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STUDENT INFORMATION SYSTEM

A Thesis Mini-Project Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award of degree of Bachelor of Technology

In
INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY

By
K.SANDEEP K. BALRAJ N. PRUTHVI JAYANTH P. SAGAR Under the esteemed guidance of Mr. V. Maheshwar Reddy

Department of Information Technology ACE Engineering College


(Affiliated to Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University, Hyderabad A.P) Hyderabad,

Ankushapur (V), Ghatkesar (M), R.R. Dist 501 301 301.

APRIL 2011 1

ACE Engineering College


(Affiliated to Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University, Hyderabad, A.P)

Ankushapur (V), Ghatkesar (M), R.R. Dist 501 301. Department of Information Technology CERTIFICATE

This is to certify that the project work entitled STUDENT INFORMATION SYSTEM is being submitted by K.SANDEEP, K. BALRAJ, N. PRUTHVI JAYANTH, P. SAGAR in partial fulfillment for the award of Degree of BACHELOR OF TECHNOLOGY in INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY to the Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University, Hyderabad during the academic year 2010-11 is a record of bonafide work carried out by him under our guidance and supervision .

The results embodied in this report have not been submitted by the student(s) to any other University or Institution for the award of any degree or diploma.

Internal Guide

Head of Department

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
I express my deep sense of gratitude to my beloved Principal, Dr. S. VenkataChalam, ACE Engineering College for permitting us to carry out this project.

I express my deep sense of gratitude to my beloved Dean (R&D), Dr. T. Ragunathan, ACE Engineering College for the valuable suggestions and guidance and towards carrying out this project. I express my deep sense of gratitude to my beloved HOD, Dr. T. Ragunathan, Department of Information Technology, ACE Engineering College, Hyderabad for the valuable guidance and suggestions, keen interest and through encouragement extended throughout period of project work.

I take immense pleasure to express my deep sense of gratitude to our beloved Internal Guide Mr. Maheshwarreddy, Assistant Professor in the Department of Information Technology, ACE Engineering College for his valuable suggestions and rare insights, for constant source of encouragement and inspiration throughout my project work.

I express my thanks to all those who contributed for the successful completion of my project work.

CONTENTS
PageNo ABSTRACT LIST OF FIGURES LIST OF TABLES CHAPTER1: INTRODUCTION 1 2 3 4

CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE SURVEY


2.1. Existing System 2.2. Proposed system

5 5 6

CHAPTER-3: SYSTEM ANALYSIS AND DESIGN


3.1 Introduction 3.2 Development Cycle 3.3 Use case Diagrams 3.4 ER Diagram 3.5 Data Base Design 3.6 Activity diagram 3.7 Sequence Diagram 3.8 Class diagram

8 8 9 30 32 33 38 39 42

CHAPTER-4: IMPLEMENTATION
4.1 Modules 4.2 Algorithms 4.3 Testing 4.4 Results

43 43 45 49 52

CONCLUSION &FUTURE SCOPE OF THE PROJECT

64 64 65

Bibliography REFERENCES

ABSTRACT

The traditional approach of manual storage of Student Information is automated and designed to show the student information within the College and is proposed as STUDENT INFORMATION SYSTEM (SIS)which provides information to various parties like the administrator, Student and others (like parent and faculty). The scope of the project includes all aspects of student management, from inquiry right through when students join the alumni. It will involve all aspects of the student information. The proposed project involves daily activities in the college. The proposed system consist information of all the students and the departments in the college such as student proposal details and student fee particulars and also this should maintain the information of departments. This system provides services and information to students who can check general and personal information and register courses. If a student has enrolled in the college, he or she can login the system with student id, password and check current news related to personal information, due details, attendance details and also the marks details. On the other hand, the administrator can work with the system to update the student information like adding attendance, marks, fee due details, address and phone number and E-mail account. In addition the administration can also insert new student information after the student has enrolled and remove student information if needed. In the place of manual we should keep everything in automation. They should get all department information and administration information to understand functionalities and activities of department, office and examination branch before student automation of organization.

LIST OF FIGURES

PageNo
SDLC WATERFALL MODEL STAGES OF SDLC WATERFALL MODEL GENERIC STAGES OF WATERFALL MODEL PLANNING STAGE OF WATERFALL MODEL REQUIREMENTS DEFINITION STAGE DESIGN STAGE OF WATERFALL MODEL DEVELOPMENT STAGE OF WATERFALL MODEL INSTALLATION AND TEST STAGE OF WATERFALL MODEL INSTALLATION AND ACCEPTANCE STAGE OF WATERFALL MODEL USECASE DIAGRAM FOR ADMIN USECASE DIAGRAM FOR STUDENT ER DIAGRAM ACTIVITY DIAGRAM SEQUENCE DIAGRAM FOR VALIDATION SEQUENCE DIAGRAM FOR ADMIN SEQUENCE DIAGRAM FOR STUDENT CLASS DIAGRAM 14 19 23 25 26 28 30 32 34 35 36 37 44 45 46 47 48

LIST OF TABLES

NAME SUBJECTS TIMETABLE ATTENDANCE FEE LIBRARY

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41 41 42 42

CHAPTER1: INTRODUCTION
BRIEF OVERVIEW OF SYSTEM: The traditional approach of manual storage of Student Information is automated and designed to show the student information within the College and is proposed as STUDENT INFORMATION SYSTEM (SIS) which provides information to various parties like the administrator, Student and others (like parent and faculty). The scope of the project includes all aspects of student management, from inquiry right through when students join the alumni. It will involve all aspects of the student information. The proposed project involves daily activities in the college. The proposed system consist information of all the students and the departments in the college such as student proposal details and student fee particulars and also this should maintain the information of departments. This system provides services and information to students who can check general and personal information and register courses. If a student has enrolled in the college, he or she can login the system with student id, password and check current news related to personal information, due details, attendance details and also the marks details. On the other hand, the administrator can work with the system to update the student information like adding attendance, marks, fee due details, address and phone number and E-mail account. In addition the administration can also insert new student information after the student has enrolled and remove student information if needed. In the place of manual we should keep everything in automation. They should get all department information and administration information to understand functionalities and activities of department, office and examination branch before student automation of organization.

