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CHAPTER TWO Methodological and Theoretical Considerations

As a contemporary figure, and more significantly, as Britains present and first-ever female poet laureate, Carol Ann Duffy is unfortunately not well known in Iran. For this, and because a thorough understanding of her volume The Worlds Wife demands a general familiarity with her poetics, this chapter is to provide the required acquaintance as well as an insight into figurative language which is the framework of the present study. The definitions of key terms used most frequently will end the chapter.

2-1- Carol Ann Duffys Biography and Works

Carol Ann Duffy, poet and playwright, was born in 1955 in Glasgow to a working class Roman Catholic family with Celtic ancestry. At an early age she experienced migration as her father got a job at English Electric. Her fathers political activities for sure gave her an early insight into political matters(Ozlan 20). Duffy was educated in Stafford at Saint Austin's RC Primary School (19621967), St. Joseph's Convent School (19671970), and Stafford Girls' High School (19701974). At 16 she was dating one of the Liverpool poets Adrian Henry who was twice her age and lived with him until 1982. In order to be near him she applied to the University of Liverpool and studied philosophy from 1974 to 1977 where she was active in the city's underground poetry scene in the 1970s. In the 1980s she moved to London. From 1988 to 1989 she was The Guardians poetry critic. She also began her long association with the influential poetry magazine Ambit as a poetry editor. In

1996, after the birth of her daughter, Ella, she moved to Manchester and was appointed as a lecturer of poetry at Manchester Metropolitan University. In 1999 there was a controversy over her poet laureateship after Ted Hughes. She was passed over by Tony Blaire and Andrew Motion was appointed Poet Laureate. Finally she became Poet Laureate of the United Kingdom in 2009 when Motions 10 year term was over. Starting to write at quite an early age, she wrote her first poem at 11 when her English teacher died. In 1973, Fleshweathercock, Duffys first pamphlet of adolescent poems, as Angellica Michelis and Antony Rowland put it, was published. The poems in this collection were informed with the influences of the first surrealist manifesto and the pamphlet in general was a marker of her early influences: Sylvia Plath, John Donne, Shakespeare and Liverpool Poets(Michelis and Rowland 5). In a 1999 Guardian interview with Katharine Viner Duffy asserts that Fleshweathercock was a mixture of Keats and Sylvia Plath and Dylan Thomas and the Bible. A sort of teenage mix. The influences of Liverpool Poets on her was more obvious in her next volume Beauty and the Beast. Co-authored with Adrian Henri, Beauty and the Beast, published in 1977, celebrated their relationship rather indirectly. According to Michelis and Rowland it displays the beginnings of a more demotic style influenced by the Liverpool poets (6). Another significant aspect of Beauty and the Beast is its stichomythian structure which re-interprets the traditional folk tales in the light of current gender politics. This also places the volume in the tradition of feminist revisionism and sets it as one of the earliest examples of a trend which sought to blend popular tales with high forms of art such as poetry. It did not win much critical attention, however, partly due to the difficulties in distinguishing Duffys voice from Henris (Michelis and Rowland 6-7).

What Duffy herself came to consider juvenilia was out in 1982 when she was 27. Fifth Last Song, subtitled twenty-one love poems perhaps owes something to Adrienne Richs sequence of lesbian love poems which appeared in her A Dream of A Common Language: Poems 19741977 (1978) (Rees-Jones 5). Michelis and Rowland believe this volume anticipated the new influences of surrealist love poetry in Standing Female Nude that came out in 1985(8). Whereas Fifth Last Song contains few dramatic monologues, Standing Female Nude and Selling Manhattan (1987), Duffys first mature collections, strikingly negotiate the tradition of the dramatic monologue, reinterpreting the genre to make way for other voices(Michelis and Rowland9) . Others are presented in a variety of shapes and forms from an abused child in Lizzie, Six and a child murderer in Psychopath to a Holocaust victim in Shooting Stars and immigrants in Girl Talking, and Selling Manhattan, a model in Standing Female Nude and an adulteress in Correspondents. Beside identity politics, gender politics is negotiated in these two volumes as well. In Standing Female Nude especially the experience of women is a great concern as it is obvious from the title of the collections opening poem Girl Talking while Selling Manhattan mostly focuses on the relationship between the center and the margin. Duffy was awarded Scottish Arts Council Book Award in 1986 for Standing Female Nude and Somerset Maugham Award in 1988 for Selling Manhattan. The Other Country (1990) which brought the Scottish Arts Council Book Award to Duffy for the second time in 1990, includes some of the poems that set Duffy among the most innovative voices of contemporary British Poetry. It is overtly political, parodying Thatcherite Englands language, addresses issues of identity, gender, race, class, and national identity. It deals with the contemporary culture of the late 1980s and 1990s and life in Britain itself introducing themes of otherness, displacement and foreignness and when dealing with the state of the nation its tone is

