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0.What is containership? Ans: C++ allows to declare one class as the member of another class.

This type of classes are nested classes. This relationship is also known as containership. 1. What is the order of evaluation of destructor and constructor in inheritance? Ans: In inheritance the destructor of derived class is evaluated first then the destructor of base class. The constructor base class is evaluated first then the constructor of the derived class. 2. Constructor overloading is possible whereas destructor overloading is not possible. Why? Ans: Because constructor can accept parameters while destructor do not accept paramenters. 3. What is the difference between abstract class and concrete class. Ans: Abstract class is designed only as parent class from which child classes can be derived but it is not itself suitable instantiation. A concrete class however is a class for which entities can be created. 4. What is the difference between structure and class? Ans: All the data members of a structure are public by default and all the data members of a class are private by default. 5. By default an array is passed as value or reference? Ans: An array is always passed by reference. 6. What is the default return type of a function and how many values a function can return? Ans: int and one. 7. What are formal and actual paramenters. Ans: Parameters associated with function prototype are formal parameters and those associated with function call are the actual parameters. 8. What is the difference between s and s? Ans: Character enclosed in single quotes are character constant and takes one byte. Character enclosed in double quotes is a string constant and takes atleast two bytes.

9. What is the output of the following/ int i=10; cout<<++i<<i<<i++; Ans: 12 11 10 10. How many times a do.. while loop will execute if the condition is false. Ans: At least once. It is also known as the exit control loop. 11. What is the other name for conditional operator. Ans: Ternary operator. 12. What are the fundamental data types supported by C++? Ans: 5 of them int, float, char, double and void. 13.Header file of frexp() Ans: math.h 14. Header file of labs() & fabs() - math.h labs() calculates the absolute value of a long number fabs() calculates the absolute value of a floating pointer. 15. Differentiate clrscr() and clreol(). clrscr() clears entire screen. clreol() clears contents from current cursor position to the end of line. 16. Differentiate DDL and DML DDL provides statements for creation and deletion of tables and indexes(Data Definition Language) DML provides statements to enter, update, delete data and perform complex queries on the tables (Data Manipulation Language). 17.Any 2 switching techniques employed to provide communication between computers. Circuit switching : Eg. Telephone dialing end-to-end path is set before data is sent. Message switching : No physical copper path. Instead when a sender sends a block of data it is stored in the switching office then forwarded in one go. Packet switching : With message switching no limit on block size. 18. What are memory leaks? Reasons? How to avoid? Ans: If dynamic objects are not deleted, the memory block remains occupied even at the end of the program. When they increase in number, develop an adverse effect on system functioning. This situation is called memory leak. To avoid memory leak dynamically allocated objects should be deleted properly and it should be ensured that new statement stores its return value in a fresh pointer. 20. If arr is an integer array, can we say arr++? If not why?

Ans: The array is remembered by its base address which is arr itself. The expression arr++ attempts to change the base address which is not allowed in c++ because if do that the address to the beginning of the array is lost. 21.What is meant by bandwidth? What is its role in a network? Bandwidth means the capacity of a medium to transmit a signal. It determines the amount of information that can be transmitted for a distance. For digital signals baseband modulator is used single frequency at a time. RF(Radio frequency) broadband modulation is used for multiple transmission at different frequencies. 22. There is no break statement in switch case? What happens? Ans: Fall through. 23. Differentiate hierarchical and multiple inheritance. 24. Define base address. 25. With reference to file operations what is the purpose of write() and read() functions. 26. What is the difference between int new(10) and int new[10]. 27. Can a derived class get access privilege for a private member of base class, if yes, how? 28. Difference between entry control loop and exit control loop. 29. What is *a[3]? Ans: Pointer array. 30. What advantage a circular linked list have over a non-circular linked list? Advantage is circular linked list helps in sequencing from any node to any other node in the list. Disadvantage, it is more difficult to detect the end of the list than if the last contained a Null next pointer. 31. What are constant pointers? Give example. 32. What are singly linked list and doubly linked list. 33. How are binary files different from Text files/ Ans: When a file is opened in Text mode, character translations may take place, eg., conversion of carriage return and line-feed sequences into newlines. No such character translations occur in files opened in binary mode. 34. What is enumeration? Give example. Ans; An alternative method for naming integer constants. Eg. enum{start,pause,goo}; This defines 3 integer constants, called enumerators and assign values to them. By default the values are increasing from 0.
SQL-based:

1. What is TCL? Ans: Transaction control language. 2. What is the difference between update and alter? Ans: The update command is used to change the record of a table while alter is used to change the structure of a table.

3. What is the difference between unique constraint and primary key? Ans: A table can have only one primary key but any number of unique constraints. 4. Name some of the group functions used in sql? 5. Avg(), sum(),max(),min(). 6. Can we use where clause with group by? Ans: No. 7. What is join? Give an example. Ans: Combining 2 or more tables based on the common field is known as join. Commision.code = customer.c_id 8. What are degree and cardinality of a table? Ans: The number columns is the degree and no of rows is the cardinality. 9. What is a view? Ans: A view is a virtual table that does not exist in its own right but is instead derived from one or more base tables. 10. What is data redundancy? How it can be minimised? Ans: The unnecessary repetition of data is called redundancy. Normalization is a process of analyzing the data so that the redundancy gets reduced. 11. What is a foreign key? Give an example. Ans: It s a column in a table which is the primary key of another table. Eg. Empolyee id stored in the salary details table. 12. What is a candidate key? 13. What is normalisation? Why is it needed? Ans: Its a process of transformation of the conceptual schema (logical data structures) of the database into a computer representable form. It is for avoiding repetition of information, inability to represent certain information and loss of information. LAN: 1. How does repeaters differ from bridges?

Ans: Repeater is used to regenerate data and voice signals. While a bridge is used to connect two LANs, which are physically separate but logically same. 2. What is ISO OSI standard for networks? Ans: In the international arena, ANSI has traditionally submitted appropriate standards to the ISO for approval as international standards. These standards can carry the force of law in the member countries and government procurement of such standards are strictly enforced.
3. What is the difference between POP3 and IMAP mail server?

Ans: IMAP is a standard protocol for accessing email from a local server. A simpler email protocol is post office protocol(POP3) which downloads mail to the computer and does not maintain the mail on the server. In IMAP emails are stored in the server, whereas in POP3, mails are transferred to the clients computer when they are read. 4. How many layers of TCP/IP protocol are combined of? Ans: 5 Application, Transport, Internet, Data link and Physical. 5. What are simplex, half duplex and full duplex modes? Ans: In simplex mode, data is always transferred in only one direction. In half duplex mode, data can be transferred in both directions but one at a time. In full duplex mode data can be transferred in both directions simultaneously. 6. Evaluate the following postfix notation of expression : true,false,and,true,true,not,or,and 7. Draw a circuit for f=xyz+yz using NAND gates. 8. Describe in brief : 1)3G 2)WLL 9. Internet is what type of network? Is it wireless? Ans: Wide area network connecting continents. Some parts wired and some part Wireless. 10.What is Telnet? What does it do? Ans: The internet facility that facilitates remote login. That is accessing a network from a remote place without being at the actual place of working. 11. What are NIU and TAP? Ans: NIU: Network Interface Unit. It is an interpreter that helps establish Communication between the server and work stations. TAP Terminal Access Point (Another name for NIU) 12.Why NAND & NOR gates called universal gates/ Ans: NAND & NOR are less expensive and easier to design. Also other switching Functions AND/OR can be easily implemented using NAND & NOR. So they are Universal gates.