ADVANTAGES: Provides better services to students, faculty, staff, prospective students, administration, etc. Provide meaningful, consistent, and timely data and information to end users. Promote vision of senior management to address opportunities to change. Update technology infrastructure for more effective and flexible delivery for change. Promote efficiencies by converting paper processes to electronic form.

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CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE SURVEY


2.1 EXISTING SYSTEM

The traditional approach of manual storage of Student Information is automated and designed to show the student information within the College and is proposed as STUDENT INFORMATION SYSTEM (SIS) which provides information to various parties like the administrator, Student and others (like parent and faculty). The scope of the project includes all aspects of student management, from inquiry right through when students join the alumni. It will involve all aspects of the student information. System study aims at establishing requests for the system to be acquired, developed and installed. It involves studying and analyzing the ways of an organization currently processing the data to produce information. Analyzing the problem thoroughly forms the vital part of the system study. In system analysis, prevailing situation of problem carefully examined by breaking them into sub problems. Problematic areas are identified and information is collected. Data gathering is essential to any analysis of requests. It is necessary that this analysis familiarizes the designer with objectives, activities and the function of the organization in which the system is to be implemented. The present system has the following problems such as it is ineffective for the administrative use of the institutions such as colleges etc. and it is an expensive and it is also used for the better service of the institutions and because of it the more of the man power is needed.

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2.2PROPOSED SYSTEM

The proposed project involves daily activities in the college. The proposed system consist information of all the students and the departments in the college such as student proposal details and student fee particulars and also this should maintain the information of departments. This system provides services and information to students who can check general and personal information and register courses. If a student has enrolled in the college, he or she can login the system with student id, password and check current news related to personal information, due details, attendance details and also the marks details. On the other hand, the administrator can work with the system to update the student information like adding attendance, marks, fee due details, address and phone number and E-mail account. In addition the administration can also insert new student information after the student has enrolled and remove student information if needed. In the place of manual we should keep everything in automation. They should get all department information and administration information to understand functionalities and activities of department, office and examination branch before student automation of organization. A student information system(SIS) is a software application for educational establishments to manage the student data. Student information systems provide capabilities for entering student test and other assessment scores through an electronic hand book, building student schedules, tracking student attendance, and managing many other studentrelated data needs in a school, college or university. Also known as student information management systems(SIMS), student records systems(SRS), student management

system(SMS), campus management system(CMS) or school management system(SMS).

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CHAPTER 3: SYSTEM ANALYSIS AND DESIGN


3.1 INTRODUCTION

REQUIREMENT ANALYSIS:

SOFTWARE REQUIREMENT:
Language J2ee technologies Front End Back End Platform Application server - j2sdk1.5 - Servlets - Html - Oracle 10g - Windows XP - Tomcat 6.0

HARDWARE REQUIREMENT:
Processor RAM Hard Disk - Intel Pentium iv - 1GB - 32GB

3.2 DEVELOPMENT CYCLE

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INRODUCTION: This document describes the Software Development Life Cycle(SDLC) for small to medium database application development efforts. This chapter presents an overview of the SDLC, alternate lifecycle models, and associated references. The following chapter describes the internal process that are common across all stages of the SDLC, and the third chapter describes the inputs, outputs, and processes of each stage, and the third chapter describes the inputs, outputs, and processes of each stage. Finally, the conclusion describes the four core concepts that form the basis of this SDLC. THE SDLC WATERFALL Small to medium database software projects are generally broken down in to six

Fig 3.1 Diagram of SDLC Water Fall Model The relationship of each stage to the others can be roughly described as a waterfall, where the outputs from a specific stage serve as the initial inputs for the following stage.

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During each stage, additional information is gathered or developed, combined with the inputs, and used to produce the stage deliverables. It is important to note that the additional information is restricted in scope: new ideas that would take the project in directions not anticipated by the initial set of higher-level requirements are not incorporated in to the project. Rather, ideas for new capabilities or features that are out-ofscope are preserved for later consideration. After the project is completed, the Primary Developer Representative(PDR) and Primary End-User Representative(PER) in correct with other customer and development team personnel develop a list of recommendations for enhancement of the current software. PROTOTYPES The software development team, to clarify requirements and/or design elements, may generate mockups and prototypes of screens, reports, and processes. Although some of the prototypes may appear to be very substantial, theyre generally similar to a movie set: everything looks good from the front but theres nothing in the back. When a prototype is generated, the developer produces the minimum amount of Code necessary to clarify the requirements or design elements under consideration. No effort is made to comply with coding standards, provide robust error management, or integrate with other database tables or modules. As a result It is generally more expensive to retrofit a prototype with the necessary elements to produce a production module then it is to develop the module from scratch using the final system design document. For these reasons, prototypes are never intended for business use, and are generally crippled in one way or another to prevent them from being mistakenly used as production modules by end-users. ALLOWED VARIATIONS In some cases, additional information is made available to the development team that requires changes in the outputs of previous stages. In the case, the development effort is usually suspended until the changes can be reconciled the project reaches the point where it was suspended. The PER and PDR may, at their discretion, allow the development effort to continue while previous stage deliverables are updated in cases where the impacts are minimal and strictly

