2


These equations have the next general form:
m i m i n n
u b u b x a x a x a x a
dt
dx
, 1 1 , 11 1 3 13 2 12 1 11
1
....... ....... + + + + + + +
m i m i n n
u b u b x a x a x a x a
dt
dx
, 2 1 , 21 2 3 23 2 22 1 21
2
....... ....... + + + + + + +
:
:
m i nm i n n nn n n n
n
u b u b x a x a x a x a
dt
dx
, 1 , 1 3 3 2 2 1 1
....... ....... + + + + + + +
J. van Dijken & J. Bilterijst
2003 Saxion Hogeschool Enschede inst. Elektrotechniek
Dynamic system in
state x
i
(t)
u
i
(t) : : c
i
(t)
inputsignals outputsignals
. .
x
i
(0)
Figure 1. 12 Dynamic systems in Matlab
U
i
(t)
+
-
+
-
u
C
(t)
R L
C
i
L
(t)
Figure 1. 13 RLC-network
Systems Control Pag. 15
This can be written as a number of first order differential equations in a matrix form according to:
1
1
1
1
]
1

1
1
1
1
]
1

+
1
1
1
1
]
1

1
1
1
1
]
1

1
1
1
1
]
1

n i
i
i
nm n
m
m
n nn n n n
n
n
n
u
u
u
b b
b b
b b
x
x
x
a a a a
a a a a
a a a a
x
x
x
dt
d
,
2 ,
1 ,
1
2 21
1 11
2
1
3 2 1
2 33 22 21
1 13 12 11
2
1
:
.
.. ..
: : : :
.. ..
.. ..
:
.
.. ..
: : : : : :
.. ..
.. ..
:
In Matlab this is noted as:
i
u B x A
dt
dx
. . +
with A
a a a a
a a a a
a a a a
n
n
n n n nn

1
]
1
1
1
1
11 12 13 1
21 22 33 2
1 2 3
.. ..
.. ..
: : : : : :
.. ..
and B
b b
b b
b b
m
m
n nm

1
]
1
1
1
1
11 1
21 2
1
.. ..
.. ..
: : : :
.. ..
Applying this to our RLC-network gives:
[ ]
i
u
L
x
x
C
L L
R
x
x
dt
d
.
0
1
.
0
1
1
2
1
2
1
1
1
]
1

+
1
]
1

1
1
1
]
1

1
]
1

so that: A
R
L L
C

1
]
1
1
1
1
1
0
and
1
1
]
1

0
1
L
B
Generally the outputsignal in a linear system will depend on the state-variables xi(t) and the inputvariables
u(t) according to: c = C.x + D.ui , with C and D coefficients matrices.
In our case is c1 = x2 or c1 = 1.x2 + 0.u so we can write: [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ]
i
u
x
x
c . 0 . 1 0
2
1
+
1
]
1

so valid is:
[ ]
C 0 1 and [ ] D 0
By using the matrices A , B , C and D we now can let Matlab calculate through the system.
Lets choose for example:
R = 0,5 Ohm
L = 2 Henry
C = 3 Farad
Thus we get:
1
]
1