desperate and hopeless. The other country may, perhaps, be a place where national identity is constructed in a different and more inclusive manner (Michelis and Rowland 17-18). While The Other Country contains political, personal, and satirical poems, the poems in Mean Time (1993) are interested in the plight of the self as Michelis and Rowland express. Duffy asserts that mean can mean average and that she has tried to write about time and how time can cause change or loss. She believes the events in the poems can happen to average man or woman (qtd. In Michelis and Rowland 21). Mean Time won the Scottish Arts Council Book Award and the Whitbread Awards and Forward Prize in 1993. The Worlds Wife followed Mean Time in 1999. Since this collection of poems is the subject of this thesis it will be given a detailed account in a later section. Duffys next collection, Feminine Gospels, was published in 2002. Like The Worlds Wife, here also narrators of the dramatic monologues are female. For most parts of the Feminine Gospels men are simply ignored and the poems focus on fairy tale stories of The Long Queen, The Mapwoman, The Diet, etc. In 2005, Duffy received the T S Eliot Prize for Rapture which came out the same year. Rapture is an episodic love story, falling in love passionately, being in love and then the loss of that love. According to Financial Times it clearly springs from raw experience, and is balanced by a reassuringly solid technique (Rapture). Duffys last collection of poems that includes some of her laureate poems is The Bees. The Bees is published in 2011 and is shortlisted for 2012 T S Eliot Prize. According to David Sexton throughout, bees stand for endangered nature and they appear glancingly in the book in other poems, as do allusions to flowers, pollen and honey (The Evening Standard). The bee poems

begin and end the collection and are also scattered here and there in the collection. The collection takes issue with ecological anxieties and there are some national poems such as Achilles written for David Beckham as well. As stated in The Independent the poems also feature a clutch of elegies for her late mother. Duffy has also produced plays and literature for children as well as editing poetry anthologies such as I Wouldn't Thank You for a Valentine (1992) and Answering Back (2007).

2-2- Duffys poetics

To put Duffy into any neat compartment as a poet is seemingly impossible. Form in her work is traditional, conventional and conservative while the content is informed with new theories of language and literature and deconstructive insights. She is a poet with personal, political and social concerns who is intensively aware of gender and class constructs. She artistically

manages to mix the lyrical and the narrative and combine prosaic with the philosophical. Her poetry is both personal and political, radical and nostalgic and pictures the anxieties and concerns of the age she is living in, anxieties about the relationship of the self to the world, about the validity of communication and the disturbance of gender roles(Rees-Jones 4). However, Duffy is increasingly popular and her poetry is accessible to a wide readership so far that the Guardian claims she is the most popular poet among students applying to read English only after Shakespeare and the Independent calls her the queen of modern British Poetry. Deryn Rees-Jones believes the secret to Duffys appeal is her attempts to stripbare the linguistic devices of poetic language and to explore some of the patterns and rhythms of everyday nonstandard English, her sense of humor and her clarity.

On the whole, a myriad of voices and schools of literature rally against each other in Duffys oeuvre, from Wordsworth and Romanticism to Eliot and the Postmodern. Brownings tradition of the dramatic monologue and Audens interest in public forms, Larkins nostalgia and dissatisfaction and Thomas and Hughess surrealism rub along with the influences of Beats and Liverpool Poets with whom she was connected in 1970s. The traces of Romantics can be identified in Duffys interest in using simple everyday English and her concern with memory and childhood.The influences of surrealism and modernism on her work is noticeable in her depiction of alienated lovers amongst modern cityscapes (Michelis and Rowland 4) but according to Linda Kinnahan the subject of much of her poems may be called postmodern from the identity politics of the early poetry to the feminist ideologues of the later work and the blurring of the division between high art and popular culture (qtd. in choosing tough words 4). Generally, one may call Duffy a postmodern ideologically but not aesthetically. Though Duffy barely calls herself a feminist feminism too is a great influence on her and her works. Duffys feminism mostly developed during the second wave feminism especially the 1970s. In the 1970s for most feminists personal was the political and the second-wave feminist writers and critics were challenging the notion of the canon in literature. The 70s saw lesbian feminism more overtly. There was also an emphasis on lecriture feminine prioritizing female experience and creating an alternative female tradition. As a result, the movement was able to foster and to some extent legitimize womens experiences and to validate a desire for self-expression and therefore much of the poetry which arose directly from feminist activity was still very much outside the mainstream; its necessarily urgent and explicit political agenda was seen as limiting its status as art (Rees-Jones 2).