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limited in scope. In this case, the changes must be carefully tracked to make sure all their impacts are appropriately handled. The Software Development Life Cycle(SDLC) REF-0-02 For small to medium database applications Version 1.0d 6 OTHER SDLC MODELS The waterfall model is one of the three most commonly citied lifecycle models. Others include the Spiral model and the Rapid Application Development(RAD) model, often referred to as the Prototyping model. SPIRAL LIFECYCLE The spiral model with an initial pass through a standard waterfall lifecycle, using a subset of the total requirements to develop a robust prototype. After an evaluation period, the cycle is initiated again, adding new functionality and releasing the next prototype. This process continues, with the prototype becoming larger and larger with each iteration. Hence, the spiral. The theory is that the set of requirements is hierarchical in nature, with additional functionality building on the first efforts. This is a round practice for systems where the entire problem is well defined from start, such as modeling and simulating software. Businessoriented database projects do not enjoy this advantage. Most of the functions in a database solution are essentially independent of one another, although they may make use of common data. As a result, the prototype suffers from the same flaws as the prototyping lifecycle. described below. For this reason, the software development team has decided against the use of the spiral lifecycle for database projects.

RAPID APPLICATION DEVELOPMENT (RAD) / PROTOTYPING LIFECYCLE

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RAD is, in essence, the try before you buy approach to software development. The theory is that end users can produce better feedback when examining a live development cycles have resulted in a lower level of rejection when the application is placed into production, but this success most often comes at the expense of a dramatic overruns in project costs and schedule. The RAD approach was made possible with significant advances in software development environments to allow rapid generation and change of screens and other user interface features. The end user is allowed to work with the screens online, as if in a production environment. This leaves little to the imagination, and a significant number of errors are caught using this process. The down side to RAD is the prosperity of the end user to force scope creep into the development effort. Since it seems so easy for the developer to produce the basic screen, it must be just as easy to add a widget or two. In most RAD lifecycle failures, the end users and developers were caught in an unending cycle of enhancements, with the users asking for more and more and the developers trying to satisfy them. The participants lost sight of the goal of producing a basic, useful system in favor of the siren of glittering perfection. The Software Development Cycle(SDLC) REF-0-02 For small to medium database applications Version 1.0d 7 For this reason, the software development team does not use a pure RAD approach, but instead blends limited prototyping in with requirements and design development during a conventional waterfall lifecycle. The prototypes developed are specifically focused on a subset of the application, and do not provide an integrated interface. The prototypes are used to validate requirements and design elements, and the development of additional requirements or the addition of user interface options not readily supported by the development environment is actively discouraged.

REFERENCES

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The following standards were used as guides to develop this SDLC description. The standards were reviewed and tailored to fit the specific requirements of small database projects. ANSI/IEEE 1028: Standard for Software Reviews and Audits ANSI/IEEE 1058.1: Standard for Software Project Management Plans ANSI/IEEE 1074: Software Project Lifecycle Processes SEI/CMM: Software Project Planning Key Process Area. This document makes extensive use of terminology that is specific to software engineering. A glossary of standard software engineering terms is available online at: http://www.elucidata.org/refs/seglossary.pdf The Software Development Life Cycle (SDLC) REF-0-02 For small to medium database applications Version 1.0d 8 GENERIC STAGE Each of the stages of the development lifecycle follow five standard internal processes. These processes establish a pattern of communication and documentation intended to familiarize all participants with the current situation, And thus minimize risk to the current project plan. This generic stage description is provided to avoid repetitive descriptions of these internal processes in each of the following software lifecycle stage descriptions. The five standard processes are Kickoff, Informal iteration, Formal iteration, In-stage assessment, and stage exit:

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Fig 3.2 Diagram of SDLC Stages for Water Fall Model

SDLC Stage KICKOFF PROCESS Each stage Is initiated by a kickoff meeting. which can be conducted either in person, or by web teleconference. The purpose of the kickoff meeting is to review the output of the previous stage, go over any additional inputs required by that particular stage, examine the e, anticipated activities and required outputs of the current stage, review the current project schedule, and review any open issues. The PDR is responsible for preparing the agen and agenda materials to be presented at this meeting. All project participants are invited to attend the kickoff meeting for each stage. The Software Development Life Cycle (SDLC) REF REF-0-02 For small to medium database applications Version 1.0d 9

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INFORMAL ITERATION PROCESS Most of the creative work for a stage occurs here. Participants work together to gather additional information and refine stage inputs into draft deliverables. Activities of this stage may include interviews, meetings, the generation of prototypes, and electronic correspondence. All of these communications are deemed informal, and are not recorded as minutes, documents of record, controlled software, or official memoranda. The intent is to encourage, rather than inhibit the communication process. This process concludes when the majority of participants agree that the work is substantially complete and it is time to generate draft deliverables for formal review and comment. FORMAL ITERATION PROCESS In this process, draft deliverables are generated for formal review and comment. Each deliverable was introduced during the kickoff process, and is intended to satisfy one or more outputs for the current stage. Each draft deliverables is given a version number and placed under configuration management control. As participants review the draft deliverables, they are responsible for reporting errors found and concerns they may have to the PDR via electronic mail. The PDR in turn consolidates these reports into a series of issues are resolved for each deliverable. There are no formal check off signature forms for this part of the process. The intent here is to courage review and feedback. At the discretion of the PDR and PER, certain issues may be reserved for resolution in later stages of the development lifecycle. These issues are disassociated from the specific deliverable, and tagged as open issues. Open issues are reviewed during the kickoff meeting for each subsequent stage. Once all issues against a deliverable have been resolved or moved to open status, the final(release) draft of the deliverable is prepared and submitted to the PDR. When final drafts of all required stage outputs have been received, the PDR reviews the final suite of deliverables, reviews the amount of labor expended against this stage of the project, and uses this information to update the project plan. The project plan update includes a detailed list of tasks, their schedule and estimated level of effort for the next stage. The stages following the next stage The Software Development Life Cycle (SDLC) REF-0-02

