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Bibliography:

1. Elementary Number Theory, James Tattershall, Cambridge 1999. 2. Elements of Number Theory, I.A. Barnett, Prindle, Weber and Schmidt 1969

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1. Introduction

Number Theory: Area of mathematics whose aim is to uncover the many deep subtle relationships between different sorts of numbers.

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1. Introduction

Number Theory: Area of mathematics whose aim is to uncover the many deep subtle relationships between different sorts of numbers. Some classical unsolved problems in number theory Are there innitely many twin primes? (That is pairs of prime numbers (p, p + 2). Examples: 3, 5 5, 7 11, 13 17, 19 Are there innitely many primes of the form N 2 + 1?, Examples: 5, 17, 37, ...

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Assignments
1. Add up the rst few odd numbers and see if the numbers you get satisfy some sort of pattern. Express the pattern as a formula. Prove that the formula is correct. 2. (a) Do you think that there are innitely many primes of the form N 2 1? (b) Do you think that there are innitely many primes of the form N 2 2? (c) How about the form N 2 3? How about N 2 4? (d) Which values of a do you think give innitely many primes of the form N 2 a?

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2. Divisibility

Notation: "m divides n": m | n, meaning n = mk for some integer k . Such an m is called a divisor of n. m n: m doesnt divide n.

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2. Divisibility

Notation: "m divides n": m | n, meaning n = mk for some integer k . Such an m is called a divisor of n. m n: m doesnt divide n. The greatest common divisor of a, b is the largest number that divides both a and b. Notation: gcd(a, b) or simply (a, b).

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Example: (14, 35) = 7

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Example: (14, 35) = 7 Euclidean Algorithm for gcd Example: Compute (36, 132)

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(a, b) = rn ,

where r1 = a r0 = b a = q 1 b + r1 b = q2 r1 + r2 . . = . . . . rn2 = qn rn1 + rn rn1 = qn+1 rn + 0

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Verication: For i = 1, 2, ...., n 1, ri1 = qi+1 ri + ri+1 So moving backward from last step: rn | rn1 , rn | rn2 , ..... one reaches rn | r2 = and rn | r1 , which implies that rn | b and rn | a by rst step.

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Verication: For i = 1, 2, ...., n 1, ri1 = qi+1 ri + ri+1 So moving backward from last step: rn | rn1 , rn | rn2 , ..... one reaches rn | r2 = and rn | r1 , which implies that rn | b and rn | a by rst step. Why is rn the gcd of a and b? Suppose d is any divisor of a and b. a = q1 b + r1 implies that d | r1 b = q2 r1 + r2 implies that d | r2 . Inductively, d | ri1 and d | ri implies that d | ri+1 (follows from ri1 = qi+1 ri + ri+1 ). Eventually, one reaches d | rn .
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Assignment Let b = r0 , r1 , r2 , ... be the successive remainders in the Euclidean algorithm applied to a and b. Show that every two steps reduces the remainder by at least one half. In other words, verify that 1 ri 2 for every i = 0, 1, 2, ... Conclude that the Euclidean algorithm will terminate in at most 2 log2 b steps. ri+2 <

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Least Common Multiple

The least common multiple (lcm) of a and b is the smallest number of which a and b are divisors. Notation lcm(a, b) = [a, b].

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Least Common Multiple

The least common multiple (lcm) of a and b is the smallest number of which a and b are divisors. Notation lcm(a, b) = [a, b]. Claim: ab = (a, b)[a, b].

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Proof: (Skip!!) [a, b] = ak with b | ak . If d = (a, b), then a = da and b = db , with (a , b ) = 1. Since b | ak = da k , then db | da k , that is b | k . In other words, k = b t, and b a [a, b] = ab t = a( )t = ( )bt d d The least common multiple is obtained when t is the smallest natural number, that is t = 1. Hence [a, b] = ab . (a, b)

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Divisibility by 4 and 8; 5 and 25

In base 10, every integer N has a unique expression N = an 10n + an1 10n1 + ... + a1 10 + a0 Claim: N is divisible by 2k if and only if ak 1 10k 1 + ... + a0 is divisible by 2k . Proof:
k 1

ai 10i = N
i=0 ik

ai 10i

Each term in the summation on the right side is divisible by 2k , so the summation on the left side is divisible by 2k if and only if N is divisible by 2k .
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Examples: 2455314 is not divisible by 4 = 22 , because 14 is not divisible by 4.