Duffy, publishing mostly in the 1980s, whether consciously or unconsciously, tries to move beyond a straightforwardly feminist poetry which constructed a whole range of expectations about womens poetry and womens roles prevalent in the mid-1980s (Rees-Jones 3). In this regard, her work can be seen as bridging
a feminist and postfeminist poetics, forging as it does a link between those women writing directly out of experiences of feminism and the burgeoning of the second wave of the Womens Movement in the 1970s and those in the 1990s who, while still not holding an unproblematic position with the poetic tradition, have benefited from twenty years of feminist activity and radical changes in their position within society- political, sexual and economic (2).

Nonetheless, she does not forget the crucial nature of female experiences, the difficulties that women have to go through in their lives and how patriarchy has imposed these difficulties on women and, to some extent, on men too. For Antony Rowland Duffys perspective is loosely feminist and she is well aware that a man/woman binary in terms of victimization is not adequate to interpret recent history (150). She shows no interest in the queer theory but she constantly challenges dominant discourses of masculinity, and her women are in general set against patriarchy in the form of rather stupid men(146). This is exactly the sort of story we see in The Worlds Wife. Although she manages to dramatize her position as a woman poet at a turning point in the history of womens poetry this century (Rees-Jones 4), it is not easy to call her a feminist poet as she does not conform to any neat notion of femininity, feminism, or womens poetry. From a philosophical point of view Carol Ann Duffys poetry is one which is mostly interested in questioning rather than advocating definite answers. She challenges notions of truth, art and the supposed objectivity of Western philosophy and culture mainly bequeathed by Cartesian

dualism. She is acutely conscious of definitions of power along lines of gender, class, race, and nationality and hence writing a poetry that continually contextualizes [the] fusion of the poetic and philosophical within social ( Kinnahan 248). In doing do she attempts to dramatize how the tradition of Western philosophy has created modes of patriarchy in which both sexes are trapped. In this regard her poems explore the role of language in establishing the dominant ideologies, authorities and practices of gender, class and religious belief. As Jane E. Thomas asserts Duffys poetry investigates the extent to which language constructs rather than reflects meaning while confronting racial intolerance, religious bigotry, the nuclear nightmare, and the political indifference exhibited by the Thatcher administration toward the unemployed and the underprivileged as well (qtd. in Kinnahan 248). In an interview with .she calls the Thatcher years her angry years and as stated in The Twentieth Century in Poetry, she is one of the few white poets who, in looking beyond their own experiences, consider the position of ethnic minorities. In a 2009 interview with the Guardian she admits that her job has been made easier by the changes that poetry has undergone since Larkin was writing and describes this change as embracing more voices. Duffys poetry reflects the start of this shift in British poetry which, according to Hulse, is fresh in its attitudes, risk-taking in its address, and plural in its forms and voices and brings accessibility, democracy and responsiveness, humor and seriousness, andpublic utterance (qtd. In Speaking from the Margins 1- Hulse 16). Truly called the influence of a whole generation by Reese-Jones, Duffy has opened up many possibilities for the range of poetry and its audience.

