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Bronson Schoen Partner: Ethan Guerra Le Chateliers Principle 4-16-12

Bronson Schoen Le Chateliers Principle Introduction For a reaction: aA(aq) bB(aq) + cC(aq)

Chem II Lab Dr. Ngo

Le Chataliers Principle says that the equilibrium constant is: Kc =

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Reactions, once they reach equilibrium, will strive to reach the ratio of the equilibrium constant again. Adding/subtracting reactants/products will shift the reactions in the direction that brings the ratio back to Kc. Heat in a reaction acts as a product or reactants with respect to the ratio in Kc. Liquids and solids maintain a concentration value of 1. Officially, Le Chataliers principle is if you attempt to change a system in chemical equilibrium, it will react in such a way as to counteract the change you attempted. The objective of this experiment will be to observe this principle in action. Experimental Reactions known as Acid-Base indicators change color when [H+] changes. One substance of this sort is called methyl violet, which is given the abbreviation HMV. The reaction is as follows: HMV(aq) H+(aq) + MV-(aq) Yellow Violet

HMV has an intense yellow color, while the MV- is violet. The color of the indicator depends on [H+]. Add 1 mL of distilled water to a test tube. Add a few drops of methyl violet indicator. Record the color of the solution. Using 6 M reagents, select one that will shift the color and add it drop by drop until the color changes. If the color does not change, repeat with different reagents until it does. Now select a reagent that will reverse the color. Repeat the same process as the previous step. The next section of the experiment is based on the complex ion formation in the following formula: Co(H2O)2+6(aq) + 4Cl-(aq) CoCl2-4(aq) + 6H2O Pink Blue

Place a few small CoCl2 6H2O(s) in a test tube. Add 10 drops of ethanol and stir until the crystals are dissolved. Record the color of the solution. Add distilled water dropwise, stirring after each drop, until no more color change occurs. Add 12 M until a persistent color is observed. Record your observation. Add water again until no more color change occurs. Record the color. Place the test tube in a hot bath and note any change in color, then allow to cool until no more color change occurs. Records your observations for both parts. Some solids can also be dissolved in aqueous solutions. Observe the following reaction: Zn(OH)2(s) Zn2+(aq) + 2OH-(aq) Introducing various molecules can separate zinc oxide: Zn2+(aq) + 4OH-(aq) Zn(OH)2-4(aq) Zn2+(aq) + 4NH3(aq) Zn(NH3)2-4(aq) Take 3 test tubes and add about 20 drops of 0.1 M Zn(NO3)2. Add 1 drop of 6 M NaOH and stir. Record your observations. Add 6 M

HCl, NH3, and NaOH drop by drop, stirring after each drop (10 drops max). Record what happens in each case. Repeat the last 2 steps using ).1 M Mg(NO3)2. Record your observations. Results See attached pages. Discussion Our results were fairly accurate, as the results were purely qualitative and allowed no small percentage of error. Any error might have arisen in misinterpretation of theory, which was probably due to unfortunately timed lessons plans. Nevertheless, the experiment faired reasonably well, and the error (number of times incorrect substances were mixed) was relatively low. Conclusion 1. Reactions will tend to balance themselves toward equilibrium. 2. Reactions will react to reach a ratio denoted Kc which is a calculable constant based on concentration and moles in the balanced stochiometrical reaction. 3. This principle can be used to predict the mechanism of a reaction, and its production of both products and reactants. References N/A