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Examples: 2455314 is not divisible by 4 = 22 , because 14 is not divisible by 4. 2477312 is divisible by 8 = 23 because 312 is divisible by 8.

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It follows easily from 10 = 2 5 that N is divisible by 5k if and only if

k 1

ai 10i
i=0

is divisible by 5k

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It follows easily from 10 = 2 5 that N is divisible by 5k if and only if

k 1

ai 10i
i=0

is divisible by 5k Assignments 1. The last 3 digits of an integer N are X24. Find the missing integer X if N is divisible by 8. 2. The last three digits of an integer N are 2X4. Find the missing digit X if N is divisible by 8.

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Remainder when dividing by 9

Claim: If N =
n i i=0 ai 10

and with R = 0

N = 9 Q + R, then
n

ai = R
i=0

We can use this fact to nd the least remainder when N is divided by 9. Add up the digits of N: an + ... + a1 + a0 . If the sum is > 9, add up the digits of the sum repeat this process until the sum of digits comes up < 9. This method is called The method of casting out nines
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Example Find the (least) remainder when 13578 is divided by 9. 1+3+5+7+8=24 2+4=6 The least remainder is equal to 6.

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Proof of the claim behind the method: Let N =9Q+R Then N R =Q+ 9 9
an 10n + ... + a1 10 + a0 (an + ... + a1 + a0 ) + (an + ... + a1 + a0 ) 9 an (10n 1) + ... + a1 (10 1) an + ... + a0 = + 9 9 an + ... + a0 9Q + = 9 9 an + ... + a0 = Q+ 9

So
N 9 =

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Equivalently N = 9 Q + an + ... + a0 so R = an + ... + a1 + a0

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Equivalently N = 9 Q + an + ... + a0 so R = an + ... + a1 + a0 As a consequence: N is divisible by 9 if and only if the sum of its digits is divisible by 9

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Equivalently N = 9 Q + an + ... + a0 so R = an + ... + a1 + a0 As a consequence: N is divisible by 9 if and only if the sum of its digits is divisible by 9 Another consequence is: N is divisible by 3 if and only if the sum of its digits is divisible by 3

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Proof: N 9 Q = an + ... + a0 If N is divisible by 3, then so is an + ... + a0 since 9 Q is clearly divisible by 3. Conversely, if an + ... + a0 is divisible by 3, then so is N = 9 Q + an + ... + a0 .

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Assignments 1. Check 62085 for divisibility by 3 and 9. 2. Check each of the following for divisibility by 6 and 12. a) 23082 b) 14064 c) 241224 (Divisibility by 6 means by 2 and 3; divisibility by 12 means by 3 and 4) 3. The number X203X is divisible by 24 (= 23 .3). Find the missing digits.

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3. Linear diophantine equations

A diophantine equation is one of the form: ax + by = c a, b and c are integers and integer solutions (lattice points) are sought. Example: 2x + 3y = 11 some solutions are (1, 3) (7, 1),...

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Here is an example without any solution: 2x + 4y = 3 Any solution (x0 , y0 ) would have to satisfy 2(x0 + 2y0 ) = 3 but this is impossible because 3 is not divisible by 2.

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If ax + by = c has a solution, then gcd(a, b) | c. Before we prove the converse, let us look at the case c = d = gcd(a, b). Solving ax + by = gcd(a, b) Example: Solve 22x + 60y = gcd(22, 60)

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The Euclidean Algorithm for gcd(22, 60) goes: 60 = 2 22 + 16 22 = 1 16 + 6 16 = 2 6 + 4 6 = 14+2 4 = 22+0

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gcd(22, 60) = 2 and going through the algorithm, with a = 60, b = 22, one has: 16 = 60 2 22 6 = 22 1 16 = 22 60 + 2 22 = 3 22 60 4 = 16 2 6 = 60 2 22 6 22 + 2 60 = 3 60 8 22 2 = 614 = 3 22 60 3 60 + 8 22 2 = 11 22 4 60