2-3- The Worlds Wife

Public opinion, in these cases, is always of the feminine gender, not the world, but the worlds wife (George Eliot, The Mill on the Floss, 439) Sean OBrien writes in The Deregulated Muse that Duffys sense of past is
particular and anecdotal, proceeding from a personal or familial or local account of things[her poetry]also testify that until recently women have largely had to go without history in the official record. That history might now best be written from the ground up. (160)

This task seems to be what Duffy undertakes to do in The Worlds Wife: to write the history from the ground up from a female perspective. What captures attention before one opens the collection is for sure the title, The Worlds Wife. So it is the worlds wife speaking this time, not the world. The common saying, the world and his wife, is given an ironic twist by being subverted to the worlds wife, emphasizing that the female is not an adjunct to the male, suggesting that the world is weary of being male dominated and there is a need for change hence Duffys shedding light on how masculinity has dominated history, myth and fiction by silencing women. Thirty dramatic monologues arranged chronologically with female speakers mostly taking up famous male characters from myth, history, folktale and the Bible as their subject matter, make up the collection. As the title suggests, we are not going to be presented with the usual records on these men as documented in archives, but we are going to see them anew from the view point

of their wives or female partners, whether real or imaginary, as they may truly be, at home, in the kitchen, in the bedroom. Here Duffy tries to read between the lines of myth and history to create a new feminine perspective and thus a brand new portrait of the male characters:
What I wanted to do in the book was to look at all the stories- fairy tales, myths, stories from history, part of my cultural ancestry. So I wanted to celebrate them, in a way, but also find a truth which hadnt been amplified previously. And the way I wanted to do that was to find a female perspective on the character.

This also links Duffy to the tradition of revisionist mythmaking as Alicia Ostriker puts it in Stealing the Language, and thinking back through our mothers to mention how Virginia Woolf expresses it in A Room of Ones Own, a tradition followed by such female writers as Sylvia Plath, Ann Sexton and Angela Carter. Although The Worlds wife is no doubt committed to feminism, according to Michelis and Rowland, it is not one based on a politics of binary oppositions and Duffy is not suggesting that the relationship between the genders and the sexes is one defined by a hierarchical structure of power which always creates the image of men as oppressors and women as victims. The Worlds Wife depicts how men are also trapped in what western thought processes have underpinned as a value system which rigidifies the gender roles. So we see how Midas is the victim of greed for wealth or how Faustus is damaged because of his greed for power. There is also Samsons inability to care and to be gentle and Pygmalions intolerance of female sexuality, Freuds fantasy of the peniss power and Icaruss need to prove to the world he is a total, all corrupted because of what masculine values force them to achieve. Humorous, witty, highly satirical, lightsome and tongue-in-cheek poems of The Worlds Wife map a journey from adolescence to womanhood and freedom. It starts off with the Little Red


Cap, a teenage girl who sets out to find her voice and identity to become a female poet and comes to full cycle by Demeter awaiting the return of her daughter Persephone while choosing tough words so that the volumes moves forward from the adolescence to motherhood, from a young girl striving to find voice and identity to a confident poet-mother who has words at hand to choose from while waiting for the springy return of her own young one. Biographical elements and hints are also to be found in the poems. Duffy, admitting the book is a kind of autobiography, asserts in an interview that she has anchored the poems in a deeply personal soil, and in another interview explains it might be that it is autobiographical in that it might be true to my imaginative life or my emotional life but not necessarily true to the actual details of my life. Once Id done that I typed out the poems in a sort of chronological movement. So we start with Little Red Cap which is about a young girl becoming a poet and end with Demeter which is about a woman becoming a mother. So that it follows the arc of my life in some ways. Sara Bloom in Contemporary British and Irish Poetry suggests that Duffy broke through into large scale popularity with the comic brio of The Worlds Wife as it provides some sort of entertainment while exploring complicated issues (86). Of the thirty poems in this volume, twelve revise Greek myth, eight revise portraits of real men, five revise Biblical stories, three revise fairy or folk tales and the remaining two deal with a cinematic creation (King Kong) and a character from literature (Quasimodo) giving a brand new image of the male characters involved as perceived by the always silenced female voice.


