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The Concept Of Cadastre Map

Helge Onsrud

Norwegian Mapping and Cadastre Authority

Norwegian Mapping and Cadastre Authority Statens kartverk

State enterprise under the Ministry of the Environment National authority for geodesy, topographic data, cadastre, land register and hydrographical charting 16 offices nation-wide Annual turnover approx EUR 1.000 mill 820 staff Founded 1773

Development depends on a property system Hernando de Soto functioning for all


TIME 100/Scientists & Thinkers

Unlocking the Riches of the Poor


Development de Soto Hernando schemes for Third World countries rarely benefit the poor, largely because aid is too often squandered by corrupt bureaucracies. That makes fresher, commonsense visions like those of Peruvian economist Hernando de Soto all the more welcome. De Soto has spent years looking deep inside the underground economies where poor people--who make up two-thirds of the world's population--eke out a living. He figures the value of their extralegal property, from cinderblock squatter homes to black-market streetvendor sales, at almost $10 trillion. De Soto insists that bringing the poor and their assets into the formal economy, which is usually closed to them by oligarchies and epic red tape, would eclipse all previous development efforts.

Rights

Property Objects

Persons

Rights

Property Objects

Persons

Data about Property Objects


Textual data :
Surface area ,Tax value,Land use

Graphical data :
Parcel map or Cadastre Map Drawings of other property objects
Buildings, apartments

Often referred to as The Cadastre


Confusing terminology

Role of Cadastre Map


Making it possible to transact; To sell and mortgage more safely;
knowing the location and extent of the parcel without visiting the boundaries of the parcel

Providing information for taxation, land use planning, etc Reducing the risk for disputes between neighbours
Evidence of boundaries

What defines a boundary ?


A thing in the field or a line on a map ?
Almost everywhere in the World, the legal understanding is that a boundary is a thing in the field, marked by special markers, fences, hedges , etc The realities in the field overrule the map In case of a dispute a good map will be important evidence The legal understanding of boundaries, and the role of the map in this, should be defined by Law

Properties are 3 D
Properties extend upwards and downwards Boundaries are projections of vertical phases or invisible walls surrounding the parcel Being a model of the realities in the field the cadastre map could be 3 dimensional
Coming in very densely built up cities Not needed elsewhere Being more and more supported by GIS

Geodetic accuracy ?
Consequence of the legal role of the map versus realities in the field Mostly moderate requirements to geodetic accuracy
Index maps with moderate accuracy most often good enough Taxation, land use planning etc do not need high accuracy SDI - mixing with other geographic data defines the accuracy standard not to make spaghetti

Cadastre maps are established from various sources


Digitizing old paper maps Identification of boundaries in orthophotos Field surveys
Surveying not expensive, but very time consuming to deal with neighbours in the field

The database must give information about the source and related accuracy for every boundary corner point

Content of the cadastre map


Big differences between countries Recommendation: Make it simple ;should only contain data resulting from cadastral surveys
Only boundaries, parcel numbers, position of boundary markers, position of easements if surveyed (+ perhaps building footprints)

Cadastre map is an important component to a National Spatial Data Infrastructure


The full picture only when cadastre maps are combined with other maps and orthophotos Service Oriented Architecture and Open Source SW a paradigm shift in cadastre IT

The Basic rule for cadastre projects


All instruments ensuring maintenance of the maps ( and registers) must be in place before one single cent is used on systematic cadastral projects
Organisation and skilled staff Laws IT system Procedures Affordable costs for all