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For small to medium database applications Version 1.0d 10 (out stages) in the project plan are updated to included a high level estimate of schedule and level of effort, based on current project experience. Out stages are maintained at a high level in the project plan, and are included primarily for informational purposes; direct experience has shown that it very difficult to accurately plan detailed tasks and activities for out stages in a software development lifecycle. The updated project plan and schedule is a standard deliverable for each stage of the project. The PDR then circulates the updated project plan and schedule for review and comment, and iterates these documents until all issues have been resolved or moved to open status. Once the project plan and schedule has been finalized, all final deliverables for the current stage are made available to all project participants, and the PDR initiates the next process.

IN-STAGE ASSESSMENT PROCESS This is the formal quality assurance review process for each stage. In a small software development project, the deliverables for each stage are generally small enough that it is not cost effective to review them for compliance with quality assurance standards before the deliverables an in-stage assessment with the deliverables have been fully developed. As a result, only one in-stage assessment is scheduled for each stage. This process is initiated when the PDR schedules an in-stage assessment with the independent Quality Assurance Reviewer (QAR), a selected End-user Reviewer (usually a Subject Matter Expert), and selected Technical Reviewer. These reviewers formally review each deliverable to make judgements as to the quality and validity of the work product, as well as its compliance with the standards defined for deliverables of that class. Deliverable class standards are defined in the software quality assurance section of the project plan. The End-user Reviewer is tasked with verifying the completeness and accuracy of the deliverable in terms of desired software functionality. The Technical Reviewer determines whether the deliverable contains complete and accurate technical information. The QA Reviewer is take solely with verifying the completeness and compliance of the deliverable against the associated deliverable class standard. The QAR may make recommendations, but cannot raise formal issues that do not to the deliverable standard. Each reviewer follows a formal checklist

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during their review, indicating their level of concurrence with each review item in the checklist. Refer to the software quality assurance plan for this project for deliverable class standards and associated review checklist. A deliverable is considered to be acceptable when The Software Development Life Cycle (SDLC) REF-0-02 For small to medium database applications Version 1 11 each reviewer indicates substantial or unconditional concurrence with the content of the deliverable and the review checklist items. Any issues raised by the reviewers against a specific deliverable will be logged and relayed to the personnel responsible for generation of the deliverable. The revised deliverable will then be released to project participants for another formal review iteration. Once all issues for the deliverable have been addressed, the deliverable will be resubmitted to the reviewers for reassessment. Once all three reviewers have indicated concurrence with the deliverable, the PDR will release afinal instage assessment report and initiate the next process. STAGE EXIT PROCESS The stage exit is the vehicle for securing the concurrence of principal project participants to continue with the project and move forward into the next stage of development. The purpose of a stage exit is to allow all personnel involved with the project to review the current project plan and stage deliverables, provide a forum to raise issues and concerns, and to ensure an acceptable action plan exits for all open issues. The process begins when the PDR notifies all project participants that all deliverables for the current stage have been finalized and approved via the In-Stage Assessment report. The PDR then schedules a stage exit review with the project executive sponsor and the PER as a maximum. All interested participants are free to attend the review as well. This meeting may be conducted in person or via web teleconference. The stage exit process ends with the receipt of concurrence from the designated approvers to proceed to the next stage. This is generally accomplished by entering the minutes of the exit review as a formal document of record, with either physical or digital signatures of the project executives sponsor, the PER, and the PDR.

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The Software Development Life Cycle (SDLC) REF-0-02 For small to medium database applications Version 1.0d 12 SDLC STAGES OVERVIEW The six stages of the SDLC are designated to build on one another, taking the outputs from the previous stage, adding additional effort, and producing results that leverage the previous effort and are directly traceable to the previous stages. This top-down approach is intended to result in a quality product that satisfies the original intentions of the customer.

Fig 3.3 Diagram of Generic Stages of Waterfall Model technical information. The QA Reviewer is tasked solely with verifying the completeness and compliance of the deliverable against the associated deliverable class standard. The QAR may make recommendations, but cannot raise formal issues that do not relate to the deliverable standard. Each reviewer follows a formal checklist during their review, indicating their level of concurrence with each review item in the checklist. Refer to the software quality assurance plan for this project for deliverable class standards and associated review checklist. A deliverable is considered to be acceptable when

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The Software Development Life Cycle (SDLC) REF-0-02 For small to medium database applications Version 1.0d 11 each reviewer indicates substantial or unconditional concurrence with the content of the deliverable and the review checklist items. Any issues raised by the reviewers against a specific deliverable will be logged and relayed to the personnel responsible for generation of the deliverable. The revised deliverable will then be released to project participants for another formal review iteration. Once all issues for the deliverable have been addressed, the deliverable will be resubmitted to the reviewers for reassessment. Once all three reviewers have indicated concurrence with the deliverable, the PDR will release a final in-stage assessment report and initiate the next process. STAGE EXIT PROCESS The stage exit is the vehicle for securing the concurrence of principal project participants to continue with the project and move forward into the next stage of development. The purpose of a stage exit is to allow all personnel involved with the project to review the current project plan and stage deliverables, provide a forum to raise issues and concerns, and to ensure an acceptable action plan exits for all open issues. The process begins when the PDR notifies all project participants that all deliverables for the current stage have been finalized and approved via the In-Stage Assessment report. The PDR then schedules a stage exit review with the too many software development efforts go away when the development team and customer personnel get caught up In the possibilities of automation. Instead of focusing on high priority features, the team can become mired in a sea of nice to have features that are not essential to solve the problem, but in themselves are highly attractive. This is the root cause of a large percentage of failed and/or abandoned development efforts, and is the primary reason the development team utilizes the Waterfall SDLC. The Software Development Life Cycle (SDLC) REF-0-02 For small to medium database applications Version 1.0d 13

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PLANNING STAGE The planning stage establishes a birds eye view of the intended software product, and this to establish the basic project structure, evaluate feasibility and risks associated with the project, and describe appropriate management and technical approaches.