2-3-1- Duffys Dramatic Monologue

The Worlds Wife combines Duffys excellent use of dramatic monologue with her tender, lyrical love poems in the form of masks which, she says, gave her the freedom to explore intensely personal experiences (The Independent, street wise heroines). Most of these dramatic monologues are clearly directed towards a female audience and thus, as Antje Peukert asserts in Whats a Man Without a Woman, creating a web that connects the poems with each other and that also reaches out to the female reader to share the experiences, to maybe identify with them and learn a different part of history (2). She then goes on to say that the coarse and derogatory language used by the speakers to talk about their lovers or husbands creates a female space of which the male is the Other. Via this reverse of traditional hierarchical gender roles Duffy has created a brand new image of the speakers male partners. She manages to establish a sense of intimacy with the reader by means of dramatic monologues and her use of colloquial language as well. Duffys dramatic monologues, as stated in The Independent, combines compassion, rhythmic verve and an astonishing gift for ventriloquism. Duffy takes up the genre and makes it her own shaping it to meet her need and, as Antony Rowland puts it, appears to have more in common with the naturalistic dramatic monologues of Robert Browning than those of Eliot or Ezra Pound (Patriarchy 155). Through her dramatic monologues Duffy enables us to see the inner lives and thoughts of the characters just


as Robert Browning allowed us to see beneath the surface of the words to an inner truth, so too in Duffys work we see beneath the restrictions imposed upon her characters by their society to an understanding of the speakers as individuals. (Mastering Poetry 376).

Kinnahan argues that the good Robert Browning style dramatic monologue in Duffys hands serves to actually undermine the assumption of a distinctive, essential self by locating subjectivity within socioeconomic and linguistic networks and therefore the speaking lyric self undergoes a deconstruction that reveals the ideological foundations (particularly in gender and class) of the idea of private self (contemporary British poetry: Carol Ann Duffy and questions of convention: 257). Duffy generally uses the form to give voice to the plight of her characters especially the female ones, to question and challenge the accepted ideas of truth and art, the nature of selfrepresentation and the fallibility of language (Rees-Jones 3).

2-3-2- Revisionist Mythmaking

Duffy undertakes to deal with myth in a revisionist method in The Worlds Wife, to present us with new images and interpretations of what has always been held as real or true. Mythic (real or imaginary) female figures are given a voice of their own to talk for themselves from female experience and female knowledge depicting their mythic male partners from their own point of view not from a historical or mythic angel that patriarchy has always declared as truth. Therefore, it is essential to take a brief look at what revisionist mythmaking is. Alicia Ostriker defines revisionist mythmaking as follows:
Whenever a poet employs a figure or story previously accepted and defined by a culture, the poet is using myth, and the potential is always present that the use will be revisionist: 13

that is, the figure or tale will be appropriated for altered ends, the old vessel filled with new wine, initially satisfying the thirst of the individual poet but ultimately making cultural change possible (212).

In this sense, then, historic and quasi historic figures are mythic too as are the folktales, legends and Scripture. Ostriker points out that the wave of revisionist mythmaking broke out over England in the Romantic period with such poets as Keats and Shelly. Like Romantics, the early moderns too turned to myth as a means of defying the rationalism and materialism of their culture (213). For Ostriker, however, revisionist mythmaking of women poets is sort of different and although they share a distrust of rationalism with the moderns, they do not share the moderns nostalgia for a golden age of past culture. For female poets revisionist mythmaking is the matter of self-projection and self-exploration and the core of their work lies in the challenge to and corrections of gendered stereotypes embodied in myth so they launch hit-and-run attacks on familiar images and social and literary conventions supporting them. In so doing, they aim to dismantle literary conventions to reveal the social ones and reverse both (216). In order to achieve this, they employ a number of devices the simplest of which is making the other into subject. The plot usually remains intact, the mood serious or comic and the images lyrical or bawdy. Normally, irony is involved as well. Gaudy and abrasive colloquialism is made use of to modernize what is ancient and show us the contemporary relevance of the past and decrease the glow we are taught to associate with mythic material. With female revisionist mythmakers, we look at or into not up at sacred things reevaluating social, political, and philosophical values. Ostriker believes these poems owe their effectiveness to their power to release meanings that were latent but imprisoned all along in the stories we thought we knew (235).