0 33 , 0
5 , 0 25 , 0
A ; B

1
]
1
0 5
0
,
;
[ ]
C 0 1 ; [ ] D 0
J. van Dijken & J. Bilterijst
2003 Saxion Hogeschool Enschede inst. Elektrotechniek
Systems Control Pag. 16
By using Matlab we get the timeresponses in the following way:
A=[-0.25 -0.5 ; 0.33 0];
B=[0.5 ; 0];
C=[0 1];
D=[0];
x0=[0 0]; % starting values
t=[0:0.1:40]; % time t runs from 0 until 40 sec. with interfals of 0.1 sec.
ui=1+0*t; % makes the vector ui
[c,x]=lsim(A,B,C,D,ui,t,x0);
subplot(211), plot(t,c)
xlabel('time in sec'), ylabel('Uc')
subplot(212), plot(t,x(:,1))
xlabel('time in sec'), ylabel('iL')
The result is:
0 10 20 30 40
0
0.5
1
1.5
time in sec
Uc
0 10 20 30 40
-0.5
0
0.5
1
time in sec
iL
Figure 1. 14 RLC stepresponse
Here we used the Matlab function lsim as follows:
J. van Dijken & J. Bilterijst
2003 Saxion Hogeschool Enschede inst. Elektrotechniek
[c,x] = lsim(A,B,C,D,u,t,x0)
c(t) = output response at t
x(t) = state response at t
u = input
t = times, on which the
response is calculated
starting values
(optional)
Systems Control Pag. 17
1.5 Analogies and Modelling
Clearly, the role of mathematics is very important. Often one uses mathematical models for the fysical systems.
As generally the dynamical behaviour of these systems will be analysed, these models normally will be described by
differential equations. If possible, the fysical laws of the system will be transformed to linear differential equations in
order to be able to use the super position principle and the Laplace transforms (see chap. 2).
In practice, due to the complexity of the systems, certain assumptions will be made (such as linearity) and secundary
effects will be neglected.
The practical approach therefore is:
1. define the system and its parts
2. state the mathematical model and note the necessary assumptions
3. determine the differential equations that describe the system
4. solve the equations for the desired input signals
5. analyse these solutions and the assumptions made
6. if necessary, repeat steps 1 though 5.
BEWARE: !! A model always is an approximation of the reality !!
!! => the obtained results need not be right !!
Example:
Two capacitors are through a switch placed in parallel, so
that the charge may distribute.
Before closing the capacitors are charged to a voltage of U
resp. 0 volt. On closing the switch the charge will
distribute equally over both capacitors in such a way that
afterwards both capacitors will be charged to a voltage of
U/2 volt.
Before closing it is valid that :
the total charge (both capacitors) equals: Qt = C.U + C.0 = C.U ,
and the total energy (both capacitors) equals: Et = .C.U
2
+ .C.0
2 =
.C.U
2
After closing of the switch it is valid that:
the total charge (both capacitors) equals: Qt = C. U + C. U = C.U OK!
and the total energy (both capacitors) equals: Et = .C.[ U]
2
+ .C.[ U]
2
= .C.U
2
???
What happened to half the energy ??! Whats wrong ??!
Exercise: Solve this problem.
Systems control is not constricted to only electrotechnics, but can be applied to many specialities.
Because modelling leads to mathematical models, abstaction is done. Many fysical parts of a system behave in an
analog manner, therefore it is often possible to translate a non-electric system easily to an electric one.
Then the behaviour of such an analog system can be transferred towards the original fysical system.
J. van Dijken & J. Bilterijst
2003 Saxion Hogeschool Enschede inst. Elektrotechniek
C C
U 0
+ +
_
_
S
C C
U/2
+ +
_
_
S
U/2
Figure 1. 15 Bad modelling
Systems Control Pag. 18
The distinguishing marks of an analog system are:
1. the same structure
the parts are connected in the same way
the parts have the same character
1. the same behaviour
the describing differential equations have the same form
As an example of an analogy we will consider the filling of a container:
Input variable is I1 Input variable is i1
Output variable is I2 Output variable is i2
Valid is:
I
H
R
I I A
dH
dt
2
1 2

'

.
Valid is:
i
u
R
i i C
du
dt
2
1 2

'

.
diff. eq:
AR
dI
dt
I I
2
2 1
+
diff. eq:
RC
di
dt
i i
2
2 1
+
As we see, the structure of both systems are identical and the describing differential equations have the same form.
These systems are analog, and the results of the computations aren transferable, using to:
I i
H u
A C
R R
The use of an analog system often has great advantages; obviously we can do measurements and experiments more
easely on an electric system than on a huge watersystem, in which a river empties!
J. van Dijken & J. Bilterijst
2003 Saxion Hogeschool Enschede inst. Elektrotechniek
area A
I1
H
R
I2
i1
i2
U
U
C
U
R
U
+
U
_
Filling a watercontainer RC network
Figure 1. 16 Analog systems
Systems Control Pag. 19
Examples of much used analogies:
Dissipator: elektrical mechanical
A dissipator is a
component that
converts energy into
heat
P = R.i
2
P = F
2
/k
u = R.i F = k.v
Buffer: elektrical mechanical
A buffer is a
component that is
able to store and
deliver energy
P = Li
2
P = F
2
/c
u = L.di/dt v = 1/c.dF/dt
P = Cu
2
P = mv
2
i = C.du/dt F = m.dv/dt
J. van Dijken & J. Bilterijst
2003 Saxion Hogeschool Enschede inst. Elektrotechniek
v
k
F
i
u
R
+
-
F
c
i
u
L
+
-
i
u
C
+
-
v
F m
Systems Control Pag. 20
1.6 Blockdiagrams
In Systems control it is customary to draw the obtained models into a blockdiagram.
As in case of a linear system the transferfunction of a block is independed of the input- and outputsignals, in such a
blockdiagram the transferfunction can be considered to be the ratio between input- and outputsignal:
H is the transferfunction:
H
Y
X