Fig 3.4 Diagram for Planning Stage of Waterfall Model

The most critical section of the project plan is a listing of high-level product requirements, also referred to as goals. All of the software product requirements to be developed during the requirements definition stage flow from one or more of these goals. The minimum information for each goal consists of a title and textual description, although additional information and references to external documents may be included. The outputs of the project planning stage are the configuration management plan, the quality assurance plan, and the project plan and schedule, with a detailed listing of scheduled activities for the upcoming Requirements stage, and highlevel estimates of effort for the out stages. The Software Development Life Cycle (SDLC) REF-0-02 For small to medium database applications Version 1.0d

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14 REQUIREMENTS DEFINITION STAGE The requirements gathering process takes as its input the goals identified in the highlevel requirements section of the project plan. Each goal will be refined into a set of one or more requirements. These requirements define the major functions of the intended application, define operational data areas and reference data areas, and define the initial data entries. Major functions include critical processes to be managed, as well as mission critical inputs, outputs reports. A user class hierarchy is developed and associated with these major functions, data areas, and data entries. Each of these definitions is termed a Requirement. Requirements are identified by unique requirement identifiers and, at minimum, contain a requirement title and textual description

Fig 3.5 Requirements Definition Stage Of Waterfall Model

These requirements are fully described in the primary deliverables for this stage: the Requirements Document and the Requirements Traceability Matrix (RTM). The requirements document contains complete descriptions of each environment, including diagrams and references to external documents as necessary. Note that detailed listings of database tables and fields are not included in the requirements document.

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The title of each document is also placed into the first version of the RTM, along with the title of each goal from the project plan. The purpose of the RTM is to show the product components developed during each stage of the software development cycle are formally connected to the components developed in prior stages. The Software Development Life Cycle (SDLC) REF-0-02 For small to medium database applications Version 1.0d 15 In the requirements stage, the RTM consists of a list of high-level requirements, or goals, by title, with a listing of associated requirements for each goal, listed by Requirement title. In this hierarchical listing, the RTM shows that each Requirements developed during this stage is formally linked to a specific product goal. In this format, each requirement can be traced to a specific product goal, hence the term requirements traceability. The outputs of the requirements definition stage include the requirements document, the RTM, and an updated project plan. The Software Development Life Cycle (SDLC) REF-0-02 For small to medium database applications Version 1.0d 16 DESIGN STAGE The design stage takes as its initial input the requirements identified in the approved requirements document. For each requirement, a set of one or more design elements will be produced as a result of interviews, workshops, and/or prototype efforts. Design elements describe the desired software features in detail, and generally include functional hierarchy diagrams, screen layout diagrams, tables of business Rules, business process diagrams, process diagrams, pseudocode, and a complete entityrelationship diagram with a full data dictionary. These design elements are intended to describe the software in sufficient detail that skilled programmers may develop the software with minimal additional input.

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Fig 3.6 Diagram for Design Stage of Waterfall Model

When the design document is finalized and accepted, the RTM is updated to show that each design element is formally associated with a specific requirement. The outputs of the design stage are the design document, an updated RTM, and an updated project plan. The Software Development Life Cycle (SDLC) REF-0-02 For small to medium database applications Version 1.0d 17 DEVELOPMENT STAGE The development stage takes as its primary input the design elements described in the approved design document. For each design element, a set of one or more software artifacts will be produced. Software artifacts include but are not limited to menus, dialogs, data management forms, data reporting formats, and specialized procedures and functions. Appropriate test cases will be developed Additional information is then gathered, using methods specific to each stage. As a result, the outputs of the previous stage are progressively enhanced with the software. for each setoff functionality related software artifacts, and an online help system will be developed to guide users in their interactions with the software.

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Fig 3.7 Diagram for Development Stage of Waterfall Model The RTM will be updated to show that each developed artifact is linked to a specific design element, and that developed artifact has one or more corresponding test case items. At this point, the RTM is in its final configuration. The outputs of the development stage include a fully functional set of software that satisfies the requirements and design elements previously documented, an online help system that describes the operation of the software, an implementation map that identifies the primary code entry points for all major system functions, a test plan that describes the test cases to be used to validate the correctness and completeness of the software, an updated RTM, and an updated project plan. The Software Development Life Cycle (SDLC) REF-0-02 For small to medium database applications Version 1.0d 18

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INSTALLATION & TEST STAGE During the integration and test stage, the software artifacts, online help, and test data are migrated from the development environment to a separate test environment. At this point, all test cases are run to verify the correctness and completeness of the software. Successful execution of the test suite confirms a robust and complete migration capability. During this stage, reference data is finalized for production use and production users are identified and linked to their appropriate roles. The final reference data ( or links to reference data source files) and production user list are compiled into the Production initiation Plan.