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How to get all solutions

For gcd(a, b) = 1, solve ax + by = 1. Let (x1 , y1 ) be a solution. Observation: (x1 kb, y1 + ka), k = 0, 1, 2, .... is also a solution! Proof: (x1 kb)a + b(y1 + ka) = x1 a + y1 b k (ba) + (kba) = 1. Claim: This procedure gives all solutions

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Proof: Suppose (x1 , y1 ) and (x2 , y2 ) are two solutions. ax1 + by1 = 1 ax2 + by2 = 1 Multiply the rst identity by y2 , the second by y1 to obtain: y2 ax1 + by2 y1 = y2 y1 ax2 + y1 by2 = y1

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Substract the second from the rst identity: a(y2 x1 y1 x2 ) = y2 y1 Repeat this with x2 and x1 to get b(x2 y1 y2 x1 ) = x2 x1 Let k = (x2 y1 y2 x1 ). Then we see that x2 = x1 + kb and y2 = y1 ka This settles the case gcd(a, b) = 1. What if gcd(a, b) > 1?
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Let gcd(a, b) = d. We know that ax + by = d has at least one solution (x1 , y1 ). But also, it is clear that (x1 , y1 ) is a solution of a b x+ y =1 () d d
a b with gcd( d , d ) = 1

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Let gcd(a, b) = d. We know that ax + by = d has at least one solution (x1 , y1 ). But also, it is clear that (x1 , y1 ) is a solution of a b x+ y =1 () d d
a b with gcd( d , d ) = 1

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Examples: Find all solutions for 14x + 35y = 7.

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Examples: Find all solutions for 14x + 35y = 7. 35 = 2 14 + 7 14 = 2 7 + 0 So 7 = 35 2 14 (x1 , y1 ) = (2, 1) is a solution. Any other solution is of the form x2 = 2 + 5k , y2 = 1 2k , k = 1, 2, ....

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We have seen that if ax + by = c has a solution, then gcd(a, b) | c. We will show that conversely, if gcd(a, b) | c, then ax + by = c has a solution. Proof: Let d = (a, b). There are integers x0 and y0 such that ax0 + by0 = d These are determined by solving for the remainders and substituting in the last step of the Euclidean algorithm for gcd.

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Multiply both sides of the equation by c/d a( Let x1 =

x0 d c,

y0 x0 c) + b( c) = c d d

y1 =

y0 d c.

showing that ax + by = c has a solution.

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Example

Find a solution for 4x + 6y = 12. Observe gcd(4, 6) = 2 and 2 | 12. So there is a solution. To nd one, rst solve 4x + 6y = 2 or equivalently 2x + 3y = 1

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The Euclidean algorithm goes: 3 = 12+1 2 = 21+0 Solving for remainders: gcd(2, 3) = 1 = 3 1 2

2 (1) + 3 1 = 1 So x0 = 1, y0 = 1.

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Multiplying this identity by 12, we get: 2 (12) + 3 (12) = 12 or equivalently: 4 (6) + 6 6 = 12 So a solution of 4x + 6y = 12 is given by x = 6, y = 6

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ax + by = c has a solution if and only if d = gdc(a, b) divides c, in which case it is given by x = x0 c, y = y0 c, where (x0 , y0 ) is a solution d d of a b x + y = 1. d d

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Direct method of nding solutions

Example: Suppose a man makes a purchase of \$1.15 and gives the clerk two \$1 bills. In how many ways may he receive his change in dimes and quarters?

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Direct method of nding solutions

Example: Suppose a man makes a purchase of \$1.15 and gives the clerk two \$1 bills. In how many ways may he receive his change in dimes and quarters? 0 d = number of dimes 0 q = number of quarters

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Solve for the variable with smallest coefcient: 2d = 17 5q d =8+ t=

1q 2

1 q 1q 2q = 8 2q + 2 2 2

Substituting in the expression of d, we get: d = 8 2(1 2t) + t = 6 + 5t

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All solutions are obtained by letting t = 0, 1, 2, ... but only few of these meet the requirement d 0, q 0. d 0 6 + 5t 0 t 6 5 q0
1 2

t.

so 6 t 1 , thus t = 1 or t = 0. The solutions are (d, q) = (1, 3) 5 2 and (d, q) = (6, 1).