( in systems control it is customary to represent the)


( transfer by a H )
Generally H, X and Y are functions of time (time domain) , j(-domain) or s (complex frequency domain, see Chap.
2);
The use of a transferfunction already is known from complex mathematics; therefore the transfer function of the
network of fig. 1.11 in the -domain will be:
H j
U j
U j j RC
u
i
( )
( )
( )




+
1
1
In a blockdiagram the following elements appear:
connection line:
constant signal value x
signal direction according to the arrow.
block:
relation between x en y is defined by: H = y/x
H is called transfer function
H generally has a dimension.
add- subtractpoint:
adds (subtracts) two signals
y = x1 t x2
the dimensions of x1, x2 and y are the same.
tap point:
all taps have the same signalvalue
The blockdiagram of a complicated system often can be simpified.
Take notice that two successive blocks are placed in cascade !
A placing in cascade is a series connection of two independend systemparts.
Generally a connection in series will change the transfer function of one or both parts!
J. van Dijken & J. Bilterijst
2003 Saxion Hogeschool Enschede inst. Elektrotechniek
X
H
Y
Figure 1. 17 A block
x x
x y
H
X1
y
X2
+
y
t
x x
x
Systems Control Pag. 21
By simplifying the blockdiagram the total transfer may not be altered and can be done in the following way:
original blockdiagram equivalent blokdiagram
1. cascading:
2. Placing a summingpoint behind a block:
3. Placing a summingpoint before a block:
4. Placing a tap behind a block:
5. Placing a tap before a block:
6. Eliminating a feed-back:
Is H2=1 (i.e. no block H2 , but a connection !), then its called a unit feedback.
The sign in the denumerator is determined by the kind of feedback:
on negative feedback, the sign is +
on positive feedback, the sign is -
Through a blockdiagram we can determine whether or not there is positive or negative feedback.
This is determined by the sign. Starting from the signal E one goes around the loop and takes notice to the sign until the
signal E is reached again. Is the sign - , that we have negative feedback, and if the sign is + , we have positive
feedback.
In systems control the product of H1 en H2 is called the open-loop gain HL , and H1 the straight-through gain Hr.
(straight from input to output!)
This leads us to a rule of thumb to determine the transferfunction of a feedback system:
L
r
H
H
gain loop open
gain through straight
R
C
H
t


1 " " 1
" "
, with + in case of positive feedback , and - in case of negative feedback.
The elimination of a feedback must be done wisely and sparsly, because otherwise the feedbacks in the structure of the
system are no longer visible. Specially the position and amount of feedbacks are very important in systems control.
J. van Dijken & J. Bilterijst
2003 Saxion Hogeschool Enschede inst. Elektrotechniek
H1 H2 H1.H2
X1 X2 X3 X1 X3
H
X1
X2
X3
+
t
H
X1
X2
X3
+
t
H
H
X1
X2
X3
+
t
1/H
X1
X2
X3 +
t
H
H X1
X1
X2 H X1
X1
X2
1/H
H X1
X2
X2 H X1
X2
X2
H
H2
R
output +
t
H1 C
input
E
H1
1tH1.H2
R C
B
Systems Control Pag. 22
Matlab also supports the simpyfying of blockdiagrams. To do so a transferfunction is considered to be the division of
two expressions, namely:
den
num
H , in which num is the numerator, and den is the denumerator.
Num and den are matrices, containing the coefficients of the transferfunction.
In Chapter 2 is described how num and den can be determined directly from a system transferfunction., but it is also
possible to let Matlab determine these coefficients from the state variables, according to:
[num,den] = ss2tf(A,B,C,D) en H = tf(num,den) (ss stands for state space; tf stands for transfer function)
Using this to the RLC-network of figure 1.13 gives us the following result (check this yourself!):
A=[-0.25 -0.5 ; 0.33 0]; :
B=[0.5 ; 0]; :
C=[0 1]; % ook mogelijk is:
D=[0]; :
:
[num,den]=ss2tf(A,B,C,D); :
printsys(num,den) H=tf(num,den)
num/den = Transfer function =