Fig 3.8 Diagram for Installation & Test Stage of Waterfall Model The outputs of the integration and test stage include an integrated set of software, an online help system, an implementation map, a production initiation plan that describes reference data and production users, an acceptance plan which contains

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The final suite of test cases, and an updated project plan. The Software Development Life Cycle (SDLC) REF-0-02 For small to medium database applications Version 1.0d 19 INSTALLATION & ACCEPTANCE STAGE During the installation and acceptance stage, the software artifacts, online help, and initial production data are loaded onto the production server. At this point, all test cases are run to verify the correctness and completeness of the software. Successful execution of the test suite is a prerequisite to acceptance of the software by the customer. After customer personnel have verified that the initial production data load is correct and the test suite has been executed with satisfactory results, the customer formally accepts the delivery of the software.

Fig 3.9 Diagram For Installation & Acceptance Stage Of Waterfall Model

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The primary outputs of the installation and acceptance stage include a production application, a completed acceptance test suite, and a memorandum of customer acceptance of the software. Finally, the PDR enters the last of the actual labor data into the project schedule and locks the project as a permanent project record. At this point the PDR locks the project by archiving all software items, the implementation map, the source code, and the documentation for future reference. The Software Development Life Cycle (SDLC) REF-0-02 For small to medium database applications Version 1.0d 20

CONCLUSION The structure imposed by this SDLC is specifically designed to maximize the probability of a successful software development effort. To accomplish this, the SDLC relies on four primary concepts. Scope Restriction Progressive Enhancement Progressive Structure Incremental Planning These four concepts combine to mitigate the most common risks associated with software development efforts. SCOPE RESTRICTION The project scope is established by the contents of high-level requirements, also known as goals, incorporated into the project plan. These goals are subsequently refined into requirements, then design elements, then software artifacts. This hierarchy of goals, requirements, elements, and artifacts is documented in a Requirements Traceability Matrix (RTM). The RTM serves as a control element to restrict the project to the originally defined scope.

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Project participants are restricted to addressing those requirements, elements, and artifacts that are directly traceable to product goals. This prevents the substantial occurrence of scope creep, which is the leading cause of software project failure.

PROGRESSIVE ENHANCEMENT Each stage of the SDLC takes the outputs of the previous stage as its initial inputs. Additional information is then gathered, using methods specific to each stage. As a result, the outputs of the previous stage are progressively enhanced with additional information. The Software Development Life Cycle (SDLC) REF-0-02 For small to medium database applications Version 1.0d 21 By establishing a pattern of enhancing prior work, the project precludes the insertion of additional requirements in later stages. New requirements are formally set aside by the development team for later reference, rather than going through the effort of backing the new requirements into prior stage output and reconciling the impacts of the additions. As a result, the project participants maintain a tighter focus on the original product goals, minimize the potential for scope creep, and show a preference for deferring out-of-scope enhancements, rather than attempting to incorporate them into the current effort. PRE-DEFINED STRUCTURE Each stage has a pre-defined set of standard processes, such as Informal Iteration and Instage Assessment. The project participants quickly grow accustomed to this repetitive pattern of effort as they progress from stage. In essence, these processes establish a common rhythm, or culture, for the project. This pre-defined structure for each stage allows the project participants to work in a familiar environment, where they know what happened in the past, what is happening in the present, and have accurate expectations for what is coming in the near future. This engenders a high comfort level, which in turn generates a higher level of cooperation between participants. Participants tend to provide needed information or feedback in a more timely manner, and with fewer miscommunications. This timely response pattern and level of

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communications quality becomes fairly predictable, enhancing the ability of the PDR to forecast the level of effort for future stages. INCREMENTAL PLANNING The entire intent of incremental planning is to minimize surprises, increase accuracy, provide notification of significant deviations from plan as early in the SDLC as possible, and coordinate project forecasts with the most current available information. In this SDLC, the project planning effort is restricted to gathering metrics on the current stage, planning the next stage in detail, and restricting the planning of later stages, also known as Out Stages, to a very high level. The project plan is updated as each stage is completed; current costs and schedule to date are combined with refined estimates for activities and level of effort for the next stage. The activities and tasks of the next stage are defined only after the deliverables for the current stage are complete and the current metrics are available. This allows the planner to produce a highly accurate plan for the next stage. Direct experience has shown that it is very difficult develop more than a cursory estimate of anticipated structure and level of effort for out stages. The Software Development Life Cycle (SDLC) REF-02 For small to medium database applications Version 1.0d 22 The estimates for out stages are included to allow a rough estimate of ultimate project cost and schedule. The estimates for out stages are reviewed and revised as each stage is exited. As a result, the total project estimate becomes more and more accurate over time. As each stage is exited, the updated project plan d schedule is presented to the customer. The customer is apprised of project progress, cost and schedule, and the actual metrics are compared against the estimates. This gives the customer the opportunity to confirm the project is on track, or take corrective action as necessary. The customer is never left "in the dark" about the progress of the project.

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3.3 USECASE DIAGRAMS

USECASE DIAGRAM FOR ADMIN ADMIN:

Fig 3.10 USE CASE DIAGRAM FOR ADMIN 3.10.

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USECASE DIAGRAM FOR STUDENT:

Fig 3.11 USECASE DIAGRAM FOR STUDENT 3.11.

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3.4 ER Diagram:

Fig 3.12. ER DIAGRAM FOR STUDENT INFORMATION SYSTEM

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3.5 DATABASE DESIGN


The main theme behind the database design is to handle information as an integrated whole. A database is a collection of interrelated data stored with minimum redundancy to serve many users quickly and effectively. After designing input and output, the analyst must concrete on database design or how data should be organized around user requirements. The general objective is to take more information access, easy quick, inexpensive and flexible to others. During database design the following objectives are concerned:

Controlled redundancy Data independence Accurate and integrating More information at low cost Recovery from failure Privacy and security Performance Easy of learning and use Database files are the key source of information into the system. It is the process of designing database files, which are the key source of information to the system. The files should be properly designed and planned for collection, accumulation, editing and retrieving the required information.