2-4- Figurative Language

The beginning of a poem is always a moment of tiny revelation, a new way of seeing something, which almost simultaneously attracts language to it Carol Ann Duffy If poetry is to give pleasure and enthrall as the antiquity believed, if it is to teach with delight as the Renaissance terms the end of poetry, if it is ever a mirror held up to nature the way neo-classics put it or if it is a release of emotions recollected in tranquility as it was for the Romantics, if it is to be a criticism of life as Mathew Arnold argues in the Victorian era or if it should be an escape of emotions and personality as T.S. Eliot puts in the 20th century, inevitably it needs to be empowered by all the devices that language offers. The term 'figure' comes from the Latin 'figura' which comes from 'fingere', meaning 'to form'. Figures are hence about shaping of the language. The Greeks, especially the Athenians, turned the use of figures of speech into a science, naming many of them. The Romans then continued what Greeks had done. It is perhaps a mark of civilization where the language itself becomes a method of art. Cicero considered the poet to be a very near kinsman of the orator and by this he meant both the poet and the orator should attempt to persuade the reader or listener by using all resources of language, both intellectual and sensuous. Figurative language, defined by M.H. Abrams as a conspicuous departure from what users of language apprehend as the standard meaning of words, or else the standard order of words in order to achieve some special meaning or effect(96), is no doubt one of the resources or devices language presents us. As Joseph T.


Shipley also confirms figures are as old as language. They lie buried in many words of current use. They are the backbone of slang. They occur constantly in both prose and poetry (159). Although figures are sometimes considered as a quality of poetic diction they are integral to the functioning of language and indispensible to all modes of discourse (Abrams 96). Sam Glucksberg also in his preface to Understanding Figurative Language mentions that
Traditionally, figurative languagehas been considered derivative form and more complex than ostensibly straightforward literal language. A contemporary view, is that figurative language involves the same kind of operations that are used for ordinary literal language. (V)

A more comprehensive definition of a figure can be what Shipley provides in his Dictionary of World Literary Terms:
An intentional deviation from the normal (1) spelling, (2) formation, (3) construction, or (4) application of a term, for the sake of clearness, emphasis, ornament, humor or other effect. (159)

Most modern classifications of figures are based on Aristotles treatment of figurative language and later classical rhetoricians. Quintilian, a Roman rhetorician, has given the fullest and the most influential treatment of figurative language in his book Institutes of Oratory, which consists of twelve books, in books VIII and IX. Abrams asserts that since then figurative language often has been divided into two groups: figures of thought or tropes and figures of speech or rhetorical figures. Tropes make a change in meaning while figures of speech make a change in order- syntax- to achieve special effects (96). In Shipleys terms A trope is a turn, an actual conversion of the word itself; a figure emphasizes the idea. This distinction is not a very sharp one and it is not agreed upon by all critics.


Figures may have various functions. Jalal Sokhanvar expresses that they can help define an emotion precisely and show us the nature of that emotion and Abrams believes by appealing to the readers own experiences, figures help to communicate an experience. Jeffrey Wainwright mentions that the greater use of figurative language empowers poetry by a great rhetorical effect and Shipley claims that figures may be used to clarify or illustrate, to energize, to animate inanimate objects, to stimulate associations, to raise laughter, to ornament and more importantly, to have aesthetic functions. Aristotle called all figures of speech essentially metaphoric and declared the chief power of the poet lies in coining good metaphors perceiving similitudes in dissimilitudes. For Longinus vivid figures and images help in creating the sublime and stirring the passions and emotions. While most Renaissance writers sensed the ornamental function of figures, Puttenham, a Renaissance critic, said that using figures makes language tunable to the ear and harmonical. In the 17th century, however, with the reign of reason and sense figures came to be considered as graceful ornaments by critics such as Dryden and Boileau. Thomas Hobbes called them fanciful, equivocal, deceitful, and Dr. Johnson believed them to be rhetorical exornations. Wordsworth and Coleridge, too, in the Romantic period attributed figures to fancy. In the present era, critics have returned to the aesthetic conception of figures in the fashion of Aristotle and the Renaissance. In this regard Shipley says:
The figure, as now viewed, may be an ornament, but is more. It may serve for more than clarification or illustration, which are its commonest functions in prose. It not only stimulates the formation of images with their various associations, but may also assist our imaginations to arrange these associations in a coherent, aesthetic pattern. It facilitates the transfer of an idea not merely from one experience to another; but specifically in the 17

direction of a particular, comprehensible experience that is coherent and harmonious. (159)

Figures are an indispensible part of language and they play an important role in how we share feelings and experiences whether through literature or our daily use of language. Whichever of the above mentioned stances on figurative language we take, understanding poetry necessitates a full grasp of figures and their functions. Since the present study is going to investigate the image of male figures presented in the selected poems of Duffy from The Worlds Wife, and since imagery is mostly created through figures, a part of this study is devoted to an analysis of the figures used in the poems.

2-5- Key Terms