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A comparison between some crude drugs classified according to their families

Crude Drugs
Future medicines

muhammad arsalan

Umbelifereae Carminative, stimulant, Stomachic

Foeniculum vulgarae (fennel) volatile oil anethol (pleasant) and fenchone (unpleasant) Coriandrum sativum (coriander) volatile oil linalol Carum Carvi (caraway/zira) volatile oil Caravone Conium Maculatum (hemlock) poisonous, collected before it turns green to yellow. In asthma and whooping cough, spasmodic diseases and may cause respiratory paralysis Ferrula Asafoetida (hing) is oleo-gum-resin from rhizome. Applied to ring worms. Contains alpha-pinene and phellendrene Rauwolfia serpentina contain reserpine which is sedative and hypnotic also contain Ajmaline and serpentine (yellow) Hypotensive, cardiac arrhythmias, gud to increase uterine contraction, febrifuge and anthelminthic. Catharanthus Roseus vincristine and vinblastine are oncolytic activity other constituents are ajmaline, serpentine Catharanthine is hypoglycemic Anti-diabetic, anticancer, Diuretic, sedative, expectorant, astringent, hypotensive Antibecterial

Apocyanaceae
Sympatholytic activity

Solanaceae Tropane alkaloids: Hyocyamine (more active than atropine) Atropine Hyosine (scopolamine)

Atropa belladonna (beautiful but poisonous) Hyocyamine and atropine are imp constituents Parasympatholytic activity spasm Is the antidote for opium and chloral hydrate Datura stramonium Hyocyamine and hyosine mostly. Atropine in small quantity. -same effects Hyoscyamus niger Hyocyamine is main constituent. As mydriaic Relieves spasms of UT Anti-asthmatic Expectorant Capsicum annum Capsicum minimum Capsaicin imp. Vit B,A and C Capsanthin Carminative, appetizer, stomachic Counter-irritant in lumbago, neuralgia, rheumatism.

Scrophulariaceae

Digitalis purpurae Digitoxin Primary glycosides are purpurae glycosides A and B Secondary glycosides are digitoxin, digitoxigenin, gitoxigenin Cardiac stimulant and tonic Verbascum thapsus Emollient, astringent , For cough in troches

Mentha piperita peppermint oil (menthol) and other terpene derrivatives carminative stimulant counterirritant.

labiatae

Thymus vulgaris thymol is antibecterial , antifungal and labiatic acid is anti-oxidative. Thymol is very irritant and anthelmenthic Mentha spicate spearmint oil (mint flavor Carvone) is carminative. Salvi officinalis is a food for the larva of lepidoptera Ocimum basilicum (basil) it contains betacaryphyllene good for inflammatory bowel disease and arthritis

liliaceae

Allium Sativum volatile oils are allin, allicin, allyl prpyl disulfide. it is carminative, expectorant, aphrodisiac, anthelmenthic, anti-bacterial, rubeficient. Colchicum autumnale its corm is used medicinally. Colchicine is main alkaloid. used for gout and rheumatism. anti-neoplastic CAUSES POLYPLOIDY Aloe perryi Barker if dried naturally (porous) Aloe barbadensis Miller cooled slowly give crystalline barbaloin is opaque (waxy) Aloe ferox quickly cooled to prevent crystallization of barbaloin is shiny (glassy) aloin and barbaloin are imp. irritant purgative,activity increased with alkaline soaps.

zingiberaceae stomachic, carminative, aromatic, blood purifier and stimulant.


Zingiber officinale Gingerol (pungent), zingerone (pungent taste but sweet odour), shagaol (dehydrated gingerol)curcuma longa Curcuma domestica (turmeric) curcuminoids, zingiberone.

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