The organization of data in database aims to achieve three major objectives: -

Data integration. Data integrity

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Data independence.

The proposed system stores the information relevant for processing in the MS SQL SERVER database. This database contains tables, where each table corresponds to one particular type of information. Each piece of information in table is called a field or column. A table also contains records, which is a set of fields. All records in a table have the same set of fields with different information. There are primary key fields that uniquely identify a record in a table. There are also fields that contain primary key from another table called foreign keys.

These includes two phases:

1.DESIGNING THE DATABASE: Creating tables that mirrors the structure of the environment and the relationships between the tables. Normalizing the tables. NORMALIZATION: Normalization is a technique of separating redundant fields and braking up a large table in to a smaller one. It is also used to avoid insertion, deletion and updating anomalies. All the tables have been normalized up to the third normal form. In short the rules for each of the three normal forms are as below. First normal form A relation is said to be in 1NF if all the under lying domain of attributes contain simple Individual values. Second normal form The 2NF is based on the concept of full functional dependency. A relation said to be in 2NF if and only if it is in 1NF and every non-key attribute is fully functionally dependent on candidate key of the table. Third normal form The 3NF is based on the concept of transitive dependency. A relation in 2NF is said to be in 3NF if every non-key attribute is non-transitivel

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2.DESIGNING DATABASE CLASSES: Classes that records the student details in to the database. Classes that retrieves the student details to view it using the systems GUI.

Field SID(Student id) SName(Student name) Password Father name DOB(Date Of Birth) Nationality Address City Country Phone Mobile NIC Email

Length Varchar(50) Varchar(50) Varchar(20) Varchar(50) Varchar(50) Varchar(50) Varchar(300) Varchar(50) Varchar(50) Varchar(50) Varchar(50) Varchar(50) Varchar(100)

Constraints Not Null Not Null Not Null Not Null Not Null Not Null Not Null Not Null Not Null Not Null Not Null Not Null Not Null

Fig 3.13. DATABASE TABLE FOR NAME

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Field SID Sname Subject Present Absent Total

Length Varchar(50) Varchar(50) Varchar(50) Varchar(50) Varchar(50) Varchar(50)

Constraints Not Null Not Null Not Null Not Null Not Null Not Null

Fig 3.14. DATABASE TABLE FOR ATTENDANCE

Field SID Sname Subject Day Time

Length Varchar(50) Varchar(50) Varchar(50) Varchar(50) Varchar(50)


Fig 3.15. DATABASE TABLE FOR TIMETABLE

Constraints Not Null Not Null Not Null Not Null Not Null

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Field SID Sname Sem1 Fee1 Sem2 Fee2 Sem3 Fee3 Sem4 Fee4

Length Varchar(50) Varchar(50) Varchar(50) Varchar(50) Varchar(50) Varchar(50) Varchar(50) Varchar(50) Varchar(50) Varchar(50)
Fig 3.16. DATABASE TABLE FOR FEE

Constraints Not Null Not Null Not Null Not Null Not Null Not Null Not Null Not Null Not Null Not Null

Field SID Sname Bookname BookIssued Bookreturned Fines Paid Balance

Size Varchar(50) Varchar(50) Varchar(50) Varchar(50) Varchar(50) Varchar(50) Varchar(50) Varchar(50)


Fig 3.17. DATABASE TABLE FOR LIBRARY

Constraints Not Null Not Null Not Null Not Null Not Null Not Null Not Null Not Null

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ACTIVITY DIAGRAM:

Fig 3.18. ACTIVITY DIAGRAM FOR STUDENT INFORMATION SYSTEM

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SEQUENCE DIAGRAM FOR VALIDATION

Fig 3.19. SEQUENCE DIAGRAM FOR VALIDATION

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SEQUENCE DIAGRAM FOR ADMIN

Fig 3.20. SEQUENCE DIAGRAM FOR ADMIN

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SEQUENCE DIAGRAM FOR STUDENT

Fig 3.21. SEQUENCE DIAGRAM FOR STUDENT

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CLASS DIAGRAM

Fig 3.22. CLASS DIAGRAM FOR STUDENT INFORMATION SYSTEM

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CHAPTER 4: IMPLEMANTATION

4.1 MODULES

MODULE-ONE:LOGIN AS ADMINISTRATOR: In this module when the administrator enters his username and password then he will enter in to the administrator page and this page consists of two sub modules.

SUB MODULE-ONE: ADD STUDENT: When the administrator clicks this link then the registration form will appear. In this registration form the administrator of the college/university/institute will enter the details of the students who are pursuing the education . the student details like the student id, student name, password, father name, date of birth, nationality, address, city, country, mobile no, Email etc.

SUB MODULE-TWO: DELETE STUDENT: When the administrator clicks this link then the details of the student like profile, attendance, results etc are deleted

MODULE-TWO: LOGIN AS STUDENT: Message: This sub module consists of two sub modules Inbox: By clicking this link the student can see all the messages received from his friends. Compose: if the student wants to send the message then he can do by clicking this one.

when the student click this one, the student get all his attendance (present and absent) by subject wise like no of present and no of absent in operating system class, in java class

Result:

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When the student clicks this one he will get all his results according to the subjects. Time table: When the student clicks this link he will get the time schedule according to the subject wise of that day. Library: When the student clicks this link he will get the books taken in the library and the balance and fines. Fee: When the student clicks this link he will get all his fee due details.