0.165 0.165
-------------------- --------------------
s^2 + 0.25 s + 0.165 s^2 + 0.25 s + 0.165
printsys shows here the transfer function H(s); this is also achieved through H=tf(num,den) , see also help tf.
In the frequency domain we can state s = j , so we get the complex transferfunction, as we did by using complex math.
{Inside Matlab also the inverse functie exists, e.gl: [A,B,C,D] = tf2ss(num,den) }
Simplification of a blockdiagram, using Matlab is done as follows:
cascading:
[num,den] = series(num1,den1,num2,den2)
or by: H1 = tf(num1,den1) ; H2 = tf(num2,den2); H = H1 * H2;
parallelling:
[num,den] = parallel(num1,den1,num2,den2)
or by: H1 = tf(num1,den1) ; H2 = tf(num2,den2); H = H1 + H2;
unit feedback:
[num,den] = feedback(num,den,sign) , met sign = +1 of -1
or by: H1 = tf(num,den) ; H2 = 1; H = feedback(H1, H2, sign);
J. van Dijken & J. Bilterijst
2003 Saxion Hogeschool Enschede inst. Elektrotechniek
H1(s) H2(s) X(s) Y(s)
H2(s)
H1(s)
X(s) Y(s)
+
+
H(s) X(s) Y(s)
+
t
Systems Control Pag. 23
general feedback:
[num,den] = feedback(num1,den1,num2,den2,sign) , met sign = +1 of -1
or by: H1 = tf(num1,den1) ; H2 = tf(num2,den2); H = feedback(H1 ,H2, sign);
Using these Matlab functions one can simplify step by step a complicated system, until the total transfer function has
been determined.
From a fysical system we can, starting with small equations, simply construct a blockdiagram. As an example we will
construct the blockdiagram for the electric network of figure 1.18:
Valid is:
a.
I
U U
L s
1
1 2


.
=>
b. I I I
2 1 3
=>
c.
U
C s
I
2 2
1

.
.
=>
d.
I
U
R
3
2

=>
Connecting these parts will give us the total blockdiagram (figure 1.19):
J. van Dijken & J. Bilterijst
2003 Saxion Hogeschool Enschede inst. Elektrotechniek
H2(s)
H1(s) X(s) Y(s)
+
t
U1 U2
I1
I
2
I
3
L
R
C
Figure 1.18 Fysical system
1
s.L
U1
U2
I1
+
-
I
1
I
3
I
2
+
-
1
s.C
I2 U2
1
R
U2 I3
Systems Control Pag. 24
1.7 Exercises
1. What kind of controlled system is:
a. the waterlevel control in the watercontainer of a toilet?
b. the control of the position of the rudder of a schip?
c. the positioning of a pen of a plotter?
d. the control of the temperature of a ceramic oven?
2. a. Why is linearity of such great importance for systems control?
b. What is the consquence of linearisation for the obtained results?
3. Calculate the influence of linearisation on the system of fig. 1.10, if the power P is the sum of
P1 and P2, with P1 = U
2
/R1 en P2 = U
2
/R2
4. Calculate the response of the system of fig. 1.11 , with ui(t) = A.t.1(t)
5. Given is the system:
Determine the Matlab matrices A, B, C,en D
6. Find a 2
e
order analog electrical system for a kitche oven.
7. Determine manually the total transfer function for the blockdiagram in figure 1.19 .
J. van Dijken & J. Bilterijst
2003 Saxion Hogeschool Enschede inst. Elektrotechniek
1
jL
U1(j)
+
_
1
R
1
jC
+
_
U2(j)
U1-U2
I
1
I
2
I
3
Figure 1.19 The blockdiagram to be simplified
u
i
(t) u
u
(t)
R
L C
R
Systems Control Pag. 25
8. An electronic amplifier is often divided into three parts, see figure:
a. a Pre-amplifier, that amplifies a lot, has a very low noise level and a good linearity,
b. an Eend-amplifier, that ampifies little and has a
relatively high noise level and a lot of distortion
(non-linearity). All its noise and non-linearity is
considered to be bundled into a source S(t), at the
input of the End-amplifier,
c. a voltage divider, consisting of resistors with very
high quality.
The input signal is Ui(t).
Calculate:
1. Uu = function(S) , if Ui = 0 (noise behaviour)
2. Uu = function(Ui) , if S = 0 (control behaviour)
3. the signal/noise ratio at the output (eg. loudspeaker)
4. What are your conclusions?
9. Given is the following blockdiagram:
Calculate K so that y = +0,3 x
J. van Dijken & J. Bilterijst
2003 Saxion Hogeschool Enschede inst. Elektrotechniek
Pre amplifier End amplifier
S(t)
Ui(t) Uu(t)
+ + +
_ H
1
H
2
H
3
3
+
_
K
+
_
0,5
+
_
3
5 2
x
y