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Another example: A man cashes a check at his bank and the teller mistakenly interchanges dollars and cents. After leaving the bank, the man spends 68 cents and then discover that he now has twice the amount of the original check. What was the amount of the check?

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Let 0 d 100 denote the number of dollar bills and 0 c 100 that of pennies. 100d + c 68 = 2(d + 100c) That is 98d 199c = 68 gcd(98,199)=1 and 1 | 68, so we expect a solution to exist.

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Solve for d which has the smallest coefcient: d = 2c + 3c + 68 98

z = 3c+68 must be an integer, and solving for c (which has the smallest 98 coefcient in this equation) c = 32z 22 + Again, u =
2z2 3

2z 2 3

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t=

u 2

Back substituting, one gets: z = 3t + 1 c = 98t + 10

d = 199t + 21 0 c 100 and 0 d 100 imply that t = 0 is the only acceptable value and the solution is c = 10 and d = 21. The amount of the check was \$10.21.
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Assignment: 1. Five times a nonnegative integer added to seven times another nonnegative integer give a sum of 100. Find all possible integers. 5n + 7m = 100 2. Solve: 33x + 14y = 113

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gcd and lcm when prime factorization is known

a = p1 a1 ...pk ak b = p1 b1 ...pk bk

gcd(a, b) = p1 sm(a1 ,b1 ) ...pk sm(ak ,bk ) lcm(a, b) = p1 la(a1 ,b1 ) ...pk la(ak ,bk ) The denitions can be extended to 3 or more numbers.

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ax + by + cz = k Necessarily, gcd(a, b, c) divides k for a solution to exist. Conversely, suppose d = gcd(a, b, c) divides k . Find integers x , y , z such that ax + by + cz = d. Then ( is a solution of au + bv + cw = k xk yk zk , , ) d d d

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Example: Find positive solutions to 15x + 12y + 8z = 400 gcd(15,12,8)=1 and 1 | 400 so there is a solution! At each stage, solve for the unknown with smallest coefcient: 7x 4y 7x + 4y y = 50 x y ( ) 8 8 8

z = 50 x u=
7x+4y 8

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Again, v =

3x 4

t=

v 3

must be an integer and v = 3t

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Recap: v = 3t x = 3t + t = 4t y = 2u 7t z = 50 3u + 3t Solutions are given by two nonindependent integer parameters t and u, each taking values 0, 1, 2, ....

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We need now to determine u and t so that x, y , z are positive integers! t 0 7t u 2 50 u +t 3 and 7 20 50 +t t 0t . 3 2 3 20 3 7 50 t u +t 2 3 0t

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So

Assignment: Find gcd(60,144,280). Solve 60x + 144y + 280z = 4

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Solving systems
To solve the system 15x + 12y + 8z = 400 x + y + z = 40 Solve the rst equation: x = 4t y = 2u 7t z = 50 3u + 3t

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Then substitute into the second equation: u + 50 = 40 Thus u = 10 So x = 4t y = 20 7t z = 20 + 3t

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The requirement x 0, y 0 and z 0 imply: t 0 20 7t t 2 The solution set consists of (x, y , z) = (0, 20, 20), (4, 13, 23), (8, 6, 26)

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A simpler method

Eliminate one of the unknowns, say z, from the system. Obtaining a single equation in two unknowns. Proceed as before! Assignment: 1. Solve the system: x + 3y 4z = 8 2x + y + 3z = 39 2. There are 1000 seats in an auditorium. If men are charged \$5 per seat, women \$4 and children \$0.75, in how many different ways could the house be sold to realize \$ 3000?

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4. Factorization and the Fundamental Theorem of Arithmetic

Claim: Let p be a prime number. If p | ab, then p | a or p | b. Proof of claim: Suppose p | ab and p a, then ab = kp k = ab p

b is an integer p p | b.

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Alternate proof: Suppose p | ab and p a. Then gcd(p, a) = 1 and so the diophantine equation px + ay = 1 has integer solutions. It follows that bpx + bay = b has also integer solutions. Since p | bpx and p | bay , it follows that p | b.

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Prime divisibility property

Let p be a prime number. If p | a1 a2 ...an , then p | aj for at least one j, 1 j n. The Fundamental Theorem of Arithmetic: Every integer n 2 can be factored into a product of primes n = p1 p2 ...pr in exactly one way.

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Proof: 2=2 3=3 4 = 2.2 Suppose n N, n = p1n p2n ...prn If N + 1 is composite, then N + 1 = n1 n2 with 2 n1 , n2 N So n1 = p1n1 ...prn1 ; n2 = p1n2 ...prn2

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Multiplying, we get a prime factorization for N + 1. N + 1 = n1 n2 = p1n1 ...prn1 p1n2 ...prn2 Suppose n = p1 ...pr = q1 ...qs are two prime factorizations for n. Then p1 | n p1 | qj for some 1 j s. So p1 = qj . We may assume after rearranging terms that p1 = q1 .

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Now p2 ...pr = q2 ...qs repeating the same argument, we reach the fact that pr = qr So r = s and qi = pi , for 1 i r .

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Now p2 ...pr = q2 ...qs repeating the same argument, we reach the fact that pr = qr So r = s and qi = pi , for 1 i r . Assignments 1. Suppose that gcd(a,b)=1 and suppose further that a divides the product bc. Show that a must divide c.

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5. Congruences
a is congruent to b modulo m is denoted and dened by: a b(mod m) m | a b m is called the modulus of the congruence. Congruences with common modulus can be added, but generally not divided! This allows us to solve equations like: Find x if x + 12 5 (mod 8)

x 5 12 7 (mod 8) x 1 (mod 8).

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Modular arithmetic

Theorem: If ai bi (mod m), for i = 1, 2, ..., n, then a) b)

n i=1 ai n i=1 ai

n i=1 bi n i=1 bi

(mod m) (mod m)

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If a b (mod mi ), for i = 1, 2, ..., k , where m1 , m2 , ..., mk are pairwise co-prime, then a b (mod m) where m = k mi . i=1 In modular arithmetic, the cancelation law ac bc (mod m) a b (mod m)

doesnt necessarily hold. Theorem:If ac bc (mod m), then ab where d = gcd(c, m). (mod m ) d

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Proof:If ac bc (mod m), then ac bc = km for some integer k . Let d = gcd(c, m). Then m c (a b)( ) = k ( ), d d
c with gcd( d , m ) = 1. Hence, d m d

ab

Corollary: If ac bc (mod m) and gcd(c, m) = 1, then a b (mod m).

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Exercises: 1. Solve: 4x 3 (mod 19) Multiply by 5: 20x 15 (mod 19) But 20 1 (mod 19), so: 20x x (mod 19), hence: x 15 (mod 19)

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Exercises: 1. Solve: 4x 3 (mod 19) Multiply by 5: 20x 15 (mod 19) But 20 1 (mod 19), so: 20x x (mod 19), hence: x 15 (mod 19)

2. x 2 + 2x 1 0 (mod 7) Try 1, 2, ..., 6 x 2 (mod 7), x 3 (mod 7).

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Exercises: 1. Solve: 4x 3 (mod 19) Multiply by 5: 20x 15 (mod 19) But 20 1 (mod 19), so: 20x x (mod 19), hence: x 15 (mod 19)

2. x 2 + 2x 1 0 (mod 7) Try 1, 2, ..., 6 x 2 (mod 7), x 3 (mod 7). 3. x 2 3 (mod 10) has no solution.
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Solving ax c (mod m)
Find x so that ax c = my Equivalently: ax my = c Let d = gcd(a, m). If d c, then no solution! If d | c, then nd a solution to au + mv = d. Say u = u0 , v = v0 has c been found. Multiply the equation above by d . a So x0
cu0 d

cu0 cv0 +m =c d d

(mod m) is a solution to ax c (mod m).

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To nd other solutions, observe that if x1 is one, then m | ax1 ax0 . So m a(x1 x0 ) | d d But gcd(m, a) = d, so
m d

| (x1 x0 ). In other words, m , k = 0, 1, 2, ..., d 1. d

x1 = x0 + k

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Assignments

1. Suppose that ac bc (mod m) and also assume that gcd(c, m) = 1. Prove that a b (mod m). 2. Find all incongruent solutions to each of the following congruences: (a) 7x 3 (mod 15) (b) 6x 5 (mod 15) (c) x 2 1 (mod 8) (d) x 2 3 (mod 7) (e) x 2 2 (mod 7)

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Properties of divisibility by means of congruences

In the denary scale, any number N admits the expansion: N = an .10n + ... + a1 .10 + a0

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Properties of divisibility by means of congruences

In the denary scale, any number N admits the expansion: N = an .10n + ... + a1 .10 + a0

Divisibility by 4: For k 2, 102 0 (mod 4), 103 0 (mod 4), ..., 10k 0 (mod 4)

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Properties of congruences imply then: an 10n + ... + a2 102 0 (mod 4) Thus, if N is divisible by 4, then a1 10 + a0 0 (mod 4)

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Since 10 1 (mod 9), one has N an + ... + a1 + a0 (mod 9).

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Since 10 1 (mod 11), then 102 10 1 (mod 11) 103 1 (mod 11), 10k 1 (mod 11) if k is even, and 10k 1 (mod 11) if k is odd. So N a0 a1 + a2 ... = (a0 + a2 + ...) (a1 + a3 + ...) (mod 11).

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Example: Find the remainder if 2,087,190 is divided by 11.

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Example: Find the remainder if 2,087,190 is divided by 11. (0 + 1 + 8 + 2) (9 + 7 + 0) = 5 6 So, 2, 087, 190 6 (mod 11) (mod 11)

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Application: Checking that ab = c by casting out nines or 11

ab c = 0 requires that ab c be divisible by any integer m. If m = 9, then ab and c may be replaced each by the sum of its digits! (a0 + ... + an )(b0 + ... + bn ) (c0 + ... + cn ) (mod 9)

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(mod 11)

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(mod r 1)

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6. Congruences, Powers and Fermats Little Theorem

Fermats Little Theorem: For prime p and a 0 (mod p), one has: ap1 1 (mod p).

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Applications: 1. Compute 235 (mod 7). We use the fact that 26 1 (mod 7). Write 35 = 6 5 + 5 and use the law of exponents. 235 = 26.5+5 = 26
5

.25 1.25 32 4 (mod 7).

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2. Solve x 103 4 (mod 11) x is certainly 0 (mod 11) So, x 10 1 (mod 11) (by Fermats Little Theorem) x 100 1 (mod 11) x 103 x 3 (mod 11)

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We need only solve x3 4 (mod 11) which can be done by trying out x = 1, 2, ..., 10. Fermats Little Theorem has allowed us to reduce the congruences power from 103 to 3.

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0 0

1 1

2 8

3 5

4 9

5 4

6 7

7 2

8 6

9 3

10 10

x 5 (mod 11).

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Proof of Fermats Little Theorem

Lemma: If p is prime and a 0 (mod p), then the list a, 2a, 3a, ..., (p 1)a is the same as, possibly in different order, 1, 2, 3, ..., p 1 (mod p) (mod p)

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Proof of the lemma a, 2a, ..., (p 1)a contains (p-1) numbers, none of which is divisible by p. Suppose ja and ka are congruent: ja ka (mod p)

Then, on one hand, p | (j k )a and hence p | (j k ). On the other hand, |j k | < p 1. Therefore, j k = 0 and we conclude that for distinct j and k , ja and ka are distinct (mod p). But we know there are only p 1 distinct, nonzero values modulo p, namely 1, 2, ..., p 1

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(mod p)

(mod p)

ap1 (p 1)! (p 1)! = kp So, (ap1 1)(p 1)! = kp

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Since p (p 1)!, it follows that (ap1 1) = lp and thus: ap1 1 (mod p).

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Since p (p 1)!, it follows that (ap1 1) = lp and thus: ap1 1 (mod p).

Assignments 1. Use Fermats Little Theorem to: (a) Find a number 0 < a < 73 with a 9794 (mod 73). (b) Solve x 86 6 (mod 29). (c) Solve x 39 3 (mod 13)
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