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ALGORITHM
#include<stdio.h> #include<conio.h> void main() { char admin,student; printf(enter the user name and password); scanf(%s%s,login,pass) if(login==admin && password==pass) { admin() } elseif(login==stud && password==aceit) { student(); } else() { printf(enter username and password or get registered); } } void admin() { int n; char addstudent(),deletestudent(),updatestudent(); addstudent() {

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deletestudent() {

} update student() {

} printf(1.add student/n,2.delete student/n,3.update student); switch(n) { case 1: addstudent(); break;

case 2: delete student(); break;

case 3: update student(); break; }

void student() { char login(),view profile(),view attendance(),view result(),view library(),view fee();

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login() {

} view profile() {

} view attendance() {

} view result() {

} view library() {

} view fee() {

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4.4TESTING

1.Introduction :

Testing is one of the most important phases in the software development activity. In software development life cycle(SDLC), the main aim of testing is the quality; the developed software is tested against attaining the requested functionality and performance. During the testing process the software is worked with some particular test cases and the output of the test cases are analyzed whether the software is working according to the expectations or not. The success of the testing process in determining the errors is mostly upon the test criteria, for any software we need to have a description of the expected behavior of the system and method of determining whether the observed behavior confirmed to the expected behaviour. 2. Levels of testing: Since the errors in the software can be injured at any stage. So, we have carry out the testing process at different levels during the development. The basic level of testing are Unit, Integration, System and Acceptance Testing. There are two basic approaches for testing. They are Functional testing: In Functional test cases are decided solely on the basis of requirements of the program or module and the internals of the program or modules are not considered for selection of test cases. This is also called Black Box Testing. Structural testing: In Structural Testing test cases are generated on actual code of the program or module to be tested. This is called White Box Testing. The different types of testing are: Unit testing Link testing

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Unit Testing: Unit testing mainly focused first in the smallest and low level modules, proceeding one at a time. Bottom-up testing was performed on each module. As developing a driver program, that tests modules by developed or used. But for the purpose of testing, modules themselves were used as stubs, to print verification of the actions performed. After the lower level modules were tested, the modules that in the next higher level those make use of the lower modules were tested. Each module was tested against required functionally and test cases were developed to test the boundary values. Integration Testing: Integration testing is a systematic technique for constructing the program structure, while at the same time conducting tests to uncover errors associated with interfacing, As the system consists of the number of modules the interface to be tested were between the edges of the two modules. System Testing: In the system testing the entire web portal is tested according the software requirements specifications document.

Acceptance Testing: The acceptance testing is performed with realistic data of the client, which focus on the external behavior of the system; the internal logic of the program is emphasized. Software testing is a critical element of software quality assurance and represents the ultimate review of specification, design and coding. Testing is the exposure of the system to trial input to see whether it produces correct output.

Testing phrases: Software testing phases include the following: Test activities are determined and test data selected. The test is conducted and test results are compared with the expected results.

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Testing methods: Testing is a process of executing a program to find out errors. If testing is conducted successfully, it will uncover all the errors in the software. Any testing can be done basing on the two ways: White Box Testing Black Box Testing

White Box Testing: It is a test case design method that uses the control structures of the procedural Design to drive test cases. Using this testing a software Engineering can derive the following test cases: Exercise all the logical decisions on either true or false sides. Execute all loops at their boundaries and within their operational boundaries. Exercise the internal data structures to assure their validity.

Black Box Testing: It is a test case design method used on the functional requirements of the software. It will help a software engineer to derive sets of input conditions that will exercise all the Functional requirements of the program. Black Box testing attempts to find errors in the following categories: Incorrect or missing functions Interface errors Errors in data structures Performance and termination errors

By black box testing we derive a set of test cases that satisfy the following criteria: Test cases that reduce by a count that is greater than one. The number of additional test cases that must be designed to achieve reasonable testing. 2. Test Plan

Testing can be done in two ways: Bottom up approach Top down approach

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Bottom up approach: Testing can be performed starting from smallest and lowest modules and proceeding one at a time. For each module in bottom up testing a short program executes the module and provides the needed data so that the module is asked to perform the way it will when Embedded with in the larger system. When bottom level modules are tested attention Turns to those on the next level that use the lower level ones they are tested individually And then linked with the previously examined lower level modules.

Top down approach: This type of testing starts from upper level modules. Since the detailed activities usually performed in the lower level routines are not provided stubs are written. A stub is a module shell called by upper level module and that when reached properly will return a message to the calling module indicating that proper interaction occurred. No attempt is made to verify the correctness of the lower level module.

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4.3 RESULTS

4.3.1 MAIN PAGE:

Fig 4.4.1 :Login page

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4.3.2 ADMIN MODULE

Fig 4.4.2. Admin page

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Fig 4.4.3. Registration form

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Fig 4.4.4 Delete Student page

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4.3.3 STUDENT MODULE:

Fig 4.4.5. Student Page

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Fig 4.4.6. Student profile page

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Fig 4.4.7 Student Timetable page

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Fig 4.4.8 Student Attendance page

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Fig 4.4. Student Attendance By Subject page 4.4.9

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Fig 4.4.10. Student Fee Page

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Fig 4.4.11. Student Library Page

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Fig 4.4.12. Logout page

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CONCLUSION AND FUTURE ENHANCEMENTS

Just now we proposed a student information system. But it still need so many modifications to be implemented. such that it is dynamic in nature and also for updating the student details dynamically. It also requires hardware and software enhancements to be implemented to perform the task quickly. I hope many of the institutions follow this method of implementation.

BIBILOGRAPHY:

www.roseindia.com www.w3schools.com

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REFERENCES

[1] Professional JSP web development by Casey Kochmer. [2] JAVA the complete reference, seventh edition by Herbert Schildt. [3] Oracle Database 10g. the complete reference by Kevin